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APPENDIX A. Standardization of Hydrochloric Acid Solution Primary standard used: Na2CO3 Formula mass of primary standard: 105.

988 g/mol %Purity of primary standard: 99.9% Trial 1 Standard weight,(g) Volume of HCl used (mL) 1 0.1000 11.7 2 0.1019 11.4 3 0.1004 11.0

Na2CO3 + HCl NaCl + NaHCO3 Trial 1 x x

Trial 2 x x

Trial 3 x x

Average Molarity

B. Determination of Ksp and Solubility of Ca(OH)2 Trial Volume of filtrate (mL) Volume of HCl used (mL) 1 50.0 14.5 2 50.0 14.2 3 50.0 13.6

Ca(OH)2 Ca2+ + 2OHHCl + OH- H2O + ClKsp= s= [Ca2+] = Trial 1 x x

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2

Trial 2 x x

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]=

Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2 Trial 3 x x

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2

Average Molar Solubility Average Ksp Theoretical Ksp at 25C = %error = x 100 = 1.08 %

C. Effect of Common Ions on the Solubility of Ca(OH)2 Trial Volume of filtrate (mL) Volume of HCl used (mL) 1 50.0 3.2 2 50.0 3.0 3 50.0 3.1

Ca(NO3)2 Ca2+ + 2NO3Ca(OH)2 Ca2+ + 2OHHCl + OH- H2O + Cl-

Assumption: Since [Ca2+] from common ion >>> s, [Ca2+] at equilibrium [Ca2+] from common ion 0.010 M Ca2+ x Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-] s=

Trial 1 x x

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2 Trial 2 x x

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2 Trial 3 x x

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2

Average Molar Solubility Average Ksp

D. Effect of Common Ions on the Solubility of Ca(OH)2 Ksp= s= [Ca2+] =

1. Solubility of Ca(OH)2 in 0.010 M KNO3 Trial Volume of filtrate (mL) Volume of HCl used (mL) Trial 1, 2 and 3 (same) x x 1 50.0 10.2 2 50.0 10.2 3 50.0 10.2

Average Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Average Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2 2. Solubility of Ca(OH)2 in 0.050 M KNO3 Trial Volume of filtrate (mL) Volume of HCl used (mL) Trial 1 x x 1 50.0 13.8 2 50.0 14.0 3 50.0 13.7

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2 Trial 2 x x

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2 Trial 3 x x

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2

Average Molar Solubility Average Ksp

3. Solubility of Ca(OH)2 in 0.10 M KNO3 Trial Volume of filtrate (mL) Volume of HCl used (mL) Trial 1 and 2 x x 1 50.0 15.2 2 50.0 15.2 3 50.0 16.5

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2

Trial 3 x x

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2

Average Molar Solubility Average Ksp

4. Solubility of Ca(OH)2 in 0.25M KNO3 Trial Volume of filtrate (mL) Volume of HCl used (mL) Trial 1 x x 1 50.0 14.4 2 50.0 14.2 3 50.0 13.7

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2 Trial 2 x x

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2 Trial 3 x x

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2

Average Molar Solubility Average Ksp

5. Solubility of Ca(OH)2 in 0.50 M KNO3 Trial Volume of filtrate (mL) Volume of HCl used (mL) Trial 1 x x 1 50.0 15.9 2 50.0 14.8 3 50.0 15.7

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2 Trial 2 x x

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]=

Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2 Trial 3 x x

Molar Solubility of Ca(OH)2 = [Ca2+] = [OH-]= Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2

Average Molar Solubility Average Ksp

E. Ionic Strengths of Solutions in Part D = ( )( )2 + ( )( )2]

Ionic Strength vs. Molar Solubility Ionic Strength 0.01 0.05 0.1 0.25 0.5
0.015 0.01 0.005 0 0 0.2 y = 0.0053x + 0.0106 R = 0.3344 0.4 0.6

Molar Solubility 0.00855 0.0115 0.0131 0.0118 0.0129

Molar Solubility (s)

Ionic Strength ()