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gramatikos
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Parenge dr Emil Heqkmann

Pirmasis leidimas 2OO7 2006 2004 2OO1 2OOO

TURINYS

Puslapis
1. Zymimasis artikelis ...................... The Definite Article..........
2. Ndymimasis artike1is..........,,......................... The Indefinite Article........ 2
3. Daiktavardis......... Nouns......................,.......... 3
4. Bildvardis Adjectives.........
5. Prieveiksmis Adverbs................
6. Skaitvardis........... Numera|s..............................
7. Asmeniniai, savybiniai ir sangrqiinia, Personal, Possessive, Rellexive
ivardziai..,,................. Pronouns....................................................... 6
Demonstrative Pronouns............................. 6
9. lnterrogative Pronouns................................ 7
10. Relative Pronouns.... 7
11. Indetinite Pronouns.. 8
12. I
13. 9
14. 10
15. ll
11
17, The Moods of the Verb.............................., 11
'18,
Expression of Habit..................................... 12
19. Ihe Passive Voice........................................ 12
20. Infinitive without to....................................... 12
21. Bendratis su to ................................ lnfinitive with fo............................................ 12
22. Aprasomoji bendratis................... Special Use oI the Infinitive........................ 13
23. Papildinys + bendratis.............. Accusative with Infinitive............................. 13
24. Vardininkas + bendratis,............................... Nominative with Iniinitive .,.....,,................... 13
25. Gerundijus......... The Gerund .............. 13
26. Dalyvis The Particip|es................................,.......,..... 14
27. Veiksma-:qdZiq va1dymas......................,......... Transitive, Intransitive Verbs ............,.......... 14
28. Prielinksniai Prepositions.............................................,.... 15
29. Jungtukai........... Conjunctions.............................................,... 15
30. Netaisyklingieji veiksma:odZiai lrregular Verbs...........................................,,. 15

I
1. Zymimasis artikelis the
the [4.] prieS:od:ius, prasidedandius priebalsiu: the book, the univercity,
the [aj] prie6:odZius, prasidedandius balsiu: the Arnerican,
piei neia amq h: houf, heir, honour, honesti pfieS h todliuose su nekirdiuotu pirmuoju skiemeniul
the horizon.
Su iymimuoiu artikeliu
pasaulio Saliq pavadinimai: towards tle North, bet from norih to souih, frorn easi to west,
6aliq ir salq daugiskaitiniai pavadinimai: !h€ Easl'lndies, tbe Netherlands, tie Hebrides,
upirl, iarq, kalnynq pavaclinimai: !h9 Thanres, Utc Atlanllc, 1!te Alps.
a lsldemekite. Zymirhasis artikelis the eina po all, both, half, double, quite:
visas pasaulis - al thC world, dviguba suma - double thc sum.
. Posakiai su Zymimuoju artikeliu:
toks paprotys - lt is lltg custom
tokia mada - lt is 1!19 lashion
iSskyrus (kq) wth lhc exception of
dalwau|anl (kam) in th€ presence ol
padedant (kam) wih t[e help of
Be iymlmolo artlkello:
vardai (taip pat su poor, old, young, little, good, saint)i poor Peter, iltle Johnl
titulai ir giminysies nuoroclos: Admiral Nelson, King Richard, Que€n E izabelh, Uncle Sam, Dr [4ller, bel
thg Oueen of England;
a lsldamekle. Ne ang]q kilmes titulai emperof, czar, archduke, e ector varlojami su artikeliu:
thg Emperor Wiliam, !X9 Czar Peter I
Sallq ir miestq pavadlnlmal: Swilzerland, Turkey, London, bet thc London of todayi
mouni - cape - lake - harbour - bay + likriniai daiktavardziai: N4ount Everest, Cape Trafalgar, Lake Geneva,
New York Harbolrr, Hudson Bay, bet Utq Cape of Good Hope;
gatvCs, aik6t6s, pastalai, tiltai + tikriniai daiktavard:iai: Oxlord Street Trafalgar Square, Windsor Castle, Lon
don Bridge;
abslrak6ios sqvokos: lfe, death, ovet Ea(h, Heaven, Hel i He was weary of life, bet ibe lfe oi lhe whole nauoni
church - school - college - prison - bed, kalbant apskritai: Church is over (lvlisios), school begins (pamokos),
He was seni 10 prison (suimtas), go to bed (eiti miegoti), bet, kalbant konkrediai, artikelis vartojamas: Ihe school
is near thg church (pastatai);
med:iagq pavadinimai: coa, lron, wood, gold: Coal important for export, bet lhq coal of Walesi
bendriniq daiklavard:iq daugiskaila: cais, mice, dogs,'s birdsr Swallows are pretty birds, bei thg swal ows of this

metq lalkq, mdnesiq, savalt6s dlenq, valgymo meto pavadlnlmal: summer, I\rarch, Sunday, dinner; on Mon-
day, bet thg lirst [,4onday in July.
a lsld6mAklte. Jei po daiktavardZio eina papildinys (dainiausiai su o0, visada vartojamas adikelis.
. Posakiai be arlikelio:
i5 pirmo :vilgsnio - at lirst sight
issigqsti io ose courage
oasoausti rankas - io shake hands
va:iuoti traukiniu ir t.l. - to go by train elc.
pakeisti spalvE - to change colour
biti po ranka to be at hand

2. Neiymimasis artikelis a (an)


a pries iodiius, prasidedandius priebalsiu: a book, a European,
an pfie6 iod:ius, prasidedandius balsiu: an English book,
pried neiariama h: an hour an heir, an honour,
pries l, :odiiuose su nekirdiuotu pirmuoju skiemeniu: an hislor an.
Su nezymlmuoiu artlkelio:
matai, svoris, laiko tarpai: Jour sh llinqs a yard, sixpence q pound, twice q year (per metus),
prolesiia, lautybA, religiia: I\,{y brolher is a painteri He is atr Englishnran, She became a Proiestani,
bel be ndymimojo artikelio por ihe utle ol (doctor), the rank of (generai), the dignitv oi (senator).
. Posakiai su artikeliu:
to be in a hurry - skuboti pity -
it is a gaila
to have an appelite luretiapetitq -
in aioud voce garsiai
to have a fever - temperatiros
tureti on an averag€ vidutiniskai
to have a headache - galvq
skauddti -
to be al an end baigtis
. l6lddm6klte: a eina po half, such, quite, many, rather, what: hai a dozen, such a good story, po bldvard:io
su as, so, too, how, howevel as good e swimmer as I am, too heavy a w€ight.
3. Daiktavardis
l. Gimine
2mon6s ir daiktai

VyriSkosios lyties bltybes nurodomos vyriskosios gimines jvardzLai< he him - his: H9 met [i9 friend.
Nloieriskosios l!.ties bttybes nurodomos moleriskosios gimines ivard:,-:! she her: Sie met hq friend.
Daiktai ir abstrakaios sqvokos nlrodomi niekalrosios gimines ivardziais: lt its: The book is in i1! place.

Gyvinq pavadinimai nurodomi niekatrosios gimines ivardziu: The lion icked it9 paw,
bet naminiai ir pasakq gyvinai dainai iasmeninami (anglams bidinga meile gyvlnams):
WriSkieji (stipr0s) gyv0nai (vyr. g.): the dog, [r9 name,
moteriskieji {silpni) gyvilnai (mot. g.): the cat, qbg is dead.
. lsldAmaklle. Laivq bei Saliq pavadinimai nurodomi moteriskosios gimines ivard:iais: The Atlanlic lost ltcl
crew, England and hel dominions.

ll. Daugiskaitos sudarymas: vienaskaita + s (dogs, friends)


Netaisyk ingai sudaromos dgs. formos:
Vns. lman I worar I| cn,to lo^
| ltoor
| I| tootr i| qoo, rel l ouse
Dqs. lmen I women I childrenl oxen Iteet I leeth I oeese I 'nouse
mice I lic€
Daiktavard:iai, kuriq dgs. ir vns. formos sutarnpa: sheep, deer (elnias), swin€, fish, fruit, har, pair, dozen ir
dauguma:uvrt risiq: trout (upetakis), salmon (la3i6a), carp (karpis), pike (lydska),
bet herr ng, ! (sjlkes), eel, :s (unguriai).
Jei daiktavardis baigiasi s, x, z, ch, sh -r es: ass - asscg, box bo)(cg, church churcheg
priebalse + y ) ies: baby babils, penny pennieg (bel pence),
fe, f + vesr wfe (wile !v VCS), life, knifei calf, haii sell, shelf; thief,
leaf: wolf
bet chiefs, rools.
o -J es: hero herocg, potalo - potalocg
bet tarptautiniuose iod:iuoser photAg, piana!.
. lsld6m6klle. Sudurtiniai daiktavard:iai su manr gentleman gentlernqn, Frenchman Frenchmcn,
bet German, :q, Roman, €, Norman, :q

Tik visnaskaita vartojami abslraktieji ir kuopiniai daiklavardiiai:


advice - patarimas {-ai) know edge - ,inios
bus ness - verslas merchandise - prek6s
lurniture - baldai progress - paianga
patarimas a piece of advce, baldas - a piece ol furniture
. Tik daugiskaila vartojami id dviejq daliq susidedandiq daiklq pavadinimai:
scissors 2iftles ungs - plau6iai
longs - tepl6s lrouserc kelnes
spectacles - akiniai - scales - svarctyklds
vienerios :irkles a palr oJ scissors. Sie akiniai yra stiprls - The6e spectacles ale strong.

lll. Linksnis
Bendrasis (The Common Case) ir savybinis (The Possessive Case)
Savybinis linksnis reiskiamas:1) prielinksnio of junginiu ir 2) pridedant apostrcfq (vienaskaitojo - 's, daugiskaito-
ie s').
Sa\,ybinio linksnio formq lurir a) daiktavard:iai, pavadinantys asmeni: Jackb blue book, lhe boyql books, b) laikq
ir atstumq reiskiantys daiktavard:iai: a weeklg holiday, a monthb stay, a mieb walk, at armb lenqth, a slonels
throw, c) sustaba lje posakiai: to my heartb content (ki€k $irdis geid:ia), for Heavenb sake (d6l Dievo meiles).
Piklausymas anglq kalboje reiBkiamas ir prielinksniu ot + daiktavardis. Si lorma vartojama dainai, nes reiSkia
priklausyn4 n asme,rrur, ir daiklu bei reis\in.ur:
. the back of the chair - k6des atlosas
a oicture ol Tom Tomo nuotralka
the co our of the dress - suknelds spalva
the light oi the sun - saulds Sviesa
a lslddmeklte. Kai kuriuose vietos aplinkybe einandiuose daiktavardiiq junginiuose pa:ymimieii iodiiai (house,
shop. church. praclice) paprastai pfaleidZiamr:
I am at my uncle's (house), at the doctor's (practice), St. Paul's (church)-
4. Bodvardis
Btdvafd:io forma nesikeidia: ihe grea! poets of England.
t. Latpsnravrmas
Nelyginamasis l. Aukstesnysis l. AukS6iausiasis l.

visnskigmeniai ir dvi-
skiemeniai biidvardZiai,
kuriq antrasis skiemuo -er (negu than)
.e kirCiuotas arba kurie bai-
6 giasi y,le, er, ow,
'6

'. dviskiemeniai, kuriq pir-


masis skiemuo kirdiuotas, more {negu - than)
ir daugiaskiemeniai bid-
vard:iai

good better best


bad, il
more

. Sintetiniu bidL laipsniuojami b0dvard:iai: srnal smaler smalest, poliie' poiter poliiesr, happy
happier happiest, simple sinrpler simplest, clever c everer cleverest, narrow nafroweT narrowest,
handsome handsomer handsomest.
Analitiniu badu laipsniuojami bldvard:iai ir dalyviai: carelul, diff cu t p eased, charrning.
a lsid6m6klle. Dabartindje anglq kalboje tarp siq laipsniavimo bodq grieZtos ribos nera. Daugelis dviskiemeniq
bodvard:iq gali blti laipsniuojami ir sinteliniu, k analitiniu budu, pvz.: common, qu et, p easani.
Dvi laiosniu formas tu :

far (tolimas) z.-"'/ tar'het fadhest (nusakant atstumq): the farthest way
further - iurthest (nusakant laikq): wthout fufiher delay
-\
litfle (mazasl ,-'/ smal et - smallest (nusakant dydi): ihe smatest room
-=\- less - least (nusakant kiekj)r he drinks less wine than m lk

. nearest (nusakant atstumq):


<\\,-'
the nearest !!ay
near (arlimas)- nearer next (nusakanl taikq, eitiskumq): nexl montn, lrre nexr way

tate fvetus) <=/ alet _ latest (nusakant laikq): l'll see you later, th€ latesi paper
-_--\- atter last (nusakanl eili6kumq): the latter sentenc€, (the) asi time

old {senas) older - oldest: he is older than I, the oldest tree


-..---\
-----l elder - eldesr (lyginani Seimos vaikq
amZiq; eina pa:yminiu) rny elder brolher, his eldesi son
Laiosniskas laiosniavimas: vis ma:esnis -
smaller and smaler
vis graZesnis rnore and more beautifu
ll, Lyginimas
Lygiaverlis: as... as: lvly sister ls a9 big aq lam.
Lygiaveraio lyginimo neigimas: not so ... as {arba not as ... as)t ... nol so big aC...
arba aukstesnysis laipsnis + than: ... bigger than ...;
iuo (daugiau) ... juo - the ... the: lhe soon€r, the better;
juo (maZiau) ,., juo - the less ... the less: the ess you work, the ess you wil earn.
. lsldemeklto.the forrner - plmasis (i5 dviejq) the same as - toks pal kaip
ihe iatier - antrasis (i5 dviejq) other than kitoks ncgU
lll. Sudaiktavardeiimas
Sudaikiavarddje bidvardZiai apibendrintai pavadina tam tikq kategoritq ar grupe. Jq daugiskaiios lorma
nesiskiria nuo vienaskaitos:
the good geris I
the blind aklieji I vienarn asmeniui apibidinti bttinas aiskinamasis Zodis: the poor man vargsas.
the lree - laisvieji ,
Kalbedami apie tautos ar dalies, kurios pavadinimas baigiasi -sh k -ch, pil e6iq visumq, sakome: the Eng ish, the
French. the British. the Dutch. the scotch.
Kalbedami apio atskirus laulos ar Salies piie6ius, pddedame -man, - ady: an Englsh!!q!, a French !C!M two
Scotchmc!, some Dutchmelt.
lV. One
one, ones pakoidia anksaiaLr mindtq daiktavardi: The pen is too blg, g ve me a sma ler e!e.
a lsidAm6kile. one praleid:iamas:
1. po skaidiLt: three pounds or iye,
2. palyginirnuose po:ymimojo ariikelio: The younger boys piayed better than the qbEJ,
3. po auks6iausiojo laipsnio bildvard:iqi His son was the bravesi
4. po own: Thal is my book, lake your atry!,
5. nusakant priedybes: the righl hand and the lqt!.

prieveiksmis sakinyje aiskina veiksmar".r,r:'r:t"t"",.";5,Tlf,rieveir<smius roi daiktavardzius.


L Daryba. Bldvardis + ly = prieveiksmis: brave bravely
Basybos ypatumai:
a) dviskiemeniq k daugiaskiemeniq btdvard:iq galine y po priebalsds keidiama i i: happy happily, easy
eas!y,
b) vienskiemeniq btdvardiiq galin6 -y rasoma dvejopai: dryly ir drily, bet gay gaiLy,
c) galin6 -€ iskrenta :odiiuose irue iruy, whole wholly, due duy, noble nobly,
d) fu I iully.
a lsid6m6kite. Konstrukcijoje in a... manner way rasomi btdvard:lai sugaline-y: in a fr end y manner.
Venodos badvardzio ir prieveiksmio formos: laiko priev€lksmiai su -ly: eary, daly, weekly, monthly yeary
bet bidvardis ir prieveiksmis gali biiti !€rcrbsjolrc, tadiau tur6ti ski{inoq reik6me.
Bldvardis Prieveiksmis
preity - gra:us gana; beveik
only - vienintelis tik
slll - tylus, ramus dar, vis dar
very - tikras labai
. lsldemdklte. Very ,, aba " reikSme eina ir p eS bldvardi, ir pries prieveiksmi: vqy good, vqy badly,
o veiksmazodis nusakomas prieveiksmiu very much: I thank you verv much.
a lsidemekite. Bldvardrs, o ne prieveiksmis, vartoiamas posakiuose: to work hard, to go slow, to talk loud
(low), to spel right (wrong), to fee happy, lo stop short.
a lsid6m6kito. Dainai lietuviq kalbos priovsiksmius anglq kalboje atitinka veiksma:odiniai posakiai:
alsitiktinai - io happen to toliau - to go on lo
- io be lkely to
tikriausiai turbit - | suppose
tikrai to be sure to gaila I am sorry
veraiau - to like belter lo, lo prefer to
pvz.: I happened to meet him. As atsitiktinai sutikau ji.
ll. Laipsniavimas
a) Alaljlailbqdaq, Visi prieveiksmiai su ly laipsni!ojami analitiniu btdu:
brghrly .nore b rgtrrly no:l brgl- 1,.
b) Sintelinis budas. Pdeveiksmiai be ly laipsniuojami sintetiniu bidu:
soon soonef soonest often oltener ottenesl eany €arlier - earlesi.
c) Netaisvk ingas laiosniavimas: gerai well beiter best
blogai badly - worse - worst
mazai little less - least
daug much more most
vdlai late iater - last
arti near nearer - nearest (next)
toli far farther (fufther) - farthest (iurthest).
lll. Vieta sakinyie
Pagrindine taisvkle: prieveiksmiai niekada neina tarp veiksma:od:io ir papildinio.
Kitos taisvkles:
a) Kir6iLroti prieveiksnriai (vietos, apibreilo laiko ir bido) eina sakinio prad:ioje arba pabaigoje, pvz.: n 1960
we went to London. (vietos); I met h m vesterdav. (apibre:to laiko); We thanked hinr heartilv. (biido);
b) Ne kirdiuoti pr eveiksmiai (neapibrdtto laiko ir bEdo) pagasluosilose veiksma:od:io laikuose eina prieS veiks
maiodi, c!.dillCsc-vellslnazedzi.a-lailglgrnase - po pirmojo pagalbinio veiksmazod:io, pvz.: she has a!
WelS heard the child cry. I have q[9! been in America. (neapibr6:to laiko); I d d nol qqltC undersland you.
The pupils have orompilv obey€d their teacher (bildo).
6. Skaitvardis
l. Kiekiniai
Skaitvardiiai nuo 21 ki 29, nuo 31 iki 39 irt. l. rasomi su braksneliu: iortvlhree.
Tarp Simtq ir takstandiq pries desimtis ir vienetus rasomas jungtukas aleL: three hundred arc! lwenty lve.
. lsid€m6kit6. 100 e hundred (p-[e hundred), 1000 - q thousand (q!q ihousand).
ll. Kelintiniai
Kiekinis + th = kelintnis: the hundredlh. lSmtvsr first, second, thrd (lst,2nd,3rd).
Atkreipkile demesi ikai kuriq skaitvard:it1 rasybos pakilimus: lve
fitth, erght eghth, nine ninth, twelve
twelfth. twentv twentieth etc.
Datos: He was born O! July l4th arba Qlt the 23rd of Ju y. Valdovq vardair Elzabeth ll (skaityk: Elizabelh lhe
Second).
lll. Kiekiniai prieveiksmiai
Eies: phmiausia ... paskui
- firsi ... then: Ei6t he lived at home, thg! he went to England.
Kontrasto: i5 pradziq... veliau, galiausiai atlrst...al ast, at length:At firsi lbelieved him, but at last lbecame
distrustful.
Vardijimo: pima lirsty arba in the frsi place, tredia thifdly arba in ihe third place,
antra secondy arba in the second place, ketvirta lourthly arba in the iourth place,
nuo penkiq sakoma tik in the fifth place, etc.
Pasikartoiimo: kartq - once kiek kartq? - how many tirnes?
dukart - lwice kartais somet mes -
triskart - three tmes (ihrice) dar kartq - once more
keturis kartljs - four iimes etc.
Simtqkart a hundred t mes
Dauginimo: dvigubai - double keturgubai - iourfold, etc.
trigubai - treble, threelold Simtedopai a (one) hundredfo d
daugeriopai manifold

7. Asmeniniai, savybiniai ir sangrE:iniai ivardZiai


Asm. iv (papildi- Savyb. jv (oina Savyb. iv.
(veiksnio funkcija) nio funkcija) pa:yminiu) Sangr jv.
{savarankiSkas)
I mygcll (kirtis anl self)
you your yourser
he hm hrs himselt
she her her herselt
it it its ils (own) itself
ourgglygs
your yourse ves
they ihem their the rs themselves

lslaldmekite. Asmeniniai jvard:ai, einantys netresioginiu pap ldiniu, pries tiesiogini papild nj vartoiami bC_&
(Give me the book.), o po tiesioginio papildinio s! to (Glve ihe book _tp-lu-e.).
lvardis t vartojamasl
1. kaipformalus veiksnys beasmeniuose sak niuose: Lyja. - lt is ra ning. Dabar septinta valanda, - ll s seven
2. rodomojo ivard:io ,,tai" reiksme: Who is knocking? - !! is the postman.
3. anksdiau pasakylai mindiai nurodyti: What about going 1o the cinema? lls not a bad idea.
lsiddmdkiie. Sangrqiiniq ivard:iq nereiketq painioti su saviiarpiniais ivafd:iais.
sangrEZiniair The children look at themselves in ihe rnirror - Vaikai :iori isave veidrodyje.
savitarpiniai: The children look at eAO[dheI (kai kalbama apie du asmenis), one another (kai
kalbama apie daugiau negu du asmenis). Vaikai apziirineja vienas kitq.

8. Rodomieii ivardZiai
Artimi objektai Nutole objektai

Vienaskaita this that


Daugiskaita these those

Vienaskaita. Daiktavardi6kai th s ir thai vartoiami nurodant asmenis ne:ymimuoiu ivardiiu onei I know this one.
rnar one.
Daugiskaita. DaiktavardiSkai ir bldvardidkai - nurodant asmenis k daiktus: Wh ch girls play better, UheSC or thpsC?
9. Klausiamieii ivard:iai
1. daiktavard i6kas variojimas 2. b[dvardiskas vartoiimas

Asmenys ir daiktai
linksnj Daiklai
(isskyrimas, ruSiavimas)

what? - kas? which? - kuris?


Which of you is il ?

of which? what (which) boy?


Whose book is this?
N. to whom? - kam?
To whom did you To what do you as- There are two ieams,
give t? cribe your success? to which do you belong?
whom? - kE?
Whom did you call?
betler, lea or collee?
ot whom - apie kq? of which?
Ol whom do you speak? Of what did There were iwo accidents.
you speak? Of which did you hear?

ln. -
to whom? su kuo?
To whom d d you speak?
telet?

. lsldamOklte. Klausimuose su klausiamaisiais ivardziais prlelinksniai daZniausiai eina po veiksma:od;iq:


Whom are you speaking ql? yyhqt is he laughing a!? l{hq! are yo! talking abau!?
o Posakiai: Whal do you ca | (lhls game)? (Kaip vadinasi ...?); Whal is the malter wjth him? (Kas jam nutiko?)

10. santykiniai ivard:iai


Atitinka liet. k. linksni Daiktai Asmenys ir daiktai
thal
K. of which (whose) (rhat - o0
N, to whom 10 which (1hat - to)
that

ln. (that to)

wns My friend ydp made a trip to London.


(. The girl y4bAse lalher I know (Whose visada eina prie6 juo nusakomq daiktavardi.)
The house whose walls are grey. (lvardiiu whose neretai nurodomi ir asmenys, ir daiktai;
prielinksninis junginys of which ne toks populiarus.)
N, to whom The pupil tq]4hg!! he gave the book.
!!haro The man whom I asked.
oI wnom The boy ol whorn we spoke.
ln. lo whom The girl to whom Tom is ta king.
wniph The train which (thatl affived.
(. of whlch The house the windows of wh ch ... (visada €ina pazymimojo Zodzio). p
N. to which The c ub to which we be ong.
w!q! The things which (lhau we found.
ln. to which The address 10 which you wrote.
in which The house in which I lived as a child.
a lsld6mdklte. Prielinksniai, vartojami su saniykiniais ivardZiais, dazniausiai eina po veiksmaiodiio:
the man yahala was waiting lq, ihe house thq! I ived L!.
lvardis lhat! vartojahas
1. vietoj who, which: Who was the man !ha! you were ta king of? This is the bird lthau he caught.
2. po apibendrinamqjq, ne2yrnimqjq ir kiekybiniq ivardziq all, everything, somelh ng, any.lhing, much, itlle,
nothing, the samei All that you do. That is everything fXaU I know.
3. po il is ..., it was ... ka nors pabre:iant: lt was the storm tia! destroved ihe hoLrse.
4. kai ivardiiu nurodomi asmenys ar daiktai: They talk€d aboul the nalivils and p ants (lhat) they had found
interesting.
a lsidemekite, Prielinksnis niekada neina pries that, o nLrkeliamas po veiksmazod:io: The train that I waited
ial arrived.
. Atkreipkite d€mesi. Santykjniai ivard:iai who (whom), which ir that gali blti praleidZiami, jei Salutinis pa-
:yminio sakinys turi atskirq veiksnir This is the boy (whom) | like best. The house (1ha1) we ive in.
11. Neiymimieii ivardUiai
some - kai kas, kai kuris, Siek tiek, mazdaug (vartojamas su skaitvardZiais)
1. Zymi neapibreZtq kieki ar skaidiq.
2. Vartojamas teigiamuosiuose sakiniuose pasakojant: n the evening we had 9-9]Ic tea.
any kaZkas, bet kuris, Siek tiek
I ADibendrinamori reikSmd.
2. Nurodo liksliai ne:inomq, neapibre:tq daiktq, asmeni ar ypatybe: You may come at e!.y time.
3, Vartojamas a) klauslamuosiuose sakiniuose: Do you see 4!y m stakes?
b) neigiamuosiLrose sakiniuose: No, I do nol see alI rnisiakes.
c) sqlygos sakiniuoser lf you see any misiakes . .
4. Teigiamuosiuose sakiniuose vartojamas reiksme ,,bet koks", ,,bet kuris": Give me any book.
Su ivardziais so!!e ir aly sudaromi sudurtiniai ivardtiai:
someone J anvone
-, I
someoooy J
- kas nors. ka:kas I oer Kuns
someihing - kaikas anything bet kas, viskas
somewhere - kazkut anywhere bet kur, visur
each kiekvisnas(atskirai)
a) bildvardiSkai: Egq[ player did his besl. b) daiktavardiSkai: Each ol lherr drd l_is besl.
every ki€kvienas(visi)
Vartojamas tik b0dvardiskai: Elely house has a rool.
Sudurtiniai ivardiiai su glcry: everyone, everybody - kiekvienas, visi; everything - viskas-
a Posakiai: every day kiekvienq dienq every forlnighl - kas dvi savaitds
every other day -kas antrq dienE every now and th€n - retkardiais
all visas, visi, viskas
a) bodvardiskai - all men,
b) daiktavardiikai - all ol them,
c) prieveiksmiskaj - He was qLl dirty.
whole - visas (rei$kia nedalomq visumq, siipresnis u: a l)r the whole town, the ytqE of Europe.
a Posakiai; al the betler - luo geriau lirsl ol all
at al - iS viso; apskritai once lor all kartq (visiems laikams)
not at al - visai ne: nd kiek all of us - mss visi
all at once - staiga all ihe day, th€ whole day - vise dienq
alier all - pagaliau on the whole - apskrilai
either - neither
a) bldvardiskai: either - vienas ir kitas, abu: On qilhq side of ihe river,
nether - n6 vienas: Neither way is righl.
b) daiktavardiskai: either - arba vienas, arba kitas: Ellltgl one or the olher must eave.
neither - ne vienas: Neiiher of us could he p him.
. lsidemdkile. eiher or - arca ... aroa
nellner nor - net ... nel
nor - either J I cannoL swim. nor mv brolher either.
noi - eilher J
' taro oat ne
lcd,lror he calrcl swim Cilhe.
'wim,
?AS!AoA. lvarclZiai each, every, all, whole it eithet kai kuiose gramatikose vadinami apibend namaisiais, neithel
ptiskjiamas neigiamqjq ivadtq grupei.
othet
a) bldvardiskai (kitas, -a): the alber girl,
b) daiktavardiskai {kiti): The qthgrg stayed at home.
a Posakiai:
the other day - pries kelias disnas some day or olher kada nors
the other morning kitq rytq some time or other - kada nors
every other day kas antrq dienq on the other hand - antra vertus
one after another vienas paskui kitq anolher (cup of lea) - dar vjenq (puodeti arbatos)
E?Sbb?. lvadliai other ir another kai ku ose gamatikose vadinami skiiamaisiais.
Vienaskaita Daugiskaita . lsid6m6kitel
much - oaug many daug, daugelis many a - daugybe
ll takes loo mlgh time. Many iamilles live there.
Vienaskaita Daugiskaita . lsidemdkite-
lltlle - ma:ai few nedaug - - truputi
a little
I have ItUg hope. I saw only tc!! boys. a few - keletas
a Posaklai: one too much per daug. a gfeat deal of - daug
one too 1ew per mazal a gooo many - gana oaug
very much, a great deal of labai many a - daugybe
very many, a greai many - daugybd n J€w words - trumpai, keliais :odiiais
Pastaba. lvadiiai many, much, few ir liftle kai kuriose ghmatikose vadinami kiekybiniais.
12. VeiksmaZodis
Pagrindiniai taisyklingojo veiksmaZod:io to open (atidaMi) laikai:

Teigiamasis Neigiamasis Klausiamasis Klausiamasis


sakrnys neiqiamasis sakinvs
Esam. do I open? do I not open?
papr l. does he not open?
Esam. r arn openrng I am not opening anr lopening? am I not opening?

I did not op€n did I open? did I nol open?


papr. l.
Btt. I was openrng i was not opening was lopening? was I not opening?

Esam, I have not opened have I not opened?


a|ikt. L
Bnt. I had not opened had I opened? had I not opened?
a ikt. L
I shall open, I shall nol open, shall lopen? shall I noi open?
you will oper you will not open
Tariam. lshould open, I shou d not open, should lopen? should I not open?
you would not open should (would) you op-"n? should (would)you not open?
Liepiam. let me open! openl do not let me open!
nuos. do nol open!
Esam. L opening
dalyvis
Bit. L opened
dalwis

a Atkreipkile ddmesi i bisimojo laiko k tariamosios nuosakos vartojime po iungnikq when, il white, as soon as:
I shal go out when Lq[ ready. He woud do it if he coL]td.

13. Pagalbiniai veiksmaiod2iai


to have (turdti)
a) padeda sudaMi sudetinrus laikus: He has come
b) + papildinys + bltojo laiko dalyvis: I blve my hair qut
c) + objektinis linksnis + bendratis: The ieacher wtt hAve the boys lrqt! by hearl.
d) + bend€lis su dalelyte to (prjvaleti): He hqs much to_!h.
e) vieloj have daznai vartojama torma have got: Have you (got) a new house? Ktausiamojj ir neigiamoji
formos kartais gali b[tisudaromos su pagalbiniais veiksma:od:iais do/does: Do you have a new house?
to be (buti)
a)vartojamas neveikiamajai rtsiai sudaryti: The story wec totd by Faiher
b) vartojamas sudarant lestinius laikus: lt !s raining.
c) + bendratis su ie (turdti) (kieno nors noru arddl lemties): He was to d e in Air ca.
d) + neveikiamosios r[Sies bendralis (pivaldti): The tesson is tq be finished.
e) savarankiskas veiksmatodis: To be or not to be lhat is the quesiion."
. Posakiai: I am warm. - Man silta. I am right. - AS teisus. How are yoL? - Kaip gyvuoiate?
I am cold. Illan salta. I arn wrong. AS ktystu_ Let me be. - Palik mane ramybdje.
lo do (daryti)
vartojamas a) klausimarns sudaMi, kai tarinys - savarankiakas veiksmaZodis: qA you ike it? Dtd he come?
Klausimas be to do sudaromas:
1) kai jis pradedamas kitu pagalbiniu veiksmazod:iu: Wil he come?
2) kai klausiama apie veiksni: Who (which bov) knows thai? Bet jei toks klausimas neigiamas,
vartojamas to do: who (wh ch boy) lbes not know that?
b) neigiamajai formai sudaMi: We do not torget it
Neigiamoji forma sudaroma be to do:
1) kai vartojamas kiias pagalbinis velksma:odis: She cannol swim.
a kaivartojamas ne not, o kitas neiginys (never, nothing, etc.): You ItElqt can ie t. We saw nothing.
3) kai not paneigia ne veiksma:odi, o visq sakini: ts she it? No, I suppose !q!.
. lsidemekite. Neigiama liepiamoji forma visada sudaroma su to do, net jei vartojamas pagatbin;s veiksmazodis
to have ir to be: Do noi have a ook at ill Dq! be soryl
c) pried tai einandiam veiksma:odziui sustiprinti:
1) lyginant: He knows rnore than i !h.
2) pabre:iant yes ir no: Do you |sten to the music? Yes, we dg. No, we do no:t.
3) verdiant ,,(aS) taip pat" -,,(a5) taip pat ne": He reads much. - So dq l. She does not road
much. Nor dO we.
4) verdiant ,,ar n€?' Kai sakinys teigiamas, pagatbinio klausimo veiksma:odis noigiamas: you
leel beiief, lbtrl you? Kai sakinys neigiamas, pagalbinio ktausimo veiksma:odis ieigiamas:
He didn't say so, Cljd he? (bet jei prieg tai einan6iame sakinyje jau yra pagatbinis veiksma-
:odis, jis pakartojamas: You ale noi glad, aIC you?)
d) kaip savarankiikas veiksmaiodis (su to do klausjant k neigiant): He elid his best. How 4q you do?

14. Modaliniai veiksmaiod:iai

Vartojimas

1. fizinis oeb6i'mas: to be able to


{neig.) to be unable lo
2. qebeiimas. mok6iimas: (tik 2.): lo know (how to)
He cou d translale.
3. galimvbe:
Can I heip you?
I shal lshould shal ti€sioginis lieoimas: to be to
You shal not siea I 1. atsilieoimasikilo asmens liepima:
should What arr] | io do?
1. netiesiogindie kalboje: 2. lcnotlg:
The ieacher said we should work. His death was to decide her fate.
2. tafiamaiai nuosakai rciksti, 3. pdelaida:
pAlgiga: You should te I th€ truth. to b€ said lo be supposed to:
He is_s-aid (slppase4 to be ilt.
lwould will valia, noras: 1. noras to want, to wish, to likel
I will gei on in my life. | ryq!! to see him. He wishes
to be a salor. Do as you Li!e.
1. stiorus noras (da:nai nsigiamas): 2. ketinimas ir netolima ateitis:
He would not go abroad. going to, to mean to, to intend to,
2. su tariamaia nuosaka: ro propose ro
I wou d I were ai home. 3. paslaugumas to be willing to:
3. lgO|js.:taisykle (da:niausiai, He is willing to do al .
Paprastai): Boys will be boys. 4. sunkiai iwkdomas noras
She would play every day. to wish - would + tariamoji nuosakal
| !4ish I W€rg dead. | !.!p!b! the
oay wctg over
5. klaidinoas tvirtinimas to pretend:
He getcrds to be ill.
lmay lmighl may to be allowed to I _ r.,.ti-""
1. galjEybe: This may be true. to be permifled to J
2. lgiClima!: You may come. I hqVg not been a lowed to smoke.
3. avelnus draudimas (may not): They will not Le_pe{qittcd to p ay.
You may not Lrse ihis book. -
4- neigiamas noras (may not)l il is possible - oalimvbe
Ivlay you never be unhappyl

mighl vartojamas sqlygos sakiniuose


galihybei reik6ti: fe mighl have
missed ihe lrain
lmust (l must) musl to have to: I halll9 stay at home.
1, b[llinumas. neisv€noiamumas: to be forced lo: He was forced
All nren must die. to leave his couniry.
2, draudimas (must not, need nol): to be obliged tor She was oblioqd
You must not tell a lie lo earn her living.
3. bitinumo nebuvimas (need not)l to be compelled to: They were
I need noi te I you thls story. qo._[pql]g!L lo work hard.
I ought lo moralinis lsipareigoiimas (l ought to):
I ouqht 10 oo to church.

. lsldAmekile, Veiksma:odiiai (1o) need (reikdri) n (to) dare (dristi) gati boti ir modatiniai, ir savarankiskj:
He deCs not need 1q come. k He !€ed not come.
He lkL nol dare t9 go out. ir He lbrqd noi go out.

10
15. Laikai
Anglq, kajp ir lietuviq kalboje, esamasis paprastasis laikas (Present Simp e) rei$kia nuolat pasikartojanti veiksmq.
Esamasis tqstinis laikas (Present Cont nuous) reiskia besitesianti nebaigtq veiksmq, kuris vyksla kalbejimo mo-
menlu, Vartojamas su now, at preseni, at the momenta The children are sleeping now lam reading now
Esamasis atliktinis laikas (Present Perfect) rei6kia pra€ityje prasid6jusj h tebevykstantj veiksmq. Vartojamas su
today, just, now, since, this morning, etc. ... these..i I have been waitng for you tigs€ 10 m nules. He bas
bcq! dead Jor 2 years (... jau mnes).
Bttasis paprastasis laikas (Past Sinrple) rei$kia praeiiyje pasibaigusi veiksmq. Vartojamas su yesterday, lasl,
once, ago, formerly, in (the year): Yestefday lt rained. He digd 2 years qgq.
Bitasis lestinis laikas (Past Coniinuous) reiskia besitesianii veiksmq, vykusi praeityje. Varlojamas su then, at lhat
time, at (six), on (Sunday), when {you come): When Torn came we were olavina. lt was rainino ihen.
Batasis atliktinis laikas (Past Perfect) nurodo visiskq veiksmo baigti praeityje: He had learned so much that ...
Busimasis laikas (Fulure Simp e) vartojamas ateilyje numanom ems arba spdlam ems veiksmams reikSt. At€itis
nurodoma aplinkybemis tomorfow, soon, etc.: He !{ill come loetr. (Jis greitaialqis.) ir veiksmaiod:iais to hope,
to suppose, to sxpect, etc.: I h!!g that we shall meet again. (... kad mes vel susitiksime.)
Artimiausiq ateiti nurodo to be going to, to be about io + bendratis: He is qoj[q (about) 10 sing. (Jis rengiasi
dainuoti.)
Sqlygos sakiniai rei3kia nerealq arba su iam tikra sqlyga vyksianti veiksmq.
a lsldamdklte. Sqlygos sakiniuose po if eina bitasis papraslasis arba bitasis atliktinis laikas: He would
have earned more money, f he had worked hard. Palyginkite su 17.3,

16. Laiku derinimas


a) netiesiogineje kalboje:
Pagrindinis sakinys Salutinis sakinys
Esamasis papraslasis /!e L'lo$rs hrsLo'y we -r Bltasis paraslasis (l said he knew h story we l.)
Esamasis teslinis (He is waiting tor Ann.) -r Bilasis teslinis (l said he was waiiing for Ann.)
Esamasis atliktinis (He has just gone oul.) + B[tasis atliktinis (l sad he had gone out.)
Bltasis paprastasis (He knew history well.) -r Botasis atliktinis (l said he had known hislory well.)
Eutasis teslinis (The sun was rislng.) + Butasis atliktinis testinis (l said the sun had been rising.)
Bltasis atliktinis (He had lost his key.) + Bltasis atliklinis (l said he had osl his key.)
Btsimasis paprastasis (He wil wrile a letler -J Praeities busimasis (l said he wou d write a lettef the next
tomorrow) oay )
Bisimasis testinis (He'll be working r Praeities blsimasis t9slinis (l said he would be work ng
after elghi.) after eiqht.)
Bisimasis atliktinis (8y tonrorfow he will -+ Praeities biisimasis alliklinis {l sad he would have writlen
have wr tten his essay.) h s essay by the nexi day.)
a Bet kai nusakomas veiksmas, roiskiantis b€ndras liesas bsi d6snius, arba kai tiesiogineje kalboie aprasyli
ivykiai tesiasi kalbos metu, Salutinio sakinio laikas nekinta: He to d us that Stratford llq! on the Avon. He
slated that the earth iq round.
b) sakiniuose, prasidedandiuose if (sqlygos sakiniuose) (ir 17.3).
a lsiddm6kit€. Kei6iant tiesiogine kalbq netiesiogine, keidiasi:
this Jihai the day atter tomorrow J in two clays time
these -+ihose -r the Jollowing week/year
today +ihai day +the previous week/year
yesterday -+the day before a year ago Ja year belore/lhe previous year
the day betore yesterday -+two days belore now
tomorrow -+the next day/the here
lollowlng day

17. Nuosakos
1. TlesloglnA
2. Liepiamoii
3. Tariamoii
Formos 1, Senosios:
a) galines -s nukritimas nuo esam. l. 3-io asmensr he have - jis turi, he live - jis gyv€na,
b) l, you, he, etc. bgr il that bg true,
L yoL, he. elc, were: I w:sl- we'p yoL.
2. Atsargines may mighl: lwsh(ed) he may (!n&n9 win the gamei
should (neatsi:volgiant i laikq derinimo taisykl€s): lt ls mposslble thal he should know t.
Vartolimaa 1. Spdiimas. spdliolimas. pritarimas. neprilarimas su should, may, might po posakiq il is righl,
wrong, natural, necessary, good (betler), impossible, time:
li is nalural ihat she should marry him.
su may (might) po it is possible, ii is probablo: li is possible that he may (mighu come.

11
2. Besqlvgj6kumas su (al)though, whatever, whoever, however:
Whoever h€ !0qy be, we shall help him.
3. SElvga sakinyje su ii Esam. L Bit. papr. l. 8il. atl. l.
o pagrindiniame sakinyje B0s. L Esam. L sqlygos tafiam. nuos. Bat. L sqlygos tariam. nuos.
a) Jei sqlyga tikra ir igyvendinarna, vartojama liesiogind nuosaka: li you ask me, I shall answer.
b) Jei sqlyga nereali arba neigyvendinama, vaftojama tariamoji nuosaka.
Salutiniame sakinyje pagrindiniame sakinyje
Tariam, nuos, birt. papr L Esam. l. sqlygos tariam. nuos. (Present Conditional)
lJ I u€le in yourplace, I shou d go hom€.
Tariam. nuos. bit. ail. l. - But. L sqlygos tarlam. nuos. (Past Conditional)
ll I had been in your place I should have gone home.
4. lSgvvenimas, susiiaudinimas:
a) Baime. Basimasis laikas ir sqlygos tariamoji nuosaka, kai btgBlavimai nukreipti i ateitit We are
airaid thal we qhall lose our money Kitais atvejais veiksmaiod:io tariamoii nuosaka vartojama
su may (might): She feared that she !!,iq[t be gravely ill.
b) D:iauosmas. skausmas. apqaileslavimas, nuoslaba. oyktis. Tanamoji nuosaka su should:
10 be glad d:iaugtis, it is a pity - gaila; lt is a piry thar ihey should be so lazy.
c) llalaq. Jei noras nerealus, lariamoji nuosaka vartoiama b0tuojs paprastuoju arba bltuoju
atliktiniu laiku: lwish I Wqg in England now. Jei nolas realus, vartojami may (might)r t\,4ay
you be rightl I wish€d that he dglt be righi.
d) Ketinimas. Ketinimo sakiniuose su that ir in order to vartojami may (might)r Speak loud !h4! |
loeY hear You

18. lprotis, pasikartoiimas


will + bendratis be to vartojama iprodiui arba iprastiniam pasikartojandiam veiksmui reiksti esamuoiu laiku: In
April ihe weather dll often change. (... kei6iasi oras, linkes keistis.)
Praeitis su would + bendratis be to: I would go there. (AS ten eidavau.)
used to + bendratis: I Lrsed to lake a bus. (Vaiiuodavau autobusu.)

19. Neveikiamoii rUsis


to be + biltojo laiko dalyvis {$nekamojoje kalboje vietoj io be paprastai vartojamas to ger.l
Esamasis l.: The master punishes John. - John is punished by ihe master. yra baudziamas
Bttasis paprastasis l.: Did the master punish John? - Was John punished by the master? buvo nubaustas
Bosimasis l.: The master wil not punish John. - John will not be punished by the master. nebus nubaustas
Esamasis tqstinis l.: They are looking al John. John is being looked al by them. yra apiilrinejamas
Dviguba konstrukcija: l/other giv€s John a book. John is given a book by tr/other.
. lsldem€kite. Neveikiamoji r[6is i lietuvir.l kalbq ver6iama ivairiai: Englsh (is) spoken here. {Cia kalbama
angli$kai.) The lown is seen lrom ihe hill. (Nuo kalvos malyti miestas.)

20. Bendratis be to
vartojama: 1. po modaliniq veiksma:od:iq ir to do: I qhall go home. We rlg not -c|Ij]][.
2. po to make, io let, to bid veikiam4a rtsimi: llct hirn qanc.
3. po jutimq reiskiandiq veiksma:odziqr I hear him sing (arba singing).
4. po posakiq: I had rather, I had better, lcannot but, lhad as good.

21. Bendratis su to
vartojama, kaiji eina l.veiksniu a) pries veiksma.:odi: Always to help is not easy.
b) prie6 beasmenios posakius: lt is better to stav here.
2. vardine tarinio dalimi: He seemed io be angry.
3. tiesioginiu papildiniu: tlg pfomised to corne.
4. pa:yminiu a) po veiksma:od:io: We heloed him to translate lhe letter.
b) po bndvardzior Be slow 10 oromise.
c) po daiktavard:io: I have the oleasure to know him.
d) po kelintiniq skaitvard:iq: He was the firsi lo sw m.
5. aplinkybe a) tikslo ar pridaslies: I huffied to letch a doctor.
b) passkmds: He was ioo tired to learn.

t2
22. Aprasomoii bendratis
varlojama su a) how to (kaip) po mokymo, mokymosi ir supratimo veiksmaiod:iq: He learns how to ride
a b ke (kaip vaziuoti dviradiu).
b)what to (kq), where to (kur): He did not know what io sav. I showed hirn where to buv the
oooKs.
c) as to sutrumpiniuose pasekmds sakiniuose po SO ir F.lSlt (pag ndinio ir Salutinio sakinio vei-
k6jas tas pats): You were s!q!t a foolas to be ieve him. (fu buvaitoks kvailas, kadjuo palikejai.)
d) in order to (kadJ: He nrade h m com€ in order io punish him (..., kad ji nubaustq).
lsldemekite, Verdiant sakinius su bendratimi i lietuviq kalbq labiau pais-oma sakinio prasmds, o ne jo formos:
a) N4any inleresting th ngs are to be seen n this lown. (Siame mieste yra daug idomiq dalykq.)
b)lt was 10 be exoecied ihat he was late lhat night. (Buvo gatima tikdtis/tikdtagi, ... .)
Nepaisant to, iog roiksmd neveikiamosios rusies, veikiamoii rtiis vartoiama:
1) po badvardZiq, kai galima suprasti dviprasmiskai: Th s apple is goocl to eal.
2) po there is, there are: There is nothing 10 sav.
3) su to Jet, 10 blamet Rooms lqlgt; You are to blame.

23. Papildinys + bendratis


belo 1. po fizini suvokimq reigkiandiq veiksmaiod:iq to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to observe: I saw
nrTa comq.
2. po iirt ieidimq bei isakymq rsiskiandiU veiksma:od:iq:
a) to make, to have (to bid): You make me lauoh.
b) 10 let: Let lhe bov returnl
!!& 1. po noro, ketinimo vejksmaiodiiq: to want, to wish, to like: I wish her to learr
2. po daugumos leidimo ir jsakymo veiksmatodiirl:
a) 10 cause, tO order, to command: We caused hirn to send ior a doclor,
b) to al ow, to permit, to suffer: We a lowed the girls to come ln
3. po kai kuril.l kalbejimq bei mqslymq rei6kian6iq vsiksma:odiiq to declare, to deny, to expect,
to believe, to think, to suppose, to remember: England expecis everv man io do his duiy.
(Nelson)
. lsiddm6klte. Snekamojoje kalboje da:niau vartojami Salutiniai sakiniai su that.
. lsld6maklte. Po to say, to tell, to answer, to reply, to hope, to fear eina Saluiinis sakinys su that: He hooed
tiqt she would come.

24. Vardininkas + bendratig


Sakiniai su konstrukcija ,,papildinys + bendratis" h veikiafiosios rlsies veiksmarod:iu gali biti pavercti sakiniais
su konstrukcija ,,veiksnys + bendratis" be! neveikiamosios rosies veiksma:odiiu (ir atvirk6aiai): l've never known
him io tel a lie.
Lle has never been known !qt!q!l a lie.
a Prie bodvardzio jungiama bendratis su for: The town is too distani for me to be seen.

25. Gerundiius
Gerundijus - veiksma:odiio fo.ma, turinli ir daiktavard2io, ir veiksmaZodzio savybiq. Sakinyje eina:
1. veiksniu: Swimming s healthy. (Plaukti sveika.)
2. vardine tarinio dalimi: That is runnino a great rlsk (t.y. rizikuoti, pastatyti ant kortos).
3. tiesioginiu papildiniu, ypad po laiko aplinkybiq alba simpatijq ff anlipatija reiikiandiq
veiksmaiodiirl.
Gerundijus variojamas po: Gerundijus gali bIh varlojamas po:
ro go on to like
to grve up to enjoy
to put olf to excuse to preier
to slop I do not mind to mind ro regrer
io linlsh lo slarl
Go on reading. llike WelLilq. - llihe lo walk.
4. po prielinksniq, einan6iq po:
a) verksrra2od:rq lo co-plain o' ro objed to
to depend on lo prevent irom
to delight in to quarre aboui
to despalr of to succeed in
to insist (up)on to think of He succeeded in escaoing.

l3
b) daiktavardiiu to be in the habil of
to be on the point ol
to be in danger of
the way of
a plan ior He was in danger of qettincl drowned.
c) b[dvard:iq fond of
proud oi
capable ol
d sappointed at
keen on
far from
accustomed to She was fond of bqilg admired.
5. Salutiniais aplinkyb6s sakiniais:
a)lailq, po before, atler, on, upon: O! eaving America ... (lsvykqs i5 Amedkos ...)
b)plezagties, po for, tor the sake of, on account of (d6l): He was punished lqt having stolen.
(...nes pavogd, uZ vagyste.)
c)bUds, po by, wiih, without, inslead of (vietoiko): By trying again and agaln you wil succeed.
d)nuolaidos, po in spile of (nepaisant to, kad): In soite of beiog late you can hear the speech-
a lsid6makite. Vi€toj sLrdlrtiniq laiko formq dainai vartojamos paprastosios (ypaa po atler):
after having finished - atter finishing
for havino sio en for stealing

26. Dalyvis
Dalyvis - veiksmazod:io forma, tuinli ir b[dvardiio, ir veiksma:odiio savybiq. Dalyvio formosi esamojo laiko
dalyvis (Fres€nt Participle) h bntojo laiko dallvis (Past Participle).
I saw a boy beattq a dog. (Madiau berniukq, musanti Suni.)
He was away helping his father. (... isvykqs padeti tevui.)
There lived a ittle gir callqd Bed Riding Hood. (... vardu Raudonkepurail6.)
L Preseni Participle ir Past Participle sakinyje atlieka Sias funkcijas:
1 . paZym inio: The American, visitilg our town, was very d el g hted.
2. aplinkybes
laiko: Having done their work, they went home.
a)
b)prio:asti€s: (Being) tjled of wailing, I went olf.
c) bodo: He entered the room carrving some books.
d)sqlygos: This poem, ii careluly declaimed, will be impressive.
Prasm€i paaiSkinti gali btti pavartoti jungtukai (while, though, etc.).
ll. Rasytineie kalboie vartojama absoliuti dalyvind konslrukcija, kuri sakinyje atlieka Sias funkciias:
d!!9, we weni home.
a) laiko aplinkybds: If-iq.
b)prioraslies aplinkybas: The task bqilg too hard, he gave up all hope
a lsiddmAklto. Kai kuri6 esamojo laiko dalyviai vartojami kaip posakiai:
cons defing - atsi:velgiant i supposing - jeigu
excepting - isskyrus strictly speaking - tiksliau sakant
including - iskaitant ir generally speaking - apskrilai kalbant

27. Veiksma:od:iq valdymas


L Galininkiniai (tranzityviniai) veiksma:odziai reikalau,a ties'oginio papildinio: to thank He thanked hjs father.
We en oved the plav very much. She lrusts her parenis.
ll. Negalininkiniai (intranziiyviniai) veiksmaZodriai nevartojami su tiesioginiu papildiniu ir gali sudaryti sakini,
jungdamiesi tik su veiksniu: His heart aches. The girl is crying.
Kai kurie v€iksmarodiiai gali blti k kanzityviniai, ir intranzilyviniai, priklausomai nuo konteksto:
intranzityviniai tranzityviniai
kristi to drop (nu)mest;
sk sti to fly skraidinti
augti to grow auginti
gritti to return grq:inti
b6gti to run tuarkyti;valdyti
skesti to sink skandinti
stoveti to stand staMi

I4
28. Prielinksniai
ant; daugiau negu pett po; i lapie vietq, lai-
per kq, bnd4 bnsenA, tiksle ir t.L)
after po, paskul i
againsl pries; ii nuo arti, Salia
aso pried iE (apie medZiagA);nuo
along i5ilgai, palej lnuodant piezaqt n n.
tarp olf Salin; uZ; nuo
among tarp (daugelio), iS on (upon) ant; priei apiei i
apie, aplink iSi u:
prie; pas; i; p e u2 lribtt)
lapie viet4 laikE, krypti it LL) virs; po; per; apie
pnes, prrma past poi pro; uz
behlnd l]Z; po; paskui since nuo; nuo to laiko
iemiau, po through per; pro
salia, prie, arti t ll, until iki; ligi
l; pasi pfle
tarp (dviejq) iki
ui; vir6; po link; j; api6
but taaiau, bet, tik; jeigu ne po; zemiau
by aki
2emyn su; nuo
dunng metu, per viduje; per (metus)
per; i; szi ddl wrthout bg
idi nuo

29. Jungtukai
l. Sujungiamieii
lrolh... and tiek ... tiek, ir .. h
as we as taip pat, lygiai taip
nor on y ,.. oul aso ne lik ... bot ir
elther... or atDa ,., aroa
ne lner ... nor
nepaisanl lo

ll. Priiungiamieli
laiko when, afler, before, whie lil, unii whenever, as soon as, since, no sooneT...
ihan, scarcely.., when
prieZasties - asj because, since (kadangi)
sqlygos if, lnless, n case, on conditon (ihal) provided (thai)
nuolaidos - lhough a tholrgh
tikslo - that, in order thai, esl
pasekmes tl'rat, so that
lyginimo - as, than, as if (lhough)
prie6ybes - whereas, whilst
netiesioginio klausimo - if, wheth€r

30. Netaisyklingieii veiksma:odiiai


pasirodyti, iskilti build buit, built statl,,ti
awake, awoke awoke, awaked pabusti burn, burnl, brrnt degti
De, was/were oeen b0ti bursl, bursl, burst sprogti
bear, bore, borne/born nedti; pakehi; gimli buy, bought, bought pirkti
muSti mestl
Decome, oecame, Decome tapti, pavirsti caich, caught, caughl gaudyti, pagauli
begin, began, beg!n pra(sDd6ti cnoose, cnose, cnosen pasirinkli
lenkti(s) clng, clung, ciung laikytis, kabintis
bid, bade, bidden liepti, isakyli com€j camej come ateili, alvykti
bind, bound, bound OriSti kainuoti
bte, bii bitten kqsti Sliau2ti; selinti
bleed, bled, bled kraujuoti cut, cut, cut pjauti; kirsli
pisti deal, dea t, deall tur6ti rsikalq
break, broke, broken lauiyti org, oug oug kasti
voisti(s), dauginti(s) darlti, veildi
br ng broughl, brought (at)nelti traukti; piesti

15
dream, dfeaml/dfeamed, keltis; (pa)kilti
dreamt/dfeamed sapnuoti; svajoti begti
drink, drank, drunk gorti say, said, said sakyli
drve, drove, driven vaziuoti;vaMi matyti
dwell, dwelt, dwe t (apsi)gyventi seek, sought, sought ieskoti
valgyti sell, sold, sold paduoti
iall, fell, iallen (nu)kristi (pa)sir.lsti
maitinti, Serti sei, set, sel pastatyti
feel, felt, Ielt jausli(s) sew, sewed, sewn/sewed (su)siili
fight, fought, lought kovoti shake, shook, shaken kraMi(s)
find, found, found (su)rasta shrne, shone, shone Sviesti
skristi, l6kti shool, shol, shol (nu)Sauti
Jorbid, forbade, lorbidden (u:)drausti show, showed, shown (pa)rodyti
forgel, forgoi, forgoiten uZmhSti shrink, shrank, shrunk sumat6ti, susitraukti
iorglve, lorgave, iorgiven atleisti shut, shut, shui uZdaMi
lteeze,lroze,lrczen (ui)Salti sing, sang, sung dainuoti
get, go1, got gauti; pasiekti sink, sank, sunk (nu)skesti
give, gave g ven duoti sil, sat, sat sedeti
go, went, gone eili; vaiiuoti sleep, slepi, slept miegoti
grow, grew, grown augti smell, sme t, smelt (u:)uosti
nang, nung, nung kabeti; kabinti speaK, spoKe, spoxen kalbdti
have, had, had tureti saMi ar rasyti paraid:iui
hear, heard, heard gird6ti speno, spenr, speni (iS)leisti
h de, hid, hidden sl6pti(s) spin, spun, spun verpti; sukti
hrt, hit, hit karsti, suduoti sp rj sparj spar spjau(dy)ti
hold, held, held laiMi(s) spoi , spo lt/spoiled,
hLrn, hurt, hurt suieisti; iieisti gadinti
keep, kept, kept (i5)laikyti; saugoli spreao, spreao, spreao sklisti
kneel, knelt, knelt kl0poti spring, sprang, sprung {pa)50kti
Know Knewj Known iinoti; paiinti stand, stood, stood stoveti
lay, laid, la d (pa)deti steal, stole, slolen vogrl
lead, led led vadovauti; vesti stick, stuck, stuck smeigti; klijuoti
palinkti; remtis sting, stung, stung igelti
leap, leapt/leaped, slrike, struck, struck mu6ti, suduoti
leapvleaped sokti, Sokinetj swearj sworej sworn prisiekti; koiktis
learn, learnl/learned sweep, sweplj swepr Sluoti; l6kti
learnVlearned mokytis swim, swam, swum plaukti
leave, leli, ieft palikti swing, swang, swltng supti(s)
lend, lent, lent paskolinli (pri)imti
lei, let, let leisti teach, taught, iaught moMi
lie, lay, lain guldti tear, tore, lorn pldSyti
light, lit/lighied, lil/lighied uZ(si)degti tell, io d, told pasakoti; liepti
Pamesti, prarasti th nk, thought, thought galvoti, manyti
make, made, made daMi, gaminti throw, threw, thrown mesti
mean, meanl, meant reiksti understand, !nderstood
rneet, mel, met su(sDtikti suprasti
misiake, mistook, wake, woke/waked
mistak,an suklysti pabusti; zadinti
PaY, Paid, Paid (su)mok6ti nesioti, deveti
pur, pur, pul (pa)deti verKi
skaiMi laimati
ride, rode, rldden joti; vaziuoti wr ng, wrung, wrung grehi; gr+yti
ring, rang, rung skambintii skambdti wate, wrote, written raSyti

UDK 802.0,5 LANGENSCHEIDTS


ANGLQ KALAOS GBAMATIKOS LENTELES
An94 GBAI\,|I\,,IAIIKTAFEL
Parcng€ dr. Emll Heckmann
Englisch
Eine konzenlriert€ Redakoe Ataiin a Matukevi'lena
und ubelsichtliche Darct€llung Lietuviskqji leidima parcng€ ODETA VENCKIENE
d€r Grammatik \l'5elis Vlado Orzekausko
H""k'"nn
E:iii"Jfj fiJ"f":" li''..ooo
"s..
Leid. Nr 15.042 uisgk Nr 2610.
rsBN s-46s.36i20.3 !:'"T!-*TT:1:T;*1,?i1;"i"j**
El. p. mail@viesalt
ht€meto plslapis http://M-w€sa.lt
@ 196s Langenscheidr KG, Spausdino UAB "At Ballica, VsivoriLl 9 142 B, LT_46353 Kaunas.
Bsdin und M0nchen El. p. kaunas@adbalica.n, intemeto pusapis http:/tdw.adbahica.tr
ISBN 5'4it0-03138,0 @ Lsidykta ,6viesa,, 2ooo suiartine kaina