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Chapter #27: Empire and Expansion Big Picture Themes 1. The Spanish-American War saw the U.S.

. gain Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guantanomo Bay in Cuba, the Philippines, and other smaller islands. 2. The Philippines proved to be hard to handle since the Filipino people didnt want the U.S. there. They waged a guerilla war and resented American control until it was turned back over to the Philippines after WWII. 3. The U.S. managed to get an Open Door Policy with China. This opened the Asian giant to international trade. 4. Teddy Roosevelt became a vigorous president who obtained and built the Panama Canal. His Big Stick Policy toward Latin America increased Americas influence, but also increased animosity toward the U.S. Chapter #27: Identifications Richard Olney: Secretary of State under Cleveland, he was authorized by the President to deliver a message to London that the British were ignoring the Monroe Doctrine in their attempt to dominate Venezuela. Alfred Thayer Mahan: Wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History, which argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominance;it stimulated the naval race among the great powers. Valeriano Weyler: Spanish General in Cuba who herded many civilians into barbed-wire reconcentration camps so they could not help the insurrectos. Called "Butcher Weyler" because hundreds of thousands of people died in his concentration camps de Lome Letter: Spanish minister wrote a letter where he called President McKinley weak and bitter. The letter was stolen and delivered to Hearst, who played it up using yellow journalism. Emilio Aguinaldo: Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. Jingoism: extreme patriotism in the form of aggressive foreign policy. American officials were accused of jingoism after their forced annexation of Hawaii and their overthrow of the Hawaii monarchy. Teller Amendment: Act of Congress in 1898 that stated that when the United States had rid Cuba of Spanish rule, Cuba would be granted its freedom. It prevented Cuba from turning hostile towards the U.S. Rough Riders: volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish-American War Anti-Imperialist League: objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900 Foraker Act: Congress accorded the Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular gov't and in 1917, granted then US citizenship. Worked wonders in education, sanitation, transportation, + more Insular cases: Constitution didn't have full authority of how to deal with islands (Puerto Ricans & Cubans subject to American rule, but didn't have all rights)

Platt Amendment : This amendment to the new Cuban constitution authorized U.S. intervention in Cuba to protect its interests. Cuba pledged not to make treates with other countries that might compromise its independence, and it granted naval bases to the United States, most notable being Guantanamo Bay. Spheres of Influence: the geographical area in which one nation is very influential Philippine Insurrection: began on February 4, 1899, when the Filipinos did not receive freedom as they had anticipated. It was led by Emilio Aguinaldo, who took his troops into guerrilla warfare after open combat proved to be useless. The rebellion was broken in 1901 when US soldiers invaded Aguinaldo's headquarters and captured him. Open Door Policy: urged European nations to keep fair competition open to all nations willing and wanting to participate. This was a response to China's restricting spheres of influence. All the powers holding China accepted with conditions, aside from Italy, which accepted unconditionally and Russia, which rejected the policy. Boxer Rebellion: began when a super-patriotic group known as the "Boxers" revolted and took over the capital of China, Beijing, and took all foreigners hostage, including diplomats. After a multi-national force broke the rebellion, the powers made China pay $333 million for damages. Big Stick Policy: Roosevelt's policy. It came from the motto "Speak softly and carry a big stick," which simply meant "Let your actions do the talking." Roosevelt Corollary: Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force Portsmouth Conference: meeting in which Russia and Japan both met. Though both sides were stubborn, Roosevelt negotiated a deal in which Japan got half of Sakhalin but no indemnity for its losses. Afterward, TR received the Nobel Peace Prize. Gentlemens Agreement: An agreement with Japan where Japan agreed to limit immigration, and Roosevelt agreed to discuss with the San Francisco School Board that segregation of Japanese children in school would be stopped. The agreement prevented a war that would have been caused by California, who was in Japan's eyes, oppressing their children. Root-Takahira Agreement: Pledged the U.S. and Japan to respect each other's territorial possessions in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door Policy in China. Chapter #27: Questions America Turns Outward 1. What factors caused America to turn its attention to the world beyond her borders?

In the final decades of the nineteenth century, America grew hungry for empire and expansion, and became incredibly aggressive in its foreign policy. Aggressive expansionism became popular in America thanks to the desire to tap overseas markets, the yellow press of Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst, the racist view that Anglo-Saxons ought to dominate the "backwards peoples" (a view made popular by Reverend Josiah Strong's Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis), the development of a new steel navy (which prompted Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan's 1890 book The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783), and the rise of

imperialism among the European powers seeking to expand into Africa in the 1880s and the Chinese Empire in the 1890s Spurning the Hawaiian Pear 2. Why did President Cleveland not want to annex Hawaii?

Grover Cleveland, an anti-imperialist, opposed annexation as an infringement upon a soverign nation and tried to restore the Queen (Liliuokalani). Cubans Rise in Revolt 3. What was happening in Cuba that caused Americans to be concerned?

Thanks to oppressive Spanish rulers and a crippled economy (caused by the American tariff of 1894's barriers against Cuban sugar production), Cuban rebels (known as the insurrectos) launched an effort to fight for independence in 1895, adopting the scorched-earth policy against cane fields, sugar mills, and passenger trains. Americas business interests in Cuba (which included a $50 million investment stake and an annual trade stake of $100 million), atrocities committed by Spanish authorities (including infection-ridden reconcentration camps), and Yellow Journalism served to galvanize anti-Spanish sentiment in America Dewey's May Day Victory at Manila Know: 4. Teddy Roosevelt, George Dewey Why did Commodore Dewey have such an easy victory over the Spanish fleet at the Philippines?

On May 1, 1898, Dewey's squadron, consisting of six brand new warships, sailed into Manila harbor. The 10-ship Spanish fleet was completely taken by surprise. Several of the Spanish ships were so old and rotting that they could barely float. Dewey's forces quickly defeated the Spanish fleet, without a single US sailor dying. On the Spanish side, around 400 sailors died. The Maine, which most Americans than believed had been destroyed by a Spanish mine, was avenged. The Confused Invasion of Cuba Know: 5. Rough Riders, Teddy Roosevelt, San Juan Hill Describe the fighting in Cuba.

After initial panic, the Spanish "armada" was easily blockaded in Santiago Harbor, Cuba, by the American fleet, allowing American forces led by General William R. Shafter to invade with his force (which included the Rough Riders, who were led by Colonel Leonard Wood and Theodore Roosevelt) of seventeen thousand men in the middle of June; after landing with relative ease, Americans swiftly defeated Spanish troops at El Caney, Kettle Hill, st and San Juan Hill on July 1 . The weak Spanish fleet left Santiago Harbor to avoid the Army, steaming out to the waiting blockade of American warships , causing Santiago to surrender; shortly after, American troops easily invaded Puerto Rico, forcing Spain to sign an armistice on August 12, 1898. American troops stationed in the Cuban jungles were exposed to diseases (including malaria, typhoid fever, dysentery, and yellow fever) which incapacitated hundreds and killed over five thousand men; in contrast, less than four hundred men were killed by Spanish troops. The Spanish-American negotiations in Paris in late 1898 resulted in the freeing of Cuba

America's Course (Curse?) of Empire 6. What were the arguments for and against the annexation of the Philippines?

The people that were for annexing the islands argued that there were business interests in thoughts of new markets and fields of investments, the United States wanted to become an empire and so they wanted to expand more. USA, especially, didn't want to lose these islands to Japan or Germany. But some people did argue against annexing the islands. One of the biggest things that stood out was that the islands were 6,000 miles away from the Pacific Coast. Another reason that people argued against this was that some senators thought that annexation was a violation of American tradition and this lead other people to follow them Makers of America: The Puerto Ricans 7. How has U.S. citizenship caused Puerto Ricans to be different from other immigrants?

Instead of being a technical "alien" in country, they already have citizenship. Despite being new in the county and knowing nothing (just like other immigrants) , the don't have to go through the naturalization process. Perplexities in Puerto Rico and Cuba Know: 8. Insular Cases, General Leonard Wood, Walter Reed, Platt Amendment, Guantanamo Describe American treatment of Cuba after the Spanish-American War.

The American military government in Cuba, led by General Leonard Wood, made improvements in government, finance, education, agriculture, and public health; Wood and Colonel William C. Gorgas both supported experiments by Dr. Walter Reed which identified the stegomyia mosquito as the carrier of yellow fever, and launched efforts to wipe the insects and the disease out in Havana and other cities. In 1902, America surprised Old World imperialists by honoring the Teller Amendment of 1898 by withdrawing from Cuba, but not without forcing the Cubans to insert the Platt Amendment into their constitution of 1901, stipulating that Cuba must adhere to American judgment on diplomatic and economic issues and giving America Guantanamo Bay New Horizons in Two Hemispheres 9. What were the outcomes of the Spanish-American War?

Peace was arranged by the Treaty of Paris signed Dec. 10, 1898 (ratified by the U.S. Senate, Feb. 6, 1899). The Spanish Empire was practically dissolved. Cuba was freed, but under U.S. tutelage by terms of the Platt Amendment (see under Platt, Orville), with Spain assuming the Cuban debt. Puerto Rico and Guam were ceded to the United States as indemnity, and the Philippines were surrendered to the United States for a payment of million. The United States emerged from the war with new international power. In both Latin America and East Asia it had established an imperial foothold. The war tied the United States more closely to the course of events in those areas. "Little Brown Brothers" in the Philippines 10. In what way do the Philippines show the good and bad sides of American imperialism?

In 1898, in an effort to free Cuba from the oppression of its Spanish colonizers, America captured the Philippines. This brought about questions of what America should do with the Philippines. Soon, controversy ensued both in

the American political arena as well as among its citizens. Throughout its history, America had always been expansionistic, but it had always limited itself to the North American continent. Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, however, there emerged a drive to expand outside of the continent. When America expanded to the Philippines, the policy it followed was a stark break from past forms of expansionism. Despite much controversy, America followed the example of the imperialistic nations in Europe and sought to conquer the Philippines as an imperialist colony that they would rule either directly or indirectly. Hinging the Open Door in China 11. Was American involvement in China beneficial to China?

After being defeated by Japan in 1894-1895, a weakened China was subjected to the establishment of spheres of influence of by European powers, causing a concerned America (particularly Churches and merchants) to act; Secretary of State John Hay's Open Door note, sent to the Great Powers in the summer of 1899, proposed that each power announce that they would respect Chinese rights and fair competition within their spheres of influence. In 1900, Secretary Hay announced that the Open Door would embrace territorial and commercial integrity in China, policies which would become internationally accepted with the Nine-Power Treaty of 1922 Makers of America: The Filipinos 12. Were Filipino immigrants welcomed with open arms in America? Explain.

Some Filipino immigrants were welcomed with open arms, especially those whose skills were needed at the time, like nurses, who are in short supply at times. Others did the same thing as the Mexicans and either came in illegally or came in on visas. Those were obviously not welcomed Imperialism or Bryanism in 1900? 13. What issues were important in the 1900 election?

In the Republican convention of 1900, McKinley was renominated thanks to his victorious war, increased prosperity, and protection of the gold standard, and Theodore Roosevelt was nominated for vice president in an effort by New York party bosses to neutralize their hardheaded governor; the Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan in Kansas City, who charged that Lincoln had freed 3.5 million Africans and that McKinley in contrast had enslaved 7 million Filipinos TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick Know: 14. Big Stick, Bully Pulpit Give evidence to show that Teddy Roosevelt was an unconventional president?

His motto was "Speak softly and carry a big stick," which exemplified his emphasis of action rather than talk. He was a maverick uncontrollable by party machines, and he believed that a president should lead. He became the "first modern president." Building the Panama Canal Know: Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, Philippe Bunau-Varilla, George Washington Goethals, William C. Gorgas


Why was the Panama route chosen for the canal?

With the pre-existing lakes, the route across Panama required the least amount of digging and dredging to create a passage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. TR's Perversion of Monroe's Doctrine Know: 16. Roosevelt Corollary, Dominican Republic, Bad Neighbor Explain the similarities and differences between the Monroe Doctrine and the Roosevelt Corollary?

The reaction of several European powers to Latin American debt defaults worried Roosevelt to the point where he declared the "preventive intervention" doctrine (the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine) which held that intervention by the United States in Latin American countries with financial malfeasance is justified because it will keep the Europeans out; in 1905, as an example, the United States took over tariff collections in the Dominican Republic. Roosevelt's version of the Monroe Doctrine was critical to the development of the 'Bad Neighbor" policy, which came to justify whole sale interventions and the landing of marines, turning the Caribbean into a "Yankee Lake"; in 1906, U.S. Marines were sent to Cuba to help bring down a revolt against the Cuban President before withdrawing three years later and causing distrust of American interests to spread in Latin America Roosevelt on the World Stage Know: 17. Russo-Japanese War, Portsmouth How did Teddy Roosevelt win the Nobel Peace Prize?

In 1906, Roosevelt was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work with the Russo-Japanese talks as well as his mediation of North African Disputes at Algeciras, Spain; Japanese Laborers in California 18. How did a school board in California act in a way that first hurt and then helped American-Japanese relations? After the 1906 earthquake, the San Francisco Board of Education segregated schools, dividing White students from Chinese, Korean, and Japanese students, infuriating the Japanese government and nearly causing a war. Roosevelt brought the members of the San Francisco Board of Education into the Oval Office and forced them to agree to desegregate the schools as long as Japan and the United States maintained the "Gentlemen's Agreement," negotiated during 1907-1908, in which Japan prohibited their workers from moving to the United States Varying Viewpoints: Why did America Become a World Power? 19. What caused America's foray into imperialism? Defend your opinion.

As historians say, race and gender are what propelled America into imperialism. In that time, masculinity was the powerful dominance over the world and the expansion westward provided ample oppertunity to display that characteristic through cowboys and gold diggers. The idea of dominance over countries even farther west appealed to the masses who were looking for an adventure. The Anglo-Saxon supremacy also contributed because the arrogance of whites looking for domination help push for the conquering of countries such as Cuba and the Philippines. When men such as Theodore Roosevelt expanded imperialism, it caught on like wildfire.