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# 51ProblemsofAlgebra

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newproblemsareavailableeverytwoweeks.

1.(IranTST2013)Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
_
((x) + 2g(x) +S(y)) = g(x) + 2(x) + Sg(y) (x, y R
+
)
g((x) + y +g(y)) = 2x - g(x) + (y) +y (x, y R
+
)

2.Findallfunctions: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
((x) +x
2
+ 2y) = (x) +x
2
+ 2(y) (x, y R
+
)
3.(IranTST2012)g(x)isapolynomialofdegreen 2(n H)andwithrealpositivecoefficients.Find
allfunctions: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
((x) + g(x) +2y) = (x) +g(x) +2(y) (x, y R
+
)
4.(Longlist2012)Findallfunctions: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
(x + (x) + 2y) = (2x) + y + (y) (x, y R
+
)
5.Forthefunction: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
(x + y +(y)) + (x +z +(z)) = (2(z)) + (2y) + 2x (x, y, z R
+
)
Provethatthefunctionisinjective.
6.Findallfunctions: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
(x + y + (y)) + (x + z +(z)) = (2(z)) + (2y) + 2x (x, y, z R
+
)

7.Findallfunctions: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
(x + y + (y)) + (x + z +(z)) = (2(z)) + (2y) + (2x) (x, y, z R
+
)
8.Findallsurjectivefunctions: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
(x + (y)) + (y + (x)) = ((2x) + 2y) (x, y R
+
)
9.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthatisinjectiveand:
(g(x) + y) = (x) +g(y) (x, y R
+
)
10.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthatisinjectiveandwehave:
(g(x) +2y) = (x) +g(y) + y (x, y R
+
)
11.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthatisinjectiveandwehave:
(x +g(x) +2y) = (2x) + y + g(y) (x, y R
+
)
12.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
{u] R
+
{u]suchthatisinjectiveandwehave:
(g(x) + y) =
(x) + g(x)
2
+g(y)) (x, y R
+
{u])
g(u) = u

13.Findallinjectivefunctions: R
+
{u] R
+
{u]suchthatforallsurjectivefunctionsg, b: R
+

{u] R
+
{u]wehave:
(g(x) + b(y)) =
(g(x)) + (b(x))
2
+ (g(y)) (x, y R
+
{u])
14.Findallfunctions: R Rsuchthat:
(2(x) + (y) + (z)) = x +(x) -(y) + 2y + (z) (x, y, z R)
15.Findallfunctions: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
(x + (y) + (z)) = 2x - (x) + (y) +(z) (x, y, z R
+
)
16.Findallfunctions: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
(x + (y) +y) = Sx - 2(x) + (y) + y (x, y R
+
)
17.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthatforallpositiverealnumbersxandywehave:
_
((x) + g(y)) = (x) +g(y)
g((x) +g(y)) = 2x - (x) + 2y -g(y)

18.Findallfunctions: R
+
R suchthatforallpositiverealnumberso, b, cthatobc = 1,wehave:
(4o
2
+ 1). (b
2
+ 4) = ((4o). (4b))
2
+
(c
2
+ 1)
(2c)

19.g(x)isapolynominalwithnonnegativerealcoefficientsandofdegreen (n H)and: R R
+
.
Findall(x)andg(x)suchthat:
(x
n
y
n
z) = (g(x)). (g(y)) +
(xy)
(z
2
)
(x, y, z R )
20.g(x)isapolynomialwithpositiverealcoefficients.Findallfunctions: R R
+
suchthat:
(g(x). g(y). z) = (g(x)). (g(y)) +2(g(z)) (x, y, z R )
21.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
_
(x +(x) +g(y)) = (x) + x +g(y) (x, y R
+
)
g((x) +g(y)) = Sx - 2(x) + (y) (x, y R
+
)

22.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
_
(x + (x) + g(y)) = (x) + x + g(y) (x, y R
+
)
g((x) +g(y)) = Sx - 2(x) + Sy - 2g(y) (x, y R
+
)

23.Findallfunctions, g: R Rsuchthat:
_
(x + (x) + y +g(y)) = 2(x) + y +g(y) (x, y R)
g((x) + g(y)) = (x) +2y - g(y) (x, y R)

24.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
g((x) + y + g(y)) = 2x - (x) +g(y) + y (x, y R
+
)
25.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
_
(x +(x) + 2y) = 2(x) + y + g(y) (x, y R
+
)
g(2x - (x) + g(y)) = 2x - (x) + g(y) (x, y R
+
)

26.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthatisanondecreasingfunctionandwehave:
_
(x +(x) +g(y) + y) = x + g(x) + (y) + y (x, y R
+
)
g(x + (x) + g(y) + y) = 2g(x) + (y) +y (x, y R
+
)

27.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
(2x - (x) + g(y) +y) + (y) = 2x - (x) +2g(y) + y (x, y R
+
)
28.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
_
(2g(x) + (y)) = g(2x) + (y) (x, y R
+
)
g(g(x) +(y)) = 2x -g(x) +2y - (y) (x, y R
+
)

29.Forthefunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthatforallpositiverealnumbersxwehave:
_
(2g(x)) = x + g(x)
g((x)) = 2x - (x)

## Provethatthefunctions(x) +g(y), (x), g(x), x + g(x), 2x -(x)aresurjective.

30.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
_
(x +g(x) +2(y)) = x +g(x) +(y) + y (x, y R
+
)
g((x) + x) = Sx - (x) (x, y R
+
)

31.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
_
(g(x) + g(2y)) = (x) + y + g(y) (x, y R
+
)
g(2(x) + 2g(y)) = x +g(x) +(2y) (x, y R
+
)
(1) = g(1)

32.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
_
(2(x) +2g(y)) = x +(x) +y + g(y) (x, y R
+
)
g((x) + 2(y)) = (x) +y +(y) (x, y R
+
)

33.Findallfunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
_
((x) + x +2g(y)) = x +(x) +y + g(y) (x, y R
+
)
g((x) + 2(y)) = (x) + y + (y) (x, y R
+
)

34.Findallinjectivefunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
_
(x +(x) +y +g(y)) = x + g(x) + 2(y) (x, y R
+
)
g((x) + g(y)) = g(x) + (y) (x, y R
+
)

35.Findallnondecreasingfunctions: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
(x + (x) + 2y) = x +(x) + 2(y) (x, y R
+
)
36.Findallfunctions: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
(x +(x) +2y + (2z)) = x +(x) +y + (y) + 2(z) (x, y, z R
+
)
37.Forallfunctions: R Rsuchthat:
(x + (x) + 2y) = x + (x) +2(y) (x, y R )
Provethatthefunctionsaresurjective.

38.Findallfunctions: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
(x + (y)) = _
x
y
] (x, y R
+
)
39.Findallfunctions: (1, +) (1, +)suchthat:
(x +(y)) = _
x
y
+ 1] (x, y (1, +))
40.Findallfunctions: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
_
(y)
(x)
_ = (x(y) + y
2
) (x, y R
+
)
41.Findallfunctions: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
((x)
2
. (y)) = (x
2
+ (x)
2
. y) (x, y R
+
)
42.g(x)isapolynomialofdegreegreaterthantwowithpositiverealcoefficients.Findallfunctions
: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
((x)
2
. (y)) = (g(x) +(x)
2
. y) (x, y R
+
)

43.Forthefunctions, g: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
_
(g(x) + y) = (x) + g(y) (x, y R
+
)
g((x) + y) = g(x) + (y) (x, y R
+
)

provethat:
(x) = g(x) (x R
+
)
44.Findallfunctions, g, b: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
_
(x + g(x) + b(y)) = x + g(x) + b(y) (x, y R
+
)
g(b(y) +b(x)) = (x) +(y) (x, y R
+
)
b(b(x) +(y)) = Sx -2b(x) +Sy -2(y) (x, y R
+
)

45.Forallfunctions: R
+
R
+
suchthat:
(x + (x) + (2y)) = (4x) - (2x) +y + (y) (x, y R
+
)
Provethat(x)isaninjectivefunction.
46.Findallpolynomialswithrealcoefficientssuchthat:
xp(x)p(x
2
+ 1) = (x + 1)p(x
2
) + x
2
p(x
2
+ 1) (x R )
47.Findallpolynomialswithrealcoefficientssuchthat:
xp(x)p(x + 1) = (x +1)p(x
2
) +p(x) (x R )
48.Findallpolynomialswithrealcoefficientssuchthat:
xp(x)p(x + 1) = (x +1)p(x
2
) +xp(x + 1) (x R )
49.p(x)isapolynomialwithpositiverealcoefficientsandq(x)andb(x)arenonconstantpolynomials
withpositiverealcoefficients.Findallfunctions: R Rsuchthat:
_
(1)
2
+ (xP(x
2
))
2
= (xq(x
2
)). (b(x
2
)) (x R )
p(x) = b(x). q(x) (x R )

50.P(x)andq(x)arepolynomialswithrealcoefficientssuchthat:
_
p(q(p(u)x) + x) = p(u). (q(p(x)) + x) (x R )
p(x) p(y) (x y u)
(u) > u

Provethatq(x)hasatleastonerealroot.