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Assignment - Chapter 1
Due: 11:59pm on Thursday, January 14, 2010

## Dimensions of Physical Quantities

Learning Goal: To introduce the idea of physical dimensions and to learn how to find them. Physical quantities are generally not purely numerical: They have a particular dimension or combination of dimensions associated with them. Thus, your height is not 74, but rather 74 inches, often expressed as 6 feet 2 inches. Although feet and inches are different units they have the same dimension--length. Part A In classical mechanics there are three base dimensions. Length is one of them. What are the other two? Hint A.1 MKS system Hint not displayed ANSWER:

acceleration and mass acceleration and time acceleration and charge mass and time mass and charge time and charge Correct

## There are three dimensions used in mechanics: length ( ), mass (

), and time ( ). A combination of these three dimensions suffices to express any physical quantity, because when a new physical quantity is

needed (e.g., velocity), it always obeys an equation that permits it to be expressed in terms of the units used for these three dimensions. One then derives a unit to measure the new physical quantity from that equation, and often its unit is given a special name. Such new dimensions are called derived dimensions and the units they are measured in are called derived units. For example, area where has derived dimensions . (Note that "dimensions of variable " is symbolized as . Plugging this into the equation gives . .) You can find these dimensions by looking at the formula for the area of a square ,

## is the length of a side of the square. Clearly

Part B Find the dimensions Hint B.1 of volume. Equation for volume Hint not displayed Express your answer as powers of length ( ), mass ( ANSWER: = Correct ), and time ( ).

Part C Find the dimensions Hint C.1 of speed. Equation for speed Hint not displayed Hint C.2 Familiar units for speed Hint not displayed Express your answer as powers of length ( ), mass ( ANSWER: = Correct ), and time ( ).

The dimensions of a quantity are not changed by addition or subtraction of another quantity with the same dimensions. This means that as speed.

, which comes from subtracting two speeds, has the same dimensions

It does not make physical sense to add or subtract two quanitites that have different dimensions, like length plus time. You can add quantities that have different units, like miles per hour and kilometers per hour, as long as you convert both quantities to the same set of units before you actually compute the sum. You can use this rule to check your answers to any physics problem you work. If the answer involves the sum or difference of two quantities with different dimensions, then it must be incorrect. This rule also ensures that the dimensions of any physical quantity will never involve sums or differences of the base dimensions. (As in the preceeding example, quantitiy.) A valid dimension will only involve the product or ratio of powers of the base dimensions (e.g. ). is not a valid dimension for a physical

Part D

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), and time ( ).

## Motion of Two Rockets

Learning Goal: To learn to use images of an object in motion to determine velocity and acceleration. Two toy rockets are traveling in the same direction (taken to be the x axis). A diagram is shown of a time-exposure image where a stroboscope has illuminated the rockets at the uniform time intervals indicated.

Part A At what time(s) do the rockets have the same velocity? Hint A.1 How to determine the velocity Hint not displayed ANSWER:

## at some instant in time between at no time shown in the figure Correct

Part B At what time(s) do the rockets have the same x position? ANSWER: at time at time at times only only and and

## at some instant in time between at no time shown in the figure Correct

Part C At what time(s) do the two rockets have the same acceleration? Hint C.1 How to determine the acceleration Hint not displayed ANSWER:

## at some instant in time between at no time shown in the figure Correct

Part D The motion of the rocket labeled A is an example of motion with uniform (i.e., constant) __________. ANSWER: and nonzero acceleration

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## velocity displacement time Correct

Part E The motion of the rocket labeled B is an example of motion with uniform (i.e., constant) __________. ANSWER: and nonzero acceleration velocity displacement time Correct

Part F At what time(s) is rocket A ahead of rocket B? Hint F.1 Use the diagram Hint not displayed ANSWER:

## Tactics Box 1.6 Using Significant Figures

Learning Goal: To practice Tactics Box 1.6 Using Significant Figures. You can think of a significant figure as being a digit that is reliably known. For example, a length measurement of 6.2 one-hundredthsis not reliably known and is thus not a significant figure. has two significant figures, the 6 and the 2. The next decimal placethe

Determining the proper number of significant figures is straightforward, but there a few definite rules to follow. These are summarized in this tactics box.
TACTICS BOX 1.6

## Using significant figures.

It is acceptable to keep one or two extra digits during intermediate steps of a calculation. The goal here is to minimize round-off errors in the calculation. But the final answer must be reported with the proper number of significant figures. 1. When multiplying or dividing several numbers, or when taking roots, the number of significant figures in the answer should match the number of significant figures of the least precisely known number used in the calculation. 2. When adding or subtracting several numbers, the number of decimal places in the answer should match the smallest number of decimal places of any number used in the calculation. 3. It is acceptable to keep one or two extra digits during intermediate steps of a calculation, as long as the final answer is reported with the proper number of significant figures. The goal here is to minimize round-off errors in the calculation. But keep only one or two extra digits, not the seven or eight shown in your calculator display.

Part A Your bedroom has a rectangular shape, and you want to measure its area. You use a tape that is precise to 0.001 and find that the shortest wall in the room is 3.547 long. The tape, however, is too short to measure the length of the second wall, so you use a second tape, which is longer but only precise to 0.01 . You measure the second wall to be 4.79 long. Which of the following numbers is the most precise estimate that you can obtain from your measurements for the area of your bedroom? Hint A.1 Find how many significant figures should be in your answer Hint not displayed ANSWER:

## 17.0 16.990 16.99 16.9 16.8 Correct

Part B Using the measurements described in Part A, which of the following numbers is the most precise estimate for the perimeter of your bedroom? Hint B.1 Find how many decimal places should be in your answer Hint not displayed

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## 16.674 16.67 16.68 16.7 17 Correct

Part C If your bedroom has a circular shape, and its diameter measured 6.32 Hint C.1 The area of a circle Hint not displayed Hint C.2 Find how many significant figures should be in your answer Hint not displayed ANSWER: , which of the following numbers would be the most precise value for its area?

## of a circle given its diameter

, you need to first divide the diameter by 2, then multiply your result by itself (or take the square of it), and finally multiply everything by :

Since here the number 2 and are exact numbers, they do not change the accuracy of the measured numbers involved in the calculation. Therefore, your answer should be expressed to the same number of significant figures as that used in the given diameter.

## Converting Units: The Magic of 1

Learning Goal: To learn how to change units of physical quantities. Quantities with physical dimensions like length or time must be measured with respect to a unit, a standard for quantities with this dimension. For example, length can be measured in units of meters or feet, time in seconds or years, and velocity in meters per second. When solving problems in physics, it is necessary to use a consistent system of units such as the International System (abbreviated SI, for the French Systme International) or the more cumbersome English system. In the SI system, which is the preferred system in physics, mass is measured in kilograms, time in seconds, and length in meters. The necessity of using consistent units in a problem often forces you to convert some units from the given system into the system that you want to use for the problem. The key to unit conversion is to multiply (or divide) by a ratio of different units that equals one. This works because multiplying any quantity by one doesn't change it. To illustrate with length, if you know that , you can write . To convert inches to centimeters, you can multiply the number of inches times this fraction (since it equals one), cancel the inch unit in the denominator with the inch unit in the given length, and come up with a value for the length in centimeters. To convert centimeters to inches, you can divide by this ratio and cancel the centimeters. For all parts, notice that the units are already written after the answer box; don't try to write them in your answer also. Part A How many centimeters are there in a length 32.40 ?

Sometimes you will need to change units twice to get the final unit that you want. Suppose that you know how to convert from centimeters to inches and from inches to feet. By doing both, in order, you can convert from centimeters to feet. Part B Suppose that a particular artillery piece has a range Hint B.1 Convert yards to feet Hint not displayed Express your answer in miles to three significant figures. ANSWER: 9520 = 5.41 Correct = 9520 . Find its range in miles. Use the facts that and .

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Often speed is given in miles per hour ( Part C What is the speed of a car going and Hint C.1 .

), but in physics you will almost always work in SI units. Therefore, you must convert

## to meters per second (

).

in SI units? Notice that you will need to change from miles to meters and from hours to seconds. You can do each conversion separately. Use the facts that

Hint C.2

## Notice that by equating the two values for , you get

. It might be valuable to remember this, as you may frequently need to convert from miles per hour into more useful SI units. By

remembering this relationship in the future, you can reduce this task to a single conversion.

Consistency of Units
In physics, every physical quantity is measured with respect to a unit. Time is measured in seconds, length is measured in meters, and mass is measured in kilograms. Knowing the units of physical quantities will help you solve problems in physics. Part A Gravity causes objects to be attracted to one another. This attraction keeps our feet firmly planted on the ground and causes the moon to orbit the earth. The force of gravitational attraction is represented by the equation , where force are Hint A.1 is the magnitude of the gravitational attraction on either body, , the units of mass are , and the units of distance are and are the masses of the bodies, is the distance between them, and is the gravitational constant. In SI units, the units or

## How to approach the problem Hint not displayed

Correct

Part B One consequence of Einstein's theory of special relativity is that mass is a form of energy. This mass-energy relationship is perhaps the most famous of all physics equations: , where units of Hint B.1 is mass, is the speed of the light, and is the energy. In SI units, the units of speed are . For the preceding equation to have consistent units (the same units on both sides of the equation), the

must be which of the following? How to approach the problem Hint not displayed

Correct

To solve the types of problems typified by these examples, we start with the given equation. For each symbol whose units we know, we replace the symbol with those units. For example, we replace with . We now solve this equation for the units of the unknown variable.

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## Conceptual Question 1.1

How many significant figures does each of the following numbers have? Part A 6.21 Express your answer using one significant figure. ANSWER: =3

Correct

Correct

Correct

Correct

## Conceptual Question 1.7

Part A Determine the sign (positive or negative) of the position for the particle in the figure in the textbook.

## Positive Negative Correct

Part B Determine the sign (positive or negative) of the velocity for the particle in the figure. ANSWER: Negative Positive Correct

Part C Determine the sign (positive or negative) of the acceleration for the particle in the figure. ANSWER: Negative Positive Correct

## Conceptual Question 1.8

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Part A Determine the sign (positive or negative) of the position for the particle in the figure in the textbook.

## Positive Negative Correct

Part B Determine the sign (positive or negative) of the velocity for the particle in the figure. ANSWER: Positive Negative Correct

Part C Determine the sign (positive or negative) of the acceleration for the particle in the figure. ANSWER: Positive Negative Correct

## Tactics Box 1.1 Vector Addition

Learning Goal: To practice Tactics Box 1.1 Vector Addition. Vector addition obeys rules that are different from those for the addition of two scalar quantities. When you add two vectors, their directions, as well as their magnitudes, must be taken into account. This Tactics Box explains how to add vectors graphically.

to

1. Draw

at the tip of

## 3. Draw an arrow from the tail of

to the tip of

. This is vector

Part A Create the vector by following the steps in the Tactics Box above. When moving vector , keep in mind that its direction should remain unchanged.

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View Correct

Part B Create the vector by following the steps in the Tactics Box above. When moving vector , keep in mind that its direction should remain unchanged.

View Correct

## Tactics Box 1.2 Vector Subtraction

Learning Goal: To practice Tactics Box 1.2 Vector Subtraction. Vector subtraction has some similarities to the subtraction of two scalar quantities. With numbers, subtraction is the same as the addition of a negative number. For example, Similarly, . We can use the rules for vector addition and the fact that is a vector opposite in direction to is the same as .

To subtract

from

1. Draw

at the tip of

## 3. Draw an arrow from the tail of

to the tip of

. This is vector

Part A Find vector by following the steps in the tactics box above. When drawing , keep in mind that it has the same magnitude as but opposite direction.

View Correct

Part B Find vector by following the steps in the tactics box above. When drawing , keep in mind that it has the same magnitude as but opposite direction.

## The location, orientation, and length of your vectors will be graded.

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View Correct

## Conceptual Question 1.4

Part A Does the object represented in the figure have positive or negative value of ? Assume that -axis points to the right.

## Negative Positive Correct

Problem 1.18
The figure shows the motion diagram of a drag racer. The camera took one frame every 2 .

View Correct

## Conceptual Problem 1.6

Part A An object has a velocity directed to the right, and an acceleration directed to the left. Which statement is true?

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ANSWER: The position of the object is increasing to the right with time, and its speed is decreasing. The position of the object is not changing in time. The position of the object is increasing to the right with time, and its speed is increasing. The position of the object is increasing to the left with time, and its speed is increasing. Correct

## True/False Problem 1.3

Part A If a vector pointing to the right has a positive magnitude, then one pointing to the left has a negative magnitude. ANSWER:

## True/False Problem 1.5

Part A If successive images of an object in a motion diagram get closer and closer together, then that object is accelerating. ANSWER:

## PSS 1.1 Motion Diagrams

Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 1.1 for motion diagram problems. A car is traveling with constant velocity along a highway. The driver notices he is late for work, so he stomps down on the gas pedal and the car begins to speed up. The car has just achieved double its initial velocity when the driver spots a police officer behind him and applies the brakes. The car then slows down, coming to rest at a stoplight ahead. Draw a complete motion diagram for this situation.
PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY 1.1 MODEL:

Motion diagrams

Represent the moving object as a particle. Make simplifying assumptions when interpreting the problem statement. motion diagram consists of:

VISUALIZE: A complete

The position of the object in each frame of the film, shown as a dot. Use five or six dots to make the motion clear but without overcrowding the picture. More complex motions may need more dots. The average velocity vectors, found by connecting each dot in the motion diagram to the next with a vector arrow. There is one velocity vector linking each set of two position dots. Label the row of velocity vectors . The average acceleration vectors, found using Tactics Box 1.3. There is one acceleration vector linking each set of two velocity vectors. Each acceleration vector is drawn at the dot between the two velocity vectors it links. Use to indicate a point at which the acceleration is zero. Label the row of acceleration vectors .

Model It is appropriate to use the particle model for the car. You should also make some simplifying assumptions. Part A The car's motion can be divided into three different stages: its motion before the driver realizes he's late, its motion after the driver hits the gas (but before he sees the police car), and its motion after the driver sees the police car. Which of the following simplifying assumptions is it reasonable to make in this problem? A. B. C. D. During each of the three different stages of its motion, the car is moving with constant acceleration. During each of the three different stages of its motion, the car is moving with constant velocity. The highway is straight (i.e., there are no curves). The highway is level (i.e., there are no hills or valleys).

Enter all the correct answers in alphabetical order without commas. For example, if statements C and D are correct, enter CD. ANSWER: ACD Correct

In addition to the assumptions listed above, in the rest of this problem assume that the car is moving in a straight line to the right.

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Visualize

Part B In the three diagrams shown to the left, the position of the car at five subsequent instants of time is represented by black dots, and the car's average velocity is represented by green arrows. Which of these diagrams best describes the position and the velocity of the car before the driver notices he is late?

A B C Correct

Part C Which of the diagrams shown to the left best describes the position and the velocity of the car after the driver hits the gas, but before he notices the police officer? ANSWER: A B C Correct

Part D Which of the diagrams shown to the left best describes the position and the velocity of the car after the driver notices the police officer? ANSWER: A B C Correct

Part E Which of the diagrams shown below most accurately depicts the average acceleration vectors of the car during the events described in the problem introduction?

A B C Correct

You can now draw a complete motion diagram for the situation described in this problem. Your diagram should look like this:

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## Curved Motion Diagram

The motion diagram shown in the figure represents a pendulum released from rest at an angle of 45 from the vertical. The dots in the motion diagram represent the positions of the pendulum bob at eleven moments separated by equal time intervals. The green arrows represent the average velocity between adjacent dots. Also given is a "compass rose" in which directions are labeled with the letters of the alphabet.

Part A What is the direction of the acceleration of the object at moment 5? Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Definition of acceleration Hint not displayed Hint A.3 Change of velocity: a graphical interpretation Hint not displayed Enter the letter of the arrow with this direction from the compass rose in the figure. Type Z if the acceleration vector has zero length. ANSWER: A Correct

Part B What is the direction of the acceleration of the object at moments 0 and 10? Hint B.1 Find the direction of the velocity Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Definition of acceleration Hint not displayed Hint B.3 Applying the definition of acceleration Hint not displayed Enter the letters corresponding to the arrows with these directions from the compass rose in the figure, separated by commas. Type Z if the acceleration vector has zero length. ANSWER: directions at time step 0, time step 10 = D,F Correct

Part A What quantities are shown on a complete motion diagram? ANSWER: Only the position of the object in each frame of the film, shown as a dot Only the average velocity vectors (found by connecting each dot in the motion diagram to the next with a vector arrow) Only the average acceleration vectors (where each acceleration vector links every two velocity vectors) All of the above

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Correct

Part A Acceleration vectors ANSWER: tell you how fast objects are going. are constructed from two velocity vectors. are the second derivative of the position. are parallel or opposite to the direction of motion. werent discussed in this chapter. Correct

Part A The pictorial representation of a physics problem consists of ANSWER: just a sketch. just a coordinate system. only symbols. only a list of known information. all of the above. Correct

## Conceptual Question 1.5

Part A Does the object represented in the figure have a positive or negative value of ? Assume that -axis points upward.

## Negative Positive Correct

Problem 1.11
Part A Figure shows two dots of a motion diagram and vector . Draw the vector if the acceleration vector at dot 2 points up.

Draw the vector with its tail at the dot 2. The orientation of your vectors will be graded. The exact length of your vectors will not be graded but the relative length of one to the other will be graded. ANSWER:

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View Correct

Part B Figure shows two dots of a motion diagram and vector . Draw the vector if the acceleration vector at dot 2 points down.

Draw the vector with its tail at the dot 2. The orientation of your vectors will be graded. The exact length of your vectors will not be graded but the relative length of one to the other will be graded. ANSWER:

View Correct

Problem 1.12
Part A Figure shows two dots of a motion diagram and vector . Draw the vector if the acceleration vector at dot 3 points to the right.

Draw the vector with its tail at the dot 3. The orientation of your vector will be graded. The exact length of your vector will not be graded but the relative length of one to the other will be graded. ANSWER:

View Correct

Part B Figure shows two dots of a motion diagram and vector . Draw the vector if the acceleration vector at dot 3 points to the left.

Draw the vector with its tail at the dot 3. The orientation of your vector will be graded. The exact length of your vector will not be graded but the relative length of one to the other will be graded. ANSWER:

View Correct

Problem 1.55
The figure shows a motion diagram of a car traveling down a street. The camera took one frame every 10 . A distance scale is provided.

## Part A Make a position-versus-time graph for the car.

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View Correct

Problem 1.10
Part A Find the average acceleration vector at point 1 of the threepoint motion diagram shown in the figure. Draw the acceleration vector with its tail at the dot. The orientation of your vector will be graded. The exact length of your vector will not be graded.

View Correct

Part B Is the object's average speed between points 1 and 2 greater than, less than, or equal to its average speed between points 0 and 1? ANSWER: greater less equal Correct

## True/False Problem 1.1

Part A The change in the position vector of a moving object is equal to the distance it has moved. ANSWER:

## True/False Problem 1.4

Part A Since vectors always have positive magnitudes, the sum of two vectors must have a magnitude greater than the magnitude of either one of them. ANSWER:

True

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False Correct

## True/False Problem 1.7

Part A If an object has a changing speed, its velocity must also be changing; but if it has a changing velocity, its speed is not necessarily changing. ANSWER:

## True/False Problem 1.8

Part A All objects moving in a circle are accelerated. ANSWER:

## True/False Problem 1.9

Part A If an object is accelerating toward a point, then it must be getting closer and closer to that point. ANSWER:

## True False Correct

Score Summary:
Your score on this assignment is 96.3%. You received 28.9 out of a possible total of 30 points.

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