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Gramtica Los sustantivos forman el plural aadiendo la terminacin "-s": cat / cats head / heads Cuando el sustantivo presenta

una de las siguientes terminaciones forma el pluralaadiendo "-es": - s (focus / focuses) - ss (miss / misses) - sh (fish / fishes) - ch (stitch / stitches) - x (fox / foxes) Si el sustantivo finaliza en "-y": Tras consonante: presenta en plural la terminacin "-ies" Battery / batteries Tras vocal: forma el plural aadiendo "-s" Bay / bays Si el sustantivo termina en vocal "-o" forma el plural aadiendo "-es": Tomato / tomatoes

Gramtica 1.- Ciertas palabras inglesas (verbos, sustantivos, adjetivos) al incorporar un sufijo(terminacin) doblan la consonante final. a) Palabras monoslabas que finalizan en: una sola vocal + una sola consonante Doblan la consonante final cuando incorporan un sufijo que comienza por vocal (-ing / -ed / -er / -est ...) to run / runner to sit / sitting to sin / sinned

b) Palabras de dos o ms slaba cuando el acento recae en la slaba final y esta slaba final termina en: una sola vocal + una sola consonante Al incorporar sufijos que comienzan por vocal ( -ing / -ed / -er / -est...) begin / beginner forget / forgetting c) Suelen doblar tambin la ltima consonante aquellas palabras que terminan en "l" (con independencia de que est acentuada o no la ltima silaba) cuando incorporan los sufijos "-ing / -ed": to cancel / cancelling to signal / signalled 2.- Otras palabras en cambio no doblan la consonante final a) Aquellas palabras que terminan en 2 o ms consonantes. to fight / fighting to transform / transforming b) Aquellas palabras que finalizan en una consonante pero que delante llevan dos vocales. to eat / eating to meet / meeting c) las consonantes "w, x, y" no se doblan al final de una palabra to draw / drawing to sew / sewing Gramtica Las palabras que terminan en "-y" tras consonante cambian la "y" por "i" delante de cualquier sufijo excepto "-ing" to dry / dried / drying

to deny / denied / denying happy / happily funny / funnier / funniest Cuando se aade una "-s" final, bien para formar el plural del sustantivo bien la 3 persona del singular del presente del indicativo, la "y" final se transforma en "-ies": lorry / lorries country / countries to fly / flies to cry / cries Si la "y" va precedida por una vocal entonces no cambia, si bien hay excepciones: to employ / employed / employing / employer to convey / conveyed / conveying / conveyor Gramtica Las palabras que terminan en "-e" precedidas de consonante pierden la "e"cuando incorporan un sufijo que comienza por vocal: to come / coming to believe / believable to dance / danced rude / rudest late / later Excepcin : si el verbo termina en "-ee " entonces mantiene la "-e" final: to see / seeing to flee / fleeing

Si el sufijo comienza por consonante por regla general (hay excepciones) se mantiene la "-e" final: morose / morosely secure / securely to engage / engagement hope / hopeful Si es un adjetivo que finaliza en "-le" forma el adverbio sustituyendo "le" por la terminacin "-ly": probable / probably understandable / understandably Gramtica 1.- Artculo indefinido: a / an Se omite: a) Delante de un sustantivo en plural: a car / cars a house / houses You can see a house over there / You can see houses over there b) Delante de nombres gnericos de sustancias (wine, milk, gold, wood, silver, petrol, blood...): I like milk I don't drink wine No obstante, si un sustantivo genrico se utiliza con un sentido concreto, para hacer referencia a algo determinado, entonces s lleva artculo: What a good wine! c) Delante de nombres abstractos (happiness, justice, fear, help, love, future, hope...): The children have fear of phantoms

The drug addicts especially need understanding and help d) Delante de nombres de comidas; breakfast, lunch, dinner,... We have dinner at 8 o'clock This morning I had breakfast very late Salvo cuando van precedidos por un adjetivo calificativo: What a delicious dinner you have prepared! 2.- Artculo definido: the Se omite: a) Con nombres abstractos , salvo que se utilicen con un sentido particular: Justice is the basis of any political system In Spain the justice works very slowly b) Delante de nombres de deportes: He plays tennis (football) c) Delante de nombres genricos en plural: Sport cars are always expensive Men practise sport more than women Children learn foreign languages more easily than adults In Spain dentists are very well paid Salvo cuando se utilizan con un sentido concreto: Last weekend we went to Paris with the children All the dentists I know advise you to brush your teeth after every meal d) Con los sustantivos "home" / "work": Last Friday I stayed at home all evening He goes to work

e) Con los sustantivos "bed" / "church" / "prison" / "school" /"university" ... cuando se hace referencia a su finalidad bsica: To go to bed (to sleep) To go to church / to come back from church (to pray) To be in hospital / to leave hospital (as a patient) To stay in prison (as a prisoner) To be back from university / to leave school (as a student) Pero cuando se hace referencia a estos lugares por otros motivos (por ejemplo, ir a un hospital de visita) entonces s llevan artculos: I went to the hospital to visit my wife I went to the university to ask for information Gramtica La regla general es la siguiente (si bien hay excepciones): 1.- Con artculo "the": a) Pases que incluyen en sus nombres expresiones del tipo: repblica, estado, reino: The Soviet Union The United States of America The United Kingdom b) Pases con nombres plurales: The Netherlands c) Islas con nombre en plural: The Bahamas / The Falklands d) Regiones: The north of Finland

The south of Italy e) Montaas con nombre en plural: The Alps / The Andes e) Nombres de oceanos, mares, ros: The Pacific Ocean The Red Sea The Mississippi 2.- No llevan artculo "the": a) Nombre de pases y continentes (salvo en los casos mencionados anteriormente): Europe / Asia / America Spain / France / Turkey b) Nombre de ciudades: Paris / Rome / London c) Nombres de islas en singular: Sicily / Menorca d) Nombres de montaas en singular: Mont Blanc / Everest e) Nombre de lagos: Lake Baikal / Lake Michigan

Gramtica 1.- El caso posesivo ('s) se utiliza: a) Si el poseeedor es una persona o un animal:

My father's car The tiger's teeth b) Con organizaciones o grupos de personas (aunque la otra estructura tambin es posible): Trade union's elections (= the elections of the trade unions) The company's result (= the results of the company) c) Con lugares: The village's church Spain's surface d) Con expresiones de tiempo: today, tomorrow, yesterday, week... This week's trip Monday's meeting Si el sustantivo es singular se pone ('s), si es plural se pone un apstrofe al final de la palabra ( ' ): My brother's car / My brothers' car The manager's bonus / The managers' bonus 2.- Cuando el poseedor es un objeto o un ser inanimado se utiliza normalmente la estructura "of + sustantivo": The price of the house The depth of the river Gramtica En algunos casos slo una de estas estructuras es posible; en otros ambas son posibles. En caso de duda es preferible utilizar la estructura "of + sustantivo". A continuacin se recogen las reglas generales, si bien hay excepciones. 1.- "of + sustantivo"

a) Cuando el poseedor es un objeto o un ser inanimado: The name of the street The temperature of the water b) Cuando el poseedor es una persona o un animal pero va seguido por una oracin subordinada que lo define: The car of the man who lives beside me The claws of the cat that attacked my son 2.- Compound nouns La estructura: "sustantivo A + sustantivo B" se utiliza cuando: a) El "sustantivo A" representa el objeto del que forma parte el"sustantivo B": Museum entry Shop window b) El "sustantivo A" seala el lugar en el que se encuentra el"sustantivo B": Beach bar City theatre c) El "sustantivo A" seala el tiempo al que corresponde el "sustantivo B": Winter festival Sunday mass d) El "sustantivo A" indica el material del que est hecho el "sustantivo B": Gold ring Silver cufflinks e) El "sustantivo A" indica la finalidad del "sustantivo B": Tennis racket Boxing gloves

f) El "sustantivo A" da informacin sobre el "sustantivo B": Car park Bus ticket Gramtica Cuando 2 o ms adjetivos acompaan a un sustantivo el orden de su colocacin es el siguiente: 1.- Adjetivos subjetivos: Expresan una opinin personal: beautiful, ugly, nice, lovely, friendly, elegant, useful... 2.- Adjetivos objetivos Definen propiedades objetivas del sustantivo. Estos a su vez siguen el siguiente orden, si bien cabe cierta flexibilidad: a) Tamao: big, small, huge, great, medium... (excepto "little" que ira en el mismo lugar que los que expresan edad) b) Aspectos generales: sporty, dirty, quiet, expensive, healthy, strong... c) Edad: old, new, adult, young... (tambin "little") d) Forma: round, square, hexagonal, wide, narrow... e) Personalidad: shy, ambitious, humble, arrogant... f) Color: red, yellow, blue...

g) Material: plastic, wooden, metallic, woollen... h) Origen: Russian, Spanish, European... Gramtica A continuacin se indican las reglas generales sobre la colocacin del adverbio en la oracin, si bien hay numerosas excepciones 1.- Adverbio de modo Ejemplos: carefully, honestly, quickly, silently, happily, quietly, well, badly... Se coloca detrs del verbo: She eats quickly O si la oracin lleva complemento, detrs de ste. Nunca entre el verbo y el complemento: She eats the apple quickly La regla anterior vara si el complemento va precedido de una preposicin, ya que entonces el adverbio se puede colocar delante de la preposicin o detrs del complemento: He looks for his keys desperately He looks desperately for his keys Si el objeto es una oracin el adverbio se suele colocar delante del verbo: He carefully looks after all the children that live with him 2.- Adverbio de lugar Ejemplos: down, up, everywhere, nowhere, here, there, somewhere, away, inside, upstairs...

El adverbio se coloca detrs del verbo (si no lleva complemento): He went abroad O si la oracin lleva complemento, detrs de ste. He sent his son abroad Si el complemento va precedido de una preposicin se coloca igualmente detrs de dicho complemento: He went with his wife abroad 3.- Adverbio de tiempo Ejemplos: soon, lately, today, tomorrow, yesterday, now, afterwards, recently, yet, still... Se puede colocar al principio o al final de la oracin: Yesterday I played tennis I played tennis yesterday 4.- Adverbio de freuencia Ejemplos: always, never, often, frequently, twice, seldom, once, sometimes, usually... Su colocacin va a depender del verbo: a) Con verbos simples: a.1) Verbo "to be": detrs del verbo: He is always at home a.2) Otros verbos: delante del verbo: He never answers the phone b) Con verbos compuestos: detrs del auxiliar: He has often travelled to England c) Con oraciones interrogativas: auxiliar+sujeto+adverbio

Do you play tennis often? d) Con oraciones negativas: detrs del auxiliar: I haven't ever danced Rock & Roll 5.- Adverbios de oracin Son aquellos adverbios que matizan el sentido completo de la oracin. Expresan la opinin del emisor. Ejemplos: evidently, probably, apparently, clearly, certainly, naturally, luckily, officially... Regla general: puede ir al principio o al final de la oracin (en ocasiones algunos de ellos tambin pueden ir en posiciones intermedias). Evidently your car is one of the most expensive in the market Your car is one of the most expensive in the market, evidently Naturally you can do whatever you want You can do whatever you want, naturally 6.- Adverbios de grado Ejemplos: much, very, quite, pretty, nearly, rather, completely, rarely, entirely, almost, extremely... Se coloca delante del verbo, adverbio o adjetivo al que modifica. Si el verbo es compuesto se coloca detrs del auxiliar. He is completely crazy She plays tennis quite well He almost died from tuberculosis This couple have completely finished their relationship Gramtica

Cuando un verbo va acompaado por otro, este segundo puede ir en: Infinitivo Infinitivo (sin "to") Gerundio Ejemplos: Last summer we decided to go to the beach We can speak English fluently I hate driving at night Hay una serie de verbos que cuando van acompaados por otro este segundo va engerundio: Admit / Appreciate / Avoid / Consider / Delay / Deny / Detest / Excuse / Finish / Forgive / Imagine / Keep (=continue) / Miss / Postpone / Practise / Prevent / Propose(=suggest) / Regret / Resist / Risk / Stop / Suggest / Understand Veamos algunos ejemplos: When I lost my job I postponed buying a new house After the heart attack my father stopped smoking My boss told me that he is considering promoting me for the new post If you drive when you are drunk you risk losing your driving licence The detainee admitted doing business with the mafia Tambin suelen ir seguidos de gerundios los siguientes verbos: Like / Dislike / Hate / Love / Enjoy / Mind Ejemplos: I like travelling with my girlfriend I hate tidying my bedroom I enjoy dancing

I dont mind going to English classes El verbo "like" puede tambin ir seguido por un infinitivo pero el significado es diferente: to like + gerundio: disfrutar to like + infinitivo: querer hacer algo porque considero que es positivo I like playing tennis I like to do my homework on Saturday mornings Algunos de los verbos anteriores si va precedido del auxiliar "would" pide entonces un infinitivo: Would like to Would love to Would hate to Would prefer to I would like to visit Paris I would love to go out for dinner tonight! I would hate to spend the summer in Seville I would prefer to go to the cinema than go to the gym Los siguientes verbos, si van acompaados por otro, este segundo va en infinitivo: Agree / Appear / Arrange / Ask / Choose / Claim / Decide / Decline / Demand / Fail / Forget / Happen / Hesitate / Hope / Learn / Manage / Offer / Plan / Prepare / Pretend / Promise / Refuse / Remember / Seem / Swear / Threaten Ejemplos: He agreed to help me with my homework She promised to phone her mother My brother decided to sell his car

El verbo "try" puede ir seguido de infinitivo o gerundio pero con distinto significado: + infinitivo: hacer un esfuerzo + gerundio: probar algo en plan experimento I will try to wash my car before lunch I tried calling my girlfriend with this mobile but it didn't work La expression "I am afraid" puede ir seguida de: Infinitivo: no quiero hacer algo porque creo que es peligroso "of + gerundio": existe la posibilidad de que algo malo me ocurra I am afraid to climb up the tree When I drive through the centre of town I am afraid of having an accident Gramtica Ambos adjetivos se traducen por "algo de", "algunos". Regla general: "Some": se utiliza en oraciones afirmativas. "Any": se utiliza en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. Particularidades: "Some": se utiliza a veces en preguntas: a) Que suponen ofrecimiento. Do you want some wine? Can I give you some advice? b) Cuando se espera casi con toda seguridad una respuesta afirmativa. Can I have some biscuits? "Any" se utiliza a veces:

a) En oraciones afirmativas con el significado de "cualquiera". Any kid would have behaved like that You can pick any of these books You can go anywhere you want b) En oraciones condicionales con el significado de "alguien, algo, alguna cosa". If anyone ask for me, please tell them I will be back soon If anything happens, please call me immediately If I had any money I would buy a new car Gramtica 1.- "much" / "many" / "a lot of" se traducen por "mucho". Las reglas que se aplican son las siguientes, si bien cabe cierta flexibilidad: a) En oraciones afirmativas: "a lot of" b) En oraciones negativas e interrogativas: b.1) Con sustantivos contables: "many" many books, many coins, many girls... b.2) Con sustantivos incontables: "much" much time, much effort, much energy 2.- "little" / "few" se traducen por "poco". a) Con sustantivos contables: "few" few books, few pencils, few tickets... b) Con sustantivos "incontables": "little" little sugar, little rain, little water... Ejemplos: She is very friendly and has a lot of friends I don't have many paintings in my flat

When you were unemployed, did you receivemuch help from your family? This bookshop has few books about Spanish history There is little hope that the hostage will be released Gramtica Los pronombres "no-one" / "anyone" / "nobody" / "anybody" / "nothing" / "anything"... tienen todos ellos significado negativo. Como regla general: a) "no-one" / "nobody" / "nothing" / "nowhere" / "no+sustantivo" se utilizan con oraciones afirmativas y se suelen colocar al comienzo de la oracin. b) "anyone" / "anybody" / "anything" / "anywhere" / "any+sustantivo" se utilizan con verbos negativos y se suelen colocar a mitad o al final de la oracin. Ejemplos: Nothing was decided in our last meeting No-one called you last night Last weekend I went nowhere because the weather was terrible I have been looking for my mother but I haven't found her anywhere I haven't seen anyone in your office My company hasnt done anything in relation with the Kioto Protocol Gramtica Su estructura es la siguiente: So am I / Neither am I So do I / Neither do I So can I / Neither can I ....

Se utilizan para expresar coincidencia con lo manifestado por el interlocutor. a) Si ste realiza una afirmacin, la coincidencia se manifiesta con las expresiones: "So am I" / "So do I" / "So can I" / "So have I" (El utilizar una u otra depender del verbo de la oracin principal) b) Si por el contrario ste realiza una negacin, la coincidencia se manifiesta con las expresiones: "Neither am I" / "Neither do I" / "Neither can I" / "Neither have I" En el caso de la negacin se puede utilizar tambin una estructura alternativa: "I am not either" / "I do not either" / "I can not either" / "I have not either" El verbo que se utiliza en estas respuestas es el auxiliar de la oracin principal: (Peter) I can play tennis / (John) So can I (Peter) I haven't been to Paris / (John) Neither have I (Peter) I study French / (John) So do I El verbo de estas respuestas va en el mismo tiempo que el de la oracin principal: (Peter) I was in Germany last November / (John) So was I (Peter) I won't play football this Sunday / (John) Neither will I (Peter) I worked in a bank last summer / (John) So did I El sujeto es siempre un pronombre personal: (Peter) I am going to the cinema / (John) So is she (refirindose a una tercera persona que por el contexto ambos interlocutores conocen) (Peter) I finish my studies this year / (John) So do we Gramtica

Son preguntas cortas que realiza el emisor al final de la oracin con intencin deenfatizar. You have finished your exam. Haven't you? He doesn't speak German. Does he? Se utilizan para: a) Pedir confirmacin. b) Pedir informacin. Ello va a depender de la entonacin de la "question tag": a) Entonacin descendente: se pide al interlocutor confirmacin de lo que uno ha dicho (no es una pregunta, no se pide informacin). You have been to Paris. Haven't you? (bajando el tono de voz) El emisor est plenamente convencido de que su interlocutor ha estado en Pars. Le pide (y espera) que se lo confirme. b) Entonacin ascendente: se pide informacin. You haven't seen my brother . Have you? (subiendo el tono de voz) El emisor no sabe si su interlocutor ha visto o no a su hermano. Espera que le responda y que le facilite alguna informacin. Por ejemplo: - Yes, I have seen him one hour ago in the street - No sorry, I haven't seen him Tambin se utilizan las "questions tags" con oraciones negativas pare solicitar de modo informal pero corts algn favor. Youu couldn't bring me a glass of water. Could you? Cmo se construye la "question tag"? Su estructura es muy simple: verbo auxiliar (de la oracin principal) + pronombre personal

Your brother has bought a new car. Hasn't he? My mother phoned me. Didn't she? Your sister is in London. Isn't she? You can play tennis. Cant you? Your brother will go with us to the cinema. Won't he? El sujeto es siempre un pronombre. Si la oracin principal es afirmativa la "question tag" es negativa. You are coming with us. Aren't you? Y viceversa: si la oracin principal es negativa la "question tag" es afirmativa. You are not coming with us. Are you? Algunos casos particulares: a) Con oraciones imperativas se utiliza como verbo auxiliar "will" y va en afirmativo. Open the door. Will you? b)Con oraciones del tipo "Let us..." se utiliza como verbo auxilizar"shall" y va en afirmativo. Let's play tennis. Shall we? Gramtica Ambos verbos se utilizan para describir acciones presentes, si bien con diferentes matices. a) Present continuous a.1) Describe acciones que estn ocurriendo en ese preciso momento. I am reading the newspaper (lo estoy leyendo ahora) a.2) Tambin puede describir acciones que ocurren alrededor del momento actual, aunque no precisamente ahora.

I am planning a trip to Egypt for this summer (por ejemplo, le estoy contando a un amigo que estoy planeando un viaje; no es que lo est planeando en ese preciso momento) b) Present simple b.1) Describe acciones habituales, actuales, generales, que no tienen porqu estar ocurriendo en ese preciso momento. I work in a bank I speak English very fluently In Madrid people drive very fast b.2) Describe tambin acciones que se repiten peridicamente, acciones rutinarias. Every morning I have a meeting with my boss at 8 o'clock I play tennis every Sunday Algunos verbos no se suelen utilizar en tiempo continuo, por lo que en estos casos hay que emplear el "present simple": Verbos que describen acciones de los sentidos: feel, hear, see, smell... Verbos de sentimiento / emocin: like, love, hate, want, wish, fear, desire, detest, dislike... Verbos de acciones mentales: agree, believe, forget, know, remember, think (=tener una opinion), understand, realize... Verbos de posesin: belong, own, posess... Por ltimo, decir que estas dos formas verbales se emplean a veces para describiracciones futuras. Gramtica 1.- Present Continuous Describe una accin que va a tener lugar en un futuro ms o menos inmediato, pero que la decisin de realizarla fue tomada en el pasado. Next Monday I am flying to Paris

(La decisin de volar a Pars no la he tomado justo en este momento sino que ya lo haba decidido con anterioridad) Con un sentido similar se podra utilizar la expresin "going to...". Next Monday I am going to fly to Paris No obstante entre el "present continuous" y "going to..." hay algunas diferencias: a) El "present continuous" se prefiere en aquellas acciones que han sido ya programadas del tipo, reuniones, viajes, fiestas, etc, en las que hay que poner de acuerdo a otras personas. b) La expresin "going to..." se utiliza principalmente cuando se quiere resaltar la voluntad del emisor. Este est plenamente decidido a realizar esa accin por lo que hay muchas probabilidades de que se lleve a cabo. Posiblemente el emisor haya realizado ya alguna actuacin encaminada a ejecutar la accin. This evening I am going to the see the match between Real Madrid and Barcelona (ya he comprado las entradas) c) Tambin la expresin "going to" se utiliza para describir acciones que van a suceder en un futuro inmediato ya que hay indicios que apuntan a ello: The sky is very dark; it is going to rain d) Mientras que con el "present continuous" siempre hay que mencionar el momento en el que se va a desarrollar la accin, con la expresin "going to..." cabe a veces omitir toda referencia temporal (se entiende que va a tener lugar en un futuro inmediato pero no se precisa cuando). 2.- Future El "future" describe acciones futuras, si bien no tienen por que ser tan inmediatascomo con el "present continuous" o con "going to...". Tambin se utiliza para describir acciones futuras que han sido decididas sobre la marcha, en el momento actual. Oh, it is very late, I will go back home It is very cold, I will close the window

O acciones futuras que el emisor considera que van a tener lugar pero que no dependen de su voluntad. When will you buy a new car? I am sure your brother will win the race The match between Real Madrid and Barcelona will be exciting Muchas veces va introducido por expresiones del tipo: I am sure / I supposse / Perhaps / Probably / Surely / Possibly... Gramtica 1.- Past simple El "past simple" describe una accin pasada ya finalizada. When I was young I lived in Madrid (ahora vivo en Barcelona) 2.- Past continuous Indica que una accin se estaba desarrollando en cierto momento del pasado al cual se hace referencia. No dice si la accin ya finaliz o todava continuaba. When the mother came home her husband was playing with the kids (no sabemos si termin de jugar en ese momento o continu jugando) A veces se describen dos acciones simultneas que tuvieron lugar en el pasado. En dicho caso, se utiliza el "past imple" para describir aquella que finaliz y el "past continuous" para aquella otra que estaba ocurriendo cuando la primera tuvo lugar. Yesterday evening when you called me I was having a shower When the parents arrived home the children were watching TV Otra diferencia entre ambos tiempos es que el "past continuous" se utiliza a veces para indicar que la accin es ms casual, menos planificada. Yesterday morning, from 8 to 10, I was running (algo rutinario, que suelo hacer con frecuencia, por lo que no lo resalto)

Yesterday morning, from 8 to 10, I ran (algo diferente, un tanto extraordinario, por lo que quiero destacarlo) Gramtica Ambos tiempos describen acciones que tuvieron lugar en el pasado, si bien presentan ciertas diferencias: a) Past Simple - Accin que se desarroll y finaliz en el pasado, sin que se de ninguna informacin sobre cual ha sido su repercusin en el tiempo presente. When I was young I played tennis (no nos da ninguna infomacin sobre si en la actualidad sigo jugando al tenis o no) - Accin que se desarroll y complet en un periodo de tiempo ya finalizado. This morning I had a very tense meeting with my boss (ya es por la tarde, la maana ha finalizado) Yesterday I went to the cinema with my friends b) Presente Perfect - Accin que se inici en el pasado y que an contina desarrollndose. I have worked in this bank for ten years (todava contino en el banco) - Accin que acaba de finalizar. I have missed my train (lo acabo de perder) - Accin que se ha desarrollado en un periodo de tiempo que an no ha terminado. This morning I has had a very tense meeting with my boss (an es por la maana) Today I have visited my parents (el da todava no ha finalizado) - Accin desarrollada en el pasado pero cuya repercusin an se manifiesta en el tiempo presente. My brother has broken his glasses (las gafas se han roto recientemente y siguen rotas)

Comparar con la siguiente oracin: My brother broke his glasses (no sabemos si las gafas ya estn arregladas o no) Para terminar, sealar que en ocasiones las diferencias entre estos dos tiempos no son muy ntidas, y de hecho en algunos casos cabra utilizar cualquiera de ellos. Gramtica 1.- Present perfect continuous Esta forma verbal se emplea cuando interesa destacar la accin en s misma ms que el resultado; no se precisa si la accin ha finalizado o no (la accin comenz en el pasado y puede que acabe de terminar o que incluso contine). I have been reading a book (resalto lo que he estado haciendo; no indico si he finalizado el libro o no) Este tiempo se utiliza tambin para indicar la duracin de una accin que comenz en el pasado (y que acaba de finalizar o an contina). I have been playing tennis for two hours I have been waiting for him for 1 hour (puede que la otra persona acabe de llegar o que yo an siga esperando; el contexto determinar un sentido u otro) El empleo de este tiempo indica que el emisor considera que la duracin ha sidolarga. 2.- Present perfect simple Describe una accin que comenz en el pasado y que acaba de finalizar. Pone elnfasis en el resultado y no en la accin en si misma. I have read a book (destaco que he ledo un libro, que lo he terminado, y no el hecho de haber dedicado un tiempo a la lectura). En el siguiente ejemplo se puede observar la diferencia entre estas dos formas verbales: I have done my homework (indico que ya lo he finalizado)

I have been doing my homework (indico la actividad que he estado desarrollando; no informo de si he terminado mis deberes o no) Se utiliza tambin para indicar cuantas acciones se han realizado en un tiempo determinado. Today I have read ten books El empleo de este tiempo informa indirectamente sobre el presente, ya que conlleva que la situacin no ha cambiado. He has gone to Canada (esta persona sigue en Canda o est de viaje hacia all; en cualquier caso todava no ha regresado) I have broken my leg (la pierna sigue rota; an no ha sanado) Si no se da informacin sobre el presente hay que utilizar el "past simple". He went to Canada (no se informa de si l sigue all o ya volvi) I broke my leg (puede que la pierna ya est curada o que an siga rota) En aquellos verbos en los que no se utiliza la forma continua (leccin 17) hay que recurrir en todos estos supuestos al "present perfect simple". Gramtica Ambos tiempos describen acciones finalizadas en el pasado, si bien con algunas diferencias. a) Past Simple Accin finalizada en el pasado; no se hace referencia a ninguna conexin con el presente. I studied law at the university of Madrid b) Past Perfect Equivale al "present perfect" pero tomando como punto de referencia un momento en el pasado. - La accin finaliz cerca de dicho momento pasado que es mencionado en la oracin. Did you see him when you went to his office? No, he had left

- La accin finaliz justo en dicho momento pasado o incluso continu despus. He had lived in Paris for 10 years when he decided to buy his own flat(continu viviendo en Pars) Gramtica a) Posibilidad vs Probabilidad "Can" indica que algo es posible (las circunstancias lo permiten o alguien tiene la habilidad de hacerlo). I can play tennis quite well I can open that door with my key I can run for two hours This car can go faster than 200 km per hour You can go to France without a passport "May" indica que algo es probable; equivale a "perhaps" My friend may win the race The sky is very dark. It may rain b) Permiso Se utilizan ambos verbos modales, con los siguientes matices: - Tener permiso: "can" es ms habitual. I can smoke in the office - Dar permiso: "may" es ms habitual, "can" ms informal. You may smoke here if you want You may use my computer You can take my car (informal) Si el permiso viene de un tercero se utiliza "can".

You can smoke here (la ley lo permite o las normas de esta oficina) - Pedir permiso: "can" es ms habitual y tambin ms informal Can I smoke in the office? (informal) / May I smoke in the office?(formal) Can I speak to you? (informal) / May I speak to you? (formal) c) Peticin - Solicitar algo: Se utilian ambos verbos modales May (Can) I get your dictionary? - Pedirle a alguien que haga algo: se suele utilizar "can" Can you give me that book? d) Ofrecimiento Se utiliza ambos verbos modales Can (May) I help you? Gramtica "Can" y "could" se utilizan para expresar permiso, posibilidad o habilidad. Como regla general "can" se utiliza en el presente y "could" en el pasado, pero hay ciertos matices: a) Posibilidad / habilidad En el presente "can" y en el pasado "could" o "was / were able". With the new motorway you can go from Madrid to Barcelona in less than 4 hours Ten years ago you could go from Madrid to Barcelona in 6 hours I can play tennis I could (was able) to play tennis when I was a child "Could" tambin se utiliza con un sentido condicional, mientras que en el futuro se emplea "will be able": If I had money I could buy a new car

In two years I will be able to speak English fluently b) Permiso En el presente distinguimos: - Tener o pedir permiso: "can" tiene un sentido informal y "could"formal. I can use the company's car for my private trips (informal) I could use the company's car for my private trips (formal) Can I borrow your car ? (informal) Could I borrow your car ? (formal) - Dar permiso: se utiliza "can"; "could" nicamente se emplea con un sentido condicional. Tonight you can stay with us If you don't find any other place, you could stay with En el pasado se utiliza "could" y en el futuro "can". c) Ofrecimiento Slo se utiliza "can". Can I help you Gramtica "Must" y "Have to" expresan una obligacin. A veces se pueden utilizar indistintamente (especialmente con la primera persona donde prcticamente tienen el mismo sentido), no obstante existen ciertas diferencias. "Must" se utiliza con el tiempo presente y futuro "Have to" con pasado, presente y futuro
Autoridad externa Autoridad del emisor Pasado Presente Futuro Had to Have to Will have to Had to Must Must

"Must": el emisor impone una obligacin. "Have to": el emisor no impone ninguna obligacin, se limita a comunicar una obligacin que existe. (Teacher) You must do your homework (El profesor impone el deber de hacer los deberes) (Student) I have to do my homework (el estudiante se limita a comunicar una obligacin que le ha sido impuesta) You must stop making noises (El profesor ordena a sus alumnos) You have to stop smoking (La mujer le recuerda a su marido una obligacin que le ha impuesto el medico) I cannot stay longer, I have to go home (mis obligaciones familiares me obligan a volver a casa) "Must" tambin se puede utilizar para expresar un consejo de forma enftica. Ver la diferencia entre: You should stop smoking You must stop smoking En ambos casos no se trata de una obligacin sino de un consejo. Con "must" el consejo es ms enftico. Forma interrogativa Must + sujeto + verbo principal ? Do + sujeto + have to + verbo principal ? Must you leave now? Do you have to leave now? Forma Negativa Cuando la oracin es negativa el significado de estos dos verbos es diferente:

"Mustn't": no se debe hacer algo "Don't have to": no es necesario hacer algo You mustn't go to that meeting (no debes ir ya que no has sido invitado) You don't have to go to that meeting (no es necesario que vaya; no se va a tratar nada interesante) Gramtica Should Se utiliza para dar consejos. Se indica que algo es bueno y por lo tanto se debera hacer. Es una recomendacin, no una obligacin. Tiene menos fuerza impositiva que "must" y que "have to". If you feel bad you should go to the doctor Tambin se utiliza para dar una orden pero de forma muy educada. Anyone who wants to enter the conference should show his credentials (Se trata realmente de una obligacin -es obligatorio mostrar las credenciales para entrar en la conferencia-, pero est expresada de forma poco coercitiva) Construccin: este verbo modal va seguido del infinitivo del verbo principal sin la partcula "to". Se utiliza en pasado, presente y futuro. I should have finished my report yesterday (pasado) You should help me, I can not do it alone (presente) Tomorrow you should call your parents (futuro) El pasado se utiliza para indicar algo que se debera haber hecho y no se hizo. La forma negativa es: shouldn't You shouldn't smoke Y la forma interrogativa: Should + sujeto...? Should I wear a dark suit for the party?

Must / Have to Expresan una obligacin, algo que hay que hacer. You must come here immediately (es una orden) If you want to make a career in a company you have to speak English(No hay alternativa: o hablas ingls o no hay carrera posible) Comprueba la diferencia con la siguiente oracin: Nowdays it is very important to speak English. You should do it. Aqu se trata de un consejo, mientras que en la anterior era una obligacin. Por otra parte, cuando se utiliza "must" / "have to" el emisor tiene la conviccin de que la obligacin va a ser cumplida, mientras que cuando se utiliza "should" no se sabe si el consejo se va a seguir o no. We should buy a new car (es un deseo; no hay seguridad de que vayamos a hacerlo) We must buy a new car (hay muchas probabilidades de que lo hagamos) Gramtica La utilizacin de estas preposiciones con expresiones de lugar tiene muchos matices. A continuacin vamos a indicar sus principales usos, si bien la mejor manera de dominar sus usos es indudablemente mediante la prctica IN a) Dentro de un espacio cerrado: in the bedroom / in my office / in your pocket / in hospital / in prison / in bed in the front / in the back of a car (pero; at the front / at the back of a cinema, of a building) O dentro de un objeto: in that book / in the water b) En un lugar abierto (sitios determinados con unos lmites definidos): in the park / in the street / in the garden / in the queue

c) Con pases y ciudades: in Spain / in Madrid / in my country / in this town ON a) Sobre una superficie, con contacto fsico: on the table / on the wall / on the floor / on my shoulder / on page 103 / on the second floor b) Con las expresiones: on the left / on the right AT a) Lugar determinado: at the door / at the window / at the trafic light / at the top of the page / at the bridge b) Con las expresiones: at home / at school / at work / at the office / at the bus stop / at the airport / at someone's house c) Con acontecimientos: at the party / at the meeting / at the conference d) Tambin se puede utiliza con edificios, con un significado diferente al de "in": at the museum (en el museo: puede ser dentro o justo fuera) in the museum (dentro del museo) e) "At" se utiliza cuando se menciona donde tuvo lugar un acto: This morning I visited the painting exposition at the National Museum Yesterday we had dinner at the new Chinese restaurant f) O con lugares abiertos con agua: "at": al lado; "in": dentro at the river (en la orilla del ro) / in the river (dentro del agua)

at the lake / in the lake at the swimming pool / in the swimming pool at the sea / in the sea En numerosos casos con un mismo sustantivo se pueden utilizar diferentes preposiciones si bien el significado vara: in the car (dentro del coche) on the car (sobre el coche) at the car (dentro o justo al lado el coche) Gramtica Above: Por encima de The lamp hangs above the table Against: Contra I put the mirrors against the wall Among: Entre (ms de 2 personas u objetos) The Spanish flag waves among the other European ones Behind: Detrs de The child hides behind the tree Below: Debajo de The submarine sails below the surface Beside: Junto a, al lado de In the last meeting I sat beside my boss Between: entre (2 personas u objetos) I sat in the cinema between my wife and my daughter In front of: Delante de

In the queue he was just in front of me Inside: Dentro de Your wallet is inside that drawer Next to: Al lado de, junto a I can see your daughter next to your house Opposite: Enfrente de The accused stood opposite the judge Over: Por encima de , sobre You can see an eagle flying over the forest Under: Debajo de The ball is under the car Diferencias a) Above / Over Ambas preposiciones significan "por encima de" y con este sentido se pueden utilizar indistintamente. The birds fly above / over the fishing boat No obstante la preposicin "over" tiene otras acepciones: 1.- Al otro lado de: He lives over the forest 2.- De un lado a otro: There is a bridge over the railway 3.- Cubriendo: He put a blanket over his son b) Below / Under Las dos significan "por debajo de" y en este sentido se pueden utilizar en muchos casos indistintamente.

The cat sleeps below / under my bed No obstante, si hay contacto fsico hay que utilizar "under", ya que "below" implica que existe un espacio entre ambos elementos I put the letter under the book The plane flys below the cloud c) In front of / Opposite Cuando se utilizan con personas: 1.- Opposite: uno delante del otro dndose la cara In the train my friend sat opposite me (enfrente de mi, cara a cara) En la mesa, para sealar que una persona est enfrente de la otra. In the restaurant my wife sat opposite me 2.- In front of: uno delante del otro, dndose la cara o la espalda My broter stand in front of me (mi hermano est delante de mi; puede ser dndome la cara o la espalda) In the cinema my son sat in front of me (mi hijo se sent delante de mi dndome la espalda; aqu no se podra utilizar "opposite") Cuando se utiliza con objetos la diferencia ya no es tan ntida, si bien en algunas situaciones se tiende a utilizar una de ellas determinada. Veamos algunos ejemplos: Dos casas en la misma calle, una enfrente de la otra: "opposite" My brother lives opposite me Un plato en la mesa enfrente de un comensal: "in front of" My mother put the plate in front of me Gramtica a) From: Indica el origen de un movimiento. We went from Paris to London I come from Spain Where do you come from?

b) To: Indica el destino, el punto final de un movimiento, con verbos como: to go to / to come to / to drive to / to fly to / to travel to / to run to / to walk to I will go to America You walk to the cinema She flied to London My father drove to the beach He went to a party She went to bed La expresin "to get + to" significa llegar a un destino; se puede utilizar con cualquier destino: This morning I got to the office at 10 o'clock She got to England last week c) Into: cuando el movimiento finaliza dentro de un lugar. The police went into my house It is raining; we can go into the cinema Mientras que la preposicin "in" se utiliza habitualmente para indicar posicin. He studies in his room d) "Out of": salir de un lugar He went out of the theatre The robbers went out of the bank with a hostage e) "On"; cuando el movimiento finaliza sobre una superficie The birds land on the tree The rain falls on the car

"On" se puede utilizar tambin para indicar posicin Your glasses are on your desk f) Onto: movimiento que implica un cambio de nivel My father went up onto the roof The cat jumped onto the chair Peculiaridades 1.- Con el verbo "to arrive" no se utiliza la preposicin "to" sino: "in" (si el destino es una ciudad o un pas) "at" (si el destino es un pueblo u otros destinos) I arrived in Paris / in France She arrives at the museum / at the railway station 2.- Con el sustantivo "home" no se utiliza preposicin: To go home: ir a casa To get home: llegar a casa To come home: venir a casa Why don't you come home? After work I went home Yesterday I got home very late Gramtica Across: de un lado a otro James swims across the river Along: a lo largo de Every morning Michael runs along the beach Down: Abajo

Paul went down the hill Over: sobre, por encima de The horse jumps over the fence Round: alrededor de The dog runs round the house chasing the cat Through: a travs de Henry hit the ball and it went into the classroom through the window Towards: hacia That plane flies towards America Up: Arriba Thomas went up the stairs to take the English dictionary Gramtica a) Viajar en un medio de transporte Si se hace referencia nicamente al medio de transporte utilizado y no a un vehculo concreto se utiliza la preposicin "by": To go by car To go by train To go by plane To go by ship To go by bus To go by motorbike To go by bicycle Tambin: By road

By sea By air By rail By underground Salvo en las expresiones: On foot On horse On a bicycle Cuando se hace referencia a un vehculo concreto: 1.- Se utiliza la preposicin "in" con los siguientes vehculos: In my car In a taxi 2.- Y la preposicin "on" con los siguientes vehculos: On the bus number 12 On the 09:00 train On a very old ship On my bike b) Subir o bajar de un medio de transporte Depende del tipo de vehculo: 1.- Con "car", "taxi" se utilizan las expresiones: Get in (into): subir Get out of : bajar 2.- Con "train", "bus", "horse", "bicycle", "motorbike", etc.: Get on (onto): subir

Get off : bajar 3.- Con un barco se utiliza la expresin: To go on board Gramtica At Se utiliza para sealar momentos puntuales del da: At six o'clock At midday At breakfast time At what time? Tambin se utiliza en: At the age of 14 years At the weekend Y con periodos vacacionales oficiales: At Christmas At Easter On Con das de la semana o das determinados: On Monday On Friday evenings On my birthday On 15 November In Con meses del ao:

In January, in April Con estaciones: In winter, in autumn Con aos: In 1964 Con siglos: In the 19th century Con perodos del da: In the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening (pero: at night) No obstante, si se indica a que da corresponde ese periodo entonces se utiliza "on": On Friday morning On Saturday night In + a period of time: In 10 weeks In two hours In three months Gramtica Ambas preposiciones se utilizan para indicar la duracin de una accin: Since: indica el comienzo de la accin. La accin se prolonga hasta el momento en que habla el emisor. For: seala la duracin de la accin. Ejemplos: I have been living in Seville since last june (y sigo viviendo) I haven't seen you since last week (y hasta este momento no te he visto)

Yesterday I studied for three hours I have been living in Seville for 1 year I haven't seen you for a week Gramtica Las dos preposiciones se traducen por "durante". 1.- For + (periodo de tiempo): describe la duracin temporal de una accin. For three hours For one week For two years,... No se puede decir: During three hours, During one week, During two years 2.- During + sustantivo: seala el momento durante el cual se desarrolla la accin, NO la duracin de sta. Indica un periodo de tiempo que tiene nombre propio. During the summer During the concert During the meal During the holidays During the Middle Ages During my childhood,... Gramtica 1.- From: desde. Se utiliza con expresiones de tiempo y lugar. Se suele utilizar conjuntamente con las preposiciones "to" (de tiempo o lugar) o "till / until" (expresiones de tiempo). Con ellas se indica el principio y el final de un periodo o de un movimiento. Se utiliza cuando la accin ya ha terminado o no ha empezado todava.

He lived in Madrid from 1990 to / till 1995 We walked from the school to the bus stop Cuando no va la preposicin "from" hay que utilizar las preposiciones "till / until"pero no "to" He lived in Madrid till 1995 2.- Since: desde Se utiliza con expresiones de tiempo, nunca expresiones de lugar. Con ella se indica el principio du un periodo que se extiende haste el momento en el que se desarrolla la accin principal. Simce se suele utilizar con present perfect o past perfect We have been married since 1992 Gramtica Cuando se utilizan como preposiciones van seguidas de un sustantivo o de un pronombre. "Like" se traduce por "como / igual que / similar a / parecido a" con el sentido de similitud. Se trata de una comparacin: He behaved like a kid (no es que fuera un nio, pero lo pareca) Your car is fast like a rocket He looks like his father "As" se traduce tambin por "como" con el sentido de "en calidad de". Se trata de una identidad. Use this rope as a belt (la cuerda no se parece a un cinturn, pero se utiliza haciendo la funcin de cinturn) The army used this building as its headquarters En el siguiente ejemplo se puede ver la diferencia entre "like" y "as": My house is always full of people, it is like a hotel (es parecido a un hotel)

The building where I live was used before as a hotel (funcion en calidad de hotel) Tambin se utiliza la preposicin "as" con profesiones: My brother works as a lawyer "As" se puede utilizar tambin como conjuncin en cuyo caso va seguido por una oracin (sujeto + verbo). Se traduce por "como". The terrorist acted as we expected Do your homework as your teacher has told you Gramtica According + to Accustomed + to Afraid, frightened, terrified, scared, proud, ashamed, jealous, envious, suspicious +of (someone / something) Angry, annoyed, furious + about (something) / with (someone for doing something) Anxious + about Aware, conscious + of (something) Capable, incapable + of (something) Crowded + with (people) Delighted, pleased, satisfied, disappointed, bored, fed up + with (something) Different + from (someone / something) Excited, worried, upset + about (something) Famous + for (something) Fit + for Fond + of (someone / something) Full + of (something)

Good, bad, excellent+ at (doing something) / for (someone / something) Impressed + by (someone / something) Interested + in (something) Keen + on (something) Married, engaged + to (someone) Nervous + of Nice, kind, good, generous, mean, stupid, silly, intelligent, clever, polite, rude, unreasonable + of (someone) Prepared + for Ready + for Responsible + for (something) Short + of (something) Similar + to (something) Sorry + about (something) / for (doing something) Successful + in Surprised, shocked, amazed, astonished + by (something) Tired + of (something) Used + to Gramtica To accuse (someone) of (something) To apologise to (someone) for (something) To apply for (a job) To ask (someone) about (someone / something) To ask (someone) for (something) (pedir algo)

To believe in (something) To belong to (someone) To blame (someone / something) for (something) To borrow (something) from (someone) To compare (something) with (something) To complain to (someone) about (someone / something) To concentrate on (something) To congratulate (someone) on (something) To crash into (something) (estrellarse) To depend on (someone / something) To die of (an illness) To divide (something) into (parts) To dream about (someone / something) To explain (a problem) to (someone) To forgive (someone) for (something) To happen to (someone / something) To hear about (something) To insist on To invite (someone) to (a party) To laugh at To listen to (someone / something) To look after (someone / something) To look at (someone / something) To look for (someone / something) (to try to find)

To look forward to To object to (someone / something) To pay (someone) for (something) To persist in To prefer (someone / something) to (someone / something) To prepare for To protect (someone / something) from (someone / something) To provide (someone) with (something) To punish (someone) for (something) To remind (someone) of (someone / something) (me hace redordar) To remind (someone) about (something) (recordarle a alguien algo) To run into (something) (estrellarse) / (someone) (atropellar) To spend (money) on (something) To shout at (someone) (angrily) / to (someone) (para que se entere) To smile at To speak to (someone) about (someone / something) To succeed in To suffer from (an illness) To take care of (someone / something) To talk to (someone) about (someone / something) To thank (someone) for (something) To think about (someone / something) (reflexionar sobre algo, recordar) To think of (pensar en algo, imaginar, recordar) To throw (something) at (someone / something) (para golpearle)

To throw (something) to (someone / something) (para que lo coja) To translate (a book) from (one language) into (another language) To wait for (someone / something) To warn(someone) about (someone / something) To write to (someone)

Gramtica And I study and my brother watches TV As (mientras; la 2 accin ocurre antes de que la 1 haya finalizado, o evolucionan paralelamente) As he grew older he became more aggressive Because (porque) You cannot go to the party because you are too young Both...and Both the Spanish team and the English one play football quite well But I studied very hard but I didn't pass the exam Either...or I have to decide to go either to Paris or to London However (como quiera, sin embargo) I explained my problem to him, however he didn't understand it If (si -condicional-) If he studys he will pas his exams

Neither... nor I like neither this tie nor that one Nevertheless (sin embargo) I didn't receive an invitation to the party; nevertheless I went there Not only...but also My brother not only speaks French but also German Or From here to Gibraltar you can go by train or by car Otherwise (de otro modo) We must leave now, otherwise we will lose our flight So (por lo tanto) It was raining a lot, so we decided to rest at home That (que) I didn't know that you had bought a new car Therefore (mismo significado que "so" pero ms formal) I had fever; therefore I didn't go to work Though (aunque, pero) ("Although" tiene el mismo significado pero es ms formal) He didn't admit his fault, though he knew it was his responsibility Unless (a menos que) Unless you study more you wont pass your exams When (cuando; las dos oraciones ocurren simultneamente o una detrs de la otra) When the weather is good lots of people go to the beach Diferencia entre When / as

Las 2 se utilizan para acciones paralelas. La conjuncin "when" tambin se utiliza cuando una accin ocurre despus de la otra: When you finish your homework you will play with your friends "As" tambin se emplea cuando una accin ocurre antes que finalice la otra As I flew to Barcelona I started feeling bad While (mientras) While I was away my house was burgled Gramtica El phrasal verb es una combinacin de verbo + partcula (preposicin / adverbio). La partcula hace cambiar el significado del verbo. En ingls se utilizan hasta 5.000 phrasal verbs. Los verbos ms utilizados en la formacin de phrasal verbs son: to come, to get, to go, to look, to make, to put, to take Las prticulas que suelen acompaar a estos verbos son: about, around, away, back, down, for, in, into, off, on, out, over, through, up, with, Phrasal verbs: "To Break" Atencin: (tr.): Transitivo, va acompaado de complemento directo (intr.) Intransitivo, no lleva complemento directo To break down (tr.): Derribar algo utilizando la fuerza The police broke down the door to get into the house To break down (tr.): Dividir un total en diferentes subrgrupos Could you break down the total sales of your company into countries? To break down (intr.): Derrumbarse una persona fsica o mentalmente

When he heard about his father's death he broke down To break down (intr.): Dejar una mquina de funcionar Last Sunday, coming back from the beach my car broke down To break in (intr.) / into (tr.): entrar en un sitio utilizando la fuerza para robar The robbers broke into the bank during the night To break in (intr.) / into (tr.): Interrumpir a alguien que est hablando de forma descorts (Ingls americano) When the teacher was explaining the lesson one student broke in with a stupid remark To break off (tr. / intr.): Separar un trozo de algo A big branch broke off and fell onto the car To break off (tr.): Romper un compromiso / unas negociaciones My company broke off its agreement with the local authorities To break off (intr.): Parar de repente de hablar He was talking to us about his trip but suddenly broke off without any reason To break out (intr.): Estallar (guerras, epidemias, fuego) The Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936 To break out (intr.): Escapar de prision Two very dangerous prisoners broke out of prison and disappeared To break up (tr./intr.): destruir, desintegrar The rocket broke up when it entered the atmosphere To break up (intr.): Finalizar (meeting, fiesta, curso escolar...) (Ingls americano) The meeting with our salesmen broke up at 2 o'clock in the morning Gramtica

To call at (a place): Visitar por un corto periodo de tiempo I called at the chemist's to buy some medicines To call back (intr.): Volver a un lugar con objeto de visitar a alguien o recoger algo (ya que antes no se hizo) I left my glasses in my brother's house; I have to call back to pick them To call for (someone / something): Visitar un lugar para recoger a alguien o algo I have to go to the airport to call for a friend who comes from Russia To call for (something): necesitar o requerir, demandar una accin particular o una cualidad The behaviour of that football player called for an exemplary sanction To call in (a person): Llamar a alguien para que venga a casa a realizar algn servicio Yesterday night my wife had to call in a plumber to fix a tab To call in (intr.): Visitar un lugar / una persona por un corto periodo de tiempo, normalmente de paso hacia otro sitio During my last trip to Madrid I had time to call in and see my brother To call off (something): cancelar algo que an no ha empezado o abandnar algo que ya estaba en progreso The concert had to be called off because of the few people interested To call (someone) up: telefonear My mother called me up this morning to know our plans for the week-end Gramtica To come across (tr.): Encontrar por causalidad un objeto / una persona Yesterday when I was looking for a book I came across these old photos To come along (intr.): Llegar a un lugar The film started at 10 o'clock but we came along one hour later

To come apart (intr.) Dividirse en varias partes My watch fell onto the floor and came apart To come away (intr.): Separarse de algo He hit the ball with his racket so strongly that its grip came away To come off (intr.): Tener xito en un plan, un proyecto (se utiliza en oraciones negativas) His plan to work abroad didn't come off To come off (intr.): Tener lugar, celebrarse Our wedding is coming off next September To come on (intr.): Animar a alguien a hacer algo / a darse prisa (cuando est dudando) Come on! You can jump that distance, Try again! To come out (intr.): Desaparecer una mancha (de color, de suciedad...) I am not sure that this stain will come out To come out (intr.): Ser publicado The fifth book about Harry Potters came out last May To come out (intr.): Ser revelado (la verdad, un hecho que inicialmente se trat de esconder pero que finalmente ha salido a la luz pblica) The president tried to hide his past but finally his relation with the Mafia came out To come over: Visitar a alguien en su casa This evening I am coming over to my brother's house to talk to him To come round (intr.): Recobrar la conciencia After the accident he was unconscious for two hours until he finally came round To come round (intr.): Aceptar una sugerencia inicialmente rechazada

At the beginning he didn't accept my suggestion but finally he came round To come up (intr.): To be mentioned (en una conversacin) Their disagreement about the monarchy always comes out when they talk about politics To come up to (tr.): Acercarse a una distancia corta para poder hablar My boss came up to me and told me that I was fired Gramtica To get away (intr): Abandonar un lugar, una persona, con el sentido de liberarse I always have a lot of work in the office and cannot get away till very late To get away with (tr): Escapar sin castigo de algo mal hecho He copied in the exam and got away with it To get back (tr): Recuperar la posesin de algo I lent him a very interesting book and I am sure that I am not going to get it back To get behind with (tr): Retrasarse con el trabajo, con los pagos, etc. I have lost my job and I am afraid that now I could get behind with my mortgage To get on (intr.): Tener xito en alguna actividad, hacer progresos My brother is getting on very well with his studies To get on (intr.): Llevarse bien con alguien My friend doesn't get on well with his father To get out (intr.): Escapar de un sitio cerrado The tiger got out of his jail and the zoo had to be evacuated To get out of (tr.): Liberarse de una obligacin, de un hbito I drink too much coffee but I cannot get out of this habit

To get over (tr): Recuperarse de una enfermedad I still feel very weak. Undoubtedly I need more time to get over this serious pneumonia To get over it (tr): Acometer algo y finalizarlo ("it" representa algo desagradable) It was very sad for me to sell my house but finally I could get over it To get round (tr): Encontrar un modo de superar o evitar una norma, una regulacin, una dificultad My lawyer is looking for a way to get round the new law that impede us to build in this land To get through (tr): Terminar con xito un trabajo o tarea de cierta dificultad I could get through my exams with a lot of effort To get through (intr): Establecer comunicacin telefnica When I was in Russia and tried to call Spain it was very difficult to get through To get together with (somebody): Reunirse con alguien para hacer algo, para pasar un tiempo junto When I was in England last summer I got together with people from different countries To get up (intr.): Levantarse de la cama At what time did you get up this morning? Gramtica To go ahead (intr.): Seguir adelante You should go ahead with that interesting project, even if you don't find any support To go along with (something / someone): Apoyar una idea, estar de acuerdo con alguien Our president went along with my idea to enter in the Chinese market

To go away (intr..): Marcharse I haven't seen her for a while; probably she has gone away without saying a word To go back on (tr.): Retirar o romper una promesa He went back on his promise to invite me for dinner To go down (intr.): Ser recibida una idea con aprobacin His plan to reduce costs in the factory went down very well To go for (tr.): Elegir My parents went for this school because it was very close to our home To go for (tr.): Atacar Your dog went for my cat and almost killed it To go in for (tr.): Estar muy interesado en algo, practicar algo, participar en competiciones My brother goes in for golf To go into (tr.): Investigar detenidamente The police is determined to go into his death; they don't believe that it was a suicide To go off (intr.): Abandonar un lugar para dirijirse a otro After work I went off to try to find a shop where to buy a new suit To go off (intr.): Explotar The bomb went off in the middle of the parking To go on (intr.): Continuar The went on arguing about politics all the night To go on with (tr.): Continuar con algo You should go on with your studies about the French Revolution

To go on (intr.): Ocurrir Many ambulances have passed; do you know what's going on? To go out (intr.): Salir de casa para entretenerse My son has a lot of friends and he goes out almost every evening To go over (tr.): Examinar, estudiar o repetir cuidadosamente I have to go over my report to correct some spelling mistakes To go through with (tr.): Finalizar algo desagradable o difcil que has planeado o que has prometido hacer My son didn't want to go to England, but finally he decided to go through it To go through (tr.): Experimentar una situacin difcil o desagradable Last year I went through a very difficult time after losing my job To go through (tr.): Examinar el conetenido de algo atentamente In the bookshop I went through the books looking for one about tidal waves To go together (intr.): Personas / objetos / situaciones que suelen ir juntas Normally the optimism and the good luck go together To go without (tr.): No tener algo que habitualmente se tiene What a problem! I broke my glasses and I cannot go without it Gramtica To look after (tr.): Cuidar When my mother is not at home I have to look after my little brother To look ahead (intr.): Prever el futuro para tomar ya medidas You should look ahead and decide what do you want to do in your life To look at (tr.): Mirar directamente Please, don't look at me like that

To look back (intr): Mirar al pasado Alice is always looking back. She should live the present To look for (tr.): Buscar Can you help me to look for my glasses? To look forward to (tr.) : Esperar con inters un acontecimiento futuro (suele ir acompaado de gerundio) I am looking forward to seeing you next summer To look in (intr.): Hacer una corta visita de improviso a alguien Coming back from work I looked in to see my parents To look into (tr.): Investigar The police is looking into the strange death of that businessman To look out (intr.): Estar atento Look out! You are driving too fast To look over (tr.) Revisar algo rpidamente, leer nuevamente, inspeccionar criticamente You should look over your essay before handing it to the teacher To look through (tr.) Mirar entre un conjunto de cosas buscando algo para seleccionarlo Look through all these books and pick whichever you want To look up (tr.): Buscar algo (un nombre, una palabra, una definicin, etc.) en un libro If you don't understand a word you can look up it in the dictionary Gramtica To make for (somewhere) (tr.): Ir en esa direccin When I saw the dogs I made for the exit To make off (intr.): Largarse (ladrones con algo) (Ingls americano)

The thieves made off with a big loot before the police arrived To make out (something): Comprender porque algo ha ocurrido I cannot make out how this microwave got on fire To make out: Ver / or algo / a alguien con dificultad This classroom is very noisy. I cannot make out what the teacher says To make up (something): Inventarse una historia o una excusa The detainee made up a ridiculous story to justify himself To make up (something): Componer, formr parte A watch is made up of hundreds of pieces To make up one's mind: Tomar una decisin I don't know what to do: I haven't made up my mind yet To make up (a quarrel): Finalizar una disputa You should make up that dispute with your brother To make up (the face): Maquillarse (Ingls americano) You don't need to make up your face; you look wonderful Gramtica To put aside (tr.): Ahorrar (especialmente dinero) para un uso posterior We should start putting aside money to pay an English summer course for our daughter To put (something) back: Atrasar la fecha de un evento Next Monday our president will be abroad; we have to put the meeting back To put (a watch) back / forward : Atrasar / adelantar un reloj The 31st of October in Europe the watches have to be put back one hour To put (something) back: Volver a colocar algo en su sitio

My kids never put their toys back; I always have to do it myself To put down (tr.): Sofocar una rebelin / revuelta The police put down the demonstration using tear gas To put down (tr.): Escribir I could put down the number plate of the car that hit yours To put down (tr.): Poner en un sitio (lo contrario de pick-up) I told my kid to put down the old watch but he didn't obey me To put (something) down to (tr.): Atribuir a algo He was very listless in the party but I put it down to his tiredness To put forward (propuesta / idea): Proponer algo para su debate I put forward a proposal in the last meeting but no one supported it To put in (tr.): Colocar / instalar una maquina en su sitio The technician came yesterday to put in the new dishwasher To put in for ( a job / a post): Solicitar un trabajo When I finished my studies I put in for a job in a bank To put (someone) off: Comunicar a alguien que se retrasa una cita con l I invited him for dinner but had to put him off because I started feeling bad To put off (an action): Postponerla We should put off our tennis match; I will be very busy this afternoon To put on (vestidos, joyas, etc.): Ponerse (lo contrario de take off) Which dress are you going to put on for this weeding? To put on (tr.): Poner en marcha un aparato apretando un interruptor The first thing he does when arrives at home is to put on the TV To put out (tr.): Apagar una luz / un fuego

Yesterday night you went to bed and forgot to put out the light To be put out: Enfadar a alguien I was very put out when she didn't invite me to her party To put up (edificios, monumentos, etc.): Levantar We need to put up a fence in the garden to avoid our dog goes out To put (someone) up to (something): Explicar a alguien cmo hacer algo, normalmente un truco My granny put my mother up to many of her delicious recipes To put up with (something): Soportar algo pacientemente We have to put up with our neighbours; they are really rude Gramtica Relacin de diversos giros que se utilizan a la hora de facilitar informacin sobre una direccin. Find (see) the pharmacy in front of you (on your right / on your left, ...): Encuentra (ve) la farmacia delante suya (a su derecha, a su izquierda, ...) Go along (the street, the avenue, ...): Contina a lo largo (de la calle, avenida, ...) Go back (till the hotel, ): Vuelve hacia atrs (hasta el hotel, ) Go down: Sigue cuesta abajo Go on: Contina Go past (the Post Office, ...): Sigue hasta pasar Correo Go straight on: Contina recto Go to the end (of the street, of the road, ): Contina hasta el final (de la calle, de la carretera, ...) Go up: Sigue cuesta arriba Halfway down the street (up the street): A mitad de camino calle abajo (calle arriba, ...)

Take the first (the second, ...) turning on your left (on your right, ...): Coge la primera calle a mano izquierda That place is round the corner: Ese lugar est cerca de la esquina (a la vuelta de las esquina) That place is at the corner: Ese lugar est en la esquina Till the corner (the turning, ...): Hasta la esquina (la bocacalle, ) Till you see the restaurant on your right (on your left, in front of you, opposite you, ...): Hasta que veas el restaurante a tu derecha Till you come to the restaurant: Hasta que llegues al restaurante Turn left (right) into the street (the avenue, ...): Gira a la izquierda y entra en la calle Gramtica Distintas estructuras que se utilizan en ingls para dar consejos: Con verbos modales: You + (must / should) + ... You must visit the dentist Con la estructura: You had better + infinitivo (sin "to") You had better consult with your lawyer If I were you I + (should / would) ... If I were you I should look for a new job I advise (I would advise) you + infinitivo I advise you to rest in bed; you have fever Why don't you +... Why don't you buy a new car It is time you + pasado simple It is time you went to bed Gramtica

1 persona del plural Afirmativo: Let us (= let's) + infinitivo (sin "to") Let us start the meeting Negativo: Let us not + infinitivo (sin "to") Let us not delay our decision 2 persona singular / plural Afirmativo: Infinitivo (sin "to") Open the door! Negativo: Don't + infinitivo (sin "to") Don't smoke here! 3 persona singular / plural Afirmativo: He / she / they + must + infinitivo (sin "to") He must finish her homework Negativo: He / she / they + must not + infinitivo (sin "to") She must not pay that bill