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TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI

IN IN T VIN THNG

BO CO BI TP LN

THNG TIN V TUYN


Tn ti:

CC M HNH SUY HAO KNH


(PATHLOSS)
Ging vin :
PGS-TS n Ym
in in t in Thng - BKHN
Nhm sinh vin thc hin:
Nguyn n T.
Tng Thin .
Nguyn Kim Sn

H Ni, 12/2013

Nhm KSTN-DTVT-K55

Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

Trng i hc Bch Khoa H ni


Vin in t Vin thng

Bo co bi tp ln mn Thng tin v tuyn.


Tn ti:

Cc m hnh suy hao knh


PathLoss

Ging vin: PGS-TS V Vn Ym


Vin in t Vin thng i hc
Bch khoa H Ni.
Nhm sinh vin:
1./ Nguyn Vn T.
2./ Tng Thin V.
3./ Nguyn Kim Sn.
Lp KSTN-TVT-K55 trng i hc
Bch Khoa H Ni

H Ni, 12/2013.

2|P ag e

Nhm KSTN-DTVT-K55

Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

Mc lc:
1./ Gii thiu ti: .................................................................................................... 4
2./ M hnh suy hao truyn sng trong mi trng t do: ........................................... 5
3. Log-distance PathLoss: ........................................................................................... 8
4. Outdoor Propagation Model:................................................................................... 9
4.1. Okumura Model: .............................................................................................. 9
4.2. HATA: ........................................................................................................... 12
5. Kt qu m phng trong Matlab: .......................................................................... 13
5.1. M hnh lan truyn sng trong khng gian t do:............................................ 13
a. Suy hao truyn sng L trong mi trng t do: .............................................. 13
b. Cng sut nhn c my thu: .................................................................... 14
5.1. M hnh Log-distance Khng gian thc: ...................................................... 14
5.2. Out door Propagation: .................................................................................... 21
a. Okumura Model: ............................................................................................ 21
b. Hata Model: ................................................................................................... 22
Ph lc 1: Code m phng trong Matlab. .................................................................. 23
Ph lc 2: Ti liu tham kho. .................................................................................. 30

3|P ag e

Nhm KSTN-DTVT-K55

Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

1./ Gii thiu ti:


Khc vi h thng truyn thng c ng dy c nh, tn hiu v tuyn mang
tnh cht ngu nhin v chu nh hng ln bi nhng yu t mi trng khng gian
truyn. ng truyn gia my pht v my thu c th n gin l truyn thng trong
mt ton nh (Light-of-Sight) nhng cng c th l b nh hng bi cc yu t, cc
vt cn nh cc ta nh, ngon ni, rng cy hoc s thay i mi trng. Nhng yu
t ny lm nh hng n thng tin c mang theo trong tn hiu sng in t.
nh gi c mc nh hng ca mi trng n knh truyn nay, nh nghin cu
phi m hnh ha c nh hng ca mi trng thnh cc m hnh ton hc c
th tnh ton m phng.
Cc m hnh suy hao knh m hnh ha, s liu ha c mt s nh hng
n knh truyn v tuyn. Tm hiu v cc m hnh suy hao knh trong cc mi
trng khc nhau, trong cc mi trng c th trn l thuyt v m phng c th tm
cch khc phc, hn ch nh hng ca mi trng n knh truyn trong thc t.
ti tm hiu v Cc m hnh suy hao knh - PathLoss v mt s kt qu
m phng trn Matlab. Tm hiu v cc m hnh trong l thuyt cng nh mt s m
hnh c ng dng trong thc t, qua a ra nhn xt chung ca nhm.
Nhm sinh vin lp KSTN-T T-K55
i hc Bch Khoa H Ni.

4|P ag e

Nhm KSTN-DTVT-K55

Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

2./ M hnh suy hao truyn sng trong mi trng t do:


M hnh truyn sng trong khng gian t do c s dng d on cng
tn hiu khi gia my pht v my thu khng c vt cn gia chng, truyn sng c
thc hin trong tm nhn thng (line of sight). H thng thng tin v tinh v thng
tin vi ba trong tm nhn thng l in hnh ca truyn sng trong khng gian t do.
Ging nh hu ht cc m hnh truyn sng v tuyn large-scale, m hnh truyn sng
trong khng gian t do d on cng sut thu c suy gim ph thuc vo khong
cch truyn sng. Cng sut thu c khi truyn sng trong khng gian t do vi
khong cch gia anten pht v anten thu l d c cho bi cng thc Friis:
Cng thc Friis:

( )

(2.1)

Trong :
o
l cng sut pht (W)
( ) l cng sut nhn c ti im thu (W)
o
o
l h s tng ch ca anten pht
o
l h s tng ch ca anten thu
o
l khong cch gia my pht v my thu (m)
o l bc sng (m)
o L l h s suy hao ca anten ( L 1)
o H s tng ch ca anten G ph thuc vo m hiu dng ca
. Trong :

anten

l m hiu dng ca anten ph thuc vo kch thc


vt l ca anten

vi f l tn s sng mang (Hz), c l tc nh sng


Cng thc Friis cho ta thy cng sut nhn c ti im thu suy gim t l vi
bnh phng khong cch d gia anten pht v anten thu. ( cng c ngha l
suy gim 20dB/10 n v khong cch)
Cng sut bc x ng hng hiu dng (EIRP) c nh ngha l:
EIRP = . dng biu din cng sut pht ln nht c th t my pht
theo hng cc i ca h s tng ch ca anten. Thng thng EIRP thng
c tnh theo n v dB.
Path Loss biu din s suy hao tn hiu trong qu trnh truyn sng, c tnh
theo n v dB, c nh ngha l s sai khc ( dB ) gia cng sut pht hiu
dng v cng sut nhn c my thu.
o Path loss trong m hnh khng gian t do khi bao gm c h s tng ch
ca anten:
PL(dB) =
5|P ag e

= -10log[

(2.2)

Nhm KSTN-DTVT-K55

Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

o Nu khng tnh n h s tng ch ca anten th


PL(dB) =

= -10log[

(2.3)

Tnh cng sut thu ( )da trn cng sut thu ti im tham chiu
o Nu tnh theo n v W hoc mW
( ) mW =
o Trong :
(

)mW . ( )

(2.4)

l c ly tiu chun
) l cng sut thu c ti c ly tham chiu
l c ly m bo iu kin trng bc x (far field

distance

D l kch thc vt l ca anten


o Nu tnh theo n v dBm
( ) dBm =

)dBm 20log( )

(2.5)

Cc v d minh ha:

V d 1:
Tm c ly m bo iu kin trng bc x (far-field distance) vi
anten c kch thc ln nht l D = 1m v tn s hot ng l 900MHz.
Gii:
Theo bi, D = 1m, f = 900MHz
=
p dng cng thc

( )
ta tnh c

= 6m

V d 2:
a) Cng sut ca my pht l 50W, biu din cng sut pht theo n
v dBm v dBW.
b) Cho tn s sng mang 900MHz, tm cng sut thu c ( tnh theo
n v dBm) ti khong cch 100m
Cng cu hi trn vi khong cch 10 km.
c) Tnh path loss ti khong cch 100m
Gi thit h s tng ch ca anten pht v thu u bng 1
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Nhm KSTN-DTVT-K55

Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

Gii:
a) Cng sut pht tnh theo n v dBm l:
(
)
(
)
Cng sut pht tnh theo n v dBW l:
( )
(
)
b) Cng sut nhn c ti khong cch 100m l (tnh theo dBm)
p dng cng thc Friis ta c:
( )( )(
)
( )
( ) (
) ( )
( )
(
)
(
)
(
)
Cng sut nhn c ti khong cch 10km c th p dng cng thc (.) vi
v d = 10 km
(

c) Path loss
(

7|P ag e

* +

69.3 dB

Nhm KSTN-DTVT-K55

Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

3. M hnh Log-distance PathLoss:


C tnh ton l tuyt v thc nghim u cho thy cng trung bnh ca tn
hiu nhn c suy gim logarit theo khong cch, bt k l mi trng indoor hay
outdoor. Cng suy gim tn hiu trung bnh theo khong cch gia my pht v
my thu l mt hm m ca khong cch:
( ) ( )

(3.1)

Tnh theo dB:


(

(3.2)

Trong :

( ) : Path loss ti c li tham chiu


: c li tham chiu, tha mn
,
m bo iu kin trng khu xa (cc mt sng cu n c th coi l
phng)
(3.3)
D: kch thc vt l ca anten pht

bc sng lm vic

Vic xc nh khong cch tham chiu l rt quang trng. trong cc h thng


cell ln, khong cch tham chiu thng dng l 1km. trng cc h thng cell nh
(micro cells) khong cch tham chiu nh hn (100m n 1m). h s n c tnh t
thc nghim. thng thng, n tun theo bng sau:
Mi trng
Khng gian t do
th
th (b che ph)
Trong cc ta nh (c LOS)
Trong ta nh (c vt cn)
Trong nh my (c vt cn)

8|P ag e

H s n
2
2.7 n 3.5
3 n 5
1.6 n 1.8
4 n 6
2 n 3

Nhm KSTN-DTVT-K55

Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

4. Outdoor Propagation Model:


4.1. Okumura Model:
M hnh Okumura l mt trong nhng m hnh c s dng rng ri nht
trong khu vc th . M hnh ny c p dng cho cc tn s t 150 MHz n 1920
MHz (mc d n thng c ngoi suy ln n 3000 Mhz ) v khong cch t 1 km
n 100 km. M hnh Okumura c th c s dng cho cc trm c s c chiu cao
ng ten khc nhau, t 30 m n 1000m.
Bng thc nghim, m hnh Okumura a ra cng thc sau:
(

)=

(4.1)

Trong :

( ) : l 50% gi tr ca Pathloss
: l pathloss trong khng gian t do
(
) : l s suy gim tng i trung bnh trong khng gian t do
( ) : l chiu cao tng ch ca trm anten c s (the base station
antenna height gain factor)

) vi 1000 m >

>

30 m
( ) : l chiu cao tng ch ca anten di ng (the mobile antenna

height gain factor); (


(

)=

) vi 10 m >

) vi
m

l h s khuch i (ty thuc mi trng xt)

M hnh Okumura hon ton c xy dng t thc nghim v khng c mt


(
) v
lun gii l thuyt no cho m hnh ny.2 h s
c ly t thi
thc nghim. Tuy nhin m hnh Okumura vn rt chnh xc khi p dng trong thc
t. N tr thnh m hnh chun c p dng trong vic xy dng cc h thng v
tuyn Nht Bn. Khuyt im ln nht ca m hnh ny l khng p dng c cho
khu vc nng thn. lch trung bnh gia m hnh v thc t ri trong khong t 10
dB n 14 dB.

9|P ag e

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

Hnh 4.1. th tnh

10 | P a g e

):

Nhm KSTN-DTVT-K55

Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

Hnh v 4.2. th Garea

11 | P a g e

Nhm KSTN-DTVT-K55

Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

4.2. Hata Model:


M hnh Hata l mt m hnh thc nghim c xy dng bi Okumura, c
p dng vi di tn t 150 MHZ n 1500 MHZ cho mi trng th. Tuy nhin n
cng c a vo cc tham s chnh sa p dng vo cc trng hp khc. Cng
thc chun ca m hnh Hata nh sau:
(

)(

(4.2)

Trong :

: tn s hot ng (150 MHZ n 1500 MHZ)


: chiu di hiu dng ca anten trm pht (30m n 200m)
: chiu di hiu dng ca anten thu (1m n 10m)
: khong cch truyn sng (km)
( ) : l h s cn chnh, ty thuc vo rng vng c xt

i vi thnh ph c nh hoc trung bnh, (


(

) tnh nh sau:

(4.3)

i vi thnh ph ln:
(

vi

(4.4)

vi

(4.5)

p dng cho vng ngoi , m hnh Hata chnh sa cng thc nh sau :
(

(4.6)

i vi vng nng thn :


(

(4.7)
Mc d m hnh Hata khng c h s chnh sa ng nh trong m hnh
okumura, th cc biu thc trn vn c nhng ng dng thc t. kt qu ca m hnh
Hata rt ging vi m hnh Okumura , khi d > 1 km. M hnh Hata ph hp vi cc h
thng cell ln, nhng khng ph hp vi cc h thng PCS (Personal Comunications
Systems) v cc h thng PCS c bn knh cell thng < 1 km. Tuy vy, hip hi
EURO-COST cng nghin c v a ra mt s m rng cho m hnh Hata c
th p dng c cho m hnh cell c bn knh < 1km.

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

5. Kt qu m phng trong Matlab:


5.1. M hnh lan truyn sng trong khng gian t do:
a. Suy hao truyn sng L trong mi trng t do:

Hnh 1. th ph thuc Suy hao truyn sng trong khng gian t do vo khong cch
(PathLoss PathLoss in dB)
Suy hao truyn sng trong mi trng t do vi h s m truyn sng n = 2. Khong
cch truyn nhn nh hng rt ln n Suy hao truyn sng v Cng sut nhn ca
ti vi tr my thu. Chnh lch L gia R = 3 km v R = 4 km ln n 18*10^11.

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

b. Cng sut nhn c my thu:

Hnh 2. th ph thuc cng sut nhn trong khng gian t do theo khong cch d
(km) theo m hnh lan truyn trong khng gian t do.

5.1. M hnh Log-distance Khng gian thc:


Cng sut nhn ph thuc vo mi trng thc t (H s m truyn sng). Mt s kt
qu m phng vi nhng khng gian thc th khc nhau (c s m lan truyn khc
nhau).

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

Hnh 3. Cng sut nhn trong mi trng Urban area cellular radio vi h s m
suy hao truyn sng trong 2.7:3.5.

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

Hnh 4. Cng sut nhn trong mi trng Shadowed Urban area cellular radio vi
h s m suy hao truyn sng trong 3:5.

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

Hnh 5. Cng sut nhn trong mi trng In building Light of Sight vi h s m


suy hao truyn sng trong 1.6: 1.8.

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

Hnh 6. Cng sut nhn trong mi trng Obstructed in building vi h s m suy


hao truyn sng trong 4:6.

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

Hnh 7. Cng sut nhn trong mi trng thc vi h s m suy hao truyn sng thay
i trong trong 1:6.
Ch thch: vi h s m ln hn th th s nm pha trn.

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

Khc vi trong m hnh khng gian t do, h s m suy hao trong m hnh
Log-distance thay i ty theo mi trng. Chnh h s m ny lm nh hng ln
n cng sut nhn c cng nh suy hao trn ng truyn. H s n cng ln, ti
cng mt khong cch, cng sut nhn c cng thp, suy hao cng ln.
Trong Hnh ?, th so snh c s khc bit trong cng sut nhn c i
vi h s m khc nhau. Ti cng khong cch d = 20 km, khi n= 1(trong mi trng
ta nh c Light of Sight) Pr = -25dB cn vi n = 6 (trong mi trng cc ta nh c
vt cn) Pr = -180.
Vi mi trng l trong ta nh c Light of Sight, s m suy hao truyn sng
c th nh hn c trong trng hp l mi trng t do (Free Space). C th gii thch
hin tng ny bng hiu ng ng ngm trong cc ta nh.
Qua mi th ca Cng sut nhn c, cng nh Suy hao truyn sng. Ty
vo tng mi trng kt hp vi khong cch R, ta c th d dng xc nh c cc
thng s cn thit.

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

5.2. Out door Propagation:


a. Okumura Model:

Hnh 8. Suy hao truyn sng trong m hnh Okumura vi h s Hre v Hte thay i.
( th t trn xung theo chiu gim dn ca Hre v Hte)
M hnh Okumura c s dng rng ri trong cc thi, suy hao truyn sng
trong m hnh ny ph thuc nhiu vo chiu cao ca Antena pht v Antena thu.
21 | P a g e

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

th biu din s ph thuc ca PathLoss L vo khong cch d gia Antena pht v


Antena thu ca mt s trng hp chiu cao Anten nht nh. V d, vi chiu cao
antena thu l Hre = 5, antena pht l Hte = 100, ti r=7 km th PathLoss l 180 dB.
b. Hata Model:

Hnh 9. Suy hao truyn sng trong m hnh Hata vi hai tn s 300 Mhz v 1000
Mhz.

22 | P a g e

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

Ph lc 1: Code m phng trong Matlab.


1.1 Tnh ton v v th Suy hao truyn sng L v Cng sut nhn Pr trong mi
trng FreeSpace:
1. %Free-Space Path-loss
2. %Suy hao truyen song trong moi truong Free-Space, he
so mu suy hao n
3. f=800000000;
%Tan so
4. c=300000000;
%Van toc anh sang
5. R_free_space = 1:10:40000;
6. lp_freespace =((4*pi*R_free_space*f)/c).^2;
7.
8.
9. subplot(1,2,1);
10. plot(R_free_space,lp_freespace)
11. xlabel('x--> R (m)');
12. ylabel('y--> Lp (Path loss)');
13. title('Free space model');
14. grid on
15.
16. subplot(1,2,2);
17. plot(R_free_space,10*log(lp_freespace))
18. xlabel('x--> R (m)');
19. ylabel('y--> Lp (Path loss in dB)');
20. title('Free space model');
21. grid on
22. d = 1:1:100;
23. Pr1 = 0.035./d;
24. plot(d,Pr1);
25. grid on;

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

1.2. Cng sut nhn trong M hnh Log-distance vi h s m truyn sng thay
i:
%
LARGE SCALE PATH LOSS
%
d = d/d0
%
Mo hinh tham chieu chuan voi so mu suy hao n
clear all;
%close all;
N=30;
d = 1:N;
n= input('Nhap quang he so mu truyen song, can duoi: ');
m= input('Can tren: ');
z= input('Nhap buoc nhay cua n (0.1:1): ');
Pt=1;
%Transmited Power
while n <= m
Pr=Pt*(1./(d.^n)); %Receiver Power
Pr = 10.*log(Pr);
%dB
n=n + z;
%subplot(2,4,z)
%z=z+1;
plot(Pr)
axis tight; grid on;
hold on;
title('Power at the Receiver');%,num2str(n-0.5)]);
xlabel('Kilometers');
ylabel('Received Power (dB)');
end

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

1.3. Suy hao truyn sng trong m hnh Log-distance vi h s m truyn sng
thay i ty vo tng mi trng:
%Path-loss
%Suy hao truyen song trong moi truong thuc, he so mu suy
hao n

f=800*10^6;
%Tan so
c=3*10^8;
%Van toc anh sang
R_free_space = 1:1:40000;
n = input('Nhap khoang cua n, can duoi: ');
m = input('can tren: ');
z = input('Buoc nhay cua n:');
while n <= m
lp_freespace =((4*pi*R_free_space*f)/c).^n;
n = n + z;
plot(R_free_space,lp_freespace)
axis tight;
grid on;
hold on;
xlabel('x--> R (m)');
ylabel('y--> Lp (Path loss)');
title('Pathloss in Log-distance');
grid on
end

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

1.4. Okumura Model:


Vi Hte = 5 v Hre chy trong khong 100:100 :1000;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
OKUMURA MODEL - Outdoor Propagation
%
RANGE OF FREQUENCIES: 150 TO 1920 MHz
%
DISTANCES OF 1 Km TO 100 Km
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
clear all;
Hte=100;
Hre=5;
d = 1000:1:100000;
lamda=(3*10^8)/(900*10^6);
Lf = 10.*log((lamda.^2)/((4*pi)^2)*d.^2);
%n= 1;
while Hte <= 1000
Amu = 35;
Garea = 9;
Ghte = 20.*log(Hte/200);
Ghre = 20.*log(Hre/3);
L50 = Lf + Amu - Ghte - Ghre - Garea;
plot(d,L50);
Hte = Hte + 100;
xlabel('x--> R (km)');
ylabel('y--> L (dB)');
title('OKUMURA MODEL Hre = 5 & Hte = 100:1000 (m)');
hold on;
grid on;
end

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

Vi Hre = 3:1:10 v Hte = 100;


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
OKUMURA MODEL - Outdoor Propagation
%
RANGE OF FREQUENCIES: 150 TO 1920 MHz
%
DISTANCES OF 1 Km TO 100 Km
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
clear all;
Hte=100;
Hre=2;
d = 1000:1:100000;
lamda=(3*10^8)/(900*10^6);
Lf = 10.*log((lamda.^2)/((4*pi)^2)*d.^2);
%n= 1;
while Hre <= 10
Amu = 35;
Garea = 9;
Ghte = 20.*log(Hte/200);
Ghre = 20.*log(Hre/3);
L50 = Lf + Amu - Ghte - Ghre - Garea;
plot(d,L50);
Hre = Hre + 1;
xlabel('x--> R (km)');
ylabel('y--> L (dB)');
title('OKUMURA MODEL Hre = 5 & Hte = 100:1000 (m)');
hold on;
grid on;
end

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Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

1.5. Hata Model:


Xt Small city v Large City trong 2 trng hp: fc = 1000 Mhz v 300 Mhz.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
OKUMURA MODEL - Outdoor Propagation
%
RANGE OF FREQUENCIES: 150 TO 1920 MHz
%
DISTANCES OF 1 Km TO 100 Km
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
clear all;
Hte=100;
Hre=5;
d = 1:1:1000;

fc = 1000 * 10^6;
%in small and medium city
a_hre = (1.1* log(fc) - 0.7) * Hre - (1.56*log(fc)-0.8);
L50 = 69.55 + 26.16* log(fc) - 13.82*log(Hte) - a_hre +
(44.9-6.55*log(Hte))*log(d);
plot(d,L50,'--','LineWidth',2);
grid on;
hold on;
%legend('small city - 500Mhz');
%in large city:
a_hre = 8.29 * (log(1.54*Hre))^2 - 1.1;
L50 = 69.55 + 26.16* log(fc) - 13.82*log(Hte) - a_hre +
(44.9-6.55*log(Hte))*log(d);
plot(d,L50,'-','LineWidth',2);
grid on;
hold on;
%legend('large city - 500Mhz');
%set('LineWith',2);
fc = 300 * 10^6;
%in small and medium city
a_hre = (1.1* log(fc) - 0.7) * Hre - (1.56*log(fc)-0.8);
L50 = 69.55 + 26.16* log(fc) - 13.82*log(Hte) - a_hre +
(44.9-6.55*log(Hte))*log(d);
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Nhm KSTN-DTVT-K55

Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

plot(d,L50,'-.');
grid on;
hold on;
%in large city:
a_hre = 8.29 * (log(1.54*Hre))^2 - 1.1;
L50 = 69.55 + 26.16* log(fc) - 13.82*log(Hte) - a_hre +
(44.9-6.55*log(Hte))*log(d);
plot(d,L50,':');
grid on;
hold on;
xlabel('x--> d (km)');
ylabel('y--> L50 (dB)');
title('HataModel');
legend('Small City - 1000 Mhz','Large city 1000Mhz','Small City - 300 Mhz','Large city - 300Mhz');

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Nhm KSTN-DTVT-K55

Cc m hnh suy hao knh PathLoss

Ph lc 2: Ti liu tham kho.


1. Wireless Communications Principles and Practice 2nd Edition
Theodore S. Rapaport.
2. Slide bi ging mn Thng tin v tuyn.
PGS-TS n Ym- Vin in T Vin Thng i hc bch khoa H
Ni.
3. Y. Okumura. Field Strength and its Variability in VHF
and UHF Land Mobile Radio Service.
In Rev. Elec. Comm.
Lab., pages 825873, 1968.
4. Trang web: www.mathworks.com v mt s ti liu tham kho khc tc gi
tm kim trn mng.

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