Está en la página 1de 10

1

ver. 2007-1
Unidad 1: Introduccin a la Mecnica Cuntica
Razzitte Muzzio - Gurevich
Evaluacin de Propiedades
Fsicas
Introduccin a la Mecnica
Cuntica
2
ver. 2007-1
Unidad 1: Introduccin a la Mecnica Cuntica
Razzitte Muzzio - Gurevich
Fsica Cuntica
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2
. .
, .exp 2 .
2
, .exp . . . .
2
exp .
2
exp .
2
.
2
.
8
t
x
i
i
i
n n
E hf mc
f h
p mc h
c
x
x t C i f t
E h f
h p
i
x t C p x E t C
h
i
p x
h
i
E t
h
i
p
x h
i
E
t h
h
V E
m
P C ds

t
t
t

t
t
t
t
t
= =
= = =
(
| |
+ =
| (
\ .

=
=
(
+ = =
(

| |
=
|
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .
c+
= +
c
c+
= +
c
V + + + = +
= +

x x
x x

3
ver. 2007-1
Unidad 1: Introduccin a la Mecnica Cuntica
Razzitte Muzzio - Gurevich
2 2
2
*
2
*


x x
E i
t
T
m x
p i
x
i
v
m x
Q Q dx
x x dx x dx



=
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
= + +
= + = + +
}
} }
Operadores
( )
2
2
* *
*
2
2 2
2 * 2 *
2 * 2 * 2
2

0
H
H
d
H U x
m dx
H E
H H dx E dx
H E dx E
H H
H H dx HH dx
H E H dx E dx E
o
o





= +
+ = +
= + + = + +
= + + =
=
= + + = + +
= + + = + + =
=
} }
}
} }
} }
Energa total definida
4
ver. 2007-1
Unidad 1: Introduccin a la Mecnica Cuntica
Razzitte Muzzio - Gurevich
2
2
.
i
i i
d r
m F
dt
=
. .
i i
i i i
dW dr
F F u
dt dt
= =
Fsica Clsica
( )
( )
.
c
i i
c
i
i
dV F dr
V
F
r
=
c
=
c
( )
2
1 2
.
, ....
2.
i
i i i
i
i
N
i
N
i
i
dr
p m v m
dt
dp
F
dt
p
H V r r r
m
= =
=
= +

( ) ( )
( )
2
2 1 1
. . . .
2.
.
i
c
i
p
H m g r r m g r r
m
H
m g F
r
= = +
c
= =
c
5
ver. 2007-1
Unidad 1: Introduccin a la Mecnica Cuntica
Razzitte Muzzio - Gurevich
0 L
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2
8
8
0
.cos .sin
8
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 .sin 0
.sin
8
8
n n n n n
n n
n n n
n n n n
n
n n
n n n
h
V E
m x
m
E V
x h
A x B x
m
E V
h
P x x A
P x L x B L
L n
n
B x
L
m n n h
E V E V
h L L m
t
t


t



t
t

t t

c +
+ + = +
c
c
+ =
c
= +
=
s = s = =
> = > = =
=
=
= = = +
Ejercicio Caja
Infinita
6
ver. 2007-1
Unidad 1: Introduccin a la Mecnica Cuntica
Razzitte Muzzio - Gurevich
0 L
2
2 2
0 0
2
.sin
sin 1
. 1 2
2
n n
L L
n n
n n
n
B x
L
n
dx B x dx
L
L
B B B L
t

| |
=
|
\ .
| |
= =
|
\ .
= = =
} }
Ejercicio Fsica
Cuntica
7
ver. 2007-1
Unidad 1: Introduccin a la Mecnica Cuntica
Razzitte Muzzio - Gurevich
2
2
2 2
2
0, 0
2 ( )
'' 0
2 2
'' 0
. .
. ' . .
. ' . .
x x
x x
I I
x x
II II
E U
m E
mE mE
Ae B e
Ae A e
B e B e
k k
k k
k k

k k
k

k
k


< =

= =
=
= +
= =
= =
Ejercicio Pozo de potencial
-a a
U=0 U=0
I II III
Regin I y III
Regin II
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2 2
2
0, , 0
2 2
'' '' 0
2 2
'' 0
.cos .
'' .sin . .cos
O O
O
O O
E U U E U
m E U m E U
m E U m E U
k k
C kx D senkx
Ck kx Dk kx

k

< = + >
+
+ = + =
+ +
= =
+ =
= +
= +
8
ver. 2007-1
Unidad 1: Introduccin a la Mecnica Cuntica
Razzitte Muzzio - Gurevich
Ejercicio Pozo de potencial
-a a
U=0 U=0
I II III
.
' . .
x
III
x
III
Be
B e
k
k

=
=
.
' . .
x
I
x
I
Ae
A e
k
k

k
=
=
.cos .
' .sin . .cos
II
II
C kx Dsenkx
Ck kx Dk kx

= +
= +
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
' '
' '
I II
I II
II III
II III
a a
a a
a a
a a




=
=
=
=
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2
.
. cos sin cos
.
2
x
I
a
II
x
III
O
x Ae
A
x e k ka ka kx
k
x Ae
mU
k
k
k
k

=
=
=
+ =
9
ver. 2007-1
Unidad 1: Introduccin a la Mecnica Cuntica
Razzitte Muzzio - Gurevich
Caja Infinita en dos dimensiones
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2
,
.
.
. . . .
2
1 1
.
2
E
m x y
x y X x Y y
X
Y
x x
Y
X
y y
Y X
X Y E X Y
m y x
Y X
E
m Y y X x

| | c c
+ =
|
c c
\ .
=
c c
=
c c
c c
=
c c
| | c c
+ =
|
c c
\ .
| | c c
+ =
|
c c
\ .
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
{ }
( )
2 2
2
2 2
2
1/ 2
1 1 1
1
1/ 2
1 2 2
2
1/ 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
2 2
2
1, 2 1 2 1 1 2 2
.
2
.
2
2
sin
2
sin
4
sin sin
.
8
Y
X
Y X
n
n
X Y
n n n n
Y
E Y
m y
X
E X
m x
E E E
X n x L
L
Y n y L
L
n x L n y L
L L
E E E n L n L h m
t
t
t t
| | c
=
|
c
\ .
| | c
=
|
c
\ .
+ =
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .
= + = +
10
ver. 2007-1
Unidad 1: Introduccin a la Mecnica Cuntica
Razzitte Muzzio - Gurevich
Movimiento de Vibracin
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 1 2
2
2
2
2
2
" '
2
1
2 2
1
,
2
,
0
2 1 0
1
2 1
2
. . .
y
v
y
v v v
kx E
m x
y x E
k m k m
y
x
fe
f yf f
E v
N H y e


o c e
o e

c
e

| | c
+ =
|
c
\ .
| |
= =
|
\ .
= =
c
+ =
c
=
+ =
| |
= +
|
\ .
=
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )( )( )
( )
" '
2 4
2 2. . 0
1 1 2 3
2. 2. 2. ...
1! 2!
n n n
n
f xf n f
n n n n n n
H x x x x

+ =

= +
Polinomios de Hermite