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SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.

ppt/ 1
Horst Keller
SAP AG
ABAP Objects
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 2
Workshop Goals
l Position of ABAP Objects within the R/3 System
l Overview of the syntax of ABAP Objects
l Working with existing classes and interfaces
l Defining classes and interfaces
l Creating objects
l Reacting to events
l Understanding the polymorphism provided by
interfaces and inheritance
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 3
This is not a comprehensive course in object-
oriented programming
SAPs training class BC404
Workshop Goals
l There is more to object-oriented development than just
object-oriented programming. It has logical advantages
that are independent of the concrete implementation.
l The most important (and most time-consuming) part of
a real object-oriented application is the object-oriented
modeling.
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 4
Contents
l Introduction
l From Function Groups to Classes
l Objects and Object Handling
l Classes
l Inheritance
l Interfaces
l Events
l Using Global Classes
l Exercises
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Introduction
l Object orientation
l Objects
l ABAP Objects
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Function
Function Function Function Function
Data Data
Data Data
Data
Data
Method
Method
Method
Attributes
Attributes
Abstraction
Abstraction
Methods
Methods
Functions and data
Data model as an
abstraction of the
real world
Software objects
Object model as an
abstraction of the
real world
Real-world objects
Object Orientation
Function Function Function
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Public
access
Private
access
Private
components
Interface
l Public
events
l Public
attributes
l Public
methods
BOOK
Objects
FLIGHT
Airline
Flight number
Flight
Address
Passenger-
list
Customer
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ABAP Objects
l ABAP Objects is an downwards-compatible extension
of the existing ABAP language
l You can use existing ABAP statements within
ABAP Objects
l You can use ABAP Objects within existing programs
l ABAP Objects is fully integrated in the
ABAP Debugger
l ABAP Objects is an downwards-compatible extension
of the existing ABAP language
l You can use existing ABAP statements within
ABAP Objects
l You can use ABAP Objects within existing programs
l ABAP Objects is fully integrated in the
ABAP Debugger
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From Function Groups to Classes
l Instances of function groups as objects
l Example: Function group as counter
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External session
Data Function
module

Function group 1
Data Function
module

Function group 2
Internal session of an ABAP program
ABAP program with data
CALL FUNCTION ...
Instances of Function Groups as Objects
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Function Group as Counter - Definition
FUNCTION-POOL COUNTER.
DATA COUNT TYPE I.
FUNCTION SET_COUNTER.
* Local Interface IMPORTING VALUE(SET_VALUE)
COUNT = SET_VALUE.
ENDFUNCTION.
FUNCTION INCREMENT_COUNTER.
COUNT = COUNT + 1.
ENDFUNCTION.
FUNCTION GET_COUNTER.
* Local Interface: EXPORTING VALUE(GET_VALUE)
GET_VALUE = COUNT.
ENDFUNCTION.
FUNCTION-POOL COUNTER.
DATA COUNT TYPE I.
FUNCTION SET_COUNTER.
* Local Interface IMPORTING VALUE(SET_VALUE)
COUNT = SET_VALUE.
ENDFUNCTION.
FUNCTION INCREMENT_COUNTER.
COUNT = COUNT + 1.
ENDFUNCTION.
FUNCTION GET_COUNTER.
* Local Interface: EXPORTING VALUE(GET_VALUE)
GET_VALUE = COUNT.
ENDFUNCTION.
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Function Group as Counter - Call
DATA NUMBER TYPE I VALUE 5.
CALL FUNCTION 'SET_COUNTER' EXPORTING
SET_VALUE = NUMBER.
DO 3 TIMES.
CALL FUNCTION 'INCREMENT_COUNTER'.
ENDDO.
CALL FUNCTION 'GET_COUNTER' IMPORTING
GET_VALUE = NUMBER.
DATA NUMBER TYPE I VALUE 5.
CALL FUNCTION 'SET_COUNTER' EXPORTING
SET_VALUE = NUMBER.
DO 3 TIMES.
CALL FUNCTION 'INCREMENT_COUNTER'.
ENDDO.
CALL FUNCTION 'GET_COUNTER' IMPORTING
GET_VALUE = NUMBER.
NUMBER has value 8
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External session
Internal session of an ABAP program
Daten Daten
...
Data
...
Funktions Funktions--
baustein baustein

nth instance, class m


Data Interface

1st instance, class m


ABAP program with data
Daten Daten
...
Data
...
Schnitt Schnitt--
stelle stelle

nth instance, class 1


Data Interface

1st instance, class 1


Classes Generalize Function Groups
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Classes, References, and Objects
l Example: Class as counter
l Reference variables
l Creating objects
l Calling methods
l Working with references
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Example: Class as Counter
CLASS counter DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
METHODS: set IMPORTING
VALUE(set_value) TYPE i,
increment,
get EXPORTING
VALUE(get_value) TYPE i.
PRIVATE SECTION.
DATA count TYPE i.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS counter DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
METHODS: set IMPORTING
VALUE(set_value) TYPE i,
increment,
get EXPORTING
VALUE(get_value) TYPE i.
PRIVATE SECTION.
DATA count TYPE i.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS counter IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD set.
count = set_value.
ENDMETHOD.
METHOD increment.
count = count + 1.
ENDMETHOD.
METHOD get.
get_value = count.
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS counter IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD set.
count = set_value.
ENDMETHOD.
METHOD increment.
count = count + 1.
ENDMETHOD.
METHOD get.
get_value = count.
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
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Reference Variables
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter.
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter.
CNT_1
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Creating an Object
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT cnt_1 TYPE counter.
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT cnt_1 TYPE counter.
CNT_1
1<COUNTER>
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Calling Methods
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter.
DATA number TYPE I VALUE 5.
CREATE OBJECT cnt_1 TYPE counter.
CALL METHOD cnt_1->set
EXPORTING set_value = number.
DO 3 TIMES.
CALL METHOD
cnt_1->increment.
ENDDO.
CALL METHOD cnt_1->get
IMPORTING get_value = number.
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter.
DATA number TYPE I VALUE 5.
CREATE OBJECT cnt_1 TYPE counter.
CALL METHOD cnt_1->set
EXPORTING set_value = number.
DO 3 TIMES.
CALL METHOD
cnt_1->increment.
ENDDO.
CALL METHOD cnt_1->get
IMPORTING get_value = number.
CNT_1
1<COUNTER>
NUMBER has the value 8
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Several Reference Variables
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
CNT_1
CNT_2
CNT_3
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Several Objects
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_1,
cnt_2.
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_1,
cnt_2.
CNT_1
CNT_2
CNT_3
2<COUNTER>
1<COUNTER>
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Assigning Reference Variables
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_1,
cnt_2.
MOVE cnt_2 TO cnt_3.
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_1,
cnt_2.
MOVE cnt_2 TO cnt_3.
CNT_1
CNT_2
CNT_3
2<COUNTER>
1<COUNTER>
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Deleting Reference Variables
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_1,
cnt_2.
MOVE cnt_2 TO cnt_3.
CLEAR cnt_2.
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_1,
cnt_2.
MOVE cnt_2 TO cnt_3.
CLEAR cnt_2.
CNT_1
CNT_2
CNT_3
2<COUNTER>
1<COUNTER>
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Garbage Collection
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_1,
cnt_2.
MOVE cnt_2 TO cnt_3.
CLEAR cnt_2.
cnt_3 = cnt_1.
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_1,
cnt_2.
MOVE cnt_2 TO cnt_3.
CLEAR cnt_2.
cnt_3 = cnt_1.
CNT_1
CNT_2
CNT_3
2<COUNTER>
1<COUNTER>
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Garbage Collection
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_1,
cnt_2.
MOVE cnt_2 TO cnt_3.
CLEAR cnt_2.
cnt_3 = cnt_1.
CLEAR cnt_3.
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_1,
cnt_2.
MOVE cnt_2 TO cnt_3.
CLEAR cnt_2.
cnt_3 = cnt_1.
CLEAR cnt_3.
CNT_1
CNT_2
CNT_3
1<COUNTER>
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3<COUNTER>
New Objects
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_1,
cnt_2.
MOVE cnt_2 TO cnt_3.
CLEAR cnt_2.
cnt_3 = cnt_1.
CLEAR cnt_3.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_2,
cnt_3.
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_1,
cnt_2.
MOVE cnt_2 TO cnt_3.
CLEAR cnt_2.
cnt_3 = cnt_1.
CLEAR cnt_3.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_2,
cnt_3.
CNT_1
CNT_2
CNT_3
2<COUNTER>
1<COUNTER>
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3<COUNTER>
Methods of Several Objects
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_1,
cnt_2,
cnt_3.
CALL METHOD cnt_1->set
EXPORTING set_value = 1.
CALL METHOD cnt_2->set
EXPORTING set_value = 10.
CALL METHOD cnt_3->set
EXPORTING set_value = 100.
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_2 TYPE REF TO counter,
cnt_3 TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_1,
cnt_2,
cnt_3.
CALL METHOD cnt_1->set
EXPORTING set_value = 1.
CALL METHOD cnt_2->set
EXPORTING set_value = 10.
CALL METHOD cnt_3->set
EXPORTING set_value = 100.
CNT_1
CNT_2
CNT_3
2<COUNTER>
1<COUNTER>
The value of COUNT is
different in each object
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l Declaring reference variables
l Creating objects
l Accessing attributes and methods
DATA: ref1 TYPE REF TO class,
ref2 TYPE REF TO class.
DATA: ref1 TYPE REF TO class,
ref2 TYPE REF TO class.
CREATE OBJECT: ref1, ref2.
CREATE OBJECT: ref1, ref2.
x = ref1->attr + ref2->attr.
CALL METHOD ref1->method EXPORTING ...
x = ref1->attr + ref2->attr.
CALL METHOD ref1->method EXPORTING ...
Objects: Summary
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Classes in Detail
l Structure of classes
l Components of classes
l Accessing the components
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Class c1
Class c1
All users
All users
Private
components
a3,
m3,
e3
Method
implementations
Protected components
a2, m2, e2,
Public
components
a1,
m1,
e1

CLASS c1 DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
DATA: a1
METHODS: m1
EVENTS: e1
PROTECTED SECTION.
PRIVATE SECTION.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS c1 IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD m1. ENDMETHOD.
METHOD m2. ENDMETHOD.
METHOD m3. ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
Subclasses of c1
Structure of Classes - Visibility Sections
DATA: a2
METHODS: m2
EVENTS: e2
DATA: a3
METHODS: m3
EVENTS: e3
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CLASS ... DEFINITION.
...
... SECTION.
DATA ... TYPE ... [READ-ONLY] ...
CLASS-DATA ... TYPE ... [READ-ONLY] ...
CONSTANTS ... TYPE ... VALUE ...
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... DEFINITION.
...
... SECTION.
DATA ... TYPE ... [READ-ONLY] ...
CLASS-DATA ... TYPE ... [READ-ONLY] ...
CONSTANTS ... TYPE ... VALUE ...
...
ENDCLASS.
Components of Classes: Attributes
l DATA: Instance attributes
l CLASS-DATA: Static attributes
l CONSTANTS: Constants
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Static Attributes and Instance Attributes
DATA: cref TYPE REF TO c.
WRITE c=>a1.
CREATE OBJECT cref TYPE c.
WRITE cref->a2.
DATA: cref TYPE REF TO c.
WRITE c=>a1.
CREATE OBJECT cref TYPE c.
WRITE cref->a2.
CREF
1<CLASS>
a2
...
CLASS
a1
...
CLASS
a1
...
CLASS c DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
...
CLASS-DATA a1(10) TYPE C
VALUE 'Static'.
DATA a2(10) TYPE C
VALUE 'Instance'.
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS c DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
...
CLASS-DATA a1(10) TYPE C
VALUE 'Static'.
DATA a2(10) TYPE C
VALUE 'Instance'.
...
ENDCLASS.
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CLASS ... DEFINITION.
...
... SECTION.
METHODS ... IMPORTING [VALUE] ... TYPE ... [OPTIONAL]
EXPORTING [VALUE] ... TYPE ...
CHANGING [VALUE] ... TYPE ... [OPTIONAL]
RETURNING VALUE(...) TYPE ...
EXCEPTIONS ...
CLASS-METHODS ...
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... DEFINITION.
...
... SECTION.
METHODS ... IMPORTING [VALUE] ... TYPE ... [OPTIONAL]
EXPORTING [VALUE] ... TYPE ...
CHANGING [VALUE] ... TYPE ... [OPTIONAL]
RETURNING VALUE(...) TYPE ...
EXCEPTIONS ...
CLASS-METHODS ...
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD ...
...
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD ...
...
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
Components of Classes: Methods
l METHODS : Instance methods
l CLASS-METHODS: Static methods
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CLASS c DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
METHODS CONSTRUCTOR
[IMPORTING arg1 TYPE type ... ].
CLASS-METHODS CLASS_CONSTRUCTOR.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS c DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
METHODS CONSTRUCTOR
[IMPORTING arg1 TYPE type ... ].
CLASS-METHODS CLASS_CONSTRUCTOR.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS c IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD CONSTRUCTOR.
...
ENDMETHOD.
METHOD CLASS_CONSTRUCTOR.
...
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS c IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD CONSTRUCTOR.
...
ENDMETHOD.
METHOD CLASS_CONSTRUCTOR.
...
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
PROGRAM .
DATA o1 TYPE REF TO c.
CREATE OBJECT o1 EXPORTING arg1 = v1 ...
PROGRAM .
DATA o1 TYPE REF TO c.
CREATE OBJECT o1 EXPORTING arg1 = v1 ...
Constructors
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class=>comp
class=>comp
ref>comp
ref>comp
Accessing the components of classes
l Instance components
n Instance attribute ref->attr
n Instance method: call method ref->meth
l Static components
n Static attribute: class=>attr
n Static method: call method class=>meth
l Special references in methods
n Self reference: ME->comp
n Pseudo reference SUPER->comp
n<class>
...
ME
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Inheritance
l Introduction
l Overview
l Single inheritance
l Redefining methods
l Example: Subclass of superclass counter
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 36
n<class3>
class1
CREF3
CREF2
CREF1
class2
class3
Inheritance: Introduction
l Definition of a class by inheriting the components from a
superclass (Reuse)
l Specialization by adding own components and redefining
methods in subclasses
l Polymorphism by accessing subclass objects
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Class c1
CLASS c1 DEFINITION INHERITING FROM ...
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS c1 IMPLEMENTATION.
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS c2 DEFINITION INHERITING FROM c1.
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS c2 IMPLEMENTATION.
...
ENDCLASS.
Class c2
Class OBJECT
Class ...
...
...
Inheritance - Overview
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 38
C1
...
OBJECT
C2
...
...
Single Inheritance
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 39
CLASS ... DEFINITION INHERITING FROM ...
... SECTION.
METHODS ... REDEFINITON ...
...
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... DEFINITION INHERITING FROM ...
... SECTION.
METHODS ... REDEFINITON ...
...
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD ...
...
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD ...
...
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
Redefining Methods
Semantic rules
l Subclasses must behave just like their superclass for all
users of inherited components
l A redefined method must observe the original semantics
l Inheritance should only be used to specialize
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CLASS subclass DEFINITION INHERITING FROM superclass.
PUBLIC SECTION.
METHODS CONSTRUCTOR IMPORTING ...
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS subclass DEFINITION INHERITING FROM superclass.
PUBLIC SECTION.
METHODS CONSTRUCTOR IMPORTING ...
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS subclass IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD CONSTRUCTOR.
...
CALL METHOD SUPER->CONSTRUCTOR EXPORTING ...
...
ENDMETHOD.
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS subclass IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD CONSTRUCTOR.
...
CALL METHOD SUPER->CONSTRUCTOR EXPORTING ...
...
ENDMETHOD.
...
ENDCLASS.
PROGRAM ...
DATA o1 TYPE REF TO subclass.
CREATE OBJECT o1 TYPE subclass EXPORTING ...
PROGRAM ...
DATA o1 TYPE REF TO subclass.
CREATE OBJECT o1 TYPE subclass EXPORTING ...
Access to static
attributes only
Accress to
instance attributes also
Inheritance and Constructors
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Subclass for Superclass Counter*
CLASS counter_ten DEFINITION INHERITING FROM counter.
PUBLIC SECTION.
METHODS increment REDEFINITION.
DATA count_ten.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS counter_ten DEFINITION INHERITING FROM counter.
PUBLIC SECTION.
METHODS increment REDEFINITION.
DATA count_ten.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS counter_ten IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD increment.
DATA modulo TYPE I.
CALL METHOD super->increment.
modulo = count mod 10.
IF modulo = 0.
count_ten = count_ten + 1.
ENDIF.
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS counter_ten IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD increment.
DATA modulo TYPE I.
CALL METHOD super->increment.
modulo = count mod 10.
IF modulo = 0.
count_ten = count_ten + 1.
ENDIF.
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
DATA: count TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT count TYPE counter_ten.
CALL METHOD count->set EXPORTING set_value = number.
DO 10 TIMES.
CALL METHOD count->increment.
ENDDO.
DATA: count TYPE REF TO counter.
CREATE OBJECT count TYPE counter_ten.
CALL METHOD count->set EXPORTING set_value = number.
DO 10 TIMES.
CALL METHOD count->increment.
ENDDO.
PROTECTED SECTION.
DATA count TYPE I.
PROTECTED SECTION.
DATA count TYPE I.
*Replace PRIVATE with:
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 42
Interfaces
l Introduction
l Overview
l Definition
l Implementation
l Interface references
l Example: Interface for counter
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 43
n<class3>
n<class2>
n<class1>
iref_line
iref_line
iref_line
iref_tab
Interface
Interfaces: Introduction
l Definition of an interface for a class without implementation
l Classes can implement several interfaces
l Uniform access with interface references
l Polymorphism independent from inheritance
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Class c1
Class c1
Private
components
a2,
m2,
e2
Method
implementations
Protected components
a3, m3, e3,
Public
components
CLASS c1 DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
INTERFACES i1 ...
DATA a1 ...
PROTECTED SECTION.
PRIVATE SECTION.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS c1 IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD i1~m1. ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
INTERFACE i1.
DATA: a1 ...
METHODS: m1 ...
EVENTS: e1 ...
ENDINTERFACE.
i1~a1,
i1~m1,
...
a1,...
Interfaces - Overview
All users
All users Subclasses of c1
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INTERFACE ... .
...
DATA: ... TYPE ... [READ-ONLY] ...
CLASS-DATA: ... TYPE ... [READ-ONLY] ...
CONSTANTS: ... TYPE ... [VALUE ...]
METHODS: ... IMPORTING [VALUE] ... TYPE ... [OPTIONAL]
EXPORTING [VALUE] ... TYPE ...
CHANGING [VALUE] ... TYPE ... [OPTIONAL]
RETURNING VALUE(...) TYPE ...
EXCEPTIONS ...
CLASS-METHODS: ...
EVENTS: ... [EXPORTING VALUE(...) TYPE ... [OPTIONAL]].
CLASS-EVENTS:...
INTERFACES: ...
ENDINTERFACE.
INTERFACE ... .
...
DATA: ... TYPE ... [READ-ONLY] ...
CLASS-DATA: ... TYPE ... [READ-ONLY] ...
CONSTANTS: ... TYPE ... [VALUE ...]
METHODS: ... IMPORTING [VALUE] ... TYPE ... [OPTIONAL]
EXPORTING [VALUE] ... TYPE ...
CHANGING [VALUE] ... TYPE ... [OPTIONAL]
RETURNING VALUE(...) TYPE ...
EXCEPTIONS ...
CLASS-METHODS: ...
EVENTS: ... [EXPORTING VALUE(...) TYPE ... [OPTIONAL]].
CLASS-EVENTS:...
INTERFACES: ...
ENDINTERFACE.
Interfaces - Definition
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CLASS ... DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
INTERFACES: ...
...
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
INTERFACES: ...
...
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD ...~...
...
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD ...~...
...
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
Interfaces - Implementation
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 47
INTERFACE i1.
...
ENDINTERFACE.
CLASS c1 DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
DATA a1.
INTERFACES i1.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS c2 DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
INTERFACES i1.
ENDCLASS.
DATA cnt_c TYPE REF TO c1.
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO i1,
cnt_2 LIKE cnt_1.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_c TYPE c1,
cnt_1 TYPE c2.
MOVE cnt_c to cnt_2.
INTERFACE i1.
...
ENDINTERFACE.
CLASS c1 DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
DATA a1.
INTERFACES i1.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS c2 DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
INTERFACES i1.
ENDCLASS.
DATA cnt_c TYPE REF TO c1.
DATA: cnt_1 TYPE REF TO i1,
cnt_2 LIKE cnt_1.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt_c TYPE c1,
cnt_1 TYPE c2.
MOVE cnt_c to cnt_2.
1<C2>
CNT_C
1<C1>
CNT_1
CNT_2
Interface References
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 48
CLASS bicycle DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
INTERFACES status.
METHODS drive.
PRIVATE SECTION.
DATA speed TYPE i.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS bicycle DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
INTERFACES status.
METHODS drive.
PRIVATE SECTION.
DATA speed TYPE i.
ENDCLASS.
Interface for Object State - Implementation
CLASS counter DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
INTERFACES status.
METHODS increment.
PRIVATE SECTION.
DATA count TYPE i.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS counter DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
INTERFACES status.
METHODS increment.
PRIVATE SECTION.
DATA count TYPE i.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS bicycle IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD status~write.
WRITE: 'Speed of bicycle is',
speed.
ENDMETHOD.
METHOD drive.
speed = speed + 10.
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS bicycle IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD status~write.
WRITE: 'Speed of bicycle is',
speed.
ENDMETHOD.
METHOD drive.
speed = speed + 10.
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
INTERFACE status.
METHODS write.
ENDINTERFACE.
INTERFACE status.
METHODS write.
ENDINTERFACE.
CLASS counter IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD status~write.
WRITE: 'Count in counter is',
count.
ENDMETHOD.
METHOD increment.
count = count + 1.
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS counter IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD status~write.
WRITE: 'Count in counter is',
count.
ENDMETHOD.
METHOD increment.
count = count + 1.
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 49
Interface for Object State - Use
DATA: count TYPE REF TO counter,
bike TYPE REF TO bicycle,
status TYPE REF TO status.
CREATE OBJECT: count, bike.
DO 5 TIMES.
CALL METHOD: count->increment,
bike->drive.
ENDDO.
status = count.
CALL METHOD status->write.
status = bike.
CALL METHOD status->write.
DATA: count TYPE REF TO counter,
bike TYPE REF TO bicycle,
status TYPE REF TO status.
CREATE OBJECT: count, bike.
DO 5 TIMES.
CALL METHOD: count->increment,
bike->drive.
ENDDO.
status = count.
CALL METHOD status->write.
status = bike.
CALL METHOD status->write.
Counter status
Bike speed
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 50
Events
l Introduction
l Overview
l Declaring and triggering events
l Event handler methods
l Handling events
l Example: Overflow in counter
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 51
2<HANDLER>
1<HANDLER>
1<TRIGGER>
Events - Introduction
l Events are components of classes
l Methods can raise the events of their class
l Handler methods can be triggered by events
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 52
Event trigger
CLASS c1 DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
EVENTS e1 EXPORTING VALUE(p1)
TYPE i.
METHODS m1.
PRIVATE SECTION.
DATA a1 TYPE i.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS c1 IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD m1.
a1 = ...
RAISE EVENT e1
EXPORTING p1 = a1.
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS c2 DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
METHODS m2 FOR EVENT e1 OF c1
IMPORTING p1.
PRIVATE SECTION.
DATA a2 TYPE i.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS C2 IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD m2.
a2 = p1.
...
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
Event handler
Events - Overview
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 53
CLASS ... DEFINITION.
... SECTION.
METHODS ...
EVENTS ... [EXPORTING VALUE(...) TYPE ... [OPTIONAL]].
CLASS-EVENTS ...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... DEFINITION.
... SECTION.
METHODS ...
EVENTS ... [EXPORTING VALUE(...) TYPE ... [OPTIONAL]].
CLASS-EVENTS ...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD ...
...
RAISE EVENT ... EXPORTING ... = ...
...
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD ...
...
RAISE EVENT ... EXPORTING ... = ...
...
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
Declaring and Triggering Events
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 54
CLASS ... DEFINITION.
... SECTION.
METHODS ... FOR EVENT ... OF ... [IMPORTING ... SENDER ... ].
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... DEFINITION.
... SECTION.
METHODS ... FOR EVENT ... OF ... [IMPORTING ... SENDER ... ].
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD ...
...
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS ... IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD ...
...
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
Event Handler Methods
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 55
PROGRAM ...
DATA: trigger TYPE REF TO trigger,
handler_1 TYPE REF TO handler,
handler_2 TYPE REF TO handler.
CREATE OBJECT: trigger, handler_1, handler_2.
SET HANDLER handler_1->handle_event
handler_2->handle_event FOR trigger.
CALL METHOD trigger->raise_event.
PROGRAM ...
DATA: trigger TYPE REF TO trigger,
handler_1 TYPE REF TO handler,
handler_2 TYPE REF TO handler.
CREATE OBJECT: trigger, handler_1, handler_2.
SET HANDLER handler_1->handle_event
handler_2->handle_event FOR trigger.
CALL METHOD trigger->raise_event.
Event Handling - Registration
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 56
2<HANDLER>
TRIGGER
HANDLER_2
HANDLER_1
Event
.
Method
1<TRIGGER>
1<HANDLER>
Method
Handling Events - References
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 57
Threshold in Counter - Trigger
CLASS counter DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
METHODS increment.
EVENTS critical_value EXPORTING value(excess) TYPE i.
PRIVATE SECTION.
DATA: count TYPE i,
threshold TYPE i VALUE 10.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS counter DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
METHODS increment.
EVENTS critical_value EXPORTING value(excess) TYPE i.
PRIVATE SECTION.
DATA: count TYPE i,
threshold TYPE i VALUE 10.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS counter IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD increment.
DATA diff TYPE i.
count = count + 1.
IF count > threshold.
diff = count - threshold.
RAISE EVENT critical_value
EXPORTING excess = diff.
ENDIF.
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS counter IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD increment.
DATA diff TYPE i.
count = count + 1.
IF count > threshold.
diff = count - threshold.
RAISE EVENT critical_value
EXPORTING excess = diff.
ENDIF.
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 58
Threshold in Counter - Handling
CLASS handler DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
METHODS handle_excess FOR EVENT critical_value OF
counter IMPORTING excess.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS handler DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
METHODS handle_excess FOR EVENT critical_value OF
counter IMPORTING excess.
ENDCLASS.
DATA: cnt TYPE REF TO counter,
react TYPE REF TO handler.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt, react.
SET HANDLER react->handle_excess FOR ALL INSTANCES.
DO 20 TIMES.
CALL METHOD cnt->increment.
ENDDO.
DATA: cnt TYPE REF TO counter,
react TYPE REF TO handler.
CREATE OBJECT: cnt, react.
SET HANDLER react->handle_excess FOR ALL INSTANCES.
DO 20 TIMES.
CALL METHOD cnt->increment.
ENDDO.
CLASS handler IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD handle_excess.
WRITE: / Excess is', excess.
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS handler IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD handle_excess.
WRITE: / Excess is', excess.
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 59
Using Global Classes
l Class pools
l Class Browser and Class Builder
l Class Builder
l Example: Using CL_GUI_PICTURE
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 60
TYPES
CLASS
...
ENDCLASS.
INTERFACE
...
ENDINTERFACE.
TYPES
CLASS
...
ENDCLASS.
INTERFACE
...
ENDINTERFACE.
CLASS DEFINITION PUBLIC.
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS DEFINITION PUBLIC.
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS IMPLEMENTATION.
...
ENDCLASS.
CLASS IMPLEMENTATION.
...
ENDCLASS.
Visibility
CLASS-POOL ...
Class Pools
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 61
Class Library and Class Browser
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 62
Class Builder
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 63
CLASS screen_handler DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
METHODS: handle_node_double_click
FOR EVENT node_double_click
OF cl_gui_simple_tree
IMPORTING node_key.
PRIVATE SECTION.
DATA: html_viewer TYPE REF TO cl_gui_html_viewer,
...
CREATE OBJECT: html_viewer EXPORTING parent = container,
...
SET HANDLER event_handler->handle_node_double_click FOR tree.
...
CLASS screen_handler DEFINITION.
PUBLIC SECTION.
METHODS: handle_node_double_click
FOR EVENT node_double_click
OF cl_gui_simple_tree
IMPORTING node_key.
PRIVATE SECTION.
DATA: html_viewer TYPE REF TO cl_gui_html_viewer,
...
CREATE OBJECT: html_viewer EXPORTING parent = container,
...
SET HANDLER event_handler->handle_node_double_click FOR tree.
...
CLASS screen_handler IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD handle_node_double_click.
...
CALL METHOD html_viewer->show_url EXPORTING url = url.
...
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
CLASS screen_handler IMPLEMENTATION.
METHOD handle_node_double_click.
...
CALL METHOD html_viewer->show_url EXPORTING url = url.
...
ENDMETHOD.
ENDCLASS.
Using Global Classes
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 64
CL_GUI_PICTURE and CL_GUI_SIMPLE_TREE
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 65
Mouse Click
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 66
CL_GUI_HTML_VIEWER
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 67
Further Information
l Keyword documentation
l Example Library
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 68
Keyword
Documentation
ABAP Keyword Documentation
Further Information
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 69
Further Information
Example Library
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 70
Exercises
1. Defining classes
2. Creating objects
3. Deriving classes using inheritance
4. Using interfaces
5. Triggering and handling events
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 71
Exercises - Scenario
Interface Status
With methods for
displaying
attributes
Class "Truck"
with its own maximum
speed and attribute output
Class "Helicopter"
Can handle events
from ship
Class "Ship"
with its own maximum speed and
attribute output, a name, and an event
Class "Vehicle"
with attribute for
speed, and a
method for
changing it
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 72
Exercise 1 - Classes
l Copy the template ABAP_OBJECTS_ENJOY_0 into an own program.
l Define a local class VEHICLE in the designated area in front of the
predefined class MAIN.
l Class VEHICLE should have the protected instance attributes SPEED
and MAX_SPEED for its speed and maximum speed, and the public
methods SPEED_UP, STOP, and WRITE.
l SPEED_UP should have an IMPORTING parameter STEP. The
method should increase the speed by STEP, but not allow it to
exceed the maximum speed.
l STOP should reset the speed to zero.
l WRITE should display a list line containing the speed and the
maximum speed.
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 73
Exercise 2 - Objects
l Continuing the program from exercise 1, create objects from the
class VEHICLE.
l Program the respective coding in the predefined method START of
class MAIN.
l Define a reference variable VEHICLE with type VEHICLE, and an
internal table VEHICLE_TAB, whose line type is also a reference
variable to this class.
l In a DO loop, create a number of instances of the class VEHICLE and
insert them into the internal table.
l In a LOOP construction, call the methods SPEED_UP and WRITE
once for each entry in the internal table. When you call SPEED_UP,
pass the value SY-TABIX * 10 to the parameter STEP.
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 74
Exercise 3 - Inheritance
l Change your program from exercise 2 to define classes TRUCK and SHIP as
direct subclasses of VEHICLE.
l The class TRUCK should have an instance constructor and redefine the
method WRITE.
l The class SHIP should have an IMPORTING parameter NAME, a new public
attribute NAME, and should also redefine the method WRITE.
l The instance constructor of each class should change the maximum speed.
The instance constructor of SHIP should set the attribute NAME to the actual
parameter that you imported.
l The WRITE method should show the class from which the display comes. For
SHIP, use the NAME attribute.
l Declare extra reference variables TRUCK and SHIP for the new classes.
l You can delete the code that creates objects for VEHICLE. Instead, create one
instance of each of your new classes and place the corresponding reference
into VEHICLE_TAB.
l Call the method SPEED_UP for both classes using the correct subclass
reference, and WRITE using a superclass reference.
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 75
Exercise 4 - Interfaces
l Change your program from exercise 3 so that the method WRITE is contained
in an interface STATUS.
l The class VEHICLE should implement the interface instead of its own WRITE
method. The name must be changed accordingly in each implementation
(including the subclasses), but the function remains the same.
l Replace the reference variables VEHICLE and the table VEHICLE_TAB with
the interface reference STATUS and internal table STATUS_TAB.
l Use these references to display the status of the objects.
l Create a new class HELICOPTER that also implements STATUS. Declare an
alias WRITE in that class for the interface method.
l The interface method in HELICOPTER should display a different line from
that displayed in VEHICLE.
l Declare a reference variable HELI for the class HELICOPTER, create a
corresponding object, and insert the reference variable into the table
STATUS_TAB.
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 76
Exercise 5 - Events
l Change your program from exercise 4 to include an event DAMAGED
for the class SHIP.
l Redefine the method SPEED_UP in the class SHIP.
l When the maximum speed is exceeded, SPEED_UP should set the
maximum speed to zero and trigger the event DAMAGED.
l Add a new method RECEIVE to the class HELICOPTER to allow it to
handle the event DAMAGED. Import the implicit parameter SENDER.
l RECEIVE should use the SENDER parameter to display the name of
the ship that triggered the event.
l Register the handler method of the object to which HELI is pointing
as a handler for objects from the class SHIP.
l Increase the speed of the object from the class SHIP until it exceeds
the maximum speed and triggers the event.
SAP Labs, Inc. SAP TechEd 2000 June 2023, 2000 ABAP03.ppt/ 77
Copyright 2000 SAP AG (All rights reserved)
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