Está en la página 1de 14

22.6 Cc b phn khc nhau ca b cng hng VHF Nh hnh 22.11, mt b cng hng bao gm cc phn sau: a.

B cn bng-Bin p u vo B cng hng phi c tr khng u vo bng vi tr khng ring ca fi ng ten truyn tn hiu ti a cho b cng hng v trnh phn x trn ng dy. B cn bng thch ng vi cp tr khng fi 300 m v tr khng u vo 75 m ca b khuch i RF. N gm 2 phn 150 m ca dy chp i trong mt li ferit. Nh hnh 22.12, mt u ca hai dy phn t sng c ni song song cung cp tr khng 75 m v u kia c ni ni tip cung cp tr khng 300 m. Nu mt cp ng trc c s dng kt ni ngten vi b khuch i RF, mt s b tr song song ging nhau c th c s dng c hai bn ca b cn bng cung cp s tng thch. Mt trong hai bn ca b cn bng c s dng cho u vo v bn cn li s dng cho u ra.

Hnh 22.11: Cc phn ca b cng hng VHF trong my thu en trng Cc t in C1 v C 2 tch bit ngten vi my nh mt bin php an ton, trong my thu khng bin p v trnh nguy him do st nh. Cc in tr ni tt 2 M R1 v R2 gii phng in tch tnh tch t trn cc t in. b. B lc HP v cc mch Trap Hnh 22.12 cho thy cc loi mch Trap khc nhau v mt b lc thng cao (HP) v theo sau l b cn bng. Cc tn hiu tp khng mong mun nm trong bng IF 32-42 MHz c loi b bi hai mch Trap kt ni hai bn b lc HP. B lc HP c tn s ct l 45 MHz, do n loi b cc thnh phn tn s thp hn knh 2.

Hnh 22.12: Mch u vo in hnh ca b cng hng VHF Cc thnh phn ny rt quan trng v cc mch RF Q thp c th lm gim cc tn s knh ln cn trong bng thng rng, c bit khi my thu cng hng cc knh thp hn. Kh c th loi b cc tn hiu nh vy mt khi chng c trn vi nhau. Trong mt vi my thu, mch trap cng hng song song vi cc loi tn hiu ng loi b bng qung b thng mi t 88-108MHz. Cc mch lc v cc mch cn bng thng c t cnh nhau gn vi b cng hng. c. B khuch i RF B khuch i RF c thit k cung cp h s khuch i ph hp cho cc tn hiu yu. iu ny gip m bo t s SNR cao ti cc b trn, ni sinh ra tp m ln. in p tp m tng ng u vo ca b khuch i thit lp mt gii hn v cng tn hiu ti thiu nhn ti my thu trnh c nh hng ca nhiu. B khuch i RF ngoi vic cp h s tng ch cho cc knh tn hiu cn ngn chn bc x t cc b dao ng v loi b cc tn hiu tn s nh. Tng RF l thch hp nht vi AGC v bin tn hiu nh v iu khin h s khuch i hiu qu nht vi mo t nht. Cc ng dng AGC thng b hn ch bi b khuch i RF duy tr t l SNR tt cho cc tn hiu yu.

B khuch i RF phi c di thng rng c th truyn qua cc knh c chn. Cc mch cng hng i c iu chnh cung cp mt p ng xung c nh phng c s dng ghp ni b khuch i RF vi tng trn. p ng xung trong hnh sau lch xung 1dB so vi 2 nh.

Hnh 22.13: p ng xung ca b khuch i RF d. B dao ng ni B dao ng ni to ra mt tn hiu p hnh sin khng c iu ch, c to phch trong b trn vi tn hiu RF n nh hng ti s chuyn i tn s sang bng IF. Tn s ca b dao ng ni b thay i khi mt knh khc c chn duy tr s khc bit ca tn s trung bnh gia tn s ca b dao ng ni v tn s sng mang cng hng. iu khin cng hng cho php tn s ca b dao ng bin i trong mt di hp. Mt c tnh quan trng ca b dao ng ni s dng trong cc b cng hng l c tnh tri. Hin tng tri xy ra do nhit thay i, cht lng ca cc thnh phn ca mch gim, in p mt chiu thay i v s bin i ca ti trng b dao ng. duy tr c tnh n nh ca b dao ng , cc cng ngh b c bit c s dng. Trong my thu en trng, hin tng tri c th c b qua, nhng trong cc my thu mu, s thay i nh v tn s cng c th gy mt mu ca tn hiu. V vy, trong b cng hng ca my thu mu, mch ATC (iu khin cng hng t ng) hay mch AFT (iu khin tn s cng hng t ng) gim st tn s ca b dao ng. Cc b cng hng s dng cc Tranzito. Hot ng ca cc Tranzito ny ph thuc vo nhit v nhy vi cc bin i ca dng nui DC. Trong cc mch ny, ngoi vic s dng cc k tut b thng thng v cc linh

kin cht lng cao, ngun cung cp n nh v cc t in c bit vi h s nhit bng khng. e. Tng trn Chc nng ca mch ny l chuyn i cc tn s tn hiu RF n t cc knh khc nhau thnh mt di bng thng IF chung ca my thu. B trn tn kt hp vi b dao ng ni c th c coi l mt b chuyn i tn s. to s dch tn, b chnh lu c s dng trong b trn tn. t c iu ny phi gi cho bin tn hiu ca b dao ng ni ln v hot ng ca b trn tn hay cc Tranzito hot ng trong vng phi tuyn. Vic hot ng trong vng phi tuyn lm mo bin to ra cc tn s tng khc nhau t cc thnh phn tn s u vo b trn tn. Tn hiu vi cc hi tn s cao vi bin nh cng c to ra. Tuy nhin, u ra chnh ca ca b trn l cc tn s tng khc nhau t cc tn hiu u vo. V s khc bit gia tn hiu RF v cc tn s tn hiu ca b dao ng ni, hai vng di bin hon ton xa nhau. Bng IF d dng c tch ra bi mch cng hng. Hai mch cng hng s dng ti u ra b trn tn chn di tn gia 33.15-40.15 MHz v loi b cc thnh phn tn s khc. H s khuch i ca b trn tn c nh ngha l t s gia tn hiu u ra IF chia cho tn hiu u vo RF. Trong n chn khng dn in km nn h s khuch i ch vo khong 6 ln. Vi in p u vo RF 2mV c th cho in p tn hiu u ra IF 12mV. Trong b trn tn s dng cc Tranzito c h s khuch i vo khong 15-20 dB cho hu ht cc knh VHF. 22.7 Cng hng in it in dung c s dng trong cc mch cng hng in. it in dung l mt it silic c bit, in dung lp chuyn tip c s dng cho vic cng hng. Tn s cng hng ca cc mch cng hng c iu khin bng cch thay i in dung ca it in dung. Hnh sau cho thy mt it in dung c s dng trong mt mch cng hng. T in C1 c in dung ln do c in khng khng ng k, chn cc dng DC. Dng DC cung cp qua R1 , R2 l in tr phn ly, R3 l bin tr thay i in p phn cc ngc.

Hnh 22.14(a): mch cng hng s dng it in dung

Hnh 22.14 (b): Chn knh bng cng hng in it in dung c mc song song vi C 2 . Ti cc knh cao hn, C 2 ch cung cp in dung cn thit. Chn knh Hnh trn th hin mt b cng hng in n gin c th chn cc knh khc nhau. Trong mch ny, vic la chn in p DC phn cc ngc cho it in dung c thc hin bng nt iu khin. in p phn cc ny quyt nh in dung ca it v t quyt nh tn s cng hng ca mch cng hng. Tt c cc mch cng hng ca mt knh c iu

chnh ng thi nhm m bo gim st mt cch chnh xc. Mt bin tr ring c cp cho mi knh. Mi mt bin tr ng vai tr nh mt b iu khin cng hng ca cc mch cng hng lin quan. in p cng hng DC thu c thng qua mt b n p gip mch hot ng n nh. Cc in tr R1 R2 R3 R4 v in p DC ti cc it in dung t cc bin tr v cc it in dung khc. in dung ca cc t in C1 C 2 C3 C 4 rt ln. V vy trong thc t, cc im AC v cc it in dung xut hin ng thi trong cc mch cng hng. Chuyn i bng tn Cc knh VHF 2 n11 gm mt di tn rng. V vy, cc cun cm cng hng c thit k ngn lm gim in cm cho cc knh bng tn cao VHF. Mt it chuyn mch c s dng trn cun cm tip t. Mt phng php c th lm iu minh ha trong hnh sau. it D1 l it chuyn mch ni vi cun cm L1 qua t C1 . Khi D1 khng c t pha trc, mch h v khng c nh hng n cun cm. Tuy nhin, khi in p dng c t vo ant ca D1 , n s dng chuyn i bng tn. in tr thp ca it tng ng vi mt mch ngn trc cun cm. T C1 ngn in p it ni t qua cun cm. Khi chuyn mch m, tt c cc vng dy ca L1 c s dng. Tuy nhin khi S1 ng th ch c mt vi vng dy ca L1 c s dng cho cc knh VHF bng tn cao 5 n 11.

Hnh 22.15: Mch chuyn i bng tn in hnh s dng it chuyn mch vi cng hng in

Hnh trn ch c mt it chuyn mch. Trong thc t, mi mch cng hng c mt it chuyn mch kt ni vi mt cun cm tng ng. in p dng c s dng cho tt c cc it chuyn mch. Lu rng, node chuyn mch S1 c ghp vi b chn knh chuyn mc in p khi knh cao c chn. Cc nt iu khin tip tc iu khin in p trn cc it in dung chn knh. 22.8 ng cng hng chn khng B khuch i RF Hai trit ca PCC 88 kt ni to thnh b khuch i RF. Catt ni t ca V1 iu khin li ni t ca b khuch i. ng V1 c phn cc AGC v c ghp ni DC vi catt ca V2 thng qua mt cun cm. Tn hiu u vo ca RF c s dng sau khi qua bin p T1 ti V1 . Phn chnh ca n l mch cng hng hnh thnh bi Lk , C0 v Cin to thnh mt b lc vi mt p ng xung rng bao gm tt c cc knh VHF. in tr ti ca V1 rt nh (tr khng u vo), do cung cp h s khuch i nh. Trung ha in tch xy ra khi cn bng cu c hnh thnh bi C1 , C 2 , Cgp v Cgk . Phn ln h s khuch i c cho bi V2 . Nu V1 v V2 ging nhau v dng DC qua chng ging nhau, in p catt ca mi ng bng mt na so vi ngun cp B . B chit p hnh thnh bi R1 v R2 cung cp s phn cc li cho V2 . Tn hiu khuch i trong u ra ca V2 c ghp ni vi bin p T2 . iu chnh cc mch cng hng thu c bng cc t in u vo v u ra. Cng hng RF cho mi trm c iu chnh bng cc cun dy trong bin p T2 . Tng trn Vic kt hp gia pentt v trit trong PCF 80 c chc nng nh mt b chuyn i. Tn hiu RF c ghp ni vi pentt thng qua L1 v u ra ca b dao ng thng qua L3 . Cun dy ca b dao ng ni L3 c t gn vi cun dy ca b trn. Hot ng phi tuyn tnh ca V3 vi s phn cc thch hp thu c thng qua Rk Ck . S phn cc li c to ra bi in p bm ca b sao ng. Mch ca b trn c iu chnh chn c bng tn IF mong mun. N c ghp ni vi b khuch i IF u tin thng qua bin p T3 .

B dao ng ni Mt b dao ng bin i Collpitt s dng cc trit PCC 80 cung cp in p hnh sin vi bin khng i ti mt tn s mong mun cho mi knh. c im c bit ca b dao ng ny l s dng cc t in c lp cho hi tip v cng hng. Hnh sau th hin mch tng ng ca mch cng hng. Cun dy ca b dao ng L3 c ghp ni vi Cgp . Cc t C pk v
Cgk to thnh mt b chit p trn L3 v in p ca b dao ng trn Cgk hi

tip li duy tr dao ng. Tng in dung trn L3 l Cgp mc song song vi
Cgk v C pk . Cc gi tr in dung 2-3 pF cn mt in cm L3 khong 1 F

cng hng knh 4 trong bng VHF.

Hnh 22.16 a: B cng hng chn khng VHF

Hnh 22.16b: Mch tng ng ca b cng hng 22.9 Cc b cng hng Tranzito Vi mc tiu th in nng thp, kch thc nh v tin cy, Tranzito thng c s dng trong cc b cng hng ca my thu truyn hnh hin i ngy nay. Tuy nhin, cc Tranzito ny phi c hiu nng tn s cao, nhiu thp, v nhy tt. Trong khi b trn s dng Tranzito mc E chung, b khuch i RF v b dao ng ni c th s dng c c hai kiu mc E chung hoc mc B chung. Trong cc mch mc B chung, khng cn trung ha in nhng tr khng u vo thp. Dung lng x l tn hiu ca n thp hn cc mch mc E chung. Mch E chung cho h s khuch i cao v c dung lng x l tn hiu ln. Tuy nhin cc thng s ca n thay i theo hot ng ca mch. iu ny c th c khc phc bng cch a thm mt in tr vo trong mch mc E chung. Mt Tranzito MOSFET cng c th c s dng trong tng RF. Li th ca n l h s khuch i cao, tr khng u vo cao, nhiu thp, cc nh hng ca mo do iu ch t hn. MOSFET cho php s dng mch AGC n gin s dng cng sut iu khin thp. FET BEL 2N300 c cc li th trn v c s dng nh mt b khuch i RF trong nhiu thit k mch cng hng. B cng hng Tranzito VHF Cc mch cng hng VHF s dng Tranzito c th hin trong hnh sau. N s dng BF 196 cho b khuch i RF v cc b trn, v BF 194-B trong cc mch dao ng ni. Ba Tranzito c mc chung E. Tr khng 75 m ca b cn bng trn ngten c ghp vi u vo ca Q1 (b khuch i

RF) qua cun cm L1 v mng chuyn i tr khng c to ra bi hai t in (10 pF v 15 pF) c ghp ni vi cun cm. in p thun AGC c a vo chn B ca BF196 qua tr khng 1 k .

Hnh 22.17: B cng hng Tranzito VHF Tr khng 47 c ghp vo chn B chn bt k mt dao ng k sinh no. u ra ca b khuch i RF l hai mch cng hng ghp ni vi nhau qua mt cun cm dng chung L4 . Ch rng cc t C 2 v C3 c mc song song vi L2 , L3 tng ng. L2 v L3 c th iu chnh c c th cng hng c vi cc tn s sng mang m thanh v hnh nh. u ra ca b khuch i RF c ghp ni vi chn B ca Tranzito trn Q2 qua mt b chit p. u ra ca b dao ng cng c ghp ni vi chn B ca Q2 thng qua t C6 . u ra ca b trn l hai mch cng hng v ghp ni vi b khuch i IF u tin. in tr 150 trn cun th cp ca T3 to ra cng hng rng. Trong b dao ng ni, L5 mc song song vi t 2 pF to thnh mt mch cng hng. Tn s u ra ca b dao ng c iu chnh bng cch thay

i L5 . Mt it in dung D c s dng cng hng tt hn. Nh trong hnh, n c ghp ni song song vi mch cng hng. in p phn cc ngc ca it qua b chit p to bi R2 v R3 . Gi tr R3 c qui nh trong bng iu khin ca my thu. N gip cho vic iu khin cng hng tt hn v khi R3 thay i th in p phn cc ngc thay i dn ti in dung ca mch cng hng cng thay i. T C7 c ni t. 22.10 B cng hng UHF C hai loi b cng hng UHF. Loi 1 l cc b cng hng chuyn i cc tn hiu t bng UHF (470-890 MHz) n bng VHF. Thng thng, cc knh UHF c chuyn thnh cc knh VHF 5 hoc 6, v trong b cng hng VHF, vic x l tn hiu nh bnh thng. B dao ng ca b cng hng UHF hot ng tn s thp hn tn hiu UHF n. Loi th hai, tn hiu UHF c chuyn trc tip v bng IF. u ra thu c t b cng hng UHF c ghp ni vi b cng hng VHF, m b khuch i RF v b trn hot ng nh b khuch i IF. Ti y, b dao ng VHF b tt bng cch tt ngun DC cung cp cho n. Cc mch cng hng RF cng c th chuyn thnh cc mch cng hng IF. Hin nay, loi 2 thng c s dng. Hnh sau minh ha s khi ca mch ny. Cc ngten ring c s dng cho cc knh VHF v UHF. B cng hng UHF khng s dng b khuch i RF v cng tn hiu u vo thp hn so vi nhiu m b khuch i RF to ra. Nu s dng n s lm gim t s SNR. V vy, tn hiu UHF c ghp trc tip vi b trn, y it c s dng thay cho Tranzito. C hai l do s dng it ti y. Th nht, u ra ca b dao ng ni ti tn s siu cao l qu thp, ch cho mt it s dng. Th hai, mc tp m gy ra bi it thp hn so vi cc linh kin khc. Khi it hot ng phi tuyn th n c th phi hp cc tn s knh n vi tn s b dao ng ni to ra bng tn ph khc.

Hnh 22.18: S khi ca mt b cng hng UHF-VHF u ra yu t b cng hng UHF c ghp ni vi b cng hng VHF, ni m b khuch i RF v b trn hot ng nh b khuch i IF, tng mc tn hiu ln bnh thng khi mt knh VHF c cng hng. Tm tt cc chc nng ca my thu truyn hnh: + N c th chn cc knh bn mun v loi b cc knh khc + N chuyn i tt c cc tn s knh n v bng IF + N khuch i cc tn hiu yu u vo t cc ngten. iu ny lm tng t l SNR v gim nhiu trn hnh. + N phn bit cc b dao ng ni ngn cc bc x khng mong mun t ngten. + N ci thin t l loi b hnh nh v lm gim cc tp m t ngun ti cc tn s gn vi cc tn s ca cc knh khc nhau. + N ngn chn gi mo t cc hot ng ca ngun trong bng IF ca my thu. + N cung cp s phi hp gia ngten v cc mch u vo ca my thu, loi b hiu ng bng ma trn mn hnh. + N loi b cc hot ng gi mo t cc trm hot ng trong bng tn FM. + N c th chn bt c knh no c phn b trong bng UHF v VHF truyn hnh. + N c iu khin cng hng tt thit lp chnh xc trm c chn.

Cu hi n tp 1. V s khi ca mt mch cng hng VHF n gin. Ti sao b khuch i RF lun ng trc b trn? 2. Cho bit cc mch ghp ni tr khng khc nhau gia b khuch i RF v b trn. V p ng tn s ca b khuch i RF. 3. Ti sao trung ha in tch li c p dng cc mch khuch i tn s cao? M t s mch cc phng php thng s dng trung ha in trong cc mch khuch i Tranzito. 4. V s khi chi tit ca b cng hng VHF v cho bit chi tit v b cn bng v mch lc ti u vo ca b cng hng. Ti sao cn b iu khin cng hng trong tt c cc b cng hng. 5. M t ngn gn cc yu cu thit k ca b khuch i RF, b trn v b dao ng ni ca b cng hng hot ng n nh. 6. Cng hng in l g? Gii thch s mch lin quan c th la chn cc knh khc nhau bng phng php ny. 7. Gii thch s mch ca ng cng hng chn khng in hnh. Lm th no mch ny c th dch tn ca cc knh n v bng IF. 8. Gii thch nguyn l lm vic, cc thnh phn chc nng ca b cng hng VHF Tranzito. 9. V s khi, nguyn l lm vic ca b cng hng UHF. Ti sao b khuch i RF khng c s dng trong b cng hng UHF.