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CALCULO BASICO

5E A ,KJH= 4= I -@A E 2= J = 5=?H= A J

+ JA @
2HAB ?E  +

EL K J @ I
K J I K -NAH? ?E I HE?=  K HA=  ! " \$ @K  AH I HA=EI \$ % %

AH I HA=EI
HE? I

+

\$ 8= H =>I KJ  K  % -NAH? ?E I  & ,EIJ ?E= A JHA

/A

AJHE=

& '
' E I FAH= AI J LAEI A B=J H= @A ANFHAII AI H=?E =EI   " \$ & & '

! -NFHAII AI = C >HE?=I
!  1 JH @K ! 2 E !

" .K
"

AI HA=EI @A K = L=HE LA HA=

-NAH? ?E I E AJ H= I >HA AJ H= A >E AJ H= + F IJ= F=H EE 1 LAHI= F=H A BK

! # # \$

"  1 JH @K " ! .K " " .K " # .K " \$ .K

5E

A A -@A E
" % -NAH? ?E I " & 4=E A IE = @A K = BK " ' .K "  -NAH? ?E I @K  K L= H =>I KJ

# .K
#

AI @ FHE AEH A IACK @ CH=KI

2 E E= .K @ FHE AEH CH=K AI @ FHE AEH CH=K

!
! !! !\$ !% !' !' " "! "& "'

#  .K

# ! -NAH? ?E I # " 5E = @ FH @KJ A GK ?EA JA @A BK # # -NAH? ?E I # \$ .K # & .K = A BK E A=H # % -NAH? ?E I ? # ' -NAH? ?E I #  -NAH? ?E I + F A A J=HAI F A A J=HAI

@ IACK @ CH=K

\$ .K
\$  .K \$ \$ ! .K

-NF A ?E= A .K
-NF A ?E= C=H J E?= F A A J=HAI -NAH? ?E I

C=HEJ E?=

#!
#! #" ## #% #&

% .K
%

AI 6HEC
6HEC

JHE?=I
JHE?

\$
\$ \$ \$ \$ \$! \$\$

%  + H?K

% \$ -NAH? ?E I

)2

,1+-

\$% \$& &"

*1* 1 /4).1) 4-52 56)5 , 5 -:-4+ +1 5

2HAB ?E
B=J GKA = =L= JA? CE? JA FH L ?=@ K = IEC E ?=JEL= HAAIJHKJKH= FH =JA AJE@ ? @ I ?KHI I @A + ?K A IE = JE = @ ?=@= - JHAJ= J C @AII= GK= GKAH FH BAII H LAH@=@AEH= A JA ? @AII= @EI?EF E = FAH?A>A GKA @E LA

JE?= @ I AIJK@= JAI ACHAII I @ A IE @ I @EI?A JAI A A

I BHA @ K = GKA@= ? IE@AH LA -IIA @AIAGKE >HE ? ? KI -IIA JH=>= D LEI= =JA + IE@=@A ? ?

AJA @A B H = CH=LA = B H =

KEJ I ?=I I E FA@A = =K @A B H = IACKH=

@ I IAKI AIJK@ I E E E =H =I @A ?E ?E=I @ A IE + AIJ= E JA @E A ? IAGKA JA A JA E E?E=H >KI?= IA =FHAIA J=H @A B H = ? =H= A @E@ JE?= ? ?AEJ I A HAIK J=@ I ,EBAHA ?E= A 1 JACH= E IJHK A J JE A AIFA?E= = I AIJK@= JAI GKA ?DAC= 7 ELAH A JA @=H = JANJ = CK =I ?=H=?JAH IJE?=I FH FHE=I J=EI

=FHA @E =@ @ + ?K =

= E@=@A @A GKA AIJA JH=>= D IA = K

JE?= FH ?KH K IA E JA ?E =

I HAIK J=@ I I ? ?E I A

@EHAJ= A IE F AI FHE HE = @ IK=I =F E?= AI A

ANAH

@AJHE A J @A IK=I @A

I ANAH? ?E I FH F IJ I I ANAH? ?E I A

IA FHA IACKE@ I @A HAIF IJ=I =FHAIA J=@=I = KEJ=I LA AI @AI HEA J= AEJ H A

= @AIIA JH=>= D LA @A = K@

-LEJ= IA FH F H

AH AN?AIIEL F EI EII

=F @E?A GKA BAHA?A = = K HAII= J=H GKA F H =EI =@= AIB H F A A J= ?=F JK @EII @ AIJK@

= CK I J FE? I @ A IE FH BAII H A =

A JA FHA?EIA HALAH A HAGKAH I

+ L = JAI @A

A D H GKA IA =

=FHA @E =@ A@E@= A

E @ELE@K= GKA E ? KE =JA E F HJ= JA @E AH GKA

I= = @A =K = =IIE

@E HE= HAI LA @

ANAH? ?E I FH F IJ I ) =JKH= = ? ,AIA FH F IJ I

GKA =I @E ?K @=@AI I

=JH=L I @ I @ELAHI I JANJ I A ? JH=@ I

I ELH I ? IIE? I @A + ?K

AIFA?E= = 2H B + I=H KE .=H=D FA = IKCAIJ =FHA @E =@ @ + ?K ? ? A @EIF IE

-IFAH= @ JAH ? JHE>K @ @E@=JE?= A JA F=H= IKCAIJ AI A ?H JE?=I GKA F II= A D H=H A ?

F A A J=H AIIA JH=>= D

I =KJ HAI

4E @A = AEH EL

BALAHAEH @A

+=F JK

K J @ I
HAIE@A I ?KHI I @A ? ?K

AH I HA=EI
B=J @A GKA A L LA BK ? ?AEJ @A ? JE KE@=@A A =I FAH= AI @A E EJA @AHEL=@= AI GKA I @A E@=I A =IIK A L= HAI A ? K J I @A

) E F HJ ?E= @AIIA ?=F JK A E JACH= AIJK@=@ I AH I HA=EI

+
I FHE ?EF=EI ?

K J I K
K J I K

HE? I
HE? I I =JKH=EI 1 JAEH I 4=?E =EI 1HH=?E =EI 4A=EI A + F AN I

AH AH AH AH AH AH AH AH AH
I

I =JKH=EI N = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .}; I =JKH=EI 2 IEJEL I K K I N = {1, 2, 3, 4, . . .}; I 1 JAEH I Z = {. . . , 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .}; I 1 JAEH I K I Z = {. . . , 3, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3, . . .}; I 1 JAEH I AC=JEL I Z+ = {0, 1, 2, 3, . . .}; I 1 JAEH I F IEJEL I Z = {. . . , 3, 2, 1, 0}; I 1 JAEH I F IEJEL I Z + = {1, 2, 3, . . .}; I 1 JAEH I AC=JEL I Z = {. . . , 3, 2, 1}; p I 4=?E =EI Q = { \p Z q Z }
AH I H=?E =EI I @A?E =
1 2

J @ I I

AH I GKA F @A

@A

AH I E JAEH I 6

HAFHAIA J=

EJ= K FAHE @E?=

= 0, 5 A (I) I
1 3

-NA F I
FAHE @E?=

= 0, 333 . . . = 0, 3;

AH I 1HH=?E =EI -NA F I

=GKA AI GKA

H=?E =EI

K IA = ?K = HAFHAIA J=

@A?E =

EJ= A

3 = 1, 7320508 . . . A = 3, 14159265 . . . ;

2 + 3i

=GKA AI AI?HEJ I = B H = a + bi,

K AH ? F AN

@A a, b R A

AH E @A

E@ F H i := 1.

5E

A A -@A E

JA GKA N Z Q R C A I R. )I HA = AI @A E ? KI DA?E@ ? ,E=CH= = @A 8A 8A = = CKH= =>=EN A JHA I ? K J I K HE? I

>IAHL=
?=

? =H=I K

@E=CH= = ?

R Q I Z N

.ECKH=   ,E=CH= = @A 8A

-NAH? ?E I
!  ! "
=JKH=   =JKH=   =JKH=

+ =IIE GKA ?=@= K = @=I = H =JEL=I = IACKEH A 8AH@=@AEH= 8 K .= I= .

" " E JAEH   # % E JAEH   \$ & " E JAEH   %  ! E JAEH   &  ! H=?E =   ' & " H=?E =    # H=?E =     !% H=?E =      ### !     "  !!! # \$ %

H=?E =   H=?E =   H=?E =   H=?E =   EHH=?E =   EHH=?E =

2 = 1, 4142135 . . .

= 3, 1415926 . . . e = 2, 7182818 . . .

5E

A A -@A E
& '
3 3 3 7 8 7

\$ HA=    & HA=   !

# HA=

"  !% HA=   #  ! !  \$
4

HA=

HA=   =JKH= E JAEH   H=?E =   H=?E =   E JAEH   HA=   HA=

% 6 @ '

& 6 @ E JAEH ! 6 @ H=?E = ! 6 @ H=?E = !  6 @ EHH=?E = !" -NEIJA K !\$ ) K E
+ =IIE GKA A
a) 3 N; d) 8 Z; 4

0, 333333333 . . .

!! -NEIJA K E JAEH GKA EHH=?E =

=JKH= GKA HA=   H=?E =   I EHH=?E =EI ? K J @ I HA=EI

@ I H=?E =EI ?

LAH@=@AEH= 8 K B= I= . ?=@= K = @=I = H =JEL=I = IACKEH

b) 4 N; e) 1 3 Z; h) 0, 37 Q; c) 4 Z; f) 1 3 Q; i) 1, 2333 . . . Q;

g ) 5 Q; j ) = 3, 1415926 . . . I; m) 1, 37 R;

k ) e = 2, 7182818 . . . I; l) 6 R; n) 4 R.

! ) HAJ= K
2=H= HAFHAIA J=H I ? F J AIGKAH@= A ?D= =

HE?=  K HA=
AH I HA=EI JH= = I @A HECA I I K = HAJ= D HE J= A =H?= I AH HA= AH GKA E@A JE ?= I AH I F IEJEL I AIJ HAFHAIA J=@ I @EHAEJ= @= HECA A I AC=JEL I

5E

A A -@A E

"

B -3

E -1,9

C O -0,2 0

D F 1,4 2

A 2

.ECKH=  5 >HA AII= HAJ= F @A >IAHLA

4AJ= K

HE?=

I HAFHAIA J=H J @ I I

AH I HA=EI

= HAJ= K

HE?= HAFHAIA J=@= =?E = GKA AH +2 AH 3 AH 0, 2 AH +1, 4 AH 1, 9 AH + 2 = 1, 4142 . . .

HE?= AI K F J @= HAJ= AH HA= E @E?=@ ? K = IAJ= 1II AGKEL= A AH I HA=EI /A A @

>IAHL=
=J @ =J @ F

!

K = HAJ= K @A K

AH HA= ? HHAIF J @= HAJ= F @A A

I =II ?E=H K

AI K

ANEIJA K = HEA J=

IA JE@ F IEJEL @= AIGKAH@= F=H= = @EHAEJ= AH I HA=EI AH @A H@A =@ K IA = F @A I?  A I @E AH GKA K J=@ F H > AIJ HE?=

= @E AH GKA GKA I

K J @ I

JHE?= A JA a < b IEC E ?= GKA AGKEL= A JA = AIJ

@EHAEJ= @

J=@ F H = @A

" 1 JAHL= I
5A =
a, b R, a < b. 2 @A

I @A

(a, b) =]a, b[= {x R/a < x < b} E JAHL=

5E

A A -@A E
[a, b] = {x R/a x b} E JAHL=

# E EJ=@ A BA?D=@

E EJ=@ A BA?D=@

AIGKAH@= A =>AHJ

@EHAEJ=

" (a, b] =]a, b]{x R/a < x b} E JAHL=

E EJ=@ A =>AHJ

AIGKAH@= A BA?D=@

@EHAEJ=

& [a, +) = [a, +[= {x R/x a} E JAHL= E E EJ=@ A BA?D=@

5E

A A -@A E
' (, +) =] , +[= R E JAHL= E E EJ=@

=I @A

E AI =?E =

AH I = A > I

@A

E =@ I ANJHA

I @ I HAIFA?JEL I E JAHL= I

# -NAH? ?E I
,AI?HAL= I IACKE JAI E JAHL= I = B H = {x/p(x)}
a) (1, 2); f ) [2, +); b) (1, 2]; c) [1, 2]; d) [1, 2); i) (, +). e) (1, +);

g ) (, 1]; h) (, 0);

5A A = [1, +[ A B = [0, 5[, >JA D=

a) A B; b) A B; c) A B.

! 5A A = [2, 2), B = (0, +) A C = (, 1], @AJAH E A

a) A B ; e) A B ; i) A B ; b) A C ; f ) A C; j) A C; c) B C ; g) B C ; k ) B C. d) A B C ; h) A B C ;

\$ 8= H =>I KJ  K
,A E \$
5A = x R. @K

@K
K L= H =>I KJ @A N HAFHAIA J=@ F H |x|, x, se x 0 |x | = x, se x < 0 @A E@ @ IACKE JA @

1 JAHFHAJ=
 AH 

CA
HECA

JHE?=
= HAJ= K

@K HE?=

@A K

AH HA=

HAFHAIA J=@ CA

AJHE?= A JA ?

= @EIJ ?E= @AIIA

a) x > 0 |x| = x 0 x

b) x < 0 |x| = x x 0

CA GKA F @A

JHE?= @ |x| IAH JAEI = II AIJK@

5E

A A -@A E
a, b R.

2H FHEA@=@AI 5A =

|a| 0 A |a| = 0 IA A I

A JA IA a = 0;
|a| |b| ;

|a + b| |a| + |b| ,AIECK= @=@A JHE= CK =H

>IAHL=
,A B=J
x2

\$

5A x R, A J E?

x2 = |x|.

A |x| 0, JA

F H @A E I GKA x2 = |x|.

AH F IEJEL

K K

GKA A AL=@ = GK=@H=@

ECK= = x2 . +

|x|2 = x2

% -NAH? ?E I
4AI L= ?
a) |x| < 2; d) |x| > 5; g ) 1 |x| 3; j ) |5x + 7| = 1; m) |3x 1| = 2x + 1;

=KN E @= E JAHFHAJ=
e) |x| < 1

CA

JHE?= @ ? ?AEJ @A

@K

2

n) |x 3| < 0;

& ,EIJ ?E= A JHA

,A
@A

AH I HA=EI
a < b. +

&

5A =

a, b R ?

IE@AHA ) A * I F AH I = A >

J I = HAJ= K

AH I = A > HAIFA?JEL= A JA ) @EIJ E@= @= IACKE JA B H =

?E= A JHA I

K AGKEL= A JA A JA A JHA I F

d(A, B ) = |b a|

>IAHL=

&

GKA

d(O, B ) = |b 0| = |b|; d(A, B ) = d(B, A).

A a

O 0
.ECKH=  "

B b

+=F JK

/A

AJHE=

&

+=F JK

-NFHAII AI = C >HE?=I
-IJA ?=F JK JA F H = E@=@A @AIA L LAH ? = ?KHI @A + ?K 1 @= =K = D=>E E@=@A @A E I ) = EFK = @EII @A ANFHAII AI = C >HE?=I FHAA I @ ? ?AEJ @A A = IE F E ?= F=HJE?K =H >KI?= IA B= E E=HE @A E EJA E JH @K E@ ANFHAII AI H=?E =EI CA>H= @ I F E LEI= @ = ?

I @AIJ=GKA AIFA?E= =I J ? E?=I @A B=J H=

!  1 JH @K
)I ANFHAII AI =JA JE?=I GKA =FHAIA J= AH I A AJH=I I ?D= =@=I ANFHAII AI EJAH=EI K = C >HE?=I

-NA F I !   = > ? @

2x + 7; a 5b + 3z ; 8x2 + 7 6b2 y 3 ; a 5x ab . 3 2

5x3 7x2 +

>IAHLA GKA
5x3 ? 7x2 ? 5x ? 3 ab ? 2

JE

ANA F

=?E =

I JAH

I = C >HE? I I

? A ?EA JA F=HJA K

? A ?EA JA % A F=HJA EJAH= x2 ; ? A ?EA JA

5 A F=HJA EJAH= N 3 1 2

? A ?EA JA A F=HJA EJAH= =>

'

5E

A A -@A E

!
,A E

2 E
!

E I
7 F E E A N GK= GKAH ANFHAII GKA F @A IAH AI?HEJ= = B H =
P (x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + + a1 x + a0 ,

@A n I N A I ? A ?EA JAI a0 , a1 , , an I R. 2 E E I? K @ EI A JH I JAH II ?D= =@ I @A?HAI?A JA AIJ E I >E E I A JHE E I HAIFA?JEL= A JA 7 F E E AI?HEJ ? =I F J 2 E ?E=I @A N = H@A E K = B H = F=@H E K =GKA A A GKA J @ I I IAKI ? A ?EA JAI

,A
I

E E E

! ! ! ! "

K E@A JE?= A JA K  2 E

ECK=EI = AH (P (x) 0). /H=K ,=@ P (x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + + a1 x + a0 , I GKA CH=K @ F E E P (x) AH F E E K I GKA = L= H K K = H= KK HE? @A K F E E E@A JE?= A JA K A = B H = F=@H

,A
?

an = 0, @E A

,A

8= H K

HE? A H=  5A = P (x) K

P (x) F=H= x = a R

AH @A P (x).

-NA F I !  = >

a = 2, a = 1, a = 3, a = 1 e n = 3. 3 2 1 0 P (x) = 2x3 x2 + 3x + 1 P (0) = 1 e P (1) = 2 1 3 + 1 = 5. a = 3, a = 2 e n = 1. 1 0 P (x) = 3x 2 P (5) = 15 2 = 13 e P (2/3) = 0. a10 = 5, a9 = a8 = a7 = a6 = 0, a5 = 10, a = a = a = a = 0, a = 5 e n = 10. 4 3 2 1 0 P (0) = 5, P (1) = 5 + 10 + 5 = 10 e P (1) = 5 10 + 5 = 10.

?

!

HAFHAIA J=

F E

E I

F (x) = x 3x1/2 + 5; F (x) = x7 + 2x + 15.

FAH=

AI

)@E

K IK>JH=

E I KI= I = FH FHEA@=@A @EIJHE>KJEL= A =@E?E = E I GKA J = L=HE LA A AL=@= I K IK>JH= I I JAH I I JAH I@ IF E AI = F J ?E=

2=H= =@E?E =H K IK>JH=EH F E IA A D= JAI K IA =

K JEF E?= ) @ K JEF E?= KJH )IIE @A @ EI F E E I HAGKAH = K JEF E?= @A ?=@= JAH @A K F E E F H J @ I I JAH I J H = IA =JKH= KI @= FH FHEA@=@A @EIJHE>KJEL=

5E

A A -@A E
5A =
f (x) = 2x4 + 3x2 + x 1, g (x) = 3x2 + x 3 A h(x) = 2x3 3x2 x + 3. 8=

I ?= ?K =H

-NA F I ! E EE EEE

5 K
(i) f (x) + g (x) f (x) + g (x); h(x) g (x); g (x) f (x).

(ii) h(x) g (x) = = = = (iii) g (x) f (x) =

2x3 3x2 x + 3 (3x2 + x 3) 2x3 3x2 x + 3 3x2 x + 3 2x3 3x2 3x2 x x + 3 + 3 2x3 6x2 2x + 6. (3x2 + x 3) (2x4 + 3x2 + x 1)

= 6x6 + 9x4 + 3x3 3x2 2x5 + 3x3 + x2 x + 6x4 9x2 3x + 3 = 6x6 2x5 + 9x4 + 6x4 + 3x3 + 3x3 3x2 + x2 9x2 x 3x + 3 = 6x6 2x5 + 15x4 + 6x3 11x2 4x + 3. ,ELEI

>IAHLA = @ELEI

3587 32 -32 112 387 -32 67 -64 3

) @ELEI IA = @A HAIJ AH I E JAEH I K @A F E 8A = ? DA?A

E I A L LA K F @A HE?= K

GK ?EA JA A K

I FH NE

I ANA F I ?

E I KI= @ K

IA A D= JA = GKA

I F=H= = @ELEI

-NA F I ! ! = C HEJ

@A

J @ @= ?D=LA

@= @ELEI  K

J @ @= ?D=LA F=H= F E

E I F @A IAH =FHAIA J=@

IACKE JA AIGKA =

E EE

grau de D(x) grau de d(x); grau de R(x) < grau de d(x); !Q(x) e !R(x) J=EI GKA D(x) = d(x) Q(x) + R(x);

EEE

5E

A A -@A E

x2 2x 3 x+4

(ii) x4 3x2 + 5 x 4 + 2 x 3 x 2 2x3 4x2 + 5 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 2 x 2 x + 5

x2 2x + 1 x2 + 2x

Assim, Q( x ) = x 2 + 2 x R ( x ) = 2 x + 5

EL L

grau D(x) = grau de d(x) + grau de Q(x); D(x)

@ELEI LA F H d(x) IA A I

A JA IA R(x) = 0 x R ( K IA = R 0).
J @ @A ,AI?=HJAI  K J @ @ I ? A ?EA JAI = @AJAH E =H

>IAHL=

!

J @ =?E = ANEIJA

GKA IA >=IAE= = =

EIA @ I CH=KI @ I F E

E I A KJE E = = HAI K

@A IEIJA =I E A=HAI

6A HA = !
-

6A HA = @ HAIJ
d(x) = x a R(x) = D(a).

CAH= d(x) = ax b R(x) = D(b/a).

8= I ?= ?K =H HAIJ @= @ELEI @A P (x) = x2 3x + 1 F H

-NA F I ! " = >

x 1 R = P (1) = 1 3 + 1 = 1; x + 1 R = P (1) = 1 + 3 + 1 = 5;

5E
?

A A -@A E
2x 1 R = P (1/2) = 1 3 1 16+4 1 + = = . 4/1 2/2 1/4 4 4

!

6A HA = !

6A HA = @A ,) A >AHJ D(x) 2 @A

@ELEI LA F H x a IA A I

A JA IA D(a) = 0. ? K FH @KJ @A F E E I

-NA F I ! #
@ELE@E @ D(x) FA

B=J H x + 4

3x2 + 7x 20 3x2 12x 5x 20 5x + 20 0

C
D(x) = 3x2 + 7x 20 = (x + 4)(3x 5).

x+4 3x 5

ANA F F H xa

IACKE JA ANE>A K

AIGKA = @A

E =@ ,EIF IEJEL 2H JE? @A *HE J 4K @ GK ?EA JA Q(x) A

E -IJA

J @ IE @A D(x)

F E ?= I ? ?K I KI=@ I

HAIJ 4 @= @ELEI

-NA F I ! \$

) @ELEI

raiz de d(x) coef. de D(x) 2 2 3 0 1 4 2 resto coef. de Q(x)

7 14 27 50

,A B=J
2 (2) 3 = 7 (2o coef.); 14 (3o coef.);

7 (2) + 0 =

C -

,EIF IEJEL 2H JE? @A *HE J 4K

F @A IAH E KIJH=@

5E

A A -@A E

"

bn1 = an ; an b n 1 an1 b n 2 a1 b0 a0 R resto coef. de Q(x) a onde : bn2 = a bn1 + an1; b0 = a b1 + a1 ; R = a b0 + a0 .

! ! -NAH? ?E I
,=@ I I F E
a) A(x) + B (x); b) A(x) + C (x) B (x); c) A(x) C (x); d) B (x) C (x);

E I A(x) = 2x3 x + 2, B (x) = x2 + x + 1 A C (x) = 3x 1, ?= ?K A

e) A(x) B (x); f ) [A(x) + B (x)] C (x); g ) [A(x) 2x B (x)] [B (x) + C (x)].

5A @ P (x) = x3 + 2x 1, ?= ?K A [P (x)]2 . ! 5A A(x) = x2 3x, @AJAH E A

a) A(x + 1); b) A(2 x); c) [A(x 1)]2 .

" 3K=

CH=K @ I F E

E I IACKE JAI

= > ? @ A

f (x) = 5x3 + 2x; g (x) = 9x2 + 2 3x5 ; h(x) = 10x + 5; i(x) = 52; j (x) = 4x + 10x15 .

# ,=@

F E

E f (x) = 2x3 + 2x2 2x + 2, ?= ?K A

IAK L= H K

HE? F=H=

a) x = 0; b) x = 1; c) x = 2;

d) x = 1/2.

\$ ,AJAH E A

L= H @A

@A

@ GKA I F E

E I =>=EN JA D=

K = H=E ECK= =

a) f (x) = (k + 2)x2 + 5k ; b) h(x) = (2k + 1) kx + (7 + k )x2 .

% ,AJAH E A

L= H

@A

@A

GKA

IA =

H=E

F E

f (x) = 2k x3 + x + kx2 .

& ,AJAH E A K

F E

E ?K =I H= AI I

A!

5E

A A -@A E
' ,=@ I I F E E I f (x) = x2 + 1, g (x) = 2x + 3 A h(x) = x2 + x, ?= ?K A

#

= > ? @

f (x) + g (x) + h(x); f (x) g (x); h(x) f (x); f (x) g (x) + h(x).

-BAJKA I IACKE JAI FH @KJ I

= > ?

(x3 + 2x2 + 1) (2x + 3); (4x2 + 3x + 5) (x 4); (x3 + 7x) (x2 2x).

-BAJKA = @ELEI

@ I IACKE JAI F E

E I FA

J @ @= ?D=LA

= > ?

x3 5x2 4x + 2 A x 3; x5 3x2 + 6x 1 A x2 + x + 1; x10 + x5 + 1 A x2 + x + 1.

-BAJKA = @ELEI

@ I IACKE JAI F E

E I FA

= > ?

3x2 7x + 3 A x 2; 9x2 33x + 37 A x + 7; 2x2 + 13x 27 A x + 6.

! ,AJAH E A IA

ABAJK=H = @ELEI

HAIJ @= @ELEI

@A

= > ?

x6 x4 + x2 1 F H x 1/2; x8 + 1 F H 2x 4; x2 + x + 1 F H x + 1.

" ,AJAH E A k lR, @A

@ GKA

= > ?

x3 + 5x2 + kx + 1 IA = @ELEI LA F H x 1; 2x3 + kx2 (2k + 1)x 13k + 3 IA = @ELEI LA F H x + 4; x142 + k IA = @ELEI LA F H x + 1.

# ,ELE@E @ IA K \$ += ?K A = @A % ,ELE@E @ F E

F E

E P (x) F H x 3, HAIK J= K

HAIJ @A % A K

GK ?EA JA @A x 4. 3K=

P (x)

@ GKA @ELE@E @ IA f (x) = 4x3 + ax2 3x + 4 F H x 2 IA = >JE@ HAIJ " E P (x) = x3 + x2 + x + 1 FA F E F E E Q(x) I=JEIB= = E Q(x), >JA I GK ?EA JA S (x) = 1 + x A HAIJ

R(x) = x + 1.

5E

A A -@A E
= > ? @ A
Q(2) = 0; Q(3) = 0; Q(0) = 0; Q(1) = 0;

\$

@= F E E x3 + px + q @ELEI LA F H x2 + 2x + 5. I L= HAI @A F A G I HAIFA?JEL= A JA

&

=

A#

> # A ?  A # @  A  A ! A \$
' 7 F E E B @ELE@E@ F H x 1 A x + 3, @ HAIJ I A  HAIFA?JEL= A JA HAIJ @= @ELEI @A B F H
(x 1)(x + 3)

= > ? @ A

3 5 x ; 4 4 3 5 x+ ; 4 4 3 5 x ; 4 4 3 5 x+ ; 2 2 3 5 x . 2 2

! " 2H @KJ I
-NEIJA F @A FH @KJ I @A F E

J LAEI A B=J H=
E I GKA =F=HA?A BHAG A JA A JA I ? ?K I ?
J LAEI

IAH >JE@ I = F=HJEH @A ?AHJ=I HACH=I A I = @A @ EI JAH I

?D= =@ I FH @KJ I

E 3K=@H=@ @= I

(x + a)2 = x2 + 2ax + a2 ;

EE 3K=@H=@ @= @EBAHA = @A @ EI JAH EEE 2H @KJ @= I

= @A @ EI JAH

I
(x a)2 = x2 2ax + a2 ;

I FA = IK= @EBAHA =
(x + a)(x a) = x2 a2 ;

EL +K> @= I

= @A @ EI JAH

I
(x + a)3 = x3 + 3x2 a + 3xa2 + a3 ;

5E

A A -@A E
I
(x a)3 = x3 3x2 a + 3xa2 a3 ;

%

L +K> @= @EBAHA = @A @ EI JAH LE 3K=@H=@ @= I

= @A JH I JAH

I
(x + a + b)2 = x2 + a2 + b2 + 2xa + 2xb + 2ab.

>IAHL=

!"

,ALA

J=H GKA A
(x a)2 (x a)3

CAH=
= x2 a2 = x3 a3 = (x a)(x2 ax + a2 ).

) IACKEH @A

EHA

I F=H= F E
F E

E I
E

? ?AEJ @A B=J H=
AI?HAL ? K

=EI B=J HAI F E

AH I
E=EI

,A

!"

.=J H=H K

FH @KJ @A @ EI K

2HE ?EF=EI ?=I I @A B=J H= +=I  B=J H ?

K A ALE@ ?E=

3x + 3y = 3(x + y );

F=HJA K HE?= M.D.C.(9, 12) = 3. 9a2 x 12a2 = 3a2 (3x 4) F=HJA EJAH= a2 .

+=I

=CHKF= A J

ax + ay 1o CHKF

+bx + by 2o CHKF

B=J H ? K

2x 4ax
2

3xy + 6ay = 2x(x 2a) 3y (x 2a) = (x 2a)(2x 3y ). 2o CHKF

B=J H ? K !O K

1o CHKF
B=J H ? K N

B=J H ?

+=I ! JHE

E GK=@H=@ FAHBAEJ

+=I " @EBAHA = @A @ EI GK=@H=@ I

x2 a2 = (x + a)(x a).

+=I # I

= K @EBAHA = @A @ EI ?K> I

x3 a3 = (x a)(x2 ax + a2 ).

+=I \$ JHE

E @ 2o CH=K @ JEF x2 + (m + n)x + mn

5E

A A -@A E
x2 + (m + n)x + mn = (x + m)(x + n).

&

7 LAHA

KJH= I = HAI K

F=H= @AII= AGK= IE K J A I

B=J H=H

AIIA

JHE

KJE E =H I K AI @= AGK=

IACKE JA

HAIK J=@

x2 + (m + n)x + mn = (x (m))(x (n)),

@A m A n I

x2 + (m + n)x + mn = 0

F IJAHE H A JA

+=I % ?=I I @A B=J H=

5x4 45x2 = 5x2 (x2 9) = 5x2 (x + 3)(x 3); 4x4 16x3 y + 16x2 y 2 = 4x2 (x2 4xy + 4y 2 ) = 4x2 (x 2y )2 .

! # -NAH? ?E I
.=J HA ?=@= K = @=I ANFHAII AI =>=EN
a) 9xy + 12ab; b) 7x3 y 21x3 z ; c) 20a2 b + 5ab; d) px + py ; e) 3x(a + b) 5y (a + b); f ) am + na + bm + bn; g ) 10ax + 5ay + 6bx + 3by ; h) x4 + x3 b + ax + ab; i) x2 2bx2 5a + 10ab; j ) x2 3ax 3ax + 9a2 ; k ) 9a2 6a + 1; l) 25x2 10x + 1; m) 4a4 + 4a2 x + x2 ; n) a2 x4 2ab2 x2 y + b4 y 2 ; o) x2 + 6xy + 9y 2 ; p) x2 + 9x + 14; q ) y 2 + 4y + 3; r) m2 8m + 7; s) y 2 + 3y 28; t) x2 + (a + b)x + ab; u) 9a2 16; v ) 27x3 8; x) 125 + x3 ; z ) x3 + 1.

! \$ 5E F E ?=
A @A E =@ H I F E

@A ANFHAII AI H=?E =EI

ANFHAII AI = C >HE?=I GKA J @A E =@ H K JAH = B H = @A K = BH= A GKA K AH=@ H E I IA @ GKA E @AFA @A JA @A L=HE LAEI

.H= AI = C >HE?=I K ANFHAII AI H=?E =EI I

-NA F I ! \$
a) 1 ; 2x b) x+1 ; x3 c) x2 y 2 . x+y

JA GKA = BH=

x2 y 2 F @A IAH IE F E ?=@= @ IACKE JA x+y

x2 y 2 (x y )(x + y ) = = x y. x+y (x + y )

,A

@ CAH= F=H= IE F E ?=H BH= AI = C >HE?=I

5E

A A -@A E
@A?

' I K AH=@ H A K I
= C >HE?= I JA K I A F @A IA JE@ IA @A E =@ H B H K - J I B=J HAI @AIIA

@A

E =@ H A

B=J HAI

?= ?A =

I I B=J HAI ?

>IAHL=
@A

!\$

7 = BH= I

E =@ H J= >

IAH ?= ?A =@ I GK= @ = BH=

B H IE F E ? LA

! % -NAH? ?E I
5E F E GKA =I IACKE JAI BH= AI = C >HE?=I
a) ax + a x 1 ; x2 1 15x2 15y 2 ; 6x2 + 12xy + 6y 2 5a2 + 10ab ; 15ab 7x2 y 3 21x3 y 5 ; 7x2 y 3 h) x3 + 3x2 10x ; x3 x2 2x mx + m x 1 ; m2 1

b)

i)

c)

d)

x2 4xy + 4y 2 ; x2 4y 2 ( 2 ) ( x m2 x m) k) : + ; m2 x2 m x j) x4 9 y2 l) 2 ; x 16 3y m+n +1 ; m) x m2 n2 2x + 2

a2 2a + 1 e) ; a2 1

g)

(a + b)2 (a2 b2 ) ; 3ax3 + 3bx3

n) 1

1 1+ 1 x

-BAJKA A IE F E GKA
a) x2 x+1 x2 16 ; + 2x + 1 x2 5x + 4 d) x4 a4 x + a ; x a x2 + a2 x6 y 6
x4 xy 3 y 4 +x3 y

x3 1 x2 + 1 b) ; x2 1 x4 + 2x2 + 1 x5 x2 ; 2 x + 5x 25 5x

e)

c)

+=F JK

"

.K

AI HA=EI @A K = L=HE LA HA=

I =I BK AI -IJA ?=F JK =>HA ?= E D F=H= ? ?K =FHAIA J= @ I AI A IAKI CH ? I

A A A J BK @= A J= @ ? ?K ? ?AEJ I > IE? I E AHA JAI I BK

"  1 JH @K
,A E E , EE EEE
,E A
J= 1

"
B@ BE =CA

5A =

)A*?

K J I 5A = B K = HA =

@A ) A

* 5KF

D=

I GKA

E @A B = A; @A B  B ; E? A A A J y B. ? JH=@ E @= B

+=@= A A A J x A AIJ =II ?E=@ = K

I A J

GKA B
x

K = BK
y = f (x)

@A ) A

* A * ?D= =@

f : A B

@EII

CH

? @= BK

@A

E@ F H
Graf f := {(x, y ) A B/y = f (x)}.

,A

" "

5A A R A B R, A J 5=>A ? I GKA K

@EJ= K = BK

HA= @A K = L=HE LA HA= @ALA I=JEIB= AH F=H= IAH K = BK E? O FAHJA ?A JA = E =CA CH ? @A K = BK A NE GKA = K

>IAHL=

-IJ= FH FHEA@=@A

IEC E ?= GKA GK= GKAH HAJ= LAHJE?= E JAH?AFJ=

5E
a)

A A -@A E
b) y f f y y1 f c)

x 0 x 0 x 0 x

.ECKH= "

,A E EE EEE EL

"!

,K=I BK

AI B A C I

ECK=EI IA A I

A JA IA =I IACKE JAI ?

@E AI I

I=JEIBAEJ=I

f: R x

g: R x

AI B A C @A
R

E@=I =>=EN
x x2

R 1 f (x) = x

g (x) =

"

-NAH? ?E I
,AJAH E A @
2

E A = E =CA

@=I IACKE JAI BK

x; x ; x2 x2 + 2x + 1 ; x+1

AI

f) y =

g ) F (x) =

h) M (x) = i) T (x) = j ) G(x) =

1 ; x

1 ; x+1 x1 . x2 1

x 1;

-I> ?A
a) f (x) =

CH ? A A ? JHA
2; x 1

E A = E =CA

@=I BK

AI =>=EN

2; 1 < x < 1; 3; x 1

x + 5; x = 2 b) f (x) = 1; x = 2

5E

A A -@A E
! ,=@ ? ? K J A = {1, 2, 5, 7, 8}, @AJAH E A K J A2 = A A A IK= HAFHAIA J= K J W = {(x, y ) A2 /x < y }; K J Z = {(x, y ) A2 /y = 2x + 3}; K J T = {(x, y ) A2 /x y = 4}.
f (x) = 7x 3, ? d) f (1); e) f ( 2); ( ) 1 f) f ; 2 Dom f = lR, >JA D= ( ) 1 g) f ; 3

= > ? @

CH ?=

IK>? IK>? IK>?

" ,=@= = BK
a) f (2); b) f (6); c) f (0);

h) f (a + b).

# ,=@= = BK
a) f (3); b) f (4);

f (x) = 2x 3, >JA D= c) L= H @A N J= GKA f (x) = 49; d) L= H @A N J= GKA f (x) = 10. f (x) = mx + 3, @AJAH E A f (x) = 2x + 1, ?

I=>A @ IA GKA f (1) = 6.

Dom f = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}. ,AJAH E A

CH ? @= BK CH ? @= BK CH ? @= BK CH ? @= BK

K J E =CA ? K J E =CA

f (x) = x2 IA @ Dom f = {3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3} ,AJAH E A f (x) = 3, IA @ Dom f = R

B @A @

E Dom f = R, @=@= F H
1, f (x) = 1,

IA x 0 IA x < 0

5A @ f (x) = (x 3)3 , ?= ?K A
a) f (2); b) f (0); c) f (2); d) f (1); e) f (2x + 1). x+1 , @AJAH E A x1

,=@ f (x + 1) =

L= H @A f (3).

! + IE@AHA = BK

f : R R J= GKA f (x) =

1, IA N

H=?E = EHH=?E =

1, IA N

,AJAH E A f (1/2), f ( ), f (2, 1313 . . .) e f ( 2). " + IE@AHA = BK

f : R R @A

E@= F H

3x 1, IA x > 3

f (x) =

x2 2, IA 2 x 3 . 2x + 3, IA x < 2

5E

A A -@A E
,AJAH E A
i) f (2); ii) f (0); iii) f (1); iv ) f (3).

A K = BK

a) y

b) y

c) y

d) y

\$ 7 = BK

AH

=JKH=

= H=E GK=@H=@= F IEJEL= @

A H GK=@H=@ FAHBAEJ

=E H GKA

+= ?K A f (10) + f (15) + f (25).

" ! .K
,A E EE EEE E AI " !

E AJ H= I >HA AJ H= A >E AJ H=
5A = f : A B K = BK E? x Dom f = A, @E A I GKA B K =E A K K = BK

IA = ?=@= y Im f B AIJ =II ?E=@ K E AJ H= K E AJEL= IA Im f = B @E A IA B K =E A I GKA B A I >HA A K = I >HA A @E A

K K = BK K = >E A

I GKA B

2 @A

CKH= "

I GKA HAFHAIA J=

BK

AI

E AJ H=I I >HA AJ H=I A >E AJ H=I @A ) A

5E

A A -@A E
f1 f2 b) c) f3 d) f4

"

a)

A f5 e)

A f6 f)

A f7 g)

.ECKH= " ,A B=J I E AJ H=I =I BK AI f1 A f7 ; I >HA AJ H= =I BK I BK AI AI f3 , f5 A f7 A >E AJ H= = BK

f7 .

JA GKA =I

HA = AI HAFHAIA J=@=I

I @E=CH= =I @ A B

>IAHL= E
CH K F

"!
? @A K = BK J ?=I ? E AJ H= IA ?=H=?JAHE = FA JH HE JAH = IK AI B=J @A GKA K = HAJ= D HE J= E JAH?AFJ= A >IAHLA I CH NE ? I GKA
y Im f =II ?E=@ = @ EI x Dom f ).

IA IACKA
y f y f

0 f un ca o injetora

x f un ca o na o injetora

.ECKH= " !

>IAHLA GKA IA B ) )IIE @EII IA B

J=

K =E A K = I >HA A

@A ) A @A ) A

* A J * A J

IA B

K = >E A
AH @A A A

@A ) A
A J I @ ?

* IACKA GKA n(A) = n(B ).

K J )

) @A

5E

A A -@A E

" " .K
,A E ""
Im f C. ) BK

+
?

F IJ=
5A =
f : A B

BK

AI

J=EI

GKA

F IJ= @A C ?

@A

E@= F H

(g f )(x) = g (f (x)), x A.

J=

gf : A x

-NA F I " "  = > ? @

Dom f = [0, +); Dom g = R;

5A =

JA

(g f )(x) = g (f (x)) = g ( x) = 2 x 3 A Dom (g f ) = [0, +); (f g )(x) = f (g (x)) = f (2x 3) = 2x 3 A Dom(f g ) = [3/2, +)

GKA 2x 3 0 IA A I

A JA IA x 3/2.

" # .K
,A E "#

1 LAHI=
5A = f : A B K = >E A 7 = BK
e g:BA

@EJ= BK

E LAHI= @A B IA

f (g (x)) = x, x B

g (f (x)) = x, x A.

J=

f 1 (x)

>IAHL=
2

"#

3K= @ = BK

B
1

@A

E@= F H

Graf f =

ANA F

x = 3y 5

-NA F I " #

K = >E A

F @A

I A ?

JH=H f 1

JH ?= @ IA =I AJH=I N A O )IIE

@A

y=

x+5 . 3

2 HJ= J

f 1

@=@= F H f 1 : R R J= GKA f 1 (x) =

f (a) = b a = f 1 (b), EIJ
1

x+5 . 3

>IAHL=
GKA I CH

"#

F @A

I?

? KEH

? I @A B A f

IE

JHE? I ?

HA =

5E

A A -@A E
f y y=x

f 1

.ECKH= " "

" \$ .K
,A
A J

F=H A BK
5A = B K = BK ?K AIJ  K = BK K = BK

F=H
@ E IE JHE? A HA = =   K IA = IA N AIJ @ E @A B

E AI " \$
N J= > ,E A ,E A I GKA B I GKA B

E EE

, F J @A LEIJ= CA F=H =GKA = ?K

JHE? K = BK IE JHE? A

IE

JHE? A

HA =

= AEN @ I O A K = BK I ANA F I IACKE JAI

CH ?

8A = I CH ? I E KIJH=@ I

-NA F I " \$  E EE EEE

) BK ) BK ) BK
f (x) = x2 f (x) = x3 f (x) = x3 + 4

F=H F=H

GKA f (x) = (x)2 = x2 = f (x)

x Dom f = R; x Dom f = R;

GKA f (x) = (x)3 = x3 = f (x) F=H A F=H ,A B=J IA J =H

I F H ANA F

x = 1 JAHA

I f (1) = 5 A

f (1) = 3.

5E

A A -@A E
y f ( x ) f ( x ) y f (x) y 5 = f (1) f (1) = 3 x 0 x x x 0 f ( x ) x x -1 0 1 x

Exemplo 4.6.1 (iii)

.ECKH= " #

" % -NAH? ?E I
5A =
f (x) = 1 + x A g (x) = x2 + 1. += ?K A b) f g ;

,AJAH E A = BK
a) f (x) = 3x;

a) g f ;

b) y = x + 1;
5

c) f f ;

d) g g.

AI

! ,AJAH E A GK=EI @=I IACKE JAI BK

a) f (x) = 3x 2x + 1;
4 2

AI I

c) f (x) =

3x + 1 . 2 F=HAI K x F=HAI

" & 4=E A IE = @A K = BK

,A
/A

"&

+D= = IA H=E  K AH  @A K = BK

BK

AH HA= ? @ IAK @

E J= GKA f (c) = 0.

AJHE?= A JA EIJ IEC E ?= GKA >IAHLA GKA =JH=L I @= HAFHAIA J=

AH ? = =>I?EII= @A K CH ?= @A K = BK L= H @= BK

F J

@A I B= AH K

CH ? E JAH?AFJ= AC=JEL

AEN @ I N IA

F @A

A IJH= J= >

GKA A =

F IEJEL=

E JAHL= I [x1 , x2 ), (x3 , x4 ) A (x5 , x6 ]  CH

(x2 , x3 ) A (x4 , x5 )  CH

I E JAHL= I

5E

A A -@A E
y f

&

x1

x2

x3 0

x4

x5

x6

x2, x3, x4 e x5 sa o ra izes de f.

.ECKH= " \$

" ' .K
,A
@A

@K
) BK

K L= H =>I KJ
@K K L= H =>I KJ
f (x) =

E
@K

"'
JA

= BK

@=@= F H f (x) = |x|. )IIE

x0 x<0

>=IA = @A

I F=H= J @ N HA=

x se x se

2A = @A E
R+ . )

@A @EII

@K

IACKA GKA f K = BK

F=H ?K @

K J RA ?

K J E =CA

K J B ?E

IAK CH ? ? E ?E@A ?

= HAJ= y = x IA x 0 A ?

HAFHAIA J

.ECKH= " % /H ? @A f (x) = |x|

"  -NAH? ?E I
8AHE GKA IA
4x4 3x 1 a) f (x) = ;1 3x2 + x + 1

AH @=@

H= @A B

3x 6 b) f (x) = ;2 (x 4)2

I ?=I I

c) f (x) =

x3 x + 2 ; 1 2x4 x + 2

5E

A A -@A E
-IJK@A IE = @= BK @A @ E [4, 2], ?K CH ? AIJ HAFHAIA J=@
y

-4

-2

! ) BK

y = 2|2x 1| x + 2, F=H= x <

1 , 3

@A

E@= FA = AE

a) y = 5x 2; b) y = 5x 4; c) y = 4 5x; d) y = 3x 4; e) y = 3x + 4.

" ) E =CA

@= BK

y=

|x| x2 2 , x |x 2|

K J

a) {1, 0, 1}; b) {1, 1, 2}; c) {0, 1, 2}; d) {1, 1, 3}; e) {1, 2, 3}.

# 7I= @ = @A

@A

@K

B= = I CH ? I @=I BK

AI

b) f (x) = |2 x|; e) f (x) = |x 1|. y = |x 1| + 2

c) f (x) = |x| + 2;

CH ? @= HA =

5E

A A -@A E

!

d)

e)

f(x) 5

f (x).

CH ? GKA

5E

A A -@A E

!

+=F JK

.K
=I BK

AI @ FHE AEH A IACK @ CH=KI

=JA JE?= I @A =@ I F H BK AI F E E=EI -IJK@=HA I AIIA ?=F JK A F=HJE?K =H AI @ FHE AEH A IACK @ CH=KI A IAKI HAIFA?JEL I CH ? I

KEJ I FH > A =I A

#  .K
,A E #
f : R R @A

2 E
E@= F H

E=
HA= F E E= K = BK

5A = n N. 7 = BK

f (x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a1 x + a0 ,

@A ai R, i = 0, . . . , n. 5A an = 0 ) BK @=@= F H f (x) 0 ?

AH

?D= =@ F E F E

CH=K @A B E= @A CH=K E @A E= @A CH=K # E@

IE@AH=@= K = BK K = BK

-NA F I #   + JH= ANA F

6 @=I =I BK CH ? I I

K = BK = BK IJH=

F E

AI ? IJ= JAI AN?AJ J=EI ?

E@A JE?= A JA K = I

HAJ=I D HE

I ANA F I E KIJH=@ I = IACKEH

-NA F I #
(i)f : R x R f (x) = 7 (ii)f : R x R f (x) = 5 (iii)f : R x R f (x) = 0

5E

A A -@A E
y 7 y y

!!

Exemplo (iii)

.ECKH= #

>IAHL=
? JH HE @

#

7 = BK

GKA F @A IAH AI?HEJ= ? E @ K AH=@ H F E F=HJE?K =H J @= BK = B H =@ FA I

GK ?EA JA @A F E E= K = BK = K=

E I H=?E @A

?D= =@= @A BK E @ @A = E FH FHE= E =@ H

H=?E

- = IA @E E FH FHE= IA E @A K = BK

CH=K @ F E H=?E

=E H K ECK= = @ F E AH I GKA

E =@ H ?=I

A = IA @E FH FHE= -

#
,A E

.K
#

@ FHE AEH CH=K

5A =
a, b R, ? a = 0. +D= = f: R x

I @A BK

BK

@=@= F H

R f (x) = ax + b

+=H=?JAH IJE?=I E EE EEE EL

@EII
Im f = R;

CH ? @A B K = HAJ= AH > @A

F=

?=HJAIE=

E ? E =@= A

HA =

O F EI b = f (0) AH = @A IA F J I @EIJE J I = HAJ= A J

a = tg = f f (x2 ) f (x1 ) = x x2 x1

E =@ ? A ?EA JA = CK =H K E ? E =

AIFA?E ?= = @EHA

@A K = HAJ=

LAHJE?=  )

5A P1 (x1 , f (x1 )) A P2 (x2 , f (x2 )) I

@A

CK

GKA = HAJ= B H = ?

5E

A A -@A E
y f (x2 ) P2

!"

f f (x1 ) 0 P1

x x1 x2 x

.ECKH= # JA GKA L= H @A = E @AFA @A @= AI? D= @ I F J I P1 A P2 I >HA = HAJ=

f (x2 ) f (x1 ) = a(x2 x1 ).

>IAHLA J= >

GKA

f (x) = ax + b

?HAI?A JA EIJ @A?HAI?A JA EIJ

x2 > x1 f (x2 ) > f (x1 ) EIJ IEC E ?= GKA x2 > x1 f (x2 ) < f (x1 ) EIJ IEC E ?= GKA

=K A J=  I L= HAI @A N =K A J=  I L= HAI ? HHAIF @A JAI y = f (x) 8A = CKH= # ! =

f (x) = ax + b

GKA =K A J=  I L= HAI @A N @E E KA  I L= HAI ? HHAIF @A JAI y = f (x) 8A = CKH= # ! >
y f (x2 ) P2 f (x1 ) f (x1 ) P1 f (x2 ) P2 P1 y

b a

x1

x2

x1

x2

b a

(a)

(b)

.ECKH= # !

L

>IAHLA J= > @ EI ?=I I

10 ?=I

= CKH= # ! GKA JA I

AIJK@ @= L=HE=

@A IE = @= BK

f (x) = ax + b F @A IAH @ELE@E@ A

a > 0. - J

b f (x) = 0 IA x = ; a

5E

A A -@A E
b f (x) > 0 IA x > ; a b f (x) < 0 IA x < . a 20 ?=I a < 0. - J

!#

JA

f (x) = 2x

K = BK

CH

@ F=

?=HJAIE=
f (x) = x

K = BK

@ FHE AEH CH=K ?HAI?A JA ?K

CH

? ? E ?E@A ?

=I >EIIAJHE AI @ o A @ !o

GK=@H= JAI
f (x) = 2x + 2 (1, 0) A (0, 2); f (x) = x +1

K = BK

IF

J I

K = BK

IF

J I (1, 0)

A (0, 1).
y 2 y

y 2 1 1 x -1

Exemplo 5.2.1 (iii)

5E

A A -@A E
>IAHL= #
JA GKA
f (x) = ax f (x) = x

!\$
I @ EI FHE AEH I ANA F I @EJ= BK ?D= =@= BK E A=H ? ? A ?EA JA E A=H K + L HAII= J=H GKA  -

GK= @ b = 0, = BK F=HJE?K =H IA a = 1 A J

= FH NE = IA

E@A JE@=@A

>IAHL= E EE EEE EL

K =?

#
I CH ? I @A BK AI AIIA ?=I IK=I AGK= AI I @ JEF x = k, @A HAFHAIA J= IJ= JA HA= J=EI I CH ? I @A BK @ JEF y = k, AI @ FHE AEH CH=K ?K @A HAFHAIA J= ? A ?EA JA = CK =H K a = 0 AIIA

4AJ=I LAHJE?=EI

4AJ=I D HE ?=I

IK=I AGK= AI I

L= A JA K = ?

IJ= JA HA= A JA IA A =I J

,K=I HAJ=I AI

LAHJE?=EI @A AGK= AI y = a1 x + b1 A y = a2 x + b2 I
a1 = a2 ;

F=H= A =I IA A I

? A ?EA JA = CK =H EIJ HA = A JA IA

,K=I HAJ=I E ? E =@=I A FAHFA @E?K =HAI IA A I

= I AEN I ?=HJAIE=

a1 a2 = 1.

FH @KJ @ I IAKI ? A ?EA JAI = CK =HAI

# ! -NAH? ?E I
,AJAH E A = BK + =IIE GKA =I BK @ FHE AEH CH=K B J= GKA f (3) = 0 A f (0) = 1. AI =>=EN A ?HAI?A JAI K @A?HAI?A JAI

= > ?
!

f (x) = x 3; x + 1; 2 2x + 1 3x + 5 . f (x) = 3 4 f (x) =

I CH ? I =>=EN HAFHAIA J=

BK

AI f (x) = ax + b. ,AJAH E A A AI

?=@= EJA

I IE =EI @A = A >

E EE

EEE

# -IJK@A

IE = @=I BK

AI =>=EN

E EE

EEE

F J (3, 4) A F=H= A = = AEN @ I N F J (1, 7) A F=H= A = = AEN @ I O

5E

A A -@A E
y (i) (ii) y

!%

y (iii) (iv)

& - ? JHA = AGK= ' - ? JHA = AGK=  - ? JHA = AGK= GK=HJ GK=@H= JAI  ,=@ I = HAJ= H ?

@= HAJ= GKA F=II= FA I F J I (1, 3) A (2, 2) @= HAJ= GKA F=II= F H (2, 5) A JA @= HAJ= GKA F=II= FA = HECA E ?E = AE
3

A @ELE@A =

CK

A JHA I AEN I

IACK @ A

AGK=

2x 5y = 10 A

,AJAH E A

E A = E =CA
2, x 1

A AI> ?A

AI

=

f (x) =

> ?

f (x) =

# " 5E = @ FH @KJ A GK ?EA JA @A BK

AIJK@ @= L=HE= @ IE = @=I BK @A IE = @ FH @KJ @A BK AI B=J HAI

AI @ FHE AEH CH=K F @A IAH BAEJ = F=HJEH @ AIJK@ @= L=HE=

5E

A A -@A E
f (x) = (x + 3)(2x 1).

!&

,ALA I? IJHKEH K

x g (x) = x + 3 h(x) = 2x 1 f (x) = (x + 3)(2x 1)

3 0 +

1/2 + 0 0 + +

+ 0

f (x) > 0 IA x < 3 K x > 1/2; f (x) < 0 IA 3 < x < 1/2; f (x) = 0 IA x = 3 K x = 1/2.

AIJK@ @= L=HE= ?=I @ FH @KJ F J I @A @A

@A IE = @ GK ?EA JA @A BK IJ =H =FA =I K
x + 1 . )IIE x2

AI @ FHE AEH CH=K F @A IAH BAEJ @A GKA = BK H=?E =

@ = @A

C = BAEJ E@= F J  K

,ALA

?KE@=@ AIFA?E=

E =@ H IA = K =
f (x) =

-NA F I # "

x g ( x ) = x + 1 h(x) = x 2 f (x) =
x+1 x2

1 + 0 0 +

2 0 / +

f (x) > 0 IA 1 < x < 2; f (x) < 0 IA x < 1 K x > 2; f (x) = 0 IA x = 1; f (x)

AIJ @A

E@= F=H= x = 2, EIJ

f (2).

5E

A A -@A E

!'

# # -NAH? ?E I
4AI L= =I AGK= AI =>=EN
a) 3x + 3 = x + 7; c) 3(x 2) + 7 = x + 2(x 1); e) 1 2 6 + = 2 ; x3 x+3 x 9 1 1 g ) x + = 1; 2 3 b) 3x 1 (x + 2) = 2x 3; 1 1 d) 3(x ) + x = 2x + ; 3 2 f ) 2(3 4z ) 5(2z + 3) = z 17; 1 7 h) x = . 2 8 b) 3x (5 x) x 5; 1 d) (x 4) 2x 5(3 x). 2

4AI L= =I IACKE JAI E AGK= AI

x 2 < x; 3 x 5 3 2x c) + < 2; 4 3 a)

= > ? @

= >

(x 2)(x + 1)(x 4) < 0; (1 x)(1 + x) 0.

\$ ,AJAH E A

E @= BK

@A

E@= F H
b) f (x) = 1 2x . 2x 3

a) f (x) = (2x 1)(x + 3);

% 4AI L= =I E AGK= AI
(i) x+3 0; 3x + 2 (ii)

x5 1. 2x 4

# \$ .K
7 = >HALA ? IK J=

A BK

E A=H
= A BK  A ! E A=H I =FHAIA J=@ I E AI IACKE JAI F @A
=

IAH A ? JH=@=I A

,A

#\$

7 = BK

?D= =@= @A BK

IA ANEIJA

F=H= GK= GKAH N HA= 5A b = 0, K IA = IA f (x) = ax, B

?D= =@= @A BK

5E
+ I D HE

A A -@A E
>=IA AII= @A J=EI I E = ? =IIA @A BK HA = AI = I F @A IAH ?=H=?JAHE =@= ? CH ? I @A BK AI E A=HAI HAFHAIA J= ? K J @A BK

" AI ?K I CH ? I AI = I ?K I

HAJ=I 4AJ=I E ? E =@=I A CH ? I @A BK HAJ=I GKA F=II=

= I AEN I ?=HJAIE= I I

AI ? IJ= JAI )I BK FA = HECA

CH ? I I

# % -NAH? ?E I ?

F A A J=HAI
E JAHL= @A  E =  E A = F=HJEH @=

) JA FAH=JKH= @A K = ?= @AEH= L=HE= E A=H A JA @A 0o C = 300o C IK= JA FAH=JKH= FAH = A?A ? IJ= JA

= 3K=

BK

@ JA F @ JA F

> + IJHK= CH ? @= JA FAH=JKH= @= ?= @AEH= A BK

6o C.

7 = >=HH= @A BAHH B E =GKA?E@= =J K = JA FAH=JKH= @A 30o C A = IACKEH B E HAIBHE=@= =J = JA FAH=JKH= @A CH ? IJH= = JA FAH=JKH= @= >=HH= A
Temperatura (o C )

BK

@ JA F

30

0 -6

Tempo (min)

= ,AF EI @A GK= J JA F =F I E ?E @ HAIBHE= A J = JA FAH=JKH= @= >=HH= =JE CEK 0o C ? > ,A  = \$ E ? ,A  = \$ E

! ) CK= GKA KI= =HCA I IA @  HAFHAI= A BK 5KF @ GKA @ALA LA @AII=I HAFHAI=I A A IA GKA E JAHL= @A JA F = JA FAH=JKH= @= >=HH= AIJALA F IEJEL= GKA E JAHL= @A JA F = JA FAH=JKH= @= >=HH= AIJALA AC=JEL= II=I ?=I=I LA @A CH= @AI HAFHAI=I GKA @ALA IA = IAH ? IAHL=@=I IA FHA E F=I 5K=I IK=I CK=I 5KF D= GKA K = IKFAHB ?EA @= CK= IJH= LA @AII= CH ?

IAH F L =@=I F=H= GKA AIC J I A@E@ H @ E @ JA F F=H= =>=IJA?E A J @= HACE I @A FHE AEH I @E=I @ I @A =E IA = K J @ =E

@AIFA =@ I A

LA @= CK= ? IEIJ= @A K = >=HH= CH=@K=@= FAHFA @E?K =H IAHLE@= FA = HAFHAI= I @A =E IAC A J @A HAJ= HAIF @= E A?AII HE F=H=

CH ? A I @A

= - GKA @E= @

LA @= CK= =JE CEH

=>=IJA?E A J @= HACE

5E

A A -@A E
N ivel da a gua (m)
Tempo (dias) 0 -1 10

"

-3

> ,KH= JA GK= J JA F ? ,KH= JA GK= J JA F

" 7. / HA = >IAHLA CH ? A A JHA = E CAIJ

I @A I @A GKA

=E =E

LA @= CK= IA =FHAIA J=H

AC=JEL

LA @= CK= IA =FHAIA J=H F IEJEL F=H= A FA = AEN @=I =>I?EII=I -IIA CH ? HAFHAIA J= = HC= EI A C @E= ) E?= = H =JEL= B= I=

IAC A J AB F IJ A = =>I H

@A ?AHJ ?

Absor ca o (mg/dia) 18 A B

20

Ingesta o (mg/dia)

HA =JEL= = CH ?

= ) H= > ) =>I H

A JHA = GK= JE@=@A =>I HLE@= A = GK= JE@=@A E CAHE@= ? IJ= JA HAIK J= JA @= E CAIJ @A =EI @A  C @E= ECK= =>I H HAIK J= JA @= E CAIJ =>I HLE@= @ ? @A  F IJ

C @E=

? 2=H= E CAIJ AI =?E = @A  C @E= GK= J

E CAHE@

=E H = E CAIJ FH F H?E =

A H = F H?A J=CA GK= JE@=@A E CAHE@= ?A J

@ 2=H= E CAIJ AI @A =J
# 8K AIF 7 ? > J E? ?=@ I F H A A K

A@A

C @E= = =>I H

?HAI?E A J @A K = F = J= A HAIK J= = CKH= =>=EN 5A B H @E= K = = JKH= ECK= =

AJH I J @ I I @E=I

EC= @

IF J I

CH ?

A JHA JA F J A

= JKH= D = F = J= JAH

JHEC IE

= # ? > \$ ? ? ! ? @ # ? A ! ?

5E

A A -@A E
h (cm) 2 1 0 10 t (dias)

"

\$ - -  7 = A FHAI= FH @K F H C (x) = 1 + 0, 1x A @A 4 %  + K?H GKE@ ?KIJ I J J=EI CH ? GKA

Lucro (em R\$ 1.000,00)

FKJ=@ HAI ? @

L=HE LAEI @A 4   F H K E@=@A @A

C FH @K E@= ,AIIA

?KIJ J J= F=H= N

EII = HA?AEJ= >HKJ= F=H= N

@=@= F H R(x) = 0, 7x A

GKE@ @AII= A FHAI= GK= @ I

b)
Lucro (em R\$ 1.000,00)

a)

4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4

4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4

-1

-1 -1

c)

d)
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4

4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4

-1

-1

e)

Lucro (em R\$ 1.000,00)

1
Nu mero de jogos vendidos

5E

A A -@A E
% - -  6 @ I I = I GKA LA ?=E @ A FH CH= =I @EHECE@ I CH ? =>=EN FAHJA ?A I K @ E D AI @A >A> I HHA @A ?=KI=I @ELAHI=I E=I A ? K AH AI?= @= I

"! =I

> AJEL @AFA @AH @A =I I IK=I B=

KEJ I A L=HE=@ I

AE I HA?KHI I F JE?=I

K E@=@AI )@ EJE @ IA GKA I F J I @ E D AI IAH ECK= =

HJ= E@=@A E B= JE A

# A

a) 9; b) 8;
Mortalidade 15 11

Panorama Mundial Mortalidade Infantil por ano (em milho es de bebe s)

c) 7; d) 6; e) 5.
& - -  CH ? =>=EN

1980

2000

2015

anos

E EIJ HE @

AE ) >EA JA

IJH=

?HAI?E A J @

461

239

1983

1987 1991 1995

1999 2003

2007 ano

5A

= JE@= FA I FH NE A
b) 493;

I = I = JA @ ?E= @A ?HAI?E A J
d) 538; e) 699.

IJH=@=

CH ?

AH @A AIF ?EAI = A=

=@=I @A ANJE
a) 465;

IAH ECK= =

c) 498;

# & .K
,A
F H

@ IACK @ CH=K
5A =
a, b e c R, ? a = 0. +D= = f: R x

#&

I @A BK

BK

@=@=

R ax2 + bx + c.

5E

A A -@A E

""

+=H=?JAH IJE?=I E

CH ? @A B K = ?KHL=
a > 0, A J a < 0, A J

F=

?=HJAIE=

@A

E =@ F=H > = )

@EII

IA

= ? ?=LE@=@A @= F=H > = = ? ?=LE@=@A @= F=H > =

L J=@= F=H= ?E = 8A = CKH= # " = L J=@= F=H= >=EN 8A = CKH= # " >

(a)
.ECKH= # "

(b)

GK=@H JE?= f (x) = ax2 + bx + c, @ALA

ax2 + bx + c = 0.

I HAI LAH = AGK=

@ 20 CH=K

I=>A

I =I H= AI @AII= AGK=

?= ?K =@=I FA = B H K = @A *D=I =H=

b x= , 2a

@A = b2 4ac @A AH I @= BK JH I ?=I I
10 ?=I >0

AH @A

@AFA @A

GK=@H JE?= A

AIIA ?=I

= BK

=FHAIA J= @ EI AH I HA=EI @EIJE J I

b + b x1 = A x2 = . 2a 2a

8A = CKH= # #

5E

A A -@A E
y y

"#

x1 + 0 x1 a>0 x2 + x 0

x2 x

a<0

.ECKH= # #
20 ?=I =0

AIIA ?=I

= BK
y

=FHAIA J= K

AH HA= @KF

x1 = x2 =
y

b . 8A = CKH= # \$ 2a

x1 = x2 0 x

+ 0 x1 = x2 a>0

+ x a<0

.ECKH= # \$

>IAHL=
A JA )

#&
@EII

)I

=A

FH @KJ @=I I K AI @= AGK= I B=J H=H JHE

@ 2o CH=K I

@=@ I F H

IA 0, F @A

E ax2 + bx + c @= IACKE JA B H =

b c A HAIFA?JEL= a a

ax2 + bx + c = a(x x1 )(x x2 ).

@A x1 A x2 I
30 ?=I <0

=I H= AI HA=EI @= AGK=

ax2 + bx + c = 0.

AIIA ?=I

= BK

5E

A A -@A E
y y

"\$

+ 0

+ x

a>0

a<0

.ECKH= # %

EEE ) CKH= # & E KIJH=@= =>=EN

E F HJ= JAI =IIE = =@ I

IJH= K = F=H > = CH ? @= BK

f (x) = ax2 + bx + c, ?

JH I A A A J I

y r

c 0 V

xv =

GKA AIJ= F=H > = E JAH?AFJ=

AEN O F EI c = f (0)

F J 8

?D= =@ L HJE?A @= F=H > = ) HAJ= H FAHFA @E?K =H = AEN N A F=II= @ FA L HJE?A L HJE?A 8 @=@ F H V (xv , yv ) ?
b ; 2a  yv = 4a

AEN @A IE AJHE= @=

GKA yv = f (xv ) = a(xv )2 + bxv + c) >JE@= ? =KN E @ L HJE?A @= F=H > = ? L= H E ECK= IA IACKA

EL ) E =CA @A B
10 ?=I a > 0?

?=LE@=@A L J=@= F=H= ?E = =FHAIA J= K H@A =@= @ L HJE?A @= F=H > = 8A = = CKH= # '

AIIA ?=I

= BK

5E

A A -@A E
y

"%

c xv 0 yv x V
.ECKH= # ' )IIE
b 2a yv = 4a xv =

?D= =@ F J @A ?D= =@ L= H
E

@A B @A B

C Im f = {y R/y

} = [ , +). 4a 4a

20 ?=I

a < 0?

y yv V

AIIA ?=I

= BK

NE

ECK=

H@A =@= @ L HJE?A @= F=H > = 8A = = CKH= #

c 0 xv x

.ECKH= #  )IIE
b 2a yv = 4a xv =

?D= =@ F J @A ?D= =@ L= H
NE

NE

@A B @A B

C Im f = {y R/y

} = (, ]. 4a 4a

5E

A A -@A E

"&

# ' -NAH? ?E I
4AI L= =I AGK= AI =>=EN

= > ? @ A B

x2 + 6x = 7; x2 + 5x 9 = 0; x2 7x + 5 = 0; 4

AI GK=@H JE?=I

= > ? @

! 4AI L= =I E AGK= AI =>=EN

a) x2 9x + 14 0; d) 9x2 4 0; b) x2 + x 2 > 0; c) 4x2 4x + 1 > 0;

e) 2x2 3x > 0. f (x) = x2 + 6x + m IA = f (x) = 3x2 + 2x + m JA

" += ?K A

F=H= GKA = BK = BK = BK

% ,AJAH E A =I E =CA I @=I BK

AI =>=EN
b) f (x) = 2x2 + 6x 5.

a) f (x) = x2 + 2x 1;

NE

1 @EGKA A

?=@= ?=I

F J

ii) f (x) = 4 2x2 .

' += ?K A

@A

@ GKA

L= H

NE

@A f (x) = x2 + 4x + m IA = !
x2 x 2 0 x2 1

4AI L= =I IACKE JAI E AGK= AI

a) x1 0; 2 x 3x + 2 c) x2 < 4; x1 b)

d) (x2 2x 3)(x2 3x + 4) > 0.

5E

A A -@A E

"'

#  -NAH? ?E I +
7 7 A HAJ CK @A FAH

F A A J=HAI
GKA HA= NE = F @A JAH @A D = = JKH= A E AJH I = ?= =@= E IJ= JA J

AJH !\$ ?

LA IA @AI ?= IACK @ = JH= AJ HE= h = 2t2 + 12t, D H=I ,AJAH E A I=>A @ GKA NE = = ?= =@= FA LA F=HJA I  D  LA

= = = JKH=

> = D H= A GKA = = JKH= = ?= =@= B E @A &

! 7 = > = = IAH ?DKJ=@= K FA = AGK=
2

JEH @A ?DKJA

AJ= F H K @A J

C AEH

JA F

IACK @ I A h(t) = = JKH= A

E IJ= JA J ,AJAH E A =F I

=

E IJ= JA A

GKA = > = HAJ H =H = I NE = =JE CE@= FA = > = BK AI f (x) = ax2 + bx + c. ,AJAH E A A ?=@= ?=I I IE =EI @A a, b, c A .

> = = JKH=
"

I CH ? I =>=EN HAFHAIA J=
y i)

ii)

iii)

y iv) y

# 5=>A @ GKA = I E = \$ - -  = IACKEH

= @A @ EI

AH I N A O

?= ?K A I L= HAI @A N A O @A

@ GKA = I

= x2 + y 2 IA =

?HAI?E A J @= F FK =

BK

@ JA F

CH ?

@A = @A IE@=@A F FK =?E = IKFAHE H = 2 ?=KI= FHA K

5E

A A -@A E
Densidade populacional da praga

#

Tempo 1 2

E E EC

=JKH= @=

=CHE?K J H =F E? K CH= @A GK= JE@=@A @A E IAJE?E@=

= JA J=JEL= @A A E E =H

EIA @ CH ? FAH EJA ? ? KEH GKA A J =H?=@ FA = IAJ=  = FH=C= JAHE= IE@ ? JH =@= @A A J =H?=@ FA = IAJ= =L KH= ? JH A >E CE? =F E?=@ A J  @= FH=C= @A FH=C=I HA?KFAH K IA CE? F EI I IAKI = F FK = EJEL=

= IA E IAJE?E@= JELAIIA IE@ KI=@

A JA IA A?AIIE@=@A @A K

> IA ?

JELAIIA IE@ KI=@

E IAJE?E@=

=K A J= @ H=FE@= A JA A ?=KI=HE= CH= @AI @= I KI @ E IAJE?E@= J H K IA A?AII HE HAIK J K = @E E KE =EI H FE@ K = LA GKA @= @A IE@=@A @= F FK = =L KH=

@ E IAJE?E@= =J=? K J= J =I FH=C=I GK= J I IAKI FHA@=@ HAI A JHAJ= J = F FK =

L J= @ = ?=KI=H @= KEJ =EI H FE@ I A J

A
%

? JH A @A FH=C=I F H ABAEJ I I

AE @ KI @A E IAJE?E@=I

KEJ

=EI A ?= GKA

? JH A >E

=E H @KH=>E E@=@A
C (x) = x2 86x +2500,

f : R R, @A

IAH FH @K E@ I

& 7 +=J E?= @A 5= L=@ H *= + IE@AHA = BK GK= = BK B

E@= F H f (x) = x2 3x + 2.

K J )

= > ?

[1, 3/2]; [3/2, +[; [2, +[;

5E

A A -@A E
@ A
] , 1] [2, +[; ] , 3/2] [2, +[

#

C @A BKJA>

C=@ H EH >=JAH K = B= J= @EHAJ= A JA F=H= C AJH I @ ?D ?

) B= J= >=JE@= F J

?= E =@ =

AJH I @= >=HHAEH= 5KF D= GKA = JH= AJ HE= @= > = IA = K = F=H > = ? E KIJH= = CKH= =>=EN

y Q gol 3 R 8
I=>A @ IA GKA
a) 3/2 m;

C

AIJ = &

AJH I @= >=HHAEH= = GKA = JKH= AIJ = > = = =JE CEH

d) 2 m; d) 5/3 m.

b) 4/3 m;

c) 1 m;

6ANJ F=H= =I GKAIJ AI  A  - -

7 > =J JA K F > E? = L A = =IJH= IA ? ? DA?A @A @AJAH E =@= H=FE@A CAH= AII= H=FE@A @EHAJ= A JA = FH F H?E = = AN AH @A FAII =I @AIIA F > E? GKA ? DA?A > =J JA IA > =J A @EHAJ= A JA FH F H?E = J= >

AH @A FAII =I GKA
R(x) = k x (P x),

2 F > E? = L

= ? IJ= JA F IEJEL= ?=H=?JAH IJE?= @ > =J

R(x), F=H= N HA=

CH ? ?=HJAIE=

GKA

A D H HAFHAIA J= = BK

5E

A A -@A E
a) R b) R

0 R c)

0 R d)

x R e)

+ IE@AH= @ FH F=C=
a) 11.000;

@A
b) 22.000;

=?E = @AI?HEJ
c) 33.000;

IA

F > E? = L

@A ""  FAII =I A J AH @A FAII =I ECK= =

NE = H=FE@A @A

? HHAH GK= @

> =J B H ? DA?E@ F H K
d) 38.000;

e) 44.000. g (3) L= A

- -  = CKH= JA
f
y

I I CH ? I @=I BK
g

AI B A C 5A f (x) = 2x2 , A J

a) 6 b) 8

c) 10 d) 12
-1 0 x

e) 14

! ,AJAH E A = E =CA " L= H K

@= BK

y = |x2 + x + 3| + 2.

HE? @A y = |x2 + x + 3| |x2 + x + b|

? IJ= JA F=H= J @ x R.

L= H @A > I=JEIB=

= > ? @ A

b < 0; 1 < b < 0; 1 b> ; 4 b = 0; 1 b = . 2

+=F JK

.K
\$  .K
,A E \$

-NF A ?E= A .K
-NF A ?E=
5A = a R + {1}. ) BK ANF
f: R x

C=HEJ E?=

A ?E= @A >=IA =
R

@A

E@= F H

f (x) = y = ax

+=H=?JAH IJE?=I E , EE 1 B

B R;
R +; y = ax . f (x) = 2x

EEE /H ?
1o

?=I

a > 1. -NA F

x 0 1 2

y 1 2 4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 3 2 1

y = 2x

N . . . .
3 4

5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4

. . . . . .

1 1/2 2 1/4

CH ? ? J

5E

A A -@A E
>=IA a = 2 > 1

#"

2o

?=I

0 < a < 1. -NA F

f (x) =

( 1 )x
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 x . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 3 2 1

y=( )

x 0

y 1

1 1/2 2 1/4 1 2 2 4

5 4 3 2 1

x 5

1 2 3 4

CH ? ? J

N ?HAI?A O @A?HAI?A BK >=IA a = 1/2 < 1

>IAHL=

\$

F=HJE?K =H
. . . . . . .

CH

? @A f (x) = ex

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 3 2 1

y = ex

5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4

. . . . . . . . . .

x 5

-NAH? ?E I
+ =IIE GKA =I BK AI =>=EN A ?HAI?A JAI K @A?HAI?A JAI

=

y = 3x

5E

A A -@A E
> ? @ A
( )x 1 3 ( )x y= 3 ( )x 3 y= 5 ( )x 4 y= 3 y=

##

,AJAH E A N

3x = 9 25x1 = 625 81x = 243 32x 10 3x + 9 = 0

\$ ! .K
,A
J=

C=H J E?=
5A = a I R+ {1}.

\$!
x

C=HEJ E =@

@A K C=HEJ = @

AH N I R+ = >=IA =

@A

E@ ?

IA @

AH

N J= GKA a = N.
loga N = x

AH

@A

>IAHL=

\$!

@E AI @A ANEIJ

?E=

a = 1, a > 0 N > 0, K IA =

AH I AC=JEL I A AH

F IIKA I BK

C=HEJ C=H J E?= @A >=IA = = BK @A E@= F H

,A E

\$!

5A = a R + {1}. +D= =

f : R + x

R f (x) = y = loga x

>IAHL=
K = @= KJH=

\$!
IEC E ?=@ @AII= ANFHAII I CH 5A = GKA = BK C=H J E?= A = BK HA = ANF A ?E= I E LAHI=I >IAHLA ? I @ I ANA F I IACKE JAI IK=I IE AJHE=I A
b > 0, a R + {1} A y R.

y = loga x ay = x.

HAJ= y = x.

2H FHEA@=@AI > IE?=I

E EE EEE EL

loga 1 = 0 F EI a0 = 1; loga a = 1 F EI a1 = a; loga am = m F EI am = am ; aloga b = b F EI IA loga b = n an = b, EIJ aloga b = b;

5E
L

A A -@A E
loga b = loga c b = c F EI aloga c = b b = c.
(iv )

#\$

)I >=IAI

=EI KI=@=I I I @A?E =EI I AFAHE= 5A = J=

log10 b K log b;

C=HEJ A  C=HEJ

I K =JKH=EI

J=

ln b K loge b.

2H FHEA@=@AI
= > ? @

a, b e c R + ?

a = 1 A n R.

loga (b c) = loga b + loga c HACH= FH @KJ

b loga ( c ) = loga b loga c HACH= @ GK ?EA JA

loga bn = n loga b HACH= @= F J loga N =

logb N logb a

?E= K@=

F=HJE?K =H loga

b = loga b1/n =

1 n

loga b;

B H K = @A

= @A >=IA

+=H=?JAH IJE?=I
E EE EEE
1o

, 1 /H B

R +; R;

y = loga x. y = log2 x

?=I

a > 1. -NA F

x 1/8 1/4 1/2 1 2

y 3 2 1 0 1

5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4

. .. . . . . . .. x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 3 2 1

y=2

y = log x 3 4

x 5

y=x

CH

? ?

J   ?HAI?A JA

N ?HAI?A O ?HAI?A BK 0 < x < 1 loga x < 0 x > 1 loga x > 0

5E
2o

A A -@A E
?=I
0 < a < 1. -NA F y = log1/2 x
. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. x . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 / 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .

#%

y = (1/2)

4 3 2 1

x 1/8 1/4 1/2 1 2

y 3 2 1 0 1

5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4

x 5

y = log

y=x

CH

? ?

J   @A?HAI?A JA

N ?HAI?A O @A?HAI?A BK 0 < x < 1 loga x > 0 x > 1 loga x < 0.

>IAHL=

\$!!

4 3 2 1

F=HJE?K =H
. . . . . . . .

CH

? @A f (x) = loge x = ln x

5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

y = ln x ...............................
. . . . . . . . . .

x 5

\$ " -NAH? ?E I
,AJAH E A N

= >

log3 81 = x log25 625 = x

5E

A A -@A E
? @ A B
log3/2 2/3 = x logx 3 =
3 4

#&

logx 4 = 4 log1/8 x = 4 3

5A log 2 = a A log 3 = b, ?= ?K A

9 32

log2 10 log9 20

-NA F I \$ "  5 K

x x9
2

-GK=

C=H J E?=

2 log x = 2 + log(x 9)

x2 x9

x x9
2

=2

= 100 x2 100x + 900 = 0

x = 90 ou x = 10.

)IIE

S = {10, 90}

\$ # -NAH? ?E I +
4AI LAH
3x = ( 1 = 5121 2)

F A A J=HAI
A 22x 34.2x + 64 = 0 B  2 x = 8
48

> 3x

x 3

=1
2

? 32x 3x

x+2

=0

9x +3 4

3 625 ? log5 5

= 3x

! 4AI LAH =I AGK= AI = log4 0, 25 = x > logx 256 = 4

5E

A A -@A E
? 10log9 = 8x + 5 @ log5 (log2 x) = 1 A eln(x " += ?K =H
log3 2 7 20 + log3 + log3 log3 2 5 4 7
2

#'

3)

= 2x

# 4AI LAH =I AGK= AI = log2 (x 3) + log2 (x 2) = 1 > log9 (2x + 1) log9 (x 1) = ? 2logx log ( x 2) = 1 \$ 27+ 52 C=HEJ @A?E = @A N I=>A @ GKA x =
a3 b2 c 1 2

= 3logb + 2loga logc > 3loga 2logb + logc ? 3loga + 2logb + logc @ 3loga 2logb logc A 3loga + 2logb logc % +AICH= HE
a)11; 2x + 3y @ IEIJA = f (x) = 2x 3y d)4; e)5.

& 5A (x, y )
b)3;

I K
c)6;

= =

11 5

A J

x+y

& += ?K A I
(a) log2 8; (b) log7 49; (c) log3 81;

C=HEJ

I =>=EN
(g ) log2 23 ; (j ) log25 1 5; (h) log3 1 9; (i) log 1 25; 5 (k ) log2 (16 4); (l) log5 56 .

' )@ EJE @ log 2 = 0, 3 A log 3 = 0, 48 ?= ?K A I IACKE JAI

(a) log 6; (b) log 8; (c) log 12; (d) log 24; (e) log 20; (f ) log 300; (g ) log 5

C=HEJ

(i) log 0, 2

)@ EJE @ log 2 = 0, 3 A log 3 = 0, 48 HAI L= =I IACKE JAI AGK= AI ANF

(a) 3x = 2; (b) 4x = 3; (c) 2x = 9; (d) 6x = 8.

A ?E=EI

+=F JK

.K
,A E

AI 6HEC
6HEC
7 ? H?K JHEC @A K = HECA

JHE?=I
JHE?
JHE? K ? H?K HEA J=@ IA JE@ = JE D H HE IA JE@ F IEJEL  @A H=E IEIJA = ?=HJAIE= LA = CKH= =>=EN

%  + H?K
%
K EJ HE A ?A JH

y cotg

sen F

tg H G

C R=1 O

E +

cos

JA GKA = HECA

@ ? H?K

JHEC

JHE?

J , 2=H= AIJK@=H

I =I BK

AI ?EH?K =HAI @=

I

AI= I

\$

5E
= > ?

A A -@A E
OF OD

\$
AEN @ I IA I I

AEN @ I ? IIA

DH FH

AEN @=I J= CA JAI AEN @=I ? J= CA JAI 5A =

K

@

,A E AI %
= > ? @ A B

CK

A ) K E I

J=

I DA

=H? @A

?EH?K BAH ?E= @AJAH E =@ F H A @A

seno DA ou sen := OC cosseno DA ou cos := OB tangente DA ou tg := DE secante DA ou sec := OE cotangente DA ou cotg := F G cossecante DA ou cossec := OG

4A = AI .K @= A J=EI
1 sen 1 cos cos 5a ) cotg = sen 2a ) sec = 3a ) tg = sen cos

1a ) sen2 + cos2 = 1 4a ) cossec =

,A
(1 ) :
a

IJH= AI
JHE CK

)* GKA

HAJ

CK

JA

I FA

6A HA = @A 2EJ C H=I

(AB )2 + (OB )2 = (OA)2

=I AB = OC. ,=
sen2 + cos2 = 1.

(2a ) A (3a ) : +

JHE

CK

ODE

IA A D= JA = JHE

CK

OBA, JA

I
E

1 tg sec OD ED OE = = = = cos sen 1 OB AB OA 1 sec 1 = sec = cos 1 cos

5E

A A -@A E
1 tg sen = tg = cos sen cos

(4a ) A (5a ) : +

JHE

CK

OF G

IA A D= JA = JHE
F

CK

OCA, JA
G

1 cossec FG OF OG cotg = = = = cos sen 1 CA OC OA cossec 1 1 = cossec = sen 1 sen cotg 1 cos = cotg = cos sen sen

% ! 4A = AI ,AHEL=@=I
1a ) cotg = 1 tg 2a ) tg 2 + 1 = sec2 3a ) cotg 2 + 1 = cossec2 4a ) cos2 = 5a ) sen2 = 1 1 + tg 2 tg 2 1 + tg 2

,A

IJH= AI

5ACKA

E A@E=J= A JA @=I HA = AI BK @= A J=EI

% " 5E =EI

I 3K=@H= JAI
1o Q 2o Q 3o Q 4o Q seno cosseno tangente cotangente secante cossecante + + + + + + + + + + + +

5E

A A -@A E

\$!

% # .K
=

AI 6HEC

JHE?=I
f: I R x I R y = f (x) = sen x

.K

5A

E Dom f = I R; EE Im f = [1, 1]; EEE /H ?

.ECKH= %  IA E@A
EL ,E A >IAHLA GKA x I R, I GKA = BK K = BK
sen x

K = BK

FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ 2 rad;

L sen x

F=H

K IA = sen(x) = senx.

>

.K

+ IIA
f: I R x I R y = f (x) = cos x

E Dom f = I R; EE Im f = [1, 1]; EEE /H ?

.ECKH= %
EL >IAHLA GKA x I R,

? IIA E@A

cos x = cos(x + 2 ) = cos(x + 4 ) = cos(x + 6 ) = . . . = cos(x + 2k ), k Z.

5E

A A -@A E
,E A I GKA = BK K = BK
cos x

\$"
K = BK FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ 2 rad;

L cos x

F=H

K IA = cos(x) = cos x.

?

.K

6= CA JA
f: A x I R y = f (x) = tg x

+ k, k Z};

EL ,E A

>IAHLA GKA x A, I GKA = BK K = BK

tg x

.ECKH= % ! J= CA J E@A

tg x = tg (x + ) = tg (x + 2 ) = tg (x + 3 ) = . . . = tg (x + k ), k Z.

K = BK

FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ rad;

L tg x

F=H

K IA = tg (x) = tgx.

@

.K

+ J= CA JA
f: A x I R y = f (x) = cotg x

5E

A A -@A E

\$#

.ECKH= % " ? J= CA J E@A

EL ,E A >IAHLA GKA x A, I GKA = BK K = BK
cotg x

K = BK

L cotg x

F=H

K IA = cotg (x) = cotgx.

A

.K

5A?= JA
f: A x I R y = f (x) = sec x

+ k, k Z};

.ECKH= % # IA?= J E@A

EL ,E A >IAHLA GKA x A, I GKA = BK K = BK
sec x

K = BK

FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ 2 rad;

L sec x

F=H

K IA = sec(x) = sec x.

B

.K

+ IIA?= JA
f: A x I R y = f (x) = cossec x

5E

A A -@A E
E Dom f = A = {x I R \ x = k, k Z}; EE Im f = I R] 1, 1[; EEE /H ?

\$\$

.ECKH= % \$ ? IIA?= J E@A

EL ,E A >IAHLA GKA x A, I GKA = BK K = BK
cossec x

K = BK

FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ 2 rad;

L cossec x

F=H

K IA = cossec(x) = cossecx.

% \$ -NAH? ?E I
,=@ sen =

! ,=@= tg = 1, @AJAH E =H sen , e cos .

" ,=@= tg = 3 A IA @ K

=H? @ 2o GK=@H= JA @AJAH E =H sen A cos .

# ,=@= sec = 2, @AJAH E =H sen , cos A tg . 3 3 \$ ,=@ sen = , < < 2, @AJAH E =H I L= HAI @=I KJH=I BK AI JHEC 2 2 2 3 % ,=@ cos = ,<< , @AJAH E =H I L= HAI @=I KJH=I BK AI JHEC 2 2 & ,=@= sec x = 2, @AJAH E =H I L= HAI @=I KJH=I BK AI JHEC JHE?=I ' 5A @ 3tg a 5cotg a = 0 A = K

JHE?=I JHE?=I

=H? @ 3o GK=@H= JA @AJAH E =H tg a, sen a A cos a.

tg a = x + 1 2 b) sec a = x + 2

,AJAH E =H I L= HAI @A N I=>A @ IA GKA 0 a < 2 A GKA tg a = 2x + 3 a) cotg a = x + 1  5E F E ?=H = ANFHAII

y=

tg 2 x + tg x + 1 sec x cossec x tg x

5E

A A -@A E
,AJAH E =H L= H @A ?=@= K = @=I IACKE JAI ANFHAII AI F=H= I L= HAI E @E?=@ I A ?=@= ?=I

\$%

= > ?

! ,

sen x tg x 1 , F=H= x 1o GK=@H= JA A cos x = sec x cossec x 2 cossec x + cos x 1 B= , F=H= x 2o GK=@H= JA A sen x = 1 2sen x cos x 2 4 4 (sen x cos x) cotg x C= , F=H= x 3o GK=@H= JA A tg x = 1 2 2 cos2 x A=

L= H IA ANEIJEH
(f ) tg 2;
(g ) cotg ( 32 ); 12 13 ,

(a) cos 32 ; (b) sen ; (c) cossec 2 ; (d) cossec( 2 );

(e) sec( );

(h) sec 0

" 5A sen x = # , L= H

5 13

A cos x = NE A

GK= E

L= H @A y = sen(x) + cos(x)? GKA O F @A JAH A

(b) y = 7 cos x
12 25 .

?=@= ?=I

(a) y = 4 + 9 sen x;

+= ?K A (a + b)2 . =H? @ 4o GK=@H= JA

sec2 x sec x cossec x 15 F=H= sen x = 4 ANK 1 cotg x & += ?K =H sen2 x A cos2 x I=>A @ IA GKA tg x = 2 + 1.

y=

' += ?K =H

L= H @A y = sen4 x 2sen2 x + 1 IA @ @=@ cos x =

2 2

2 2

A x 3o GK=@H= JA

5A @ cos x =  -I> =H K

R f (x) = y,

FAH @ @ CH

f :AR x

@AJAH E = @ IAKI HAIFA?JEL I @

a) y = 1 + sen x; b) y = 2sen x; c) y = 2 + cos x; d) y = 3 cos x;

E I A E =CA I
i) y = | cos x|; j ) y = |tg x|; k ) y = sen(x 2 ); l) y = 2 + cos(2x + 5 ).

e) y = 1 + sen 3x; f ) y = 2 cos 4x; g ) y = 1 + tg x; h) y = |sen x|;

*E> E CH= =
81 ) / 5 5 1 JH @K * 7 ! * 7 5 2 2H += ?K 5 2 + ?K = + ?K 5 2=K 4E @A = AEH -@ ) 4 * 6+ ''& I ''' 2=K -@ ) 4 * I '''
2a A@

) 5

A@AEH I 8

2H ? ?K

2=K

J ? E?= - E= = +HAF= @E ;= =M= A ) @O .AH = @AI @= 5E L= 5

9AI AO /

AI E EJAI @AHEL=

E JACH=

5a A@

2=K

@ *H=IE '' - A
2a A@ 4E @A = AEH

) ,AI?K>H= @= + ?K

4 *A I -@EJ H= 2=K

"

-@ )J =I

\$&

5E

A A -@A E

\$'

4-52 56)5 , 5 -:-4+ +1 5 +)2 67  5A

.= I=I ! % # ' .= I=I > A \$ ! !! A !"

5A

#
a){x R \ 1 < x < 2}, b){x R \ 1 < x 2}, c){x R \ 1 x 2}, d){x R \ 1 x < 2}, e){x R \ x > 1}, a) [1, 5), b) [0, +), b) [2, 1), g ) R, c) [5, +). c) (0, 1], h) R , d) (0, 1], i) [2, 0], e) [2, +), j ) (1, 2), k ) (1, +). f ){x R \ x 2}, g ){x R \ x 1}, h){x R \ x < 0}, i)R K {x \ x R}.

! a) (0, 2),
f ) (, 2),

5A

%

a) S = {x R/ 2 < x < 2} = (2, 2), b) S = (, 1] [1, +), c) S = {1, 1}, e) S = (1, 1), d) S = (, 5) (5, +), f ) S = (, 3] [3, +), g ) S = [3, 1] [1, 3], h) S = R ,

1 i) S = ( , 1), 3 j ) S = = {}, k ) S = {1, 2, 3, 4}, l) S = [1, 2], m) S = {0, 2}, n) S = = {}, 1 o) S = {2, }. 3

+)2 67 5A
6) 36 m2 , 2) 4 m e 12 m, 7) 4 6 cm, 3) 60 m2 , 4) 14 kg, 5) 12 m2 , 1) 12m2 ,

21) 4, 5 u.m.a.,

24) (4 ) cm2 , 25) 64 cm2 .

5A

"
7) 2 m, 5) 45 cm3 , 8) 36 cm3 , 6) 32 cm3 , 9) 3 15 m.

1) 160 cm3 , 4) 2 cm, 2) 8 cm3 , 3) 64 m3 ,

5E

A A -@A E

%

+)2 67 5A !!

= > ? @ A B C

2x3 + x2 + 3; 2x3 x2 + x; 6x4 2x3 3x2 + 7x 2; 3x3 + 2x2 + 2x 1; 2x5 + 2x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 2; 6x4 + x3 x2 + 9x 3; 2x4 11x3 10x2 + 8x.

= > ?

x2 x 2; x2 x 2; x4 10x3 + 33x2 40x + 16. c) 1; d) 0; e) 15. c) 22; d) 7/4.

" #

a) 3; b) 5; a) 2; b) 4;

\$ a) 1/3; b) 4. % k = 0. & f (x) = x3 4x2 + x + 6. '

a) 3x + 4; b) x2 2x 2; c) 2x2 + x 1; d) x 2.

= > ? = > ? = > ?

2x4 + x3 + 6x2 + 2x + 3; 4x3 19x2 17x 20; x5 2x4 7x3 14x2 . Q(x) = x2 2x 10 A R(x) = 28; Q(x) = x3 x2 2 A R(x) = 8x + 1; Q(x) = x8 x7 + x5 x4 + x3 x + 1 A R(x) = 0. Q(x) = 3x 1 A R = 1; Q(x) = 9x 30 A R = 247; Q(x) = 2x + 1 A R(x) = 33.

5E
! "

A A -@A E
a) 51 ; b) 257; c) 1. 64 c) k = 1.

%

a) k = 7; b) k = 11;

# P (x) = x2 7x + 5. \$ a = % @ & @ ' =

13 . 2

5A

!#
h) (x3 + a)(x + b); i) (1 2b)(x2 5a); j ) (x 3a)2 ; k ) (3a 1)2 ; l) (5x 1)2 ; m) (2a2 + x)2 ; n) (ax2 b2 y )2 ; t) (x + a)(x + b); u) (3a 4)(3a + 4); v ) (3x 2)(9x2 + 6x + 4); x) (5 + x)(25 5x + x2 ); z ) (x + 1)(x2 x + 1).

a) 3(3xy + 4ab);
b) 7x3 (y 3z ); c) 5ab(4a + 1); d) p(x + y ); e) (a + b)(3x 5y ); f ) (m + n)(a + b); g ) (2x + y )(5a + 3b); o) (x + 3y )2 ; p) (x + 7)(x + 2); q ) (y + 3)(y + 1); r) (m 7)(m 1); s) (y + 7)(y 4);

5A

!%
a) e) a1 ; x1 a1 ; a+1 x+1 ; m+1 2 ; mn b) f) 5(x y ) 2(x + y ) 4x ; x 2y x 2y ; x + 2y 1 . x+1 ; c) g) a + 2b 3b 2b ; 3x3 x2 m 2 ; mx ; d) 1 3xy 2 ; h) x+5 ; x+1 1 ; (3 + y )(x + 4)

i)

j) n)

k)

l)

m)

5E

A A -@A E
x+4 ; (x + 1)(x 1) (x2 + x + 1)(x2 + 1) ; x+1 y (x3 + y 3 )2 . x x ; 5(x + 5)

a)

b)

c)

d) (x + a)2 ;

e)

+)2 67 5A "

"
f ) Dom y = [0, +) A Im y = [0, +); g ) Dom F = R A Im F = R ; h) Dom M = R {1} A Im M = R ; i) Dom T = R {1} A Im T = R ; Im G = R {0, 1/2}.

a) Dom f = R A Im f = R+ ; b) Dom f = R A Im f =

R +;

a) Dom f = R A Im f = {2, 2, 3};

b) Dom f = R A Im f = R {7}.

! =
{(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 5), (1, 7), (2, 1), (5, 1), (7, 1), (8, 1), (2, 2), (2, 5), (2, 7), (5, 2), (5, 5), (5, 7), (7, 2), (7, 5), (7, 7), (1, 8), (2, 8), (5, 8), (7, 8),

(8, 2), (8, 5), (8, 7), (8, 8)};

> {(1, 2), (1, 5), (1, 7), (1, 8), (2, 5), (2, 7), (2, 8), (5, 7), (5, 8), (7, 8)}; ? {(1, 5), (2, 7)}; @ {(5, 1)}. "
a) 11; b) 39; c) 3; d) 10; e) 7 2 3; f ) 1/2; g ) 16/3; h) 7(a + b) 3.

#
a) 3; b) 11; c) 26; d) 7/2.

\$ m = 3. % Im f = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}.
y 9 7 5 3 1
O

1234

5E

A A -@A E

%!

& Im f = {0, 1, 4, 9}.

y 9

1 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 x

'

-1

a) 1;

b) 27;

c) 125;

d) 64;

e) (2x 2)3 .

5E

A A -@A E
! f (1/2) = 1, f ( ) = 1; f (2, 1313 . . .) = 1; f ( 2) = 1. 3.

%"

"

i) 2;

ii) 2; iii) 1;

iv ) 3.

# d. \$ 14.

5A

"%
a) g f : R x c) f f : R x a) f 1 (x) = x ; 3 R x2 + 2x + 2 R x+2 b) f 1 (x) = 5 x 1; b) f g : R x d) g g : R x R x2 + 2 R x4 + 2x2 + 2 1 + 2x . x3

c) f 1 (x) =

! = F=H > A F=H A F=H ? F=H @ F=H F=H A F=H F=H B  F=H C F=H D

5A

"
> IE ?
(2, 1).

= IE

F IEJEL= A ! ? " @ #

(4, 2) A (1, 2]; AC=JEL= A

a)

y 2 b)

y 2

0 2

5E

A A -@A E
y y 0 -1 2 -1 -2 y 1 0 2 x 1 x

%#

c)

d)

e)

1 -1

\$ A % A

+)2 67 5A #!

E EE

a > 0 A b < 0; a = 0 A b > 0; a < 0 A b = 0; a > 0 A b > 0.

EEE EL
"

E EE

x = 1/2; x = 2; x = 5/2.

EEE
#

f (x) < 0 IA x > 3, f (x) < 0 IA x < 2,

f (x) = 0 IA x = 3; f (x) = 0 IA x = 2;

(iii) f (x) > 0 IA x > 1/2, f (x) < 0 IA x < 1/2, f (x) = 0 IA x = 1/2.

5E
6. y

A A -@A E
= 4. 7. x = 1. 8. y + 5x 8 = 0. 9. y 3(x + 2) + 5 =

%\$
0.

10. x + y = 0. 11. a) 5y 2x + 5 = 0; b) 2y + 5x = 27. 12. a) Dom f = lR e Im f = {2, 2, 3}; b) Dom f = lR e Im f = lR {7}; c) Dom f = lR {3} e Im f = lR {6}.

5A

##
b) S = R; f ) S = {8/19}; c) S = ; d) S = {3/4}; h) S = {7/4}. e) S = ; g ) S = {4/3};

a) S = {2};

b) S = [0, +); d) S = (, 34/7].

! S = [5, 3]. " a) f (x) > 0 se x < 2 ou x > 1; f (x) < 0 se 2 < x < 1; f (x) = 0 se
x = 2 ou x = 1. b) f (x) < 0 se 1 < x < 2; f (x) > 0 se x < 1 ou x > 2; f (x) = 0 se x = 1; f (x)

AIJ @A

E@= F=H= x = 2, EIJ

f (2);

c) f (x) > 0 se x < 1 ou x > 3; f (x) < 0 se 1 < x < 3; f (x) = 0 se x = 1 ou x = 3; d) f (x) > 0 se 1 < x < 0 ou x > 1; f (x) < 0 se x < 1 ou 0 < x < 1; f (x) = 0 se x = 1 ou x = 0 ou x = 1.

# a) S = {x R/x < 1 ou 2 < x < 4};

b) S = {x R/ 1 x 1}.

\$ a) Dom f = {x R/x 3 x 1/2} = (, 3] [1/2, +);

b) Dom f = {x R/1/2 x < 3/2} = [1/2, 3/2).

% (i) S = {x R/x 3 x > 2/3} = (, 3] (2/3, +);

(ii) S = {x R/ 1 < x < 2} = (1, 2).

5A

a) T (x) = 30x,

#%

@A N @A

J=

JA F A

E KJ I

b)

Temperatura (o C )

300

10

Tempo (min)

= #

> ,A  = # =E

? ,A # = \$

! = # @A

> # @E=I ? \$ @E=I

5E

A A -@A E
" = # > \$ > % > & ?

%%

5A

#'

D= AH I HA=EI. [ ] 2 2 ! a) S = [2, 7]; b) S = ; c) S = R {1/2}; d) S = , ; 3 3 e) S = (, 0) (3/2, +).

a) 2 e 2; b) 0 e 3/2; c) 4 e 2; d)

" m > 9. # m < 1/3. \$ m = 1 K m = 9. % a) Im f = [2, +); & E =@ EJA EE =@ EJA ' m = 1.  a) S = {x R/x > 2};
d) S = (4, 1) (1, 3). b) S = {x R/1 < x 2}; c) S = (, 1); b) Im f = (, 1/2].

E NE

F F

J @A J @A

E NE

A L= H A L= H

E NE

" "

5A

#
= 18 m; > ! D  > & E

81 cm2 .

! = "I "

E EE

a > 0; b < 0; c > 0 e < 0; a < 0; b < 0; c > 0 e > 0; a > 0; b > 0; c > 0 e = 0; a < 0; b = 0; c > 0 e > 0.

EEE EL

5E

A A -@A E
# x = y = 5. \$ @ % "! =F=HA D I & ? ' @

%&

?  >  =

19 , +). 4

! Im f = [ " ?

+)2 67 5A \$

+HAI?A JAI = > A ?

5 = S = {2} > S = {3} ? S = { 4 } @ S = {0, 2}

5A

\$"
= S
= {4}; > S = {2}; ? S
1 a;

{1}; @ S

{3 3 3}; A S

{ 2};

B  S = {16}. = b + 2a; > 1 a; ? 2b 5a; @ A

1+a 2b .

5A

\$#
a) x = 3; f ) x = 16; b) x = 0 ou x = 3 c) x = 2 ou x = 1; d)x = 0 e) x = 1 ou x = 5; g ) x = 2 ou x = 1; h) x = 1 ou x = 0.

a) 7; b) 4 7 ; c) 3.

!
a) x = 1; b) x = 4; c) x = 1/2; d) x = 32; e) x = 3

"  #
a)x = 4; b)x = 4; c)x = 5.

\$ A % @

5E

A A -@A E
a) 3 d) 0 e) 1 f) 4 c) 1, 08 d) 1, 38 g) 3 h) 2 i) 2 e) 1, 3 f ) 2, 48 c) 3, 2 d) 1, 15 j ) 1/2 k) 6 l) 6 g ) 0, 7 h) 1, 7 i) 0, 7 j ) 1, 52

%'

&

b) 2 c) 4

'

a) 0, 78 b) 0, 9 a) 0, 625 b) 0, 8

+)2 67 5A %\$

cos = 1 2 ; tg = 3 sen = 1 2 ; tg =
3 3 2 2

! sen =

2 2 ;

cos =
3 2

" cos = 1 2 ; sen =

1 # cos = 2 ; sen =

3 2 ;

tg = 3

% sen =

2 2 ;

& cos x = 22 ; sen x = 22 ; tg x = 1; cossec x = 2 5 5 ' cos a = 3 ; sen a = ; tg a = 8 8 3

(a) x = 2 A x = 1 2  y = 1
(a) 9+3 8
3

(b) x = 1 A x = 3

! (a) 0

(b) 0

(f ) na o existe

" % ! # (a) M a x. : y = 13 e M in. : y = 5 \$ "' % \$ #

(b) M a x. : y = 8 e M in. : y = 6.

2+ 2 2 2 & A 4 4

'  "

5E

A A -@A E
2 2

&

c) Dom f = R A Im f = [1, 3].

5E

A A -@A E
d) Dom f = R A Im f = [3, 3].

&

f ) Dom f = R A Im f = [2, 2].

5E

A A -@A E
g ) Dom f = {x R/x =
2

&
+ k, k Z} A Im f = R.

i) Dom f = R A Im f = [0, 1].

5E

A A -@A E
j ) Dom f = {x R/x =
2

&!
+ k, k Z} A Im f = R+ .

l) Dom f = R A Im f = [1, 3].

)F @E?A

(a) 17 12 (b) 4 15 (c) 77 60 3 4 (d) 11 4 (e) 13 5 (f ) 51 40 (g ) 4 3 (h) 0

(a)

5 27

(b)

61 60

(c)

(a)

3 4

(b)

5 4

(c)

5 3

(d) 4

5E
"

A A -@A E
(a) 5 6 (b) 24 13 (c) 12 7 (d) 5 8

&"

(a)

1 3

(b)

73 180

(c)

11 24

3 2 16 (e) 3 (a) (a) 65 63

(b)

16 3 3 (f ) 5 5 2

5 8 3 (g ) 8 (c) (c) 3 10

(d)

124 27 3 ( h) 4

(b)

&

(a)

9 10 1 (e) 6

(b) 1 (f ) 18 11

21 20 71 (g ) 15 (c)

(d)

3 2

'
(a) 8 (g ) 1 (m) 1/9 (s) 1000 (w) 512 (b) 64 (h) 1 ( n) (t) 16 (c) 25 (i) 8 (o) 625 (u) 4/25 (d) 25 (j ) 6 (p) 64 (e) 0 (k ) 1/16 (q ) 27 (f ) 1 (l) 5/2 (r) 1/8 (y ) 64

(v ) 32 (x) 64

(z ) 512 () 64 (b ) 2 ( h) 3 (c) 0 (i) 2 5 (o) 8 (d ) 4 (j ) 2 (p)

15

(a) 2 (g ) 2 (m) (s)
3

(e) 4 (k ) 5 6

(f ) /R (l) (r ) 30 9

5 2

(n) (t )

(q ) 2

25

5 5

4 (u) 2 (c) 31 2 (d) 7 + 5

(a) 2 5

(b)

343 7

(a) 18 3 12

(b) 4 3 (c) 2 + 3