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ERNST CASSIRER

ANTROPOLOGA FILOSFICA
Introduccin a una filosofa de la cultura

FONDO DE CULTURA ECONMICA MEXICO

INDICE

Primera edicin en ingl !" #$%% Primera edicin en e!&a'(l" #$%) Seg*nda edicin en e!&a'(l" #$)# Tercera edicin en e!&a'(l +C(leccin P(&*lar," #$-. C*ar/a edicin en e!&a'(l +C(leccin P(&*lar," #$-) 0*in/a edicin en e!&a'(l +C(leccin P(&*lar," #$-1

T2/*l( de e!/a (3ra en ingl ! 4 Essay on man #$-5 6ale Uni7er!i/8 Pre!!" Ne9 :a7en" C(nnec/ic*/; Trad*ccin al e!&a'(l4
EUGENIO MA<

D; R; = #$-5 FONDO DE CULTURA ECONMICA A7; de la Uni7er!idad $5)" M >ic( #?" D; F;

Impreso en Mxico A

charles W. Hendel con amistad y gratitud .

PREFACIO El &rimer im&*l!( &ara e!cri3ir e!/e li3r( !e l( de3( a mi! amig(! ingle!e! 8 n(r/eamerican(! @*e Aan in!i!/id( re&e/idamen/e &ara @*e &*3licara *na /rad*ccin ingle!a de mi ilosofa de las formas sim!licas. A*n@*e me A*3iera c(m&lacid( c(rre!&(nder a !*! de!e(!" me di c*en/a" a l(! &rimer(! &a!(!" de @*e la /area era im&rac/ica3le 8 Aa!/a re!*l/a3a" en la! ac/*ale! circ*n!/ancia!" inB*!/iCica3le la re&r(d*ccin del li3r( en !* in/egridad; P(r l( @*e re!&ec/a al lec/(r le A*3iera e>igid( *n gran e!C*erD( de a/encin la lec/*ra de *n e!/*di( en /re! 7(lEmene! @*e !e (c*&a de *n /ema diC2cil 8 a3!/rac/(; Per( /am3i n de!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a del a*/(r era &(c( &rac/ica3le ( ac(n!eBa3le la &*3licacin de *na (3ra &laneada 8 e!cri/a Aace mF! de 7ein/icinc( a'(!; De!de e!a CecAa" el a*/(r Aa &r(!eg*id( !*! e!/*di(! !(3re la ma/eria; :a &(did( c(n(cer m*cA(! AecA(! n*e7(! 8 !e Aa /enid( @*e enCren/ar c(n n*e7(! &r(3lema!; :a!/a l(! mi!m(! &r(3lema! 7ieB(! !(n 7i!/(! &(r l de!de *n Fng*l( diCeren/e 8 a&arecen c(n *na il*minacin di!/in/a; P(r /(da! e!/a! raD(ne! me decid2 a &ar/ir (/ra 7eD 8 a e!cri3ir *n li3r( en/eramen/e n*e7(; E!/e li3r( /en2a @*e !er m*cA( mF! 3re7e @*e el &rimer(; GUn li3r( grande Hdice Le!!ingH" e! *n gran da'(G; C*and( e!cri32a mi ilosofa de las formas sim!licas e!/a3a 8( /an a3!(r3id( &(r el /ema @*e (l7id ( de!c*id e!/a mF>ima e!/il2!/ica; En la ac/*alidad me !ien/( m*cA( mF! inclinad( a !*!cri3ir la! &ala3ra! de Le!!ing; En l*gar de (Crecer *na e>&(!icin de/allada de l(! AecA(! 8 *na m(r(!a di!c*!in de la! /e(r2a!" Ae &r(c*rad( c(ncen/rarme en *n(! c*an/(! &*n/(! @*e !e me Cig*ran de e!&ecial im&(r/ancia Cil(!Cica 8 Ae /ra/ad( de e>&re!ar mi! &en!amien/(! c(n la ma8(r 3re7edad 8 c(nci!in; De /(d(! m(d(!" el li3r( /iene @*e /ra/ar de /ema! @*e" a &rimera 7i!/a" &*eden &arecer 3a!/an/e di!&are!; Un li3r( @*e !e (c*&a de c*e!/i(ne! &!ic(lgica!" (n/(lgica!" e&i!/em(lgica!" 8 @*e c(n/iene ca&2/*l(! @*e !e reCieren al mi/( 8 a la religin" al leng*aBe 8 al ar/e" a la ciencia 8 a la Ai!/(ria" !e e>&(ne al re&r(cAe de n( !er mF! @*e *n mixtum compositum de la! c(!a! mF! di7er!a! 8 Ae/er(g nea!; E!&er( @*e el lec/(r" de!&* ! de le2da! !*! &Fgina!" enc(n/rarF @*e el re&r(cAe e! inC*ndad(; Un( de mi! &r(&!i/(! &rinci&ale! !e ciCra en c(n7encerle de @*e /(d(! l(! /ema! de @*e !e /ra/a en e!/e li3r( n( c(n!/i/*8en" de!&* ! de /(d(" mF! @*e *n !(l( /ema; Re&re!en/an camin(! diCeren/e! @*e lle7an a *n cen/r( c(mEn 8" a mi &arecer" c(rre!&(nde a *na Cil(!(C2a de la c*l/*ra el enc(n/rar 8 CiBar e!/e cen/r(;

P(r l( @*e re!&ec/a al e!/il( del li3r( Aa !igniCicad( !in d*da *na !eria de!7en/aBa el Aa3erl( /enid( @*e e!cri3ir en *na leng*a @*e n( e! la ma/erna; DiC2cilmen/e A*3iera !*&erad( e!/e (3!/Fc*l( !in la a8*da de mi amig( Iame! Pe//egr(7e" del S/a/e TeacAer! C(llege de Ne9 Ier!e8; :a re7i!ad( /(d( el man*!cri/( 8 me Aa ac(n!eBad( di!cre/amen/e en /(da! la! c*e!/i(ne! lingJ2!/ica! 8 e!/il2!/ica!; Per( /am3i n le e!/(8 m*8 agradecid( &(r m*cAa! (3!er7aci(ne! 7ali(!a! 8 &er/inen/e! en l( @*e !e reCiere a la ma/eria del li3r(; N( e! @*e &re/enda e!cri3ir *n li3r( &(&*lar !(3re *na ma/eria @*e" en /an/(! re!&ec/(!" !e re!i!/e a /(da 7*lgariDacin; P(r (/ra &ar/e" /am&(c( e!/e li3r( !e Aalla de!/inad( e>cl*!i7amen/e a &r(Ce!(re! ( Cil!(C(!; L(! &r(3lema! C*ndamen/ale! de la c*l/*ra A*mana re7i!/en *n in/er ! A*man( general 8 /ienen @*e Aacer!e acce!i3le! al gran &E3lic(; :e /ra/ad(" &(r l( /an/(" de el*dir /(d(! l(! /ecnici!m(! 8 Ae &r(c*rad( e>&re!arme c(n la ma8(r claridad 8 !encilleD &(!i3le!; 0*i!iera ad7er/ir" de /(d(! m(d(!" a mi! &(!i3le! cr2/ic(!" @*e l( @*e 8( &*ed( (Crecer en e!/a (ca!in e!" mF! 3ien" *na e>&licacin 8 *na il*!/racin de mi /e(r2a meB(r @*e *na dem(!/racin; Para *na di!c*!in 8 anFli!i! mF! cerrad(! de l(! &r(3lema! im&licad(! le! rec(mendar2a @*e ac*dieran a la e>&(!icin de/allada de mi ilosofa de las formas sim!licas. Deli3eradamen/e me &r(&(ng( n( &re!en/ar *na /e(r2a aca3ada" e>&re!ada en e!/il( d(gmF/ic(; P(r el c(n/rari(" Ae &r(c*rad( c(l(car a l(! lec/(re! en &(!icin de B*Dgar &(r !2 mi!m(!; Clar( @*e n( Aa !id( &(!i3le m(!/rar an/e ell(! /(da la ma!a de &r*e3a em&2rica en @*e !e 3a!a mi /e!i! &rinci&al; Per(" &(r l( men(!" Ae &r(c*rad( (Crecer am&lia! 8 rica! ci/a! de l(! li3r(! !(3re!alien/e! en la! di7er!a! ma/eria!; El lec/(r n( 7a a enc(n/rar *na 3i3li(graC2a c(m&le/a" &*e! Aa!/a l(! /2/*l(! de *na 3i3li(graC2a !emeBan/e A*3ieran re3a!a d( c(n m*cA( el e!&aci( de @*e di!&(n2a; Me Ae /enid( @*e c(n/en/ar c(n ci/ar a@*ell(! a*/(re! c(n l(! @*e me cre( mF! en de*da 8 c(n !elecci(nar a@*ell(! eBem&l(! @*e me &arec2an (Crecer *na !igniCicacin /2&ica 8 *n in/er ! Cil(!Cic( e>/ra(rdinari(; Al dedicar la (3ra a CAarle! K; :endel de!e( e>&re!ar mi &r(C*nda gra/i/*d al A(m3re @*e me a8*d a &re&arar e!/e li3r( c(n *n cel( inCa/iga3le; F*e el &rimer( a @*ien Aa3l !(3re !* &lan general; Sin !* in/er ! &(r el /ema del li3r( 8 !* ami!/(!( in/er ! &er!(nal &(r el a*/(r" diC2cilmen/e A*3iera /enid( 8( 7al(r &ara &*3licarl(; :a le2d( el man*!cri/( 7aria! 7ece! 8 Ae &(did( rec(ger !*ge!/i(ne! cr2/ica! @*e Aan re!*l/ad( 7ali(!a! 8 de gran a8*da; La dedica/(ria n( !l( &(!ee *n !en/id( &er!(nal !in( /am3i n !im3lic(; Al dedicar e!/e li3r( al Pre!iden/e del De&ar/amen/( de Fil(!(C2a 8 al Direc/(r de l(! e!/*di(! &ara grad*ad(! de la Uni7er!idad de 6ale @*ier( e>&re!ar mi gra/i/*d c(rdial al De&ar/amen/( mi!m(; C*and( Aace /re! a'(! llega3a 8( a la Uni7er!idad de 6ale" C*e *na gra/a !(r&re!a &ara m2 enc(n/rar *na e!/recAa c(la3(racin" @*e !e e>/end2a a *n ancA( cam&(; F*e *n &lacer e!&ecial 8 *n gran &ri7ilegi( /ra3aBar B*n/( c(n mi! c(lega! mF! B7ene! en !eminari(! c(lec/i7(! de ma/eria! 7aria!; Re&re!en/a3a *na n*e7a e>&eriencia en mi larga 7ida acad mica" e>&eriencia 7erdaderamen/e in/ere!an/e 8 e!/im*lan/e; Siem&re rec(rdar e!/(! !eminari(! c(lec/i7(!" *n( de Cil(!(C2a de la Ai!/(ria" (/r( de Cil(!(C2a de la ciencia" *n /ercer(

de /e(r2a del c(n(cimien/(" man/enid(! &(r CAarle! :endel 8 :aB( :(l3(rn" F;S;C; N(r/Ar(&" :enr8 Margena*" M(nr(e Leard!le8" Frederic Fi/cA 8 CAarle! S/e7en!(n; De3( c(n!iderar e!/e li3r(" en *na gran medida" c(m( el &r(d*c/( de mi /ra3aB( en la e!c*ela de grad*ad(! de la Uni7er!idad de 6ale" 8 a&r(7ecA( la (&(r/*nidad &ara e>&re!ar mi rec(n(cimien/( al decan( de la e!c*ela" Edgar S; F*rni!!" &(r la A(!&i/alidad @*e me Aa 3rindad( en e!/(! /re! El/im(! a'(!; Tam3i n de3( *n agradecimien/( c(rdial a mi! e!/*dian/e!; :e di!c*/id( c(n ell(! ca!i /(d(! l(! &r(3lema! c(n/enid(! en e!/e li3r( 8 e!&er( @*e enc(n/rarFn m*cAa! A*ella! de n*e!/ra (3ra c(mEn en la! &Fgina! @*e !ig*en;
ERNST CASSIRER

Uni7er!idad de 6ale

PRIMERA PARTE

"#$E E% E& H'M()E*

I; LA CRISIS EN EL CONOCIMIENTO DEL :OMLRE

rec(n(cer!e en general @*e la a*/(gn(!i! c(n!/i/*8e el &r(&!i/( !*&rem( de la indagacin Cil(!Cica; En /(d(! l(! c(nClic/(! en/re la! diCeren/e! e!c*ela! e!/e (3Be/i7( Aa &ermanecid( in7aria3le e inc(nm(7i3le4 &r(3 !er el &*n/( ar@*im dic(" el cen/r( CiB( e inm*/a3le de /(d( &en!amien/(; Tam&(c( l(! &en!ad(re! mF! e!c &/ic(! negar(n la &(!i3ilidad 8 la nece!idad del a*/(c(n(cimien/(; De!c(nCia3an de /(d(! l(! &rinci&i(! generale! c(ncernien/e! a la na/*raleDa de la! c(!a! &er( e!/a de!c(nCianDa !e endereDa3a a ina*g*rar n*e7(! 8 mF! !eg*r(! m(d(! de in7e!/igacin; En la Ai!/(ria de la Cil(!(C2a el e!ce&/ici!m( Aa !id(" m*8 a men*d(" el mer( en7 ! de *n A*mani!m( re!*el/(; Al negar 8 de!/r*ir la cer/eDa (3Be/i7a del m*nd( e>/eri(r" el e!c &/ic( e!&era c(nd*cir /(d(! l(! &en!amien/(! del A(m3re Aacia !2 mi!m(; El c(n(cimien/( &r(&i(" declara" e! el re@*i!i/( &re7i( 8 &rinci&al de la realiDacin @*e n(! c(nec/a c(n el m*nd( e>/eri(r a Cin de g(Dar de !2 mi!m(; Tenem(! @*e /ra/ar de r(m&er la cadena de n*e!/ra 7erdadera li3er/ad; &a plus grande chose du monde c+est de s,a-oir tre . soy/ e!cri3e M(n/aigne; Sin em3arg(" /am&(c( e!/a manera de a3(rdar el &r(3lema Hel m /(d( in/r(!&ec/i7(H n(! a3r(@*ela c(n/ra la! d*da! e!c &/ica!; La Cil(!(C2a m(derna c(menD c(n el &rinci&i( de @*e la e7idencia de n*e!/r( &r(&i( !er e! in7enci3le e in7*lnera3le; Per( el &r(gre!( del c(n(cimien/( &!ic(lgic( a&ena! !i Aa c(nCirmad( e!/e &rinci&i( car/e!ian(; La /endencia general del &en!amien/( !e dirige ac/*almen/e Aacia el &(l( (&*e!/(; P(c(! &!icl(g(! m(dern(! rec(n(cer2an ( rec(mendar2an *n &*r( m /(d( de in/r(!&eccin; En general n(! dicen @*e *n m /(d( !emeBan/e e! 7erdaderamen/e &recari(; E!/Fn c(n7encid(! de @*e n( e! &(!i3le ac(me/er *na &!ic(l(g2a cien/2Cica mF! @*e c(n *na ac/i/*d e!/ric/amen/e 3eAa7i(ri!/a 8 (3Be/i7aM &er( *n 3eAa7i(ri!m( c(n!i!/en/e 8 radical /am&(c( alcanDa !* Cin; P*ede ad7er/irn(! de &(!i3le! err(re! me/dic(! &er( n( re!(l7er /(d(! l(! &r(3lema! de la &!ic(l(g2a A*mana; P(dem(! cri/icar el &*n/( de 7i!/a &*ramen/e in/r(!&ec/i7( ( recelar de l" &er( n( !*&rimirl( ( eliminarl(; Sin in/r(!&eccin" !in *na &erce&cin inmedia/a de l(! !en/imien/(!" em(ci(ne!" &erce&ci(ne!" &en!amien/(!" ni" /an !i@*iera &(dr2am(! deCinir el cam&( de la &!ic(l(g2a A*mana; :a8 @*e rec(n(cer" !in em3arg(" @*e !ig*iend( e>cl*!i7amen/e e!/a 72a BamF! llegarem(! a *na 7i!in a3arcad(ra de la na/*raleDa del A(m3re; La in/r(!&eccin n(! re7ela /an !l( a@*el
PARECE

&e@*e'( !ec/(r de la 7ida A*mana @*e e! acce!i3le a n*e!/ra e>&eriencia indi7id*alM BamF! &(drF c*3rir &(r c(m&le/( el cam&( en/er( de l(! Cenmen(! A*man(!; A*n en el ca!( en @*e &*di ram(! B*n/ar 8 c(m3inar /(d(! l(! da/(!" e!/ar2am(! en &(!e!in de *n c*adr( 3ien &(3re 8 Cragmen/ari(" *n mer( /(r!( de la na/*raleDa A*mana; N(! dice Ari!//ele! @*e /(d( c(n(cimien/( /iene !* (rigen en *na 3F!ica /endencia de la na/*raleDa A*mana" @*e !e maniCie!/a en la! acci(ne! 8 reacci(ne! mF! elemen/ale! del A(m3re; El Fm3i/( en/er( de la 7ida de l(! !en/id(! !e Aalla de/erminad( e im&regnad( &(r e!/a /endencia4 T(d(! l(! A(m3re! de!ean &(r na/*raleDa c(n(cer; Una &r*e3a de ell( la /enem(! en el g(ce @*e n(! &r(&(rci(nan n*e!/r(! !en/id(!M &(r@*e" a&ar/e de !* */ilidad" !(n @*erid(! &(r !2 mi!m(!" 8 &(r encima de /(d(! el de la 7i!/a; P(r@*e n( !l( c*and( /ra/am(! de Aacer alg( !in( /am3i n en la (ci(!idad &reCerim(! el 7er a c*al@*ier (/ra c(!a; La raDn e!/F en @*e e!/e !en/id(" mF! @*e ningEn (/r(" n(! Aace c(n(cer 8 /rae a l*D m*cAa! diCerencia! en/re la! c(!a!; 0Metafsica/ Li3r( A" I" $1Na ?#;, E!/e &a!aBe e! m*8 carac/er2!/ic( del c(nce&/( @*e" a diCerencia de Pla/n" /iene del c(n(cimien/( Ari!//ele!; SemeBan/e l(a Cil(!Cica de la 7ida !en!i3le del A(m3re !er2a im&(!i3le en la (3ra de Pla/nM BamF! llegar2a a c(m&arar el de!e( del c(n(cimien/( c(n el g(ce @*e n(! &r(&(rci(nan n*e!/r(! !en/id(!; En Pla/n la 7ida de l(! !en/id(! !e Aalla !e&arada de la 7ida del in/elec/( &(r *n ancA( e in!*&era3le a3i!m(; El c(n(cimien/( 8 la 7erdad &er/enecen a *n (rden /ra!cenden/al" el rein( de la! idea! &*ra! 8 e/erna!; El mi!m( Ari!//ele! e!/F c(n7encid( de @*e n( e! &(!i3le el c(n(cimien/( cien/2Cic( a /ra7 ! Enicamen/e del ac/( de &erce&cinM &er( c*and( niega la !e&aracin @*e Pla/n e!/a3lece en/re el m*nd( ideal 8 el em&2ric(" Aa3la c(m( *n 3il(g(; Tra/a de e>&licar el m*nd( ideal" el m*nd( del c(n(cimien/( en / rmin(! de 7ida; SegEn Ari!//ele!" en am3(! rein(! enc(n/ram(! la mi!ma c(nO /in*idad inin/err*m&ida; En la na/*raleDa" l( mi!m( @*e en el c(n(cimien/( A*man(" la! C(rma! !*&eri(re! !e de!arr(llan a &ar/ir de la! inCeri(re!; Perce&cin !en!i3le" mem(ria" e>&eriencia" imaginacin 8 raDn !e Aallan ligada! en/re !2 &(r *n 72nc*l( c(mEnM n( !(n !in( e/a&a! diCeren/e! 8 e>&re!i(ne! di7er!a! de *na 8 la mi!ma ac/i7idad C*ndamen/al" @*e alcanDa !* &erCeccin !*&rema en el A(m3re" &er( en la @*e de algEn m(d( &ar/ici&an l(! animale! 8 /(da! la! C(rma! de la 7ida (rgFnica; Si ad(&/Fram(! e!/e &*n/( de 7i!/a 3i(lgic( n(! Cig*rar2am(! @*e la &rimera e/a&a del c(n(cimien/( A*man( :a3r2a de /ra/ar e>cl*!i7amen/e c(n el m*nd( e>/eri(r; P(r l( @*e !e reCiere a !*! nece!idade! inmedia/a! 8 a !*! in/ere!e! &rFc/ic(! el A(m3re de&ende de !* am3ien/e C2!ic(; N( &*ede 7i7ir !in ada&/ar!e c(n!/an/emen/e a la! c(ndici(ne! del m*nd( @*e le r(dea; L(! &rimer(! &a!(! Aacia la 7ida in/elec/*al 8 c*l/*ral &*eden de!cri3ir!e c(m( ac/(! @*e im&lican *na !*er/e de ada&/acin men/al al din/(rn(; Ma! en el &r(gre!( de la c*l/*ra m*8 &r(n/( /r(&eDam(! c(n *na /endencia (&*e!/a de la 7ida; De!de l(! &rimer(! al3(re! de la c(nciencia A*mana 7em(! @*e el &*n/( de 7i!/a e>/ra7er/id( !e Aalla ac(m&a'ad( 8 c(m&leO men/ad( &(r *na 7i!in in/r(7er/ida de la 7ida; C*an/( mF! leB(! a7ancem(! en el

de!en7(l7imien/( de la c*l/*ra c(n re!&ec/( a !*! (r2gene! la 7i!in in/r(7er/ida !e 7a adelan/and( Aacia el &rimer &lan(; Sl( &(c( a &(c( la c*ri(!idad na/*ral del A(m3re c(mienDa a cam3iar de direccin; P(dem(! e!/*diar e!/e &a*la/in( de!arr(ll( en ca!i /(da! la! C(rma! de !* 7ida c*l/*ral; En la! &rimera! e>&licaci(ne! m2/ica! del *ni7er!( enc(n/ram(! !iem&re *na an/r(&(l(g2a &rimi/i7a al lad( de *na c(!m(l(g2a &rimi/i7a; La c*e!/in del (rigen del m*nd( !e Aalla ine>/rica3lemen/e en/relaDada c(n la c*e!/in del (rigen del A(m3re; La religin n( de!/r*8e e!/a! &rimera! e>&licaci(ne! mi/(lgica!M &(r el c(n/rari(" &re!er7a la c(!m(l(g2a 8 la an/r(&(l(g2a m2/ica! d(/Fnd(la! de n*e7a C(rma 8 de ma8(r &r(O C*ndidad; P(r l( /an/(" el c(n(cimien/( de !2 mi!m( n( e! c(n!iderad( c(m( *n in/er ! &*ramen/e /eric(M n( e! *n !im&le /ema de c*ri(!idad ( de e!&ec*lacinM !e rec(n(ce c(m( la (3ligacin C*ndamen/al del A(m3re; L(! grande! &en!ad(re! religi(!(! Aan !id( l(! &rimer(! @*e Aan inc*lcad( e!/a e>igencia m(ral; En /(da! la! C(rma! !*&eri(re! de la 7ida religi(!a la mF>ima Gc(nce/e a /i mi!m(G !e c(n!idera c(m( *n im&era/i7( ca/egric(" c(m( *na le8 m(ral 8 religi(!a deCini/i7a; Sen/im(! c(n e!/e im&era/i7(" &(r decirl( a!2" *na in7er!in !E3i/a del &rimer in!/in/( na/*ral de c(n(cimien/(" &erci3im(! *na /ra!m*/acin de /(d(! l(! 7al(re!; P(dem(! (3!er7ar la marcAa c(ncre/a de e!/e de!en7(l7imien/( en la Ai!/(ria de /(da! la! religi(ne! *ni7er!ale!" en el B*dai!m(" en el 3*di!m(" en el c(nC*ciani!m( 8 en el cri!/iani!m(; Pl mi!m( &rinci&i( !e maniCie!/a en la e7(l*cin general del &en!amien/( Cil(!Cic(; En !*! e/a&a! &rimi/i7a! la Cil(!(C2a griega &arece in/ere!ar!e e>cl*!i7aO men/e &(r el *ni7er!( C2!ic(M la c(!m(l(g2a &red(mina claramen/e !(3re /(da! la! (/ra! rama! de la in7e!/igacin Cil(!Cica" &er( carac/eriDa la &r(C*ndidad 8 la am&li/*d del e!&2ri/* grieg( el AecA( de @*e ca!i /(d( n*e7( &en!ad(r re&re!en/e al mi!m( /iem&( *n n*e7( /i&( general de &en!amien/(; Tra! la Cil(!(C2a C2!ica de la e!c*ela de Mile/(" l(! &i/agric(! de!c*3ren *na Cil(!(C2a ma/emF/ica" mien/ra! @*e l(a el a/a! !(n l(! &rimer(! en c(nce3ir el ideal de *na Cil(!(C2a lgica; :erFcli/( !e Aalla en la Cr(n/era en/re el &en!amien/( c(!m(lgic( 8 el an/r(&(lgic(M a*n@*e !ig*e Aa3land( c(m( *n Cil!(C( na/*ral 8 &er/enece al gr*&( de l(! an/ig*(! Ci!il(g(!" e!/F c(n7encid( de @*e n( !e &*ede &ene/rar en el !ecre/( de la na/*raleDa !in Aa3er e!/*diad( an/e! el !ecre/( del A(m3re; Tenem(! @*e c*m&lir c(n la e>igencia de la a*/(rreCle>in !i @*erem(! a&reAender la realidad 8 en/ender !* !en/id(M &(r e!( le C*e &(!i3le a :erFcli/( carac/eriDar /(da !* Cil(!(C2a c(n e!/a! d(! &ala3ra!4 QRSTUVWXUY QXZ[\]Y +me Ae 3*!cad( a m2 mi!m(,;# Per( e!/a /endencia n*e7a del &enO !amien/( a*n@*e en cier/( !en/id( inAeren/e a la &rimi/i7a Cil(!(C2a griega" n( lleg a !* &lena mad*reD Aa!/a la &(ca de Scra/e!M e!" &*e!" el &r(3lema del A(m3re l( @*e !e&ara el &en!amien/( !(crF/ic( del &re!(crF/ic( Scra/e! n*nca a/aca ( cri/ica la! /e(r2a! de !*! &redece!(re!" n( &re/ende in/r(d*cir *na n*e7a d(c/rina Cil(!Cica; Sin em3arg(" /(d(! l(! &r(3lema! an/ig*(! !(n 7i!/(! &(r l a *na n*e7a l*D" &(r@*e !(n reCerid(! a *n n*e7( C(c( in/elec/*alM l(! de la Cil(!(C2a na/*ral 8 de la me/aC2!ica !e enc*en/ran !E3i/amen/e ecli&!ad(! &(r *na n*e7a c*e!/in @*e
#

Fragmen/( #N# de la (3ra de Diel!" 1ie ragmente der 2orso3rati3er/ ed; &(r K; ^ran/D +)a ed; Lerl2n" #$.%," I" #5.;

&arece a3!(r3er" de a@*2 en adelan/e" /(d( el in/er ! /eric( del A(m3re; _a n( enc(n/ram(! en Scra/e! *na /e(r2a n*e7a de la na/*raleDa ( *na n*e7a d(c/rina lgica" ni *na /e(r2a /ica c(Aeren/e 8 !i!/emF/ica en el !en/id( en @*e C*e de!arr(llada &(r l(! !i!/ema! /ic(! &(!/eri(re!M n( Aa8 mF! @*e *na c*e!/in4 `@* e! el A(m3rea Scra/e! !(!/iene 8 deCiende !iem&re el ideal de *na 7erdad (3Be/i7a" a3!(l*/a" *ni7er!al" &er( el Enic( *ni7er!( @*e c(n(ce 8 al c*al !e reCieren /(da! !*! indagaci(ne! e! el *ni7er!( del A(m3re; S* Cil(!(C2a" !i &(!ee alg*na" e! e!/ric/amen/e an/r(&(lgica, En *n( de l(! diFl(g(! &la/nic(! !e n(! de!cri3e a Scra/e! en c(n7er!acin c(n !* di!c2&*l( Fedr(; Pa!ean 8 a &(c( llegan a *n l*gar e>/ram*r(! de A/ena!M Scra/e! e!/F admirad( &(r la 3elleDa del l*gar; Le encan/a el &ai!aBe" @*e cele3ra c(n en/*!ia!m(; Per( Fedr( le in/err*m&e; Le !(r&rende @*e Scra/e! !e c(nd*Dca c(m( *n e>/ranBer( @*e e! c(nd*cid( &(r *n cicer(ne; G`Tra!&a!Fi! alg*na 7eD l(! *m3rale!aG" le &reg*n/aM Scra/e! re!&(nde" c(n *n !en/id( !im3lic(4 GCier/( @*e n(" mi 3*en amig(" 8 e!&er( @*e !a3rF! e>c*!arme c*and( e!c*cAe! la raDn" a !a3er" @*e !(8 *n aman/e del c(n(cimien/( 8 l(! A(m3re! @*e Aa3i/an en la ci*dad !(n mi! mae!/r(! 8 n( l(! Fr3(le! ( la c(marcaG; +Pla/n" edro/ ?.N;, N( (3!/an/e" !i e!/*diam(! l(! diFl(g(! !(crF/ic(! de Pla/n en ning*na &ar/e enc(n/rarem(! *na !(l*cin direc/a del n*e7( &r(3lema" Scra/e! n(! (Crece *n anFli!i! de/allad( 8 me/ic*l(!( de la! di7er!a! c*alidade! 8 7ir/*de! A*mana!; Pre/ende de/erminar la na/*raleDa de e!/a! c*alidade! 8 deCinirla!4 3(ndad" B*!/iO cia" /em&lanDa" 7al(r" 8 a!2 !*ce!i7amen/e" &er( n*nca a7en/*ra *na deCinicin del A(m3re; `Cm( e>&licarn(! e!/a a&aren/e deCicienciaa `E! @*e Scra/e! ad(&/ deli3eradamen/e la 72a del r(de(" *n m /(d( @*e le &ermi/2a n( mF! ara'ar la !*&erCicie de !* &r(3lema !in &ene/rar BamF! en el me(ll(a En e!/e &*n/(" !in em3arg(" mF! @*e en (/r( c*al@*iera /enem(! @*e recelar de la ir(n2a !(crF/ica; Preci!amen/e" la re!&*e!/a nega/i7a de Scra/e! a&(r/a *na l*D ine!&erada a la c*e!/in 8 n(! &r(&(rci(na la cla7e &(!i/i7a de !* c(nce&cin del A(m3re" c*8a na/*raleDa &(dem(! de!c*3rir del mi!m( m(d( @*e n(! e! &(!i3le de7elar la na/*raleDa de la! c(!a! C2!ica!; Si de!cri3im(! la! c(!a! C2!ica! en l(! / rmin(! de !*! &r(&iedade! (3Be/i7a!" el A(m3re !l( !e &*ede de!cri3ir 8 deCinir en / rmin(! de !* c(nciencia; E!/e AecA( &lan/ea *n &r(3lema en/eramen/e n*e7( e in!(l*3le &ara n*e!/r(! m(d(! Aa3i/*ale! de in7e!/igacin; La (3!er7acin em&2rica 8 el anFli!i! lgic(" en el !en/id( en @*e C*er(n em&lead(! e!/(! / rmin(! en la Cil(!(C2a &re!(crF/ica" !e Aan m(!/rad( ineCicace! e inadec*ad(!" &(r@*e !l( en el /ra/( c(n l(! !ere! A*man(! &(dem(! &ene/rar en el carFc/er del A(m3re; Para c(m&renderl( /enem(! @*e aCr(n/arl(" mirarl( cara a cara; N( e!" &*e!" *n n*e7( c(n/enid( (3Be/i7( !in( *na n*e7a ac/i/*d 8 C*ncin del &en!amien/( l( @*e c(n!/i/*8e el ra!g( di!/in/i7( de la Cil(!(C2a !(crF/ica; La Cil(!(C2a" @*e Aa!/a aA(ra Aa32a !id( c(nce3ida c(m( *n m(nl(g( in/elec/*al" !e Aa /ran!C(rmad( en diFl(g(; Sl( &(r la 72a del &en!amien/( dial(gal ( dial c/ic( &(dem(! acercarn(! al c(n(cimien/( de la na/*raleDa A*mana; An/e! &*d( c(nce3ir!e la 7erdad c(m( *na e!&ecie de c(!a aca3ada a&reAen!i3le &(r *n e!C*erD( del &en!ad(r indi7id*al 8 &re!en/a3le 8 c(m*nica3le a!2 a l(! demF!; Scra/e! 8a n( !*!cri3e e!/e &*n/( de

7i!/a; E! /an im&(!i3le" n(! dice Pla/n en la )ep4!lica/ im&lan/ar la 7erdad en el alma de *n A(m3re c(m( im&lan/ar la Cac*l/ad de 7er en el cieg( de nacimien/(; La 7erdad e!" &(r !* na/*raleDa" la cria/*ra del &en!amien/( dial c/ic(M n( &*ede !er (3/enida" &(r l( /an/(" !in( en la c(n!/an/e c((&eracin de l(! !*Be/(! en *na in/err(gacin 8 r &lica rec2&r(ca!; N( e! *n (3Be/( em&2ric(M Aa8 @*e en/enderla c(m( el &r(d*c/( de *n ac/( !(cial; A@*2 /enem(! la n*e7a re!&*e!/a" indirec/a" a la &reg*n/a4 `@* e! el A(m3rea Se dice @*e e! *na cria/*ra c(n!/an/emen/e en 3*!ca de !2 mi!ma" @*e en /(d( m(men/( de !* e>i!/encia /iene @*e e>aminar 8 Aacer el e!cr*/ini( de la! c(ndici(ne! de la mi!ma; En e!/e e!cr*/ini(" en e!/a ac/i/*d cr2/ica re!&ec/( a la 7ida A*mana radica el 7al(r de e!/a 7ida; GUna 7ida n( e>aminada H dice Scra/e! en la ApologaH" n( 7ale la &ena de 7i7irlaG; Ca3e re!*mir el &en!amien/( de Scra/e! diciend( @*e deCine al A(m3re c(m( a@*el !er @*e" !i !e le Aace *na &reg*n/a raci(nal" &*ede dar *na re!&*e!/a raci(nal; Tan/( !* c(n(cimien/( c(m( !* m(ralidad e!/Fn incl*id(! en e!/e c2rc*l(; Median/e e!/a Cac*l/ad C*ndamen/al de dar *na Gre!&*e!/aG a !2 mi!m( 8 a l(! demF! el A(m3re re!*l/a *n !er Gre!&(n!a3leG" *n !*Be/( m(ral; La &rimera Aa !id(" en cier/( !en/id(" *na re!&*e!/a @*e !e Aa AecA( clF!ica; El &r(3lema !(crF/ic( 8 el m /(d( !(crF/ic( BamF! &*eden !er (l7idad(! ( ign(rad(!; A /ra7 ! del &en!amien/( &la/nic( Aa deBad( !* marca ?en /(d( el de!en7(l7imien/( *l/eri(r de la ci7iliDacin; Aca!( n( Aa8 camin( mF! !eg*r( ( mF! c(r/( &ara c(n7encern(! de la &r(C*nda *nidad 8 de la c(n/in*idad &erCec/a del &en!amien/( Cil(!Cic( an/ig*( @*e c(m&arar e!/a! &rimera! e/a&a! de la Cil(!(C2a griega c(n *n( de l(! &r(d*c/(! El/im(! 8 mF! n(3le! de la c*l/*ra grec(rr(mana" el li3r( de l(! !(lil(@*i(! del em&erad(r Marc( A*reli(; A &rimera 7i!/a &*ede &arecer e!/a c(m&aracin *n &(c( ar3i/raria" &*e! Marc( A*reli( n( C*e *n &en!ad(r (riginal ni !ig*i *n m /(d( e!/ric/a men/e lgic(; bl mi!m( da gracia! a l(! di(!e! &(r el AecA( de @*e al enam(rar!e de la Cil(!(C2a n( &(r e!( !e c(n7ir/i en *n e!cri/(r de Cil(!(C2a ( en *n de!ciCrad(r de !il(gi!m(!;. Per( Scra/e! 8 Marc( A*reli( c(inciden en @*e" &ara enc(n/rar la 7erdadera na/*raleDa ( e!encia del A(m3re" e>igen la rem(cin &re7ia de /(d(! l(! ra!g(! e>/ern(! 8 acciden/ale! de !* !er; N( diga! @*e e! de A(m3re ning*na de e!a! c(!a! @*e n( le &er/enecen c(m( /al; N( &*eden !er &re/endida! &(r *n A(m3reM !* na/*raleDa n( la! garan/iDaM n( !(n
?

En la! &Fgina! @*e !ig*en n( /ra/( de (Crecer *na 7i!in general del de!arr(ll( Ai!/ric( de la Cil(!(C2a an/r(&(lgica !in( @*e &re/end( de!/acar alg*na! e/a&a! /2&ica! c(n el Cin de aclarar la l2nea general del &en!amien/(; La Ai!/(ria de la Cil(!(C2a del A(m3re e! /(da72a *n 3ell( de!e(; A!2 c(m( la Ai!/(ria de la me/aC2!ica" de la Cil(!(C2a de la na/*raleDa" del &en!amien/( /ic( 8 cien/2Cic(" Aan !id( e!/*diada! am&liamen/e" n(! enc(n/ram(! en e!/e cam&( en l(! mer(! c(mienD(!; D*ran/e el !igl( &a!ad( !e Aa !en/id( cada 7eD mF! 7i7amen/e la im&(r/ancia de e!/e &r(3lema; KilAelm Dil/Ae8 Aa &*e!/( /(d( !* em&e'( en enc(n/rar la !(l*cin; Per( la (3ra de Dil/Ae8" /an 7i7a 8 !*ge!/i7a" Aa @*edad( inc(m&le/a; Un( de !*! di!c2&*l(!" LernAard Gr(e/A*8!en" Aa /raDad( *na e>celen/e de!cri&cin del de!arr(ll( general de la Cil(!(C2a an/r(&(lgica; E!/a de!cri&cin" de!graciadamen/e" !e de/iene /am3i n &(c( an/e! de la e/a&a El/ima 8 deci!i7a" e! decir" an/e! de la &(ca m(derna; _ a!e LernAard Gr(e/A*8!en GPAil(!(&Ai!cAe An/Ar(&(l(gieG" Hand!uch der 5hilosophie +M*nicA 8 Lerl2n" #$.#," III" #O?N5; _ a!e /am3i n el ar/2c*l( de Gr(e/A*8!en" GT(9ard! an An/Ar(&(l(gical PAil(!(&A8G" 5hilosophy and History/ Essays presented to Ernst 6assirer +O>C(rd" Clarend(n Pre!!" #$.-," &&; 55O1$; Marc( A*reli( An/(ni(" Ad se ipsum/ Zcd\]Y" Li3; I" &Frr; 1;

&erCecci(ne! de e!a na/*raleDa; P(r l( /an/(" ni el Cin &(r el c*al 7i7e el A(m3re !e Aalla en e!a! c(!a! ni /am&(c( l( @*e e! &erCec/( en el Cin" a !a3er" el 3ien; AdemF!" !i alg*na de e!/a! c(!a! c(rre!&(ndiera al A(m3re" n( (c*rrir2a @*e la de!&reciara 8 le 7(l7iera la e!&alda;;; &er( !*cede @*e c*an/( mF! !e man/iene *n A(m3re li3re de e!/a! 8 (/ra! c(!a! !emeBan/e!" c(n ec*animidad" mF! 3*en( e!; +Marc( A*reli(" (&; cit./ Li3; _; &Frr; #),; L( @*e al A(m3re le 7iene de!de C*era e! n*l( 8 7an(M !* e!encia n( de&ende de la! circ*n!/ancia! e>/erna!M de&ende" e>cl*!i7amen/e" del 7al(r @*e !e &re!/a a !2 mi!m(; Ri@*eDa!" rang(" di!/incin !(cial" la !al*d mi!ma ( la! d(/e! in/elec/*ale!" /(d( e!/( e! indiCeren/e" WRSWefgfY; L( Enic( @*e im&(r/a e! la /endencia" la ac/i/*d in/erna del almaM 8 e!/e &rinci&i( in/ern( n( &*ede !er &er/*r3ad(; GA@*ell( @*e n( &*ede Aacer a *n A(m3re &e(r /am&(c( &*ede Aacer @*e !* 7ida !ea &e(r ni da'arla de!de C*era ( de!de den/r(;G 0dem/ Li3; I_" &Frr; 1,; La e>igencia de la a*/(in/err(gacin !e n(! &re!en/a" en c(n!ec*encia" en el e!/(ici!m(" l( mi!m( @*e en la c(nce&cin de Scra/e!" c(m( el &ri7ilegi( del A(mO 3re 8 !* de3er C*ndamen/al;% Per( e!/e de3er e! en/endid( aA(ra en *n !en/id( mF! am&li(M n( !l( /iene *n /ra!C(nd( m(ral !in( /am3i n *ni7er!al 8 me/aC2!ic(; GN*nca deBe! de &reg*n/ar/e a /i mi!m( e!/a c*e!/in 8 de e>aminar/e de e!/e m(d(4 `@* relacin /eng( 8( c(n e!/a &ar/e de m2 mi!m( @*e llaman la raDn g(3ernad(ra +\f hiZXfYSj]Y,G 0dem/ Li3; _" &Frr; ##,; 0*ien 7i7e en arm(n2a c(n!ig( mi!m(" c(n !* dem(ni(" 7i7e en arm(n2a c(n el *ni7er!(M &*e! am3(!" el (rden *ni7er!al 8 el (rden &er!(nal n( !(n !in( e>&re!i(ne! 8 maniCe!/aci(ne! diCeren/e! de *n &rinci&i( c(mEn !*38acen/e; El A(m3re dem*e!/ra !* inAeren/e &(der de cr2/ica" de B*ici( 8 di!cernimien/( al c(nce3ir @*e en e!a c(rrelacin c(rre!&(nde la &ar/e dirigen/e al 8( 8 n( al *ni7er!(; Una 7eD @*e el 8( Aa c(n@*i!/ad( !* C(rma in/eri(r" !/a &ermanece inal/era3le e im&er/*r3a3le; GUna 7eD @*e !e Aa C(rmad( *na e!Cera c(n/in*a red(nda 8 7erdaderaG 0dem/ Li3; _III" &Frr; %#,; E!" &(r decirl( a!2" la El/ima &ala3ra de la Cil(!(C2a griega" @*e c(n/iene 8 de!&liega" aA(ra" el e!&2ri/* c(n @*e (riginalmen/e C*e c(nce3ida; E!/e e!&2ri/* era *n e!&2ri/* de B*ici(" de di!cernimien/( cr2/ic( en/re el !er 8 el n( !er" en/re la 7erdad 8 la il*!in" en/re el 3ien 8 el mal; La 7ida e! en !2 mi!ma alg( cam3ian/e 8 Cl*8en/e &er( !* 7erdader( 7al(r Aa8 @*e 3*!carl( en *n (rden e/ern( @*e n( admi/e cam3i(!; N( !e Aalla en el m*nd( de n*e!/r(! !en/id(!" &*e! Enicamen/e &(dem(! ca&/arl( c(n el &(der de n*e!/r( B*ici(" @*e e! el &(der cen/ral del A(m3re" la C*en/e c(mEn de la 7erdad 8 de la m(ral; P*e! e! la Enica c(!a en la c*al el A(m3re de&ende &(r en/er( de !2 mi!m(M e! li3re" a*/n(m(" a*/(!*Cicien/e;) N( /e di!i&e! Hdice Marc( A*reli(H" n( !ea! dema!iad( im&acien/e" ! /* &r(&i( d*e'( 8 mira a la 7ida c(m( *n A(m3re" c(m( *n !er A*man(" c(m( *n ci*dadan(" c(m( *na cria/*ra m(r/al;;; La! c(!a! n( aCec/an al alma &*e! !(n e>/erna! e inc(nm(7i3le!" n*e!/ra al/eracin &r(cede !l( del B*ici( @*e
% )

'p. cit./ Li3; III" &Frr; -; 6f. 'p. 6it./ &i! 2. p7rr. 89 : .

C(rmam(! en n(!(/r(! mi!m(!; T(da! e!/a! c(!a! @*e /E 7e! cam3ian inmedia/aO men/e 8 8a n( !erFn mF!M 8 /en &re!en/e c(n!/an/emen/e en el Fnim( de c*Fn/(! de e!/(! cam3i(! Aa! !id( 8a /e!/ig(; El *ni7er!(" m*danDaM la 7ida" CirmeDa;El m ri/( ma8(r de e!/a c(nce&cin e!/(ica del A(m3re radica en el AecA( de @*e le &r(&(rci(na *n &r(C*nd( !en/imien/( de !* arm(n2a c(n la na/*raleDa 8" al mi!m( /iem&(" de !* inde&endencia m(ral de ella; En la men/e del Cil!(C( e!/(ic( e!/a! a!erci(ne! n( en/ran en c(nClic/(M !(n c(rrela/i7a!; El A(m3re !e enO c*en/ra a !2 mi!m( en &erCec/( e@*ili3ri( c(n el *ni7er!( 8 !a3e @*e e!/e e@*ili3ri( n( de3e !er &er/*r3ad( &(r ning*na C*erDa e>/eri(r; E! el carFc/er d*al de la im&a!i3ilidad e!/(ica" c\cgcklc" @*e !e Aa re7elad( c(m( *n( de l(! &(dere! C(rmad(re! mF! C*er/e! de la c*l/*ra an/ig*aM &er( !e enc(n/r de &r(n/( en &re!encia de *na C*erDa n*e7a" Aa!/a en/(nce! de!c(n( cida; El c(nClic/( c(n e!/a n*e7a C*erDa c(nm(7i el ideal clF!ic( del A(m3re en !*! 7erdader(! cimien/(!; La /e(r2a e!/(ica 8 la cri!/iana del A(m3re n( !(n neO ce!ariamen/e A(!/ile!; En la Ai!/(ria de la! idea! Aan /ra3aBad( a la &ar 8 a men*d( la! enc(n/ram(! en e!/recAa c(ne>in en *n mi!m( &en!ad(r; Sin em3arg(" @*eda !iem&re *n &*n/( en el @*e el an/ag(ni!m( en/re el ideal cri!/ian( 8 el e!/(ic( !e m*e!/ra irred*c/i3le; La inde&endencia a3!(l*/a del A(m3re" @*e en la /e(r2a e!/(ica e! c(n!iderada c(m( !* 7ir/*d C*ndamen/al" !e c(n7ier/e en la /e(r2a cri!/iana en !* 7ici( C*ndamen/al 8 en !* err(r mF>im(; Mien/ra! el A(m3re &er!e7ere en e!/e err(r n( Aa8 &(!i3ilidad de !al7acin &ara l; La l*cAa en/re la! d(! c(nce&ci(ne! an/agnica! Aa d*rad( 7ari(! !igl(! 8 a c(mienD(! de la &(ca m(derna" en l(! d2a! del Renacimien/( 8 en el !igl( X_II" la !eg*im(! !in/iend( en /(da !* C*erDa; 5 En e!/e &*n/( &(dem(! ca&/ar *n( de l(! ra!g(! mF! carac/er2!/ic(! de la Cil(!(C2a an/r(&(lgica" @*e n( e!" c(m( (/ra! rama! de la in7e!/igacin Cil(!Cica" *n de!O arr(ll( len/( 8 c(n/in*( de idea! generale!; En la Ai!/(ria de la lgica" de la me/aC2!ica 8 de la Cil(!(C2a na/*ral" enc(n/ram(! la! (&(!ici(ne! mF! ag*da!; b!/a &*ede !er de!cri/a en / rmin(! Aegelian(! c(m( *n &r(ce!( dial c/ic( en el @*e cada /e!i! e! !eg*ida &(r !* an/2/e!i!; Sin em3arg(" e>i!/e *na in/erna c(n!i!/encia" *n (rden lgic( @*e c(nec/a la! diCeren/e! e/a&a! de e!/e &r(ce!( dial c/ic(; Per( la Cil(!(C2a an/r(&(lgica e>Ai3e *n carFc/er 3ien diCeren/e; Si @*i!i ram(! ca&/ar !* !igniCicad( 8 !* im&(r/ancia reale! Aa3r2am(! de e!c(ger n( la manera &ica de de!cri&cin !in( la dramF/icaM &(r@*e n( n(! enCren/am(!" c(n *n de!arr(ll( &ac2Cic( de c(nce&/(! ( /e(r2a! !in( c(n *na &*gna en/re &(dere! e!&iri/*ale! en c(nClic/(; La Ai!/(ria de la Cil(!(C2a an/r(&(lgica !e Aalla cargada c(n la! &a!i(ne! 8 em(ci(ne! A*mana! mF! &r(C*nda!; N( !e (c*&a de *n &r(3lema /eric( !ing*lar" &(r m*8 general @*e !ea !* alcance" !in( @*e !e Aalla en c*e!/in el de!/in(
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m j]VXfn Woofl[VSn" ( plfn qr]oUsSn; Li3; I_" &Frr; .; El / rmin( GaCirmacinG ( GB*ici(G me &arece *na e>&re!in mF! adec*ada &ara el &en!amien/( de Marc( A*reli( @*e el / rmin( G(&ininG @*e Ae enc(n/rad( en /(da! la! 7er!i(ne! ingle!a! @*e Ae c(n!*l/ad(; GO&ininG +la R]kc &la/nica, c(n/iene elemen/(! de 7aria3ilidad e incer/id*m3re en l(! @*e n( &en! Marc( A*reli(; C(n / rmin( e@*i7alen/e &ara qr]oUsSn enc(n/ram(! en Marc( A*reli( jrlVSn jglXc" RSWjgSVSn; CC; Li3; III" &Frr; ?M _I" &Frr; )?M _III" &Frr!; ?1" %5; Para *na inC(rmacin de/allada 7 a!e Ca!!irer" 1escartes +E!/(c(lm(" #$.$," &&; ?#) ss.

en/er( del A(m3re 8 reclama *na deci!in El/ima; E!/e carFc/er del &r(3lema an/r(&(lgic( Aa enc(n/rad( !* e>&re!in mF! clara en la (3ra de Ag*!/2n; Se Aalla3a Ag*!/2n en la Cr(n/era en/re d(! edade!; _iO7iend( en el !igl( I_ de la era cri!/iana" !e Aa criad( den/r( de la /radicin de la Cil(!(C2a griega" 8 e!&ecialmen/e el !i!/ema ne(&la/nic( Aa marcad( !* im&r(n/a en /(da !* Cil(!(C2a; Per(" &(r (/ra &ar/e" e! el 7ang*ardi!/a del &en!amien/( medie7alM e! el C*ndad(r de la Cil(!(C2a medie7al 8 de la d(gmF/ica cri!/iana; En !*! 6onfesiones !eg*im(! &a!( a &a!( !* marcAa de la Cil(!(C2a griega a la religin cri!/iana; SegEn San Ag*!/2n /(da la Cil(!(C2a an/eri(r a la a&aricin de Cri!/( &a dece *n err(r C*ndamen/al 8 e!/F inCe!/ada de *na mi!ma AereB2a; Se Aa32a e>al/ad( el &(der de la raDn c(m( el !*&rem( &(der del A(m3reM &er( l( @*e el A(m3re n( &*d( c(n(cer BamF! Aa!/a @*e C*e e!clarecid( &(r *na e!&ecial re7elacin di7ina e! @*e la raDn c(n!/i/*8e *na de la! c(!a! mF! d*d(!a! 8 e@*27(ca! del m*nd(; N( &*ede m(!/rarn(! el camin( de la l*D" la 7erdad 8 la !a3id*r2a; Ella mi!ma e! (!c*ra en !* !en/id( 8 !*! (r2gene! !e Aallan en7*el/(! en el mi!/eri(" @*e !e re!*el7e Enicamen/e c(n la re7elacin cri!/iana; SegEn Ag*!/2n" la raDn n( &(!ee *na na/*raleDa !im&le 8 Enica !in( d(3le 8 e!cindida; El A(m3re C*e cread( a imagen 8 !emeBanDa de Di(!M 8 en !* e!/ad( (riginal" /al c(m( !ali de la! man(! de Di(!" era ig*al a !* ar@*e/i&(M /(d( e!/( !e Aa &erdid( &(r el &ecad( de AdFn; A &ar/ir de e!e m(men/( !e en/*r3i /(d( el &(der (riginal de la raDn 8 !(la" a3and(nada a !*! &r(&ia! C*erDa!" n*nca enc(n/rarF el camin( de re/(rn(; N( &*ede rec(n!/r*ir!e a !2 mi!ma; _(l7er c(n !*! &r(&ia! C*erDa! a !* &*ra e!encia an/eri(r; Para @*e !ea &(!i3le !emeBan/e re!/a*racin e! mene!/er la a8*da !(3rena/*ral de la gracia di7ina; E! la n*e7a an/r(O &(l(g2a" !egEn la en/iende San Ag*!/2n" 8 e! ella la @*e !e man/iene en /(d(! l(! grande! !i!/ema! del &en!amien/( medie7al; Tam&(c( T(mF! de A@*in(" di!c2&*l( de Ari!//ele!" @*e 7*el7e a la! C*en/e! de la Cil(!(C2a griega" (!a de!7iar!e de e!/e d(gma C*ndamen/al; C(ncede a la raDn A*mana *n &(der m*cA( mF! grande @*e Ag*!/2nM &er( e!/F c(n7encid( de @*e n( AarF *!( B*!/( de e!/(! &(dere! !i n( e!/F g*iada e il*minada &(r la gracia de Di(!; :em(! llegad( a!2 a *na !*37er!in c(m&le/a de /(d(! l(! 7al(re! man/enid(! &(r la Cil(!(C2a griega; L( @*e en *n /iem&( &areci !er el &ri7ilegi( !*m( del A(m3re a&arece aA(ra c(m( !* &eligr( 8 /en/acinM l( @*e c(n!/i/*2a !* (rg*ll( re!*l/a !* A*millacin mF! &r(C*nda; El &rece&/( e!/(ic( de @*e el A(m3re /iene @*e (3edecer 8 re7erenciar !* &rinci&i( in/eri(r" el dem(ni( @*e lle7a den/r(" !e c(n!idera aA(ra c(m( &eligr(!a id(la/r2a; N( !er2a (&(r/*n( !eg*ir de!cri3iend( el carFc/er de e!/a an/r(&(l(g2a n*e7a" analiDand( !*! m(/i7(! C*ndamen/ale! 8 &er!ig*iend( !* de!arr(ll(; A l(! Cine! de c(m&render !* alcance &(dem(! e!c(ger *na g*2a diCeren/e 8 mF! 3re7e; En l(! c(mienD(! de l(! /iem&(! m(dern(! a&areci *n &en!ad(r @*e &re!/ a e!/a an/r(&(l(g2a *n n*e7( im&*l!( 8 e!&lend(r en la (3ra de Pa!cal enc*en/ra !* e>&re!in El/ima" aca!( la mF! im&re!i(nan/e; Pa!cal e!/a3a &re&arad( &ara e!/a Caena c(m( n( l( Aa e!/ad( ningEn (/r( e!cri/(rM &(!e2a d(ne! inc(m&ara3le! &ara el*cidar la! c*e!/i(ne! mF! (!c*ra! 8 &ara c(nden!ar 8 c(ncen/rar !i!/ema! c(m&leB(! 8 di!&er!(! de &en!amien/(; Nada &arece im&ene/ra3le a la Cin*ra de !* &en!amien/( 8 a la l*cideD de !* e!/il(M en l !e B*n/an /(da! la! 7en/aBa! de la

li/era/*ra 8 de la Cil(!(C2a m(derna!" &er( la! */iliDa c(m( arma! c(n/ra el e!&2ri/* m(dern(" el e!&2ri/* de De!car/e! 8 !* Cil(!(C2a; A &rimera 7i!/a" Pa!cal &arece ace&/ar /(d(! l(! !*&*e!/(! del car/e!iani!m( 8 de la ciencia m(derna; Nada Aa8 en la na/*raleDa @*e re!i!/a al e!C*erD( de la raDn cien/2CicaM &*e! nada Aa8 en ella @*e re!i!/a a la ge(me/r2a;; De l(! AecA(! mF! c*ri(!(! de la Ai!/(ria de la! idea! e! @*e *n( de l(! geme/ra! mF! grande! 8 &r(C*nd(! re!*l/ !er el cam &en mF! e!C(rDad( de la an/r(&(l(g2a Cil(!Cica de la Edad Media; A l(! dieci! i! a'(! e!cri3i Pa!cal el /ra/ad( de la! !ecci(ne! cnica!" @*e a3ri al &en!amien/( ge(m /ric( *n cam&( 7erdaderamen/e ric( 8 Cec*nd(M &er( n( era !l( *n gran geme/ra" era /am3i n *n Cil!(C(M 8 c(m( Cil!(C(" n( !l( e!/a3a a3!(r3id( &(r l(! &r(3lema! ge(m /ric(! !in( @*e &re/end2a c(m&render el *!( 7erdader(" la e>/en!in 8 l(! l2mi/e! de la ge(me/r2a; A!2 !e 7i( c(nd*cid( a Aacer a@*ella di!O /incin C*ndamen/al en/re el Ge!&2ri/* ge(m /ric(G 8 el Ge!&2ri/* de CineDaG; El e!&2ri/* ge(m /ric( !(3re!ale en /(d(! a@*ell(! /ema! @*e !(n a&/(! de *n anFli!i! &erCec/(" @*e &*eden !er di7idid(! Aa!/a !*! &rimer(! elemen/(!;1 Par/e de a>i(ma! cier/(! 8 !aca de ell(! inCerencia! c*8a 7erdad &*ede !er dem(!/rada &(r le8e! lgica! *ni7er!ale!; La 7en/aBa de e!/e e!&2ri/* c(n!i!/e en la claridad de !*! &rinci&i(! 8 en la nece!idad de !*! ded*cci(ne!" &er( n( /(d(! l(! (3Be/(! !(n a&/(! de !emeBan/e /ra/amien/(M e>i!/en c(!a! @*e a ca*!a de !* !*/ileDa 8 de !* 7ariedad inCini/a de!aC2an /(d( in/en/( de anFli!i! lgic(; Si alg( Aa8 en el m*nd( @*e Aa3rF @*e /ra/ar de e!/a !eg*nda manera e! el e!&2ri/* del A(m3re" &*e! l( @*e le carac/eriDa e! la ri@*eDa 8 la !*/ileDa" la 7ariedad 8 la 7er!a/ilidad de !* na/*raleDa; En e!/e /erren( la ma/emF/ica n( !e &(drF c(n7er/ir BamF! en el in!/r*men/( de *na d(c/rina 7erdadera del A(m3re" de *na an/r(&(l(g2a Cil(!Cica; E! rid2c*l( Aa3lar del A(m3re c(m( !i !e /ra/ara de *na &r(&(!icin ge(m /rica; Una Cil(!(C2a m(ral en l(! / rmin(! de *n !i!/ema de ge(me/r2a H*na Ethica more geomtrico demonstrata H re&re!en/a &ara Pa!cal *n a3!*rd(" *n !*e'( Cil(!Cic(; La lgica /radici(nal 8 la me/aC2!ica /am&(c( !e Aallan en meB(r &(!icin &ara c(m&render 8 re!(l7er el enigma del A(m3reM !* le8 &rimera 8 !*O &rema e! el &rinci&i( de c(n/radiccin; El &en!amien/( raci(nal" el &en!amien/( lgic( 8 me/aC2!ic(" n( &*ede c(m&render mF! @*e a@*ell(! (3Be/(! @*e !e Aallan li3re! de c(n/radiccin 8 @*e &(!een *na 7erdad 8 na/*raleDa c(n!i!/en/eM &er( e!/a A(m(geneidad e! &reci!amen/e la @*e n( enc(n/ram(! BamF! en el A(m3re; N( le e!/F &ermi/id( al Cil!(C( c(n!/r*ir *n A(m3re ar/iCicialM /iene @*e de!cri3ir *n A(m3re 7erdader(; T(da! la! llamada! deCinici(ne! del A(m3re n( &a!an de !er e!&ec*laci(ne! en el aire mien/ra! n( e!/ n C*ndada! 8 c(nCirmada! &(r n*e!/ra e>&eriencia acerca de l; N( Aa8 (/r( camin( &ara c(n(cerle @*e c(m&render !* 7ida 8 !* c(m&(r/amien/(; Per( /r(&eDam(! en e!/( c(n alg( @*e de!aC2a /(d( in/en/( de incl*!in den/r( de *na Crm*la Enica 8 !im&le; La c(n/radiccin e! el 7erdader( elemen/( de la e>i!/encia A*mana; El A(m3re n( &(!ee na/*raleDa" *n !er !im&le * A(m(g ne(M e! *na e>/ra'a meDcla de !er 8 n( !er; S* l*gar !e Aalla en/re e!/(! d(! &(l(! (&*e!/(!;
1

Para la di!/incin en/re l+esprit gometri;ue y l+esprit de finesse/ c(m&Fren!e el en!a8( de Pa!cal 1e l+esprit gometri;ue 8 la (3ra de Pa!cal 5enses/ ed; &(r CAarle! L(*andre +Par2!" #1)1," ca&; IX" &; ?.#;

P(r l( /an/(" n( Aa8 mF! @*e *n m(d( de acercar!e al !ecre/( de la na/*raleDa A*mana4 la religin; Ella n(! m*e!/ra @*e e>i!/e *n A(m3re d(3le" el A(m3re an/e! 8 de!&* ! de la ca2da; " E!/a3a de!/inad( al Cin mF! al/( &er( /raici(n !* &(!icinM c(n la ca2da &erdi !* &(der" 8 !* raDn 8 !* 7(l*n/ad !e &er7ir/ier(n; La mF>ima clF!ica" c(nce/e a /i mi!m(" en/endida en !* !en/id( Cil(!Cic(" en el de Scra/e!" E&ic/e/( ( Marc( A*reli(" n( !l( e! in(&eran/e !in( CalaD 8 errnea; El A(m3re n( &*ede c(nCiar en !2 mi!m( 8 e!c*cAar!e a !2 mi!m(M /iene @*e enm*decer &ara &(der (2r *na 7(D !*&eri(r 8 mF! 7erdadera" G0* !erF de /i" t(A A(m3reu" @*e 3*!ca! c*Fl e! /* c(ndicin 7erdadera 7ali nd(/e de la raDn na/*ral;;; C(n(ce" A(m3re !(3er3i(" @* &arad(Ba ere! &ara /i mi!m(; :*m2lla/e" raDn im&(/en/eM calla" na/*raleDa im3 cilM a&rende @*e el A(m3re !(3re&a!a inCini/amen/e al A(m3re 8 e!c*cAa de /* mae!/r( /* c(ndicin 7erdadera" @*e /E ign(ra!; E!c*cAa a Di(!G 05enses/ ca&; >" !ec; #,; L( @*e !e n(! (Crece n( e! *na !(l*cin /erica del &r(3lema; La religin n( &*ede (Crecerla; S*!; ad7er!ari(! la Aan ac*!ad( !iem&re de !er (!c*ra e inc(m&ren!i3leM &er( e!/e re&r(cAe !e c(n7ier/e en la mF! al/a ala3anDa /an &r(n/( c(m( c(n!ideram(! !* 7erdader( &r(&!i/(; La religin n( &*ede !er clara 8 raci(nalM n(! c*en/a *na Ai!/(ria (!c*ra 8 !(m3r2a4 la Ai!/(ria del &ecad( 8 de la ca2da del A(m3re; N(! re7ela *n AecA( del @*e n( e! &(!i3le ning*na e>&licacin raci(nal; N( &(dem(! e>&licarn(! el &ecad( del A(m3re" &*e! n( e!/F &r(d*cid( ( erigid( &(r ning*na ca*!a na/*ral" ni e>&licarn(! la !al7acin del A(m3re" &*e! e!/a !al7acin de&ende de *n ac/( ine!cr*/a3le de la gracia di7ina; E! li3remen/e (/(rgada 8 negadaM n( Aa8 accin ni m ri/( A*man( @*e &*eda merecerla; P(r l( /an/(" la religin n( &re/ende BamF! aclarar el mi!/eri( del A(m3reM c(rr(3(ra 8 aA(nda e!/e mi!/eri(; El Di(! de @*e n(! Aa3la e! *n 1eus a!sconditus/ *n Di(! (c*l/(M &(r e!(" /am&(c( !* imagen" el A(m3re" &*ede !er (/ra c(!a @*e mi!/eri(; El A(m3re e! /am3i n *n homo a!sconditus. La religin n( e! /e(r2a de Di(! 8 del A(m3re 8 de !* relacin m*/*aM la Enica re!&*e!/a @*e reci3im(! de la religin e! @*e e! 7(l*n/ad de Di(! (c*l/ar!e a !2 mi!m(; GA!2" &*e!" e!/and( (c*l/( Di(!" ning*na religin @*e n( n(! diga @*e Di(! e!/F (c*l/( e! 7erdaderaM 8 ning*na religin @*e n( d raDn de e!/( e! in!/r*c/i7a; :e a@*2 &ara n(!(/r(! /(d(4 2ere tu es 1eus a!sconditus... 0'p. cit./ ca&; XII" !ec; );, P*e! la na/*raleDa e! /al @*e &(r /(da! &ar/e! n(! indica a *n Di(! &erdid(" /an/( en el A(m3re c(rn( C*era del A(m3re; 0Idem/ ca&; XIII" !ec; .;, &a religin" &(r l( /an/(" !i &(dem(! e>&licarn(! a!2" c(n!/i/*8e *na lgica del a3!*rd(M &*e! !l( a!2 &*ede ca&/ar el a3!*rd(" la c(n/radiccin in/erna" el !er @*im ric( del A(m3re; Cier/amen/e nada n(! cA(ca c(n ma8(r r*deDa @*e e!/a d(c/rinaM 8" n( (3!/an/e" !in e!/e mi!/eri(" el mF! inc(m&ren!i3le de /(d(!" !(m(! inc(m&ren!i3le! &ara n(!(/r(! mi!m(!; El n*d( de n*e!/ra c(ndicin !e re/*erce 8 de!em3(ca en e!/e a3i!m(M de !*er/e @*e el A(m3re e! mF! inc(nce3i3le !in e!/e mi!/eri( @*e e!/e mi!/eri( e! inc(nce3i3le &ara el A(m3re" 0Idem/ ca&; >" !ec; #;, El eBem&l( de Pa!cal n(! en!e'a @*e al c(mienD( de la &(ca m(derna el 7ieB( &r(3lema !e !eg*2a !in/iend( en /(da !* C*erDa; De!&* ! de la a&aricin del

1iscurso del mtodo el e!&2ri/* m(dern( !eg*2a l*cAand( c(n la! mi!ma! diCic*l/ade!; Se Aalla3a di7idid( en/re d(! !(l*ci(ne! en/eramen/e inc(m&a/i3le!M &er( al mi!m( /iem&( c(mienDa *n len/( de!arr(ll( in/elec/*al en c*8a 7ir/*d la c*e!/in `@* e! el A(m3rea !e /ran!C(rma 8" &(r decirl( a!2" !e ele7a a *n ni7el !*&eri(r; L( deci!i7( en e!/e &*n/( n( e! /an/( el de!c*3rimien/( de AecA(! n*e7(! c(m( el de *n n*e7( in!/r*men/( del &en!amien/(; E! la &rimera 7eD en @*e el e!&2ri/* cien/2Cic(" en el !en/id( m(dern( de la &ala3ra" en/ra en Cila!; Se 3*!ca aA(ra *na /e(r2a general del A(m3re 3a!ada en (3!er7aci(ne! em&2rica! 8 en &rinci&i(! lgic(! generale!; El &(!/*lad( &rimer( de e!/e e!&2ri/* n*e7( 8 cien/2Cic( c(n!i!/i en la rem(cin de la! 3arrera! ar/iCiciale! @*e Aa!/a en/(n/e! Aa32an !e&arad( el m*nd( A*man( del re!/( de la na/*raleDa; Para en /ender el (rden de la! c(!a! A*mana! /enem(! @*e c(menDar c(n *n e!/*di( del (rden c!mic( 8 e!/e (rden c!mic( a&arece aA(ra a *na l*D c(m&le/amen/e n*e7a; La c(!m(l(g2a" el !i!/ema Aeli(c n/ric( in/r(d*cid( &(r la (3ra de C(& rnic(" re&re!en/a la Enica 3a!e !ana 8 cien/2Cica &ara *na n*e7a an/r(&(l(g2a; Ni la me/aC2!ica clF!ica" ni la religin" ni la /e(l(g2a medie7ale!" e!/a3an &re&arada! &ara e!/a /area; Am3(! c*er&(! de d(c/rina" a*n@*e m*8 diCeren/e! en !*! m /(d(! 8 &r(&!i/(!" !e Aallan 3a!ad(! en *n &rinci&i( c(mEnM am3(! c(nci3en el *ni7er!( c(m( *n (rden BerFr@*ic( en el @*e el A(m3re (c*&a el l*gar !*&rem(; Tan/( en la Cil(!(C2a e!/(ica c(m( en la /e(l(g2a cri!/iana era de!cri/( c(m( el Cin del *ni7er!(; Am3a! d(c/rina! e!/Fn c(n7encida! de @*e e>i!/e *na &r(7idencia general @*e g(3ierna el m*nd( 8 el de!/in( del A(m3re; E!/e c(nce&/( c(n!/i/*8e *na de la! !*&(!ici(ne! 3F!ica! del &en!amien/( e!/(ic( 8 cri!/ian( $ 8 e! &*e!/( !E3i/amen/e en c*e!/in &(r la n*e7a c(!m(l(g2a; La &re/en!in del A(m3re de c(n!/i/*ir el cen/r( del *ni7er!( Aa &erdid( /(d( !* C*ndamen/(M !e enc*en/ra c(l(cad( en *n e!&aci( inCini/( en el c*al !* !er n( &arece (/ra c(!a @*e *n &*n/( !ing*lar 8 e7ane!cen/eM !e Aalla r(dead( &(r *n *ni7er!( m*d(" &(r *n m*nd( Aerm /ic( &ara !* !en/imien/( religi(!( 8 &ara !*! mF! &r(C*nda! e>igencia! m(rale!; E! c(m&ren!i3le" 8 Aa!/a nece!ari(" @*e la &rimera reaccin an/e e!/a n*e7a c(nce&cin del m*nd( n( &*diera !er (/ra @*e nega/i7a4 *na reaccin de recel( 8 de /em(r; vi !i@*iera l(! &en!ad(re! mF! grande! !e &*dier(n li3rar de e!/e !en/imien/(; GMe e!&an/a el !ilenci( e/ern( de e!/(! e!&aci(! inCini/(!G" dice Pa!O cal; 0'p. cit./ ca&; >>7" !ec; #1;, El !i!/ema c(&ernican( !e c(n7ir/i en *n( de l(! in!/r*men/(! mF! C*er/e! de e!e agn(!/ici!m( 8 e!ce&/ici!m( Cil(!Cic( @*e !e de!O arr(ll en el !igl( X_I; En !* cr2/ica de la raDn A*ma na M(n/aigne em&lea /(d(! l(! /radici(nale! arg*men/(!" 3ien c(n(cid(! &(r el !i!/ema del e!ce&/ici!m( grieg(" &er( a'ade *na n*e7a arma @*e en !*! man(! re!*l/a del ma8(r eCec/( 8 de *na im&(r/ancia en(rme; Nada meB(r &ara A*millarn(! 8 &ara @*e3ran/ar el (rg*ll( de la raDn A*mana @*e *na mirada !in &reB*ici(! al *ni7er!( C2!ic(; En *n Cam(!( &a!aBe de !* GA&(l(g2a de Raim*nd( Sa3*ndeG &ide al A(m3re @*e le Aaga c(m&render c(n la C*erDa de !* raDn en @* 3a!e!
$

Acerca del c(nce&/( e!/(ic( de la &r(7idencia" rg]YfSc" 7 a!e" &(r eBem&l(" Marc( A*reli(" op. cit./ Li3; II" &Frr; .;

C*nda e!a! grande! 7en/aBa! @*e !e Cig*ra &(!eer !(3re la! demF! cria/*ra!; `0*i n le Aa AecA( creer @*e e!/e admira3le m(7imien/( de la 37eda cele!/e" la l*D e/erna de e!a! l*minaria! @*e giran /an &(r encima de !* ca3eDa" l(! m(7imien/(! admira3le! 8 /erri3le! del (c an( inCini/(" Aan !id( e!/a3lecid(! 8 !e &r(!ig*en a /ra7 ! de /an/a! edade! &ara !* !er7ici( 8 c(n7enienciaa `Se &*ede imaginar alg( mF! rid2c*l( @*e e!/a mi!era3le 8 CrFgil cria/*ra" @*ien" leB(! de !er d*e'a de !2 mi!ma" !e Aalla !(me/ida a la inB*ria de /(da! la! c(!a!" !e llame a !2 mi!ma d*e'a 8 em&era/riD del m*nd(" !i carece de &(der &ara c(n(cer la &ar/e mF! 2nCima" 8 n( digam(! &ara g(3ernar el c(nB*n/(a 0Essais/ II" ca&; XII;, El A(m3re &r(&ende !iem&re a c(n!iderar el e!/recA( A(riD(n/e en el @*e 7i7e c(m( el cen/r( del *ni7er!( 8 a c(n7er/ir !* 7ida &ar/ic*lar 8 &ri7ada en &a*/a del *ni7er!(M &er( /iene @*e ren*nciar a e!/a 7ana &re/en!in" a e!/a meD@*ina 8 &r(7inciana manera de &en!ar 8 B*Dgar; C*and( l(! 7i'ed(! de n*e!/ra aldea !e &ierden a ca*!a de la Aelada el &Frr(c( c(ncl*8e @*e la clera de Di(! !e Aa de!cargad( c(n/ra /(d( el g ner( A*man(;;; `6 @*i n" 7iend( e!/a! g*erra! in/e!/ina! n*e!/ra!" n( e>clamarF @*e !e e!/F /ra!/(rnand( /(da la mF@*ina del m*nd( 8 @*e !e acerca el d2a del B*ici(a;;; Per( @*ien !e &re!en/e en !* imaginacin" c(m( *n c*adr(" la gran imagen de n*e!/ra madre na/*raleDa" re/ra/ada c(n /(da !* maBe!/ad 8 e!&lend(rM @*ien rec(n(Dca en !* a!&ec/( *na 7ariedad /an c(n!/an/e 8 general ( @*ien !e 7ea a !2 mi!m(" 8 n( !l( a !2 mi!m( !in( a *n rein( en/er(" den/r( del c*adr(" de n( ma8(r /ama'(" en c(m&aracin c(n el /(d(" @*e *na &incelada" !erF ca&aD de a&reciar la! c(!a! !egEn !* B*!/( 7al(r 8 /ama'(;#N E!/a! &ala3ra! de M(n/aigne n(! dan la cla7e del de!arr(ll( !*3!ig*ien/e de la /e(r2a del A(m3re; La Cil(!(C2a 8 la ciencia m(derna! /ienen @*e ace&/ar el deO !aC2( c(n/enid( en e!/a! &ala3ra!M /ienen @*e &r(3ar @*e la n*e7a c(!m(l(g2a" leB(! de de3ili/ar * (3!/r*ir el &(der de la raDn A*mana" e!/a3lece 8 c(nCirma e!e &(der; F*e la /area de l(! e!C*erD(! c(m3inad(! de l(! !i!/ema! me/aC2!ic(! de l(! !igl(! X_I 8 X_II" @*e marcAan &(r 72a! diCeren/e! &er( /(d(! !e dirigen Aacia *na mi!ma me/a; Se e!C*erDan" &(r decirl( a!2" &(r 7irar el c*r!( a&aren/e de la n*e7a c(!m(l(g2a en el !en/id( de *na 3endicin; Gi(rdan( Lr*n( C*e el &rimer &en!ad(r @*e !e aden/r &(r e!/a r*/a @*e" en cier/( !en/id(" !e c(n7ir/i en la de /(da la me/aC2!ica m(derna; L( @*e carac/eriDa a !* Cil(!(C2a e! @*e en ella el / rmin( inCini/( cam3ia de !en/id(; En el &en!amien/( clF!ic( grieg( l( inCini/( e! *n c(nce&/( nega/i7(M e! l( @*e n( /iene l2mi/e! ( l( inde/erminad(; Sin l2mi/e! ni C(rma e!" &(r c(n!ig*ien/e" inacce!i3le a la raDn A*mana" @*e 7i7e en el rein( de la! C(rma! 8 n( &*ede en/ender mF! @*e C(rma!; En e!/e !en/id(" l( Cini/( 8 l( inCini/(" rQgcn 8 WrZSgfY" !(n declarad(! &(r Pla/n en el ile!o c(m( l(! d(! &rinci&i(! C*ndamen/ale! @*e !e (&(nen nece!ariamen/e; En la d(c/rina de Lr*n( l( inCini/( 8a n( !igniCica *na mera negacin ( limi/acin; P(r el c(n/rari(" !igniCica la inmen!*ra3le e inag(/a3le a3*ndancia de la realidad 8 el &(der ili O mi/ad( del in/elec/( A*man(; En e!/e !en/id( en/iende e in/er&re/a Lr*n( la
#
#N

'p. cit./ I" ca&; >>7;

d(c/rina de C(& rnic(; SegEn l" e!/a d(c/rina re&re!en/a el &rimer &a!( deci!i7( Aacia la a*/(li3eracin del A(m3re" @*e 8a n( 7i7e en el m*nd( c(m( *n &ri!i(ner( encerrad( en/re la! e!/recAa! m*ralla! de *n *ni7er!( C2!ic( Cini/(; P*ede a/ra7e!ar l(! aire! 8 /ra!&a!ar /(da! la! Cr(n/era! imaginaria! de la! e!Cera! cele!/e! @*e Aan !id( e!/a3lecida! &(r *na me/aC2!ica 8 *na c(!m(l(g2a Cal!a!;## El *ni7er!( inCini/( n( &(ne l2mi/e! a la raDn A*manaM &(r el c(n/rari(" e! el gran incen/i7( &ara ella; El in/elec/( A*man( !e da c*en/a de !* &r(&ia inCini/*d midiend( !*! &(dere! c(n el *ni7er!( inCini/(; T(d( e!/( !e Aalla e>&re!ad( en la (3ra de Lr*n( c(n *n leng*aBe &( /ic( &er( n( cien/2Cic(; N( c(n(c2a el n*e7( m*nd( de la ciencia m(derna" la /e(r2a ma/emF/ica de la na/*raleDa" 8 &(r e!( n( &*d( !eg*ir el camin( Aacia !* c(ncl*!in lgica; Para !*&erar la cri!i! in/elec/*al &r(d*cida &(r el !i!/ema c(&ernican( C*er(n nece!ari(! l(! e!C*erD(! c(m3inad(! de /(d(! l(! me/aC2!ic(! 8 cien/2Cic(! del !igl( X_II; T(d( gran &en!ad(r HGalile(" De!car/e!" Lei3niD" S&in(DaH c(n/ri3*8e en C(rma e!&ecial a la !(l*cin de e!/e &r(3lema; S(!/iene Galile( @*e en el cam&( de la! ma/emF/ica! alcanDa el A(m3re la cE!&ide de /(d( &(!i3le c(n(cimien/(" @*e n( e! inCeri(r al del in/elec/( di7in(; Cier/( @*e la in/eligencia di7ina c(n(ce 8 c(nci3e *n nEmer( inCini/amen/e ma8(r de 7erdade! ma/emF/ica! @*e n(!(/r(!" &er( en l( @*e c(ncierne a la cer/eDa (3 O Be/i7a la! &(ca! 7erdade! c(n(cida! &(r la men/e A*mana !(n c(n(cida! /an &erCec/amen/e &(r el A(m3re c(m( &(r Di(!; #? De!car/e! c(mienDa c(n !* d*da *ni7er!al" @*e &arece encerrar al A(m3re den/r( de l(! l2mi/e! de !* &r(&ia c(nciencia; N( &arece Aa3er !alida de e!/e c2rc*l( mFgic( ni &(!i3ilidad de a&r(>imacin a la realidad; Per( de e!/e m(d( la idea de l( inCini/( re!*l/a !er el Enic( in!/r*men/( &ara !*&erar la d*da *ni7er!al; Sl( 7ali nd(n(! de e!/e c(nce&/( &(dem(! dem(!/rar la realidad de Di(! 8" &(r 72a indirec/a" la realidad del m*nd( ma/erial; Lei3niD c(m3ina e!/a &r*e3a me/aC2!ica c(n *na n*e7a &r*e3a cien/2Cica; De!c*3re *n in!/r*men/( n*e7( del &en!amien/( ma/emF/ic(" el cFlc*l( inCini/e!imal; Gracia! a !*! regla! el *ni7er!( C2!ic( !e Aace in/eligi3leM la! le8e! de la na/*raleDa re!*l/an !er n( mF! @*e ca!(! e!&eciale! de la! le8e! generale! de la raDn; S&in(Da (!a dar el El/im( 8 deci!i7( &a!( en e!/a /e(r2a ma/emF/ica del m*nd( 8 del e!&2ri/* A*man(M c(n!/r*8e *na n*e7a /ica" *na /e(r2a de la! &a!i(ne! 8 de l(! aCec/(!" *na /e(r2a ma/emF/ica del m*nd( m(ral; E!/F c(n7encid( de @*e !l( c(n e!/a /e(r2a &(dem(! alcanDar n*e!/r( Cin4 el de *na Cil(!(C2a del A(m3re" *na Cil(!(C2a an/r(&(lgica @*e !e Aalla li3re de l(! err(re! 8 &reB*ici(! de *n !i!/ema meramen/e an/r(&(c n/ric(; b!/e e! el /&ic(" el /ema general @*e en !*! 7aria! C(rma! im&regna a /(d(! l(! grande! !i!/ema! me/aC2!ic(! del !igl( X_II; E! la !(l*cin del &r(3lema del A(m3re; La raDn ma/emF/ica re&re!en/a el 72nc*l( en/re el A(m3re 8 el *ni7er!( 8 n(! &ermi/e &a!ar li3remen/e del *n( al (/r(; La raDn ma/emF/ica e! la lla7e &ara *na c(m&ren!in" 7erdadera del (rden c!mic( 8 del (rden m(ral;
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Para de/alle! adici(nale! 7 a!e Ca!!irer" Indi-iduum und <osmos in der 5hilosophie der )enaissance +Lei&Dig" #$?5," &&; #$5 ss. #? Galile(" 1ialogo del due massimi sistemi del mondo/ I +EdiDi(ne naDi(nale," _II" #?$;

En #5)% Deni! Dider(/ &*3lic *na !erie de aC(ri!m(! 3aB( el /2/*l( 5enses sur l+interprtation de la nature. En e!/e en!a8( declara @*e 8a n( !e di!c*/e la !*&eri(O ridad de la! ma/emF/ica! en el cam&( de la ciencia; La ma/emF/ica Aa alcanDad( /an al/( grad( de &erCeccin @*e 8a n( e! &(!i3le *n &r(gre!( *l/eri(rM a!2 &*e!" la! ma/emF/ica! !eg*irFn e!/aci(naria!; N(*! /(*cA(n! a* m(men/ dw*ne grande r 7(l*/i(n dan! le! !cience!; A* &encAan/ @*e le! e!&ri/! me &ar(i!!en/ a7(ir x la m(rale" a*> 3elle! le//re!" x lwAi!/(ire de la na/*re e/ x la &A8!i@*e e>&erim n/ale" Bw(!er(i! &re!@*e a!!*rer @*wa7an/ @*wil !(i/ cen/ an! (n ne c(m&/era &a! /r(i! grand! g (my/re! en E*r(&e; Ce//e !cience !warre/era /(*/ c(*r/ (z lwa*r(n/ lai!! le! Lern(*lli" le! E*ler" le! Ma*&er/*i! e/ le! dwAlem3er/; Il! a*r(n/ &(! le! c(l(nne! dw:erc*le" (n nwira &(in/ a* delx; +Sec; %" cC; !ec!; #5" ?#;, Dider(/ e! *n( de l(! grande! re&re!en/an/e! de la Cil(!(C2a de la Il*!/racin; C(m( edi/(r de la Enciclopedia !e Aalla3a en el 7erdader( cen/r( de /(d(! l(! grande! m(7imien/(! in/elec/*ale! de !* &(ca; Nadie /en2a *na &er!&ec/i7a mF! clara del de!arr(ll( general del &en!amien/( cien/2Cic(M nadie *na !en!i3ilidad mF! Cina &ara /(da! la! /endencia! del !igl( X_III; P(r e!( mi!m( e! /an/( mF! carac/er2!/ic( 8 de!/aca3le en Dider(/ @*e" n( (3!/an/e re&re!en/ar /(d(! l(! ideale! de la Il*!/racin" c(menD a d*dar del derecA( a3!(l*/( de e!/(! ideale!; E!&era el !*rgimien/( de *na n*e7a C(rma de ciencia" de *n carFc/er mF! c(ncre/(" 3a!ada mF! 3ien en la (3!er7acin de l(! AecA(! @*e n( en la !*&(!icin de &rinci&i(! generale!" &*e! c(n!idera @*e Aem(! !(3ree!/imad( dema!iad( n*e!/r(! m /(d(! lgic(! 8 raci(nale!; Sa3em(! cm( c(m&arar" (rganiDar 8 !i!/ema/iDar l(! AecA(! c(n(cid(!M &er( n( Aem(! c*l/i7ad( a@*ell(! m /(d(! c(n l(! c*ale! Enicamen/e !erF &(!i3le de!c*3rir AecA(! n*e7(!; S(m(! 72c/ima! de la il*!in de @*e el A(m3re @*e n( !a3e c(n/ar !* C(r/*na n( !e Aalla en meB(r &(!icin @*e el A(m3re @*e n( /iene C(r/*na alg*na" &er( e!/F cercan( el d2a en @*e !*&erarem(! e!/e &reB*ici( 8 en/(nce! Aa3rem(! alcanDad( *n &*e!/( n*e7( 8 cimer( en la Ai!/(ria de la ciencia na/*ral; `Se Aa c*m&lid( la &r(Cec2a de Dider(/a `Aca!( el de!arr(ll( de la! idea! cien/2Cica! en el !igl( XIX c(nCirm !*! &re!*nci(ne!a En *n &*n/(" &(r l( men(!" !* err(r e! &a/en/e; S* e!&eranDa de @*e el &en!amien/( ma/emF/ic( Aa3r2a de e!/aci(nar!e" !* idea de @*e l(! grande! ma/emF/ic(! del !igl( X_III Aa32an llegad( a la! c(l*mna! de : rc*le! !e Aa re7elad( c(m&le/amen/e Cal!a; A la c(n!/elacin del !igl( X_III /enem(! @*e a'adir l(! n(m3re! de Ga*!!" de Riemann" de Keier!/ra!! 8 de P(incar ; P(r /(da! &ar/e! en la ciencia del !igl( XIX /r(&eDam(! c(n la marcAa /ri*nCal de n*e7a! idea! 8 c(nce&/(! ma/emF/ic(!; Sin em3arg(" la &rediccin de Dider(/ c(n/iene *n elemen/( de 7erdad" &*e! la inn(7acin de la e!/r*c/*ra in/elec/*al del !igl( XIX radica en el l*gar @*e el &en!amien/( ma/emF/ic( (c*&a en la Berar@*2a cien/2Cica; C(mienDa a a&arecer *na n*e7a C*erDa; El &en!amien/( 3i(lgic( /(ma la delan/era al ma/emF/ic(; En la &rimera mi/ad del !igl( XIX e>i!/en /(da72a alg*n(! me/aC2!ic(! c(m( :er3ar/" ( alg*n(! &!icl(g(! c(m( G; TA; FecAner" @*e a3rigan la e!&eranDa de C*ndar *na &!ic(l(g2a ma/emF/icaM &er( e!/(! &r(8ec/(! !e di!i&an rF&idamen/e de!&* ! de la

&*3licacin de la (3ra de Dar9in El origen de las especies. De!de e!/e m(men/( &arece @*e el 7erdader( carFc/er de la Cil(!(C2a an/r(&(lgica !e Aa CiBad( de *na 7eD &ara !iem&reM de!&* ! de inn*mera3le! in/en/(! e!/ rile! !e Aalla3a !(3re !*el( Cirme; 6a n( nece!i/am(! a3and(narn(! a e!&ec*laci(ne! m(n/ad(! en el aire &(r@*e n( 3*!cam(! *na deCinicin general de la na/*raleDa ( e!encia del A(m3re; N*e!/r( &r(3lema c(n!i!/e" !encillamen/e" en c(m&ilar la! &r*e3a! em&2rica! @*e la /e(r2a general de la e7(l*cin Aa &*e!/( a n*e!/ra di!&(!icin en C(rma rica 8 a3*ndan/e; b!/a era la c(n7iccin @*e c(m&ar/2an l(! cien/2Cic(! 8 l(! Cil!(C(! del !igl( XIX" &er( &ara la Ai!/(ria general de la! idea! 8 &ara el de!en7(l7imien/( del &en!amien/( Cil(!Cic(" mF! im&(r/an/e @*e l(! AecA(! em&2ric(! de la e7(l*cin C*e la in/er&re/acin /erica de l(! mi!m(!; N( e!/a3a de/erminada en *n !en/id( *n27(c( &(r la &r*e3a em&2rica mi!ma" !in(" mF! 3ien" &(r cier/(! &rinci&i(! C*ndamen/ale! @*e &(!e2an *n deCinid( carFc/er me/aC2!ic(; A*n@*e rara! 7ece! C*e rec(n(cid(" e!/e me(ll( me/aC2!ic( del &en!amien/( e7(l*ci(ni!/a c(n!/i/*8 *na C*erDa m(/riD la/en/e; La /e(r2a de la e7(l*cin" en *n !en/id( Cil(!Cic( general" n( era en manera alg*na *na c(n@*i!/a recien/eM Aa32a reci3id( !* e>&re!in clF!ica en la &!ic(l(g2a de Ari!//ele! 8 en !* 7i!in general de la 7ida (rgFnica; La di!/incin carac/er2!/ica 8 e!encial en/re la 7er!in ari!/(/ lica de la e7(l*cin 8 la m(derna c(n!i!/e en el AecA( de @*e Ari!//ele! (Crec2a *na in/er&re/acin C(rmal mien/ra! @*e l(! m(dern(! in/en/a3an *na in/er&re/acin ma/erial; E!/a3a c(n7encid( Ari!//ele! de @*e &ara en /ender el &lan general de la na/*raleDa" l(! (r2gene! de la 7ida" Aa32a @*e in/er&re/ar la! C(rma! inCeri(re! a la l*D de la! !*&eri(re!; En !* me/aC2!ica" en !* deCinicin del alma c(m( la G&rimera ac/*aliDacin de *n c*er&( na/*ral @*e /iene 7ida en &(/enciaG la 7ida (rgFnica e! c(nce3ida e in/er&re/ada en / rmin(! de 7ida A*mana" !* carFc/er /ele(lgic( !e &r(8ec/a a /(d( el rein( de l(! Cenmen(! na/*rale!; En la /e(r2a m(derna e!/e (rden Aa !id( in7er/id(M la! ca*!a! Cinale! de Ari!/ /ele! !(n carac/eriDada! c(m( *n mer( a!8l*m ign(ran/iae; Un( de l(! &rinci&ale! &r(&!i/(! de la (3ra de Dar9in c(n!i!/2a en li3erar al &en!amien/( m(dern( de la il*!in de la! ca*!a! Cinale!; :em(! de e!C(rDarOn(! en c(m&render la e!/r*c/*ra de la na/*raleDa (rgFnica a&eland( e>cl*!i7amen/e a ca*!a! ma/eriale! (" de l( c(n/rari(" n( &(drem(! c(m&renderla; Per( la! ca*!a! ma/eriale! !(n" en la /ermin(l(g2a ari!/(/ lica" ca*!a! acciden/ale!; Ari!//ele! Aa !(!/enid( en rgicamen/e la im&(!i3ilidad de c(m&render l(! Cenmen(! de la 7ida &(r medi( de /ale! ca*!a! acciden/ale!; La /e(r2a m(derna ace&/a e!/e de!aC2(; L(! &en!ad(re! m(dern(! Aan !(!/enid( @*e" l*eg( de l(! inn*mera3le! in/en /(! e!/ rile! de /iem&(! an/eri(re!" Aan l(grad( e>&licar la 7ida (rgFnica c(m( *n mer( &r(d*c/( del cam3i(; L(! cam3i(! acciden/ale! @*e (c*rren en la 7ida de /(d( (rgani!m( !(n !*Cicien/e! &ara e>&licar la /ran!C(rmacin grad*al @*e n(! lle7a de la C(rma mF! !encilla de 7ida en *n &r(/(D(ari( a la! C(rma! mF! ele7aO da! 8 c(m&licada!; Enc(n/ram(! *na de la! e>&re!i(ne! mF! ne/a! de e!/e &*n/( de 7i!/a en Dar9in mi!m(" @*ien" &(r l( general" e! /an re/icen/e en l( @*e !e reCiere a !*! c(nce&ci(ne! Cil(!Cica!;

N( !(l( la! di7er!a! e!&ecie! d(m !/ica! H(3!er7a Dar9in al Cinal de !* li3r( &a -ariacin de animales y plantas !a=o domesticacin H" !in( l(! g ner(! 8 rdene! mF! di7er!(! den/r( de la mi!ma gran cla!e H&(r eBem&l(" mam2Cer(!" a7e!" re&/ile! 8 &ece!H !(n /(d(! de!cendien/e! de *n &r(geni/(r c(mEn" 8 /enem(! @*e admi/ir @*e /(da la inmen!a can/idad de diCerencia! en/re e!/a! C(rma! Aa !*rgid( &rimariamen/e de la !im&le 7aria3ilidad; C(n!iderar el a!*n/( de!de e!/e &*n/( de 7i!/a 3a!/a &ara !*mirn(! en &er&leBidad; Per( &(dem(! amin(rar e!/a &er&leBidad !i reCle>i(nam(! @*e !ere! en !* ma8(r2a inCini/(! en nEmer(" 8 d*ran/e *n e!&aci( de /iem&( ca!i !iem&re inCini/(" Aan g(Dad( de *na (rganiDacin &lF!/ica en algEn grad( 8 @*e /(da &e@*e'a m(diCicacin de e!/r*c/*ra @*e en algEn m(d( era 3eneCici(!a en c(ndici(ne! e>ce!i7amen/e c(m&leBa! de 7ida Aa !id( c(n!er7ada mien/ra! @*e /(da m(diCicacin @*e era en algEn m(d( &erB*dicial Aa !id( rig*r(!amen/e de!/r*ida; La ac*m*lacin largamen/e c(n/in*ada de 7ariaci(ne! 3eneCici(!a! Aa /enid( @*e c(nd*cir indeCec/i3lemen/e a e!/r*c/*ra! /an di7er!a!" /an 3ellamen/e ada&/ada! a di7er!(! Cine! 8 /an e>celen/emen/e c((rdinada! c(m( la! 7em(! en la! &lan/a! 8 animale! @*e n(! r(dean; P(r e!( Ae Aa3lad( 8( de la !eleccin c(m( de *na C*erDa e>/ra(rdinaria" 8a !ea a&licada &(r el A(m3re &ara la C(rmacin de la! cr2a! d(O m !/ica! ( &(r la na/*raleDa &ara la &r(d*ccin de la! e!&ecie!;;; Si *n ar@*i/ec/( C*era a c(n!/r*ir *n ediCici( n(3le 8 cm(d( !in Aacer *!( de &iedra de !iller2a" !elecci(nand( de l(! Cragmen/(! @*e !e enc*en/ran en la 3a!e de *n &reci&ici( &iedra! red(ndeada! &ara !*! arc(!" alargada! &ara !*! din/ele! 8 ancAa! &ara !*! /ecA(!" admirar2am(! !* Aa3ilidad 8 la c(n!iderar2am(! c(m( la C*erDa &rinci&al; AA(ra 3ien" l(! Cragmen/(! de &iedra" a*n@*e indi!&en!a3le! &ara el ar@*i/ec/(" g*ardan c(n el ediCici( c(n!/r*id( &(r l la mi!ma relacin @*e la! 7ariaci(ne! Cl*c/*an/e! de l(! !ere! (rgFnic(! g*ardan c(n la! 7ariada! 8 admira3le! e!/r*c/*ra! ad@*irida! deCini/i7amen/e &(r !*! de!cendien/e! m(diCicad(!; 0>he 2ariations of Animals and 5lants under 1omestication/ N*e7a 6(r{" #1$5" II" ca&; XX_III" &&; %?) ss.? Per( Aa8 @*e dar *n &a!( mF! 8 aca!( el mF! im&(r/an/e an/e! de @*e &*eda de!arr(llar!e *na 7erdadera Cil(!(C2a an/r(&(lgica; La /e(r2a de la e7(l*cin Aa de!/r*id( l(! l2mi/e! ar3i/rari(! en/re la! di7er!a! C(rma! de la 7ida (rgFnica; N( e>i!/en e!&ecie! !e&arada!M n( Aa8 mF! @*e *na c(rrien/e c(n/in*a e ininO /err*m&ida de 7ida; Per( `&(dem(! a&licar el mi!m( &rinci&i( a la 7ida 8 a la cultura A*mana!a `E! @*e el m*nd( c*l/*ral" l( mi!m( @*e el (rgFnic(" e!/F AecA( de cam3i(! acciden/ale!a `N( &(!ee *na e!/r*c/*ra /ele(lgica deCinida e innega3lea C(n e!/( !e &re!en/a3a *n n*e7( &r(3lema an/e l(! Cil!(C(! 8 el &*n/( de &ar/ida era la /e(r2a general de la e7(l*cin; Ten2an @*e dem(!/rar @*e el m*nd( c*l/*ral" el de la ci7iliDacin A*mana" era red*ci3le a *n &e@*e'( nEmer( de ca*!a! generale!" la! mi!ma! &ara l(! Cenmen(! C2!ic(! @*e &ara l(! llamad(! e!&iri/*ale!; b!/e era el /en(r del n*e7( /i&( de Cil(!(C2a de la c*l/*ra in/r(d*cid( &(r :i&li/( Taine en !* ilosofa del arte 8 en !* Historia de la literatura inglesa. A@*2" c(m( en /(da! &ar/e! Hdice TaineH" n(! Aallam(! Cren/e a *n &r(3lema

mecFnic(4 el eCec/( /(/al e! *n re!*l/ad( @*e de&ende en/eramen/e de la magni/*d 8 direccin de la! ca*!a! @*e l( &r(d*cen;;; A*n@*e l(! medi(! de n(/acin n( !(n l(! mi!m(! en la! ciencia! m(rale! 8 en la! C2!ica!" !in em3arg(" c(m( en am3a! la ma/eria e! la mi!ma" c(n!/i/*ida ig*almen/e &(r C*erDa!" magni/*de! 8 direcci(ne!" &(dem(! decir @*e en am3a! el re!*l/ad( Cinal !e Aalla &r(d*cid( &(r el mi!m( m /(d(; 0Histoire de la littrature anglaise. In/r(d*ccin;, El mi!m( cin/*rn de Aierr( de la nece!idad ci'e a n*e!/ra 7ida C2!ica 8 a n*e!/ra 7ida c*l/*ral; En !*! !en/imien/(!" en !*! inclinaci(ne!" en !*! idea! 8 en !*! &en!amien/(! 8 en !* &r(d*ccin de (3ra! de ar/e" BamF! el A(m3re &*ede !alir de e!/e c2rc*l( mFgic(; P(dem(! c(n!iderarl( c(m( *n animal de e!&ecie !* O &eri(r @*e &r(d*ce Cil(!(C2a 8 &(ema! del mi!m( m(d( @*e el g*!an( de !eda &r(d*ce !* ca&*ll( ( la! a3eBa! c(n!/r*8en !*! c(lmena!; En el &rl(g( a !* gran (3ra &os orgenes de la rancia contempor7nea n(! dice Taine @*e &re/ende e!/*diar la /ran!C(rmacin de Francia c(m( *n re!*l/ad( de la Re7(l*cin Crance!a c(m( l( Aar2a c(n la me/am(rC(!i! de *n in!ec/(; Per( en e!/e &*n/( a!(ma (/ra c*e!/in; `P(dem(! c(n/en/arn(! c(n en*merar en *na C(rma &*ramen/e em&2rica l(! diCeren/e! im&*l!(! @*e enc(n/ram(! en la na/*raleDa A*manaa Para alcanDar *na 7i!in realmen/e cien/2Cica de e!/(! im&*l!(! /ienen @*e !er cla!iCicad(! 8 !i!/ema/iDad(! 8 e! (37i( @*e n( /(d(! ell(! !e Aallan en el mi!m( ni7el; De3em(! !*&(ner @*e &(!een *na e!/r*c/*ra deCinida 8 *na de la! /area! &rimera! 8 mF! im&(r/an/e! de n*e!/ra &!ic(l(g2a 8 de n*e!/ra /e(r2a de la c*l/*ra c(n!i!/e en de!c*3rir e!/a e!/r*c /*ra; Tenem(! @*e enc(n/rar en la c(m&licada madeBa de la 7ida A*mana la (c*l/a C*erDa m(/riD @*e &(ne en m(7imien/( /(d( el mecani!m( de n*e!/r( &en!amien /( 8 7(l*n/ad; El &r(&!i/( &rinci&al de /(da! e!/a! /e(r2a! c(n!i!/2a en &r(3ar la *nidad 8 A(m(geneidad de la na/*raleDa del A(m3re; Si e>aminam(! la! a&licaci(ne! @*e Aa32an de &r(&(rci(narn(! e!/a! /e(r2a!" la *nidad a&arece c(m( alg( m*8 &r(3lemF/ic(; Cada Cil!(C( cree Aa3er enc(n/rad( la Cac*l/ad mae!/ra 8 &rinci&al" l+ide ma@tresse/ c(m( la de!igna3a TaineM &er( /(da! la! e>&licaci(ne! diCieren en(rmemen/e en l( @*e c(ncierne al carFc/er de e!/a Cac*l/ad &rinci&al 8 !e c(n/radicen; Cada &en!ad(r n(! &r(&(rci(na !* c*adr( e!&ecial de la na/*raleDa A*mana; T(d(! e!/(! Cil!(C(! !(n decidid(! em&iri!/a!" &*e! &re/enden m(!O /rarn(! AecA(! 8 !l( AecA(!M &er( !* in/er&re/acin de la! &r*e3a! em&2rica! al3erga de!de *n &rinci&i( *na !*&(!icin ar3i/raria @*e !e Aace mF! &a/en/e a medida @*e la /e(r2a !e de!en7*el7e 8 c(3ra *n a!&ec/( mF! G ela3(rad( 8 c(m&licad(; Nie/D!cAe &r(clama la 7(l*n/ad de &(der2(" Fre*d !e'ala el in!/in/( !e>*al" Mar> en/r(niDa el in!/in/( ec(nmic(; Cada /e(r2a !e c(n7ier/e en *n lecA( de Pr(c*!/( en el @*e l(! AecA(! em&2ric(! !(n c(n!/re'id(! a *n &a/rn &rec(nce3id(; De3id( a e!/e de!arr(ll( n*e!/ra /e(r2a m(derna del A(m3re &ierde !* cen/r( in/elec/*alM en !* l*gar n(! enc(n/ram(! c(n *na c(m&le/a anar@*2a de &en!amien/(; Tam3i n en /iem&(! an/eri(re! A*3( *na gran di!cre&ancia de (&ini(ne! 8 /e(r2a! rela/i7a! a e!/e &r(3lemaM &er( @*eda3a &(r l( men(! *na (rien/acin general" *n C(nd( de reCerencia en el @*e !e ac(m(da3an la!

diCerencia! indi7id*ale!; La me/aC2!ica" la /e(l(g2a" la ma/emF/ica 8 la 3i(l(g2a a!*mier(n !*ce!i7amen/e la g*2a del &en!amien/( en c*an/( al &r(3lema del A(m3re 8 de/erminar(n la l2nea de in7e!/igacin; La cri!i! 7erdadera del &r(3lema !e AiD( &a/en/e c*and( deB de e>i!/ir !emeBan/e &(der cen/ral ca&aD de dirigir /(d(! l(! e!C*erD(! indi7id*ale!; Se !eg*2a !in/iend( la im&(r/ancia e>/ra(rdinaria del &r(3lema en /(da! la! diCeren/e! rama! del c(n(cimien/( 8 de la in7e!/igacin" &er( 8a !in *na a*/(ridad e!/a3lecida a la c*al &*diera *n( a&elar; L(! /el(g(!" l(! cien/2Cic(!" l(! &(l2/ic(!" l(! !(cil(g(!" l(! 3il(g(!" l(! &!icl(g(! 8 l(! gn(!el(g(! 8 l(! ec(n(mi!/a! a3(rda3an cada *n( el &r(3lema de!de !* &ar/ic*lar &*n/( de 7i!/a; Era im&(!i3le c(m3inar ( *niCicar /(d(! e!/(! a!&ec/(! 8 &er!&ec/i7a! &ar/ic*lare!M ni a*n den/r( de l(! cam&(! e!&eciale! Aa32a *n &rinci&i( cien/2Cic( generalmen/e ace&/ad(; F*e &re7aleciend( el Cac/(r &er!(nal 8 c(menD a B*gar *n &a&el deci!i7( el /em&eramen/( de cada a*/(r; >rahit sua ;uem;ue -oluptasA en Cin de c*en/a!" cada a*/(r &arec2a dirigid( &(r !* &r(&ia c(nce&cin 8 7al(racin de la 7ida A*mana; E! innega3le @*e e!/e an/ag(ni!m( de idea! n( re&re!en/a Enicamen/e *n gra7e &r(3lema /eric( !in( @*e !*&(ne" al mi!m( /iem&(" *na amenaDa inminen/e a /(d( el cam&( de n*e!/ra 7ida m(ral 8 A*mana; En el &en!amien/( Cil(!Cic( recien/e Ma> ScAeler C*e *n( de l(! &rimer(! en &erca/ar!e de e!/e &eligr( 8 en dar el gri/( de alarma; En ningEn (/r( &eri(d( del c(n(cimien/( A*man( Hdice ScAelerH" el A(m3re !e AiD( /an &r(3lemF/ic( &ara !2 mi!m( c(m( en n*e!/r(! d2a!; Di!&(nem(! de *na an/r(&(l(g2a cien/2Cica" (/ra Cil(!Cica 8 (/ra /e(lgica @*e !e ign(ran en/re !2; N( &(!eem(!" &(r c(n!ig*ien/e" *na idea clara 8 c(n!i!/en/e del A(m3re; La m*l/i&licidad !iem&re crecien/e de ciencia! &ar/ic*lare! (c*&ada! en el e!/*di( del A(m3re Aa c(n/ri3*id( mF! a en/*r3iar 8 (!c*recer n*e!/r( c(nce&/( del A(m3re @*e a e!clarecerl(; 01ie %tellung des Menschen im <osmos/ Darm!/ad/" ReicAl" #$?1" &&; #. !!;, b!/a e! la e>/ra'a !i/*acin en @*e !e enc*en/ra la Cil(!(C2a m(derna; Ning*na edad an/eri(r !e Aall en *na !i/*acin /an Ca7(ra3le en l( @*e re!&ec/a a la! C*en/e! de n*e!/r( c(n(cimien/( de la na/*raleDa A*mana; La &!ic(l(g2a" la e/n(l(g2a" la an/r(&(l(g2a 8 la Ai!/(ria Aan e!/a3lecid( *n a!(m3r(!( 3agaBe de AecA(! e>/ra(rdinariamen/e ric( 8 en crecimien/( c(n!/an/e; Se Aan meB(rad( inmen!amen/e n*e!/r(! in!/r*men/(! / cnic(! &ara la (3!er7acin 8 la e>&erimen/acin" 8 n*e!/r(! anFli!i! !e Aan AecA( mF! ag*d(! 8 &ene/ran/e!; Sin em3arg(" n( &arece @*e Aem(! enc(n/rad( el m /(d( &ara d(minar 8 (rganiDar e!/e ma/erial; C(m&arad( c(n n*e!/ra a3*ndancia" el &a!ad( &*ede &arecer 7erdaderamen/e &(3re" &er( n*e!/ra ri@*eDa de AecA(! n( e! nece!ariamen/e *na ri@*eDa de &en!amien/(; Si n( c(n!eg*im(! Aallar el Ail( de Ariadna @*e n(! g*2e &(r e!/e la3erin/(" n( &(!eerem(! *na 7i!in real del carFc/er general de la c*l/*ra A*mana 8 @*edarem(! &erdid(! en *na ma!a de da/(! inc(ne>(! 8 di!&er!(! @*e &arecen carecer de /(da *nidad c(nce&/*al;

II; UNA CLA_E DE LA NATURALE<A DEL :OMLRE4 EL SMLOLO I(Aanne! 7(n Ue>{Jll Aa e!cri/( *n li3r( en el @*e em&rende *na re7i!in cr2/ica de l(! &rinci&i(! de la 3i(l(g2a; SegEn l e! *na ciencia na/*ral @*e /iene @*e !er de!arr(llada c(n l(! m /(d(! em&2ric(! *!*ale!" l(! de (3!er7acin 8 e>&erimen/acinM &er( el &en!amien/( 3i(lgic( n( &er/enece al mi!m( /i&( @*e el &en!amien/( C2!ic( ( @*2mic(; Ue>{Jll e! *n re!*el/( cam&en del 7i/ali!m( 8 deCiende el &rinci&i( de la a*/(n(m2a de la 7ida; La 7ida e! *na realidad El/ima 8 @*e de&ende de !2 mi!maM n( &*ede !er de!cri/a ( e>&licada en / rmin(! de C2!ica ( de @*2mica; Par/iend( de e!/e &*n/( de 7i!/a Ue>{Jll de!arr(lla *n n*e7( e!@*ema general de in7e!/igacin 3i(lgica; C(m( Cil!(C( e! *n ideali!/a ( Cen(meni!/a" &er( !* Cen(meni!m( n( !e 3a!a en c(n!ideraci(ne! me/aC2!ica! ( e&i!/em(lgica! !in( @*e !e C*nda" mF! 3ien" en &rinci&i(! emO &2ric(!; C(m( l mi!m( !e'ala" re&re!en/ar2a *na e!&ecie 7erdaderamen/e ingen*a de d(gma/i!m( !*&(ner @*e e>i!/e *na realidad a3!(l*/a de c(!a! @*e C*era la mi!ma &ara /(d(! l(! !ere! 7i7ien/e!; La realidad n( e! *na c(!a Enica 8 A(m(g neaM !e Aalla inmen!amen/e di7er!iCicada" &(!e8end( /an/(! e!@*ema! 8 &a/r(ne! diCeren/e! c*an/(! diCeren/e! (rgani!m(! Aa8; Cada (rgani!m( e!" &(r decirl( a!2" *n !er m(nFdic(; P(!ee *n m*nd( &r(&i(" &(r l( mi!m( @*e &(!ee *na e>&eriencia &ec*liar; L(! Cenmen(! @*e enc(n/ram(! en la 7ida de *na de/erminada e!&ecie 3i(lgica n( !(n /ran!Ceri3le! a (/ra! e!&ecie!; La! e>&eriencia!" 8 &(r l( /an/(" la! realidade!" de d(! (rgani!m(! diCeren/e! !(n inc(nme!*ra3le! en/re !2; En el m*nd( de *na m(!ca" dice Ue>{Jll" enc(n/ram(! !l( Gc(!a! de m(!caG" en el m*nd( de *n eriD( de mar enc(n/ram(! !l( Gc(!a! de eriD( de marG; Par/iend( de e!/e !*&*e!/( general de!arr(lla _(n Ue>{Jll *n e!@*ema 7erdaderamen/e ingeni(!( 8 (riginal del m*nd( 3i(lgic(M &r(c*rand( e7i/ar /(da in/er&re/acin &!ic(lgica !ig*e" &(r en/er(" *n m /(d( (3O Be/i7( ( 3eAa7i(ri!/a; La Enica cla7e &ara la 7ida animal n(! la &r(&(rci(nan l(! AecA(! de la ana/(m2a c(m&aradaM !i c(n(cem(! la e!/r*c/*ra ana/mica de *na e!&ecie animal e!/am(! en &(!e!in de /(d(! l(! da/(! nece!ari(! &ara rec(n!/r*ir !* m(d( e!&ecial de e>&eriencia!; Un e!/*di( min*ci(!( de la e!/r*c/*ra del c*er&( animal" del nEmer(" c*alidad 8 di!/ri3*cin de l(! di7er!(! rgan(! de l(! !en/id(! 8 de la! c(ndici(ne! del !i!/ema ner7i(!(" n(! &r(&(rci(na *na imagen &erCec/a del m*nd( in/ern( 8 e>/ern( del (rgani!m(; Ue>{Jll c(menD !*! in7e!/igaci(ne! c(n el e!/*di( de l(! (rgani!m(! inCeri(re! 8 la! C*e e>/endiend( &(c( a &(c( a /(da! la! C(rma! de la 7ida (rgFnica; En cier/( !en/id( !e niega a Aa3lar de C(rma! inCeri(re! ( !*&eri(re! de 7ida; La 7ida e! &erCec/a &(r d(@*ier" e! la mi!ma en l(! c2rc*l(! mF! e!/recA(! 8 en l(! mF! am&li(!; Cada (rgani!m(" Aa!/a el mF! 2nCim(" n( !l( !e Aalla ada&/ad( en *n !en/id( 7ag( !in( en/eramen/e c((rdinad( c(n !* am3ien/e; A /en(r de !* e!/r*c/*ra ana/mica &(!ee *n de/erminad( !i!/ema Grece&/(rG 8 *n de/erminad( !i!/ema GeCec/(r;G El
EL LILOGO

(rgani!m( n( &(dr2a !(3re7i7ir !in la c((&eracin 8 e@*ili3ri( de e!/(! d(! !i!/ema!; El rece&/(r &(r el c*al *na e!&ecie 3i(lgica reci3e l(! e!/2m*l(! e>/ern(! 8 el eCec/(r &(r el c*al reacci(na an/e l(! mi!m(! !e Aallan !iem&re e!/recAamen/e en/relaDad(!; S(n e!la3(ne! de *na mi!ma cadena" @*e e! de!cri/a &(r Ue>{Jll c(m( Gc2rc*l( C*nci(nalG;#. N( &*ed( en/re/enerme en *na di!c*!in de l(! &rinci&i(! 3i(lgic(! de Ue>{JllM me Ae reCerid( Enicamen/e a !*! c(nce&/(! 8 a !* /ermin(l(g2a c(n el &r(&!i/( de &lan/ear *na c*e!/in general; `E! &(!i3le em&lear el e!@*ema &r(&*e!/( &(r Ue>{Jll &ara *na de!cri&cin 8 carac/eriDacin del m*nd( A*man(a E! (37i( @*e e!/e m*nd( n( c(n!/i/*8e *na e>ce&cin de e!a! le8e! 3i(lgica! @*e g(3iernan la 7ida de /(d(! l(! demF! (rgani!m(!; Sin em3arg(" en el m*nd( A*man( enc(n/ram(! *na carac/er2!/ica n*e7a @*e &arece c(n!/i/*ir la marca di!/in/i7a de la 7ida del A(m3re; S* c2rc*l( C*nci(nal n( !l( !e Aa am&liad( c*an/i/a/i7amen/e !in( @*e Aa !*Crid( /am3i n *n cam3i( c*ali/a/i7(; El A(m3re" c(m( !i diB ram(!" Aa de!c*3ier/( *n n*e7( m /(d( &ara ada&/ar!e a !* am3ien/e; En/re el !i!/ema rece&/(r 8 el eCec/(r" @*e !e enc*en/ran en /(da! la! e!&ecie! animale!" Aallam(! en l c(m( e!la3n in/ermedi( alg( @*e &(dem(! !e'alar c(m( !i!/ema G!im3lic(G; E!/a n*e7a ad@*i!icin /ran!C(rma la /(/alidad de la 7ida A*mana; C(m&arad( c(n l(! demF! animale! el A(m3re n( !l( 7i7e en *na realidad mF! am&lia !in(" &(r decirl( a!2" en *na n*e7a dimen!in de la realidad; E>i!/e *na diCerencia innega3le en/re la! reacci(ne! (rgFnica! 8 la! re!&*e!/a! A*mana!; En el ca!( &rimer(" *na re!&*e!/a direc/a e inmedia/a !ig*e al e!/2m*l( e>/ern(" en el !eg*nd( la re!&*e!/a e! dem(rada" e! in/err*m&ida 8 re/ardada &(r *n &r(ce!( len/( 8 c(m&licad( de &en!amien/(; A &rimera 7i!/a !emeBan/e dem(ra &(dr2a &arecer *na 7en/aBa 3a!/an/e e@*27(caM alg*n(! Cil!(C(! Aan &*e!/( !(3re a7i!( al A(m3re acerca de e!/e &re/endid( &r(gre!(; El A(m3re @*e medi/a" dice R(*!!ea*" Ge! *n animal de&ra7ad(G4 !(3re&a!ar l(! l2mi/e! de la 7ida (rgFnica n( re&re!en/a *na meB(ra de la na/*raleDa A*mana !in( !* de/eri(r(; Sin em3arg(" 8a n( Aa8 !alida de e!/a re7er!in del (rden na/*ral; El A(m3re n( &*ede e!ca&ar de !* &r(&i( l(gr(" n( le @*eda mF! remedi( @*e ad(&/ar la! c(ndici(ne! de !* &r(&ia 7idaM 8a n( 7i7e !(lamen/e en *n &*r( *ni7er!( C2!ic( !in( en *n uni-erso sim!lico. El leng*aBe" el mi/(" el ar/e 8 la religin c(n!/i/*8en &ar/e! de e!/e *ni7er!(" C(rman l(! di7er!(! Ail(! @*e /eBen la red !im3lica" la *rdim3re c(m&licada de la e>&eriencia A*mana; T(d( &r(gre!( en &en!amien/( 8 e>&eriencia aCina 8 reC*erDa e!/a red; El A(m3re n( &*ede enCren/ar!e 8a c(n la realidad de *n m(d( inmedia/(M n( &*ede 7erla" c(m( !i diB ram(!" cara a cara; La realidad C2!ica &arece re/r(ceder en la mi!ma &r(&(rcin @*e a7anDa !* ac/i7idad !im3lica; En l*gar de /ra/ar c(n la! c(!a! mi!ma!" en cier/( !en/id(" c(n7er!a c(n!/an/emen/e c(n!ig( mi!m(; Se Aa en7*el O /( en C(rma! lingJ2!/ica!" en imFgene! ar/2!/ica!" en !2m3(l(! m2/ic(! ( en ri/(! religi(!(!" en /al C(rma @*e n( &*ede 7er ( c(n(cer nada !in( a /ra7 ! de la in/erO &(!icin de e!/e medi( ar/iCicial; S* !i/*acin e! la mi!ma en la e!Cera /erica
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_ a!e I(Aanne! 7(n Ue>{Jll" >heoretische (iologie +?a ed; Lerl2n" #$.1,M $nBelt und InnenBelt der >iere +#$N$M ?a ed; Lerl2n" #$?#,;

@*e en la &rFc/ica; Tam&(c( en !/a 7i7e en *n m*nd( de cr*d(! AecA(! ( a /en(r de !*! nece!idade! 8 de!e(! inmedia/(!; _i7e" mF! 3ien" en medi( de em(ci(ne!" e!&eranDa! 8 /em(re!" il*!i(ne! 8 de!il*!i(ne! imaginaria!" en medi( de !*! Can/a!2a! 8 de !*! !*e'(!; GL( @*e &er/*r3a 8 alarma al A(m3re Hdice E&ic/e/(H" n( !(n la! c(!a! !in( !*! (&ini(ne! 8 Cig*raci(ne! !(3re la! c(!a!;G De!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a al @*e aca3am(! de llegar &(dem(! c(rregir 8 am&liar la deCinicin clF!ica del A(m3re; A &e!ar de /(d(! l(! e!C*erD(! del irraci(nali!m( m(dern(" la deCinicin del A(m3re c(m( animal raci(nal n( Aa &erdid( !* C*erDa; La raci(nalidad e! *n ra!g( inAeren/e a /(da! la! ac/i7idade! A*mana!; La mi!ma mi/(l(g2a n( e! *na ma!a 3r*/a de !*&er!/ici( ne! ( de grande! il*!i(ne!" n( e! &*ramen/e ca/ica" &*e! &(!ee *na C(rma !i!/emF/ica ( c(nce&/*alM #% &er(" &(r (/ra &ar/e" !er2a im&(!i3le carac/eriDar la e!/r*c /*ra del mi/( c(m( raci(nal; El leng*aBe Aa !id( iden/iCicad( a men*d( c(n la raDn ( c(n la 7erdadera C*en/e de la raDn" a*n@*e !e ecAa de 7er @*e e!/a deCinicin n( alcanDa a c*3rir /(d( el cam&(; En ella" *na &ar/e !e /(ma &(r el /(d(4 pars pro toto. P(r@*e B*n/( al leng*aBe c(nce&/*al /enern(! *n leng*aBe em(/i7(M B*n/( al leng*aBe lgic( ( cien/2Cic( el leng*aBe de la imaginacin &( /ica; Primariamen/e" el leng*aBe n( e>&re!a &en!amien/(! ( idea! !in( !en/imien/(! 8 em(ci(ne!; 6 *na religin den/r( de l(! l2mi/e! de la &*ra raDn" /al c(m( C*e c(nce3ida 8 de!arr(llada &(r ^an/" n( e! mF! @*e &*ra a3!/raccin; N( n(! !*mini!/ra !in( la C(rma ideal" la !(m3ra de l( @*e e! *na 7ida religi(!a germina 8 c(ncre/a; L(! grande! &en!ad(re! @*e deCinier(n al A(m3re c(m( animal raci(nal n( eran em&iri!/a! ni /ra/ar(n n*nca de &r(&(rci(nar *na n(cin em&2rica de la na/*raleDa A*mana; C(n e!/a deCinicin e>&re!a3an" mF! 3ien" *n im&era/i7( /ic( C*ndamen/al; La raDn e! *n / rmin( 7erdaderamen/e inadec*ad( &ara a3arcar la! C(rma! de la 7ida c*l/*ral A*mana en /(da !* ri@*eDa 8 di7er!idad" &er( /(da! e!/a! C(rma! !(n C(rma! !im3lica!; P(r l( /an/(" en l*gar de deCinir al A(m3re c(m( *n animal racional l( deCinirem(! c(m( *n animal sim!lico. 1e e!/e m(d( &(dem(! de!ignar !* diCerencia e!&ec2Cica 8 &(dem(! c(m&render el n*e7( camin( a3ier/( al A(m3re4 el camin( de la ci7iliDacin;

III; DE LAS REACCIONES ANIMALES A LAS RESPUESTAS :UMANAS NUESTRA deCinicin del A(m3re c(m( animal !im3lic( Aem(! llegad( a la &rimera e/a&a &ara in7e!/igaci(ne! *l/eri(re!; E! nece!ari( de!arr(llar aA(ra en algEn grad( e!/a deCinicin &ara d(/arla de *na ma8(r &reci!in; E! innega3le @*e el &en!amien/( !im3lic( 8 la c(nd*c/a !im3lica !e Aallan en/re l(! ra!g(! mF! carac/er2!/ic(! de la 7ida A*mana 8 @*e /(d( el &r(gre!( de la c*l/*ra !e 3a!a en e!/a! c(ndici(ne!; Per( `e!/am(! a*/(riDad(! &ara c(n!iderarla! c(m( d(/e e!&ecial del A(m3re" c(n e>cl*!in de l(! demF! !ere! (rgFnic(!a `N(
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c(n!/i/*8e el !im3(li!m( *n &rinci&i( @*e &*ede re/r(/raer!e Aa!/a *na C*en/e m*cA( mF! A(nda 8 @*e &(!ee *n Fm3i/( de a&lica3ilidad m*cA( mF! am&li(a Si re!&(ndem(! a e!/a c*e!/in en !en/id( nega/i7( Aa3rF @*e c(nCe!ar n*e!/ra ign(rancia en l( @*e c(ncierne a m*cAa! c*e!/i(ne! C*ndamen/ale! @*e Aan (c*&ad( &erennemen/e el cen/r( de la a/encin en la Cil(!(C2a de la c*l/*ra; La c*e!/in acerca del (rigen del leng*aBe" del ar/e 8 de la religin n( enc(n/rarF re!O &*e!/a 8 @*edarem(! a3and(nad(! Cren/e a la c*l/*ra c(m( an/e *n AecA( dad( @*e &arece" en cier/( !en/id(" ai!lad( 8" &(r c(n!ig*ien/e" inin/eligi3le; Se c(m&rende @*e l(! cien/2Cic(! Aa8an reA*!ad( !iem&re ace&/ar !emeBan/e !(l*cin; :an realiDad( grande! e!C*erD(! &ara c(nec/ar el AecA( del !im3(li!m( Gc(n (/r(! AecA(! 3ien c(n(cid(! 8 mF! elemen/ale!; Se Aa !en/id( @*e e!/e &r(3lema re7e!/2a *na im&(r/ancia e>/ra(rdinaria &er(" &(r de!gracia" &(ca! 7ece! Aa !id( a3(rdad( c(n *na men/e en/eramen/e a3ier/a; De!de *n &rinci&i( Aa !id( (!c*recid( 8 en/*r3iad( &(r (/ra! c*e!/i(ne! @*e &er/enecen a *n cam&( de la! di!c*!i(ne! c(m&le/amen/e diCeren/e; En l*gar de &r(&(rci(narn(! *na de!cri&cin 8 *n anFli!i! ne/(! del Cenmen( mi!m(" el cam3i( de idea! en /(rn( a e!/e &r(3lema !e Aa c(n7er/id( en *na di!&*/a me/aC2!ica; :a re!*l/ad( el ca3all( de 3a/alla de l(! di7er!(! !i!/ema! me/aC2!ic(!4 en/re ideali!m( 8 ma/eriali!m(" en/re e!&iri/*ali!m( 8 na/*rali!m(; Para /(d(! e!/(! !i!/ema! la c*e!/in del !im3(li!m( !e Aa c(n7er/id( en *n &r(3lema cr*cial del @*e &arec2a de&ender la C(rma C*/*ra de la ciencia 8 de la me/aC2!ica; N( n(! in/ere!a en e!/e l*gar e!/e a!&ec/( del &r(3lema" 8a @*e n(! Aem(!" &r(&*e!/( *na /area m*cA( mF! m(de!/a 8 c(ncre/a; Tra/arem(! de de!cri3ir la ac/i/*d !im3lica del A(m3re en *na C(rma mF! rig*r(!a" &ara a!2 &(derla di!/ing*ir de (/r(! m(d(! de c(m&(r/amien/( !im3lic( @*e !e dan en el rein( aniO mal; N( ca3e d*da @*e n( !iem&re l(! animale! reacci(nan an/e l(! e!/2m*l(! en *na C(rma direc/a 8 @*e !(n ca&ace! de *na reaccin indirec/a; L(! /an c(n(O cid(! e>&erimen/(! de PF7l(7 n(! &r(&(rci(nan *na rica ma!a de &r*e3a! em&2rica! &(r l( @*e !e reCiere a l(! e!/2m*l(! llamad(! Gre&re!en/a/i7(!;G En el ca!( de l(! m(n(! an/r(&(ide!" *n e!/*di( e>&erimen/al m*8 in/ere!an/e lle7ad( a ca3( &(r K(lCe Aa &*e!/( en e7idencia la realidad de la re!&*e!/a a la! !e'ale!; L(! animale! a&rend2an a re!&(nder a la! !e'ale! !*!/i/*/i7a! del alimen/( de la mi!ma manera en @*e re!&(nd2an al alimen/( mi!m(; #) SegEn K(lCe" l(! re!*l/ad(! de di7er!(! 8 &r(l(ngad(! e>&erimen/(! de a&rendiDaBe Aan dem(!/rad( @*e en el c(m&(r/amien/( de l(! m(n(! an/r(&(ide! /ienen l*gar l(! &r(ce!(! !im3lic(!; R(3er/ M; 6er{e!" @*e de!cri3e e!/(! e>&erimen/(! en !* El/im( li3r(" !aca *na im&(r/an/e c(ncl*!in general; E! e7iden/e @*e |l(! &r(ce!(! !im3lic(!} !(n rela/i7amen/e rar(! 8 diC2cile! de (3!er7ar; P*ede *n( c(n/in*ar &(niend( en d*da !* e>i!/encia" &er( 8( !(!&ecA( @*e en la ac/*alidad !erFn iden/iCicad(! c(m( an/eceden/e! de l(! &r(ce!(! !imO 3lic(! A*man(!; A3and(nam(!" &*e!" el /ema en *na e/a&a de de!arr(ll( de l( mF! inci/an/e" en el m(men/( en @*e &arecen inminen/e! de!c*3rimien/(! de
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I; L; K(lCe" GECCec/i7ene!! (C T({enOre9ard! C(r CAim&anDee!G; 6omparati-a 5sychology Monographs/ #?" N~ );

im&(r/ancia; 06himpanDees. A &o!oratory 6olony/ Ne9 :a7en" 6ale Uni7er!i/8 Pre!!" #$%." &; #1$,; Ser2a &rema/*r( Aacer ning*na &rediccin c(n re!&ec/( al de!en7(l7imien/( C*/*r( de e!/e &r(3lema; :a8 @*e deBar el cam&( a3ier/( &ara C*/*ra! in7e!/igaci(ne!; P(r (/ra &ar/e" la in/er&re/acin de l(! AecA(! e>&erimen/ale! de&ende !iem&re de cier/( c(nce&/( C*ndamen/al @*e de3e !er e!clarecid( an/e! de @*e el ma/erial em&2ric( &*eda &r(d*cir !*! Cr*/(!; La &!ic(l(g2a 8 la &!ic(3i(l(g2a m(derna! &arecen /(mar en c(n!ideracin e!/a circ*n!/ancia; Cre( al/amen/e !igniCica/i7( @*e n( !ean l(! Cil!(C(! !in( l(! (3!er7ad(re! e in7e!/igad(re! em&2ric(! @*iene!" en la ac/*alidad" &arecen de!em&e'ar &a&el direc/i7( en la !(l*cin de e!/e &r(3lema; N(! dicen !/(! @*e" de!&* ! de /(d(" n( e! meramen/e em&2ric( !in(" en al/( grad(" lgic(; ReO cien/emen/e" Ge(rge R 7 !D Aa &*3licad( *na !erie de ar/2c*l(! en l(! @*e &ar/e de la &r(&(!icin de @*e la c*e!/in" /an a&a!i(nadamen/e de3a/ida" del llamad( Gleng*aBe animalG n( &*ede !er re!*el/a !(3re la 3a!e de mer(! AecA(! de &!ic(l(g2a animal; 0*ien e>amine la! diCeren/e! /e!i! 8 /e(r2a! &!ic(lgica! c(n *na men/e cr2/ica 8 lim&ia de &reB*ici(!" /iene @*e llegar a la c(ncl*!in de @*e n( e! &(!i3le e!clarecer el &r(3lema reCiri nd(l( !encillamen/e a la! C(rma! de la c(m*nicacin animal 8 a cier/a! dem(!/raci(ne! (3/enida! median/e la d(me!/icacin 8 el a&rendiDaBe; T(da! ella! admi/en la! in/er&re/aci(ne! mF! c(n/radic/(ria!; P(r e!( e! nece!ari(" an/e /(d(" enc(n/rar *n &*n/( de &ar/ida lgicamen/e c(rrec/( @*e n(! &*eda c(nd*cir a *na in/er&re/acin na/*ral 8 !ana de l(! AecA(! em&2ric(!; El &*n/( de &ar/ida l( re&re!en/a la determinacin conceptual del lengua=e. #E En l*gar de (Crecer *na deCinicin 8a AecAa del leng*aBe !er2a meB(r aca!( &r(ceder en el !en/id( de la /en/a/i7a; El leng*aBe n( c(n!/i/*8e *n Cenmen( !im&le 8 *niC(rme; Se c(m&(ne de elemen/(! diCeren/e! @*e ni 3i(lgica ni !i!/emF/icamen/e !e Aallan en el mi!m( ni7el; De3em(! in/en/ar enc(n/rar el (rden 8 la! c(rrelaci(ne! de !*! elemen/(! c(n!/i/*/i7(!M &(r decirl( a!2" /enem(! @*e di!/ing*ir la! di7er!a! ca&a! ge(lgica! del leng*aBe; La &rimera 8 C*ndamen/al e!" !in d*da" el leng*aBe em(/i7(M *na gran &(rcin de /(da e>&re!in A*mana c(rre!&(nde /(da72a a e!/a ca&a; Per( e>i!/e *na C(rma de leng*aBe @*e n(! m*e!/ra *n /i&( 3ien diCeren/eM la &ala3ra 8a n( e! *na mera in/erBeccin" n( e! *na e>&re!in in7(l*n/aria del !en/imien/(" !in( &ar/e de *na (racin @*e &(!ee *na e!/r*c/*ra !in/Fc/ica 8 lgica deCinida!;#5 E! cier/( @*e ni en el leng*aBe al/amen/e de!arr(llad(" en el leng*aBe /eric(" !e Aa r(/( &(r c(m&le/( la c(ne>in c(n el &rimer elemen/(; A&ena! !i &(dem(! enc(n/rar *na Cra!e" e>ce&/*and( aca!( l(! &*r(! en*nciad(! C(rmale! de la! ma/emF/ica!" @*e n( lle7e algEn /in/e !en/imen/al ( em(/i7(;#1 En el m*nd( animal enc(n/rarem(! en a3*ndancia anal(g2a! 8 &aralel(! c(n el leng*aBe em(/i7(; P(r l( @*e re!&ec/a a l(! cAim&anc !" K(lCgang ^(eAler n(! dice @*e c(n!ig*en *n grad( c(n!idera3le de e>&re!in &(r medi( de ge!/ic*laci(ne!; La ra3ia" el /err(r" la de!e!&eracin" el
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O; R 7 !D" GDie men!cAlicAen ^(mm*ni{a/i(n!C(rmen *nd die !(genann/e Tier!&racAeG" 5roceedings (C the FetherClands A3ademie -an Wetenschappen/ XLIII +#$%N," N(!; $" #NM XLI_ +#$%#," N~ #; #5 Para la di!/incin en/re el leng*aBe !im&lemen/e em(/i7( 8 el G/i&( n(rmal de c(m*nicacin de idea!" @*e e! el idi(maG" 7 an!e la! (3!er7aci(ne! de la in/r(d*ccin de la (3ra de Ed9ard Sa&ir" &anguage +N*e7a 6(r{" :arc(*r/ Lrace" #$?#M /rad; e!&; FCE" M >ic(" #$-?M Lre7iari( $-,; #1 Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e CAarle! Lall8" &e langage et la -ie +Par2!" #$.-,;

di!g*!/(" la !(lici/*d" el de!e(" la! gana! de B*gar 8 la !a/i!Caccin !(n e>&re!ad(! en e!/a C(rma; Sin em3arg(" Cal/a *n elemen/( @*e e! carac/er2!/ic( e indi!&en!a3le en /(d( leng*aBe A*man(4 n( enc(n/ram(! !ign(! @*e &(!ean *na reCerencia (3Be/i7a ( !en/id(; Se &*ede admi/ir c(m( &(!i/i7amen/e &r(3ad( Hdice ^(eAlerH @*e /(d( !* B*eg( fontico e! en/eramen/e !*3Be/i7( 8 @*e !l( &*ede e>&re!ar em(ci(ne! 8 BamF! de!ignar ( de!cri3ir (3Be/(!; Per( &(!een /an/(! elemen/(! C(n /ic(! c(m*ne! /am3i n al leng*aBe A*man(" @*e !* Cal/a de leng*aBe ar/ic*lad( n( &*ede !er a/ri3*ida a limi/aci(ne! secundarias +gl(!(la3iale!,; Tam&(c( !*! ge!/ic*laci(ne! de m(rr( 8 c*er&(" l( mi!m( @*e !*! maniCe!/aci(ne! !(n(ra!" de!ignan ( Gde!cri3enG n*nca (3Be/(! +LJAler,; +G<*r P!8cA(l(gie de! ScAim&an!enG" 5sychologische orschung/ 8 #$?#" ?5;, A@*2 /(cam(! en el &*n/( cr*cial de /(d( n*e!/r( &r(3lema; La diCerencia en/re el lengua=e preposicional 8 el lengua=e emoti-o re&re!en/a la 7erdadera Cr(n/era en/re el m*nd( A*man( 8 el animal; T(da! la! /e(r2a! 8 (3!er7aci(ne! c(ncernien/e! al leng*aBe animal a la! @*e !e le! e!ca&a el rec(n(cimien/( de e!/a diCerencia C*ndamen/al carecen de !igniCicacin; #$ En /(da la a3*ndan/e 3i3li(graC2a !(3re la ma/eria n( &arece Aa3er &r*e3a c(ncl*8en/e de @*e ningEn animal diera BamF! e!/e &a!( deci!i7( de l( !*3Be/i7( a l( (3Be/i7(" del lenOg*aBe aCec/i7( al leng*aBe &r(&(!ici(nal; ^(eAler in!i!/e en rgicamen/e en @*e el leng*aBe !e Aalla deCini/i7amen/e C*era del alcance del m(n( an/r(&(ide; S(!/iene @*e la Cal/a de e!e rec*r!( / cnic( ine!/ima3le 8 la gran limi/acin de e!(! c(m&(nen/e! /an im&(r/an/e! del &en!amien/(" la! llamada! imFgene!" c(n!/i/*8en la! ca*!a! @*e im&iden @*e el animal l(gre BamF! *n inici( de de!arr(ll( c*l/*ral; ?N A la mi!ma c(ncl*!in llega R 7 !D; El leng*aBe" aCirma" e! *n c(nce&/( an/r(&(lgic( @*e" &(r l( /an/(" /iene @*e !er en/eramen/e de!car/ad( del e!/*di( de la &!ic(l(g2a animal; Si &ar/im(! de *na deCinicin clara 8 &reci!a del leng*aBe" re!*l/an a*/(mF/icamen/e eliminada! /(da! la! (/ra! C(rma! de e>&re!in @*e enc(n/ram(! /am3i n en l(! animale!; ?# 6er{e!" @*e Aa e!/*diad( el &r(3lema c(n e!&ecial in/er !" n(! Aa3la en *n /(n( mF! &(!i/i7(; E!/F c(n7encid( de @*e" en l( @*e re!&ec/a &reci!amen/e al leng*aBe 8 al !im3(li!m(" e>i!/e *na relacin e!/recAa en/re el A(m3re 8 el m(n( an/r(&(ide; GE!/( n(! !*giere @*e aca!( Aem(! dad( c(n *na e/a&a Cil(Ogen /ica &rimi/i7a en la e7(l*cin de l(! &r(ce!(! !im3lic(!; :a8 &r*e3a! a3*ndan/e! de @*e 7ari(! (/r(! /i&(! de w&r(ce!(! de !ign(w" diCeren/e! del !im3lic(" (c*rren c(n Crec*encia 8 C*nci(nan eCec/i7amen/e en el cAim&anc ;G +GPreOling*i!/ic Sign LeAa7i(r in CAim&anDeeG %cience LXXXIX" )15;, Per( /(d( e!/( re!*l/a deCini/i7amen/e &relingJ2!/ic(;
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Pr(n/( !e in/en/ /raDar *na di!/incin ag*da en/re el idi(ma &r(&(!ici(nal 8 el em(/i7( en el /erren( de la &!ic(&a/(l(g2a del leng*aBe; El ne*rl(g( ingl ! Iac{!(n in/r(d*B( el / rmin( Gleng*aBe &r(&(!ici(nalG c(n el (3Be/( de !e'alar alg*n(! Cenmen(! &a/(lgic(! m*8 in/ere!an/e!; _i( @*e m*cA(! enCerm(! @*e !*Cren de aCa!ia n( &ierden el *!( de la &ala3ra" &er( n( &*eden em&lear !/a en *n !en/id( (3Be/i7( &r(&(!ici(nal; La di!/incin de Iac{!(n !e re7el m*8 E/il; :a de!em&e'ad( *n &a&el im&(r/an/e en el de!arr(ll( *l/eri(r de la &!ic(&a/&l(g2a del leng*aBe; Para de/alle!" 7 a!e Ca!!irer" 5hilosophie der sym!olischen ormen/ III" ca&; _I" &&; ?.5O.?.; ?N ^(eAler" >he Mentality of Apes/ &; ?55; ?# R 7 !D" op. cit./ XLIII" Par/e II +#$%N," ..;

SegEn la (&inin del mi!m( 6er{e!" e!/a! e>&re!i(ne! C*nci(nale! !(n e>/reO madamen/e r*dimen/aria! 8 !im&le! 8 de *na */ilidad limi/ada" !i la! c(m&aram(! c(n el &r(ce!( c(gn(!ci/i7( A*man(; ?? N( Aa8 @*e c(nC*ndir la c*e!/in gen /ica c(n la c*e!/in anal2/ica 8 Cen(men(lgica; El anFli!i! lgic( del leng*aBe A*man( n(! c(nd*ce !iem&re a *n elemen/( de im&(r/ancia &rim(rdial @*e n( enc*en/ra &aralel( en el m*nd( animal; La /e(r2a general de la e7(l*cin de ningEn m(d( !e (&(ne al rec(n(cimien/( de e!/e AecA(; :em(! a&rendid(" &reci!amen/e en el cam&( de l(! Cenmen(! de la na/*raleDa (rgFnica" @*e la e7(l*cin n( e>cl*8e cier/( g ner( de creacin (riginalM Aa8 @*e admi/ir la m*/acin !E3i/a 8 la e7(l*O cin emergen/e; La 3i(l(g2a m(derna 8a n( Aa3la de e7(l*cin en l(! / rmin(! @*e l( Aac2a el &rimi/i7( dar9ini!m(M /am&(c( e>&lica !*! ca*!a! de la mi!ma manera; P(dem(! admi/ir @*e l(! an/r(&(ide! Aan realiDad( *n im&(r/an/e &a!( Aacia adelan/e en el de!arr(ll( de cier/(! &r(ce!(! !im3lic(!" &er( /enem(! @*e !*3ra8ar @*e n( Aan alcanDad( el *m3ral del m*nd( A*man(; Pene/rar(n" &(r decirl( a!2" en *n calleBn !in !alida; A l(! Cine! de *na e>&(!icin clara del &r(3lema y @*e di!/ing*ir c*idad(!amen/e en/re signos 8 sm!olos. Parece *n AecA( c(m&r(3ad( @*e !e da *n c(m&leB( !i!/ema de !ign(! 8 !e'ale! en la c(nd*c/a animal" 8 Aa!/a &(dem(! decir @*e alg*n(! animale!" e!&ecialmen/e l(! d(me!/icad(!" !(n e>/remadamen/e !*!ce&/i3le! a ell(!; ?. Un &err( reacci(narF a l(! cam3i(! mF! &e@*e'(! en la c(nd*c/a de !* d*e'(M alcanDarF a di!/ing*ir la! e>&re!i(ne! de *n r(!/r( ( la! m(d*laci(ne! de *na 7(D A*mana; ?% Per( Aa8 *na di!/ancia inmen!a de!de e!/(! Cenmen(! a la in/eligencia del leng*aBe !im3lic( 8 A*man(; L(! Cam(!(! e>&erimen/(! de PF7l(7 &r*e3an !(lamen/e @*e l(! animale! &*eden !er en/renad(! c(n Cacilidad &ara reacci(nar n( !l( a l(! e!/2m*l(! direc/(! !in( a /(da !*er/e de e!/2m*l(! indirec/(! ( re&re!en/a/i7(!; Una cam&ana" &(r eBem&l(" &(drF c(n7er/ir!e en *na G!e'al &ara c(merG 8 *n animal &*ede !er en/renad( a n( /(car !* alimen/( !i n( !e &r(d*ce e!/a !e'al; E!/( n(!
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6er{e!" 6himpanDees/ &; #1$; E!/a !*!ce&/i3ilidad Aa !id( c(m&r(3ada" &(r eBem&l(" en el Cam(!( ca!( de GI*an" el li!/(G @*e Aace *na! decena! de a'(! C*e *n ca!( !en!aci(nal &ara l(! &!icl(g(!; GI*an" el li!/(G era *n ca3all( @*e maniCe!/ &(!eer *na in/eligencia a!(m3r(!a; P(d2a calc*lar e>/ra'(! 8 c(m&licad(! &r(3lema! ari/m /ic(!" e>/raccin de raice! cE3ica!" e/c;" g(l&eand( el !*el( /an/a! 7ece! c(m( la !(l*cin del &r(3lema l( re@*er2a; F*e n(m3rad( *n c(mi/ e!&ecial de &!icl(g(! 8 (/r(! e>&er/(! &ara in7e!/igar el ca!(; Se aclar @*e el animal reacci(na3a a cier/(! m(7imien/(! de !* d*e'(; C*and( !* d*e'( e!/a3a a*!en/e ( !/e n( c(m&rend2a la &reg*n/a" el ca3all( n( c(n/e!/a3a; ?% Para il*!/rar e!/e &*n/( @*ier( menci(nar (/r( eBem&l( m*8 de!/acad(; El &!ic(3il(g( Dr; PC*ng!/" @*e Aa de!arr(llad( alg*n(! m /(d(! n*e7(! e in/ere!an/e! &ara el e!/*di( de la c(nd*c/a de l(! animale!" me c(n/ *na 7eD @*e reci3i *na car/a de *n ma8(r !(3re *n &r(3lema m*8 c*ri(!(; El ma8(r /en2a *n &err( @*e le ac(m&a'a3a en !*! &a!e(!; Siem&re @*e el d*e'( !e &re&ara3a &ara !alir el animal da3a !e'ale! de gran alegr2a 8 e>ci/acin; Un d2a" el ma8(r decidi Aacer *n &e@*e'( e>&erimen/(; C(m( !i &re/endie!e !alir" !e &*!( !* !(m3rer(" /(m !* 3a!/n e AiD( l(! &re&ara/i7(! ac(!/*m3rad(!" &er( !in in/encin de !alir; C(n gran !(r&re!a (3!er7 @*e el &err( n( !e deB enga'ar l( mF! m2nim( 8 @*e &ermaneci /ran@*ilamen/e en !* rincn; De!&* ! de *n 3re7e &eri(d( de (3!er7acin" el Dr; PC*ng!/ &*d( re!(l7er el mi!/eri(; En la Aa3i/acin del ma8(r Aa32a *n e!cri/(ri( c(n caB(ne! @*e c(n/en2an d(c*men/(! 7ali(!(! e im&(r/an/e!; El ma8(r /en2a la c(! O /*m3re de /irar de l(! caB(ne!" an/e! de !alir de ca!a" &ara a!eg*rar!e de @*e @*eda3an 3ien cerrad(!; N( &r(cedi a!2 el d2a en @*e &re/endi enga'ar al &err(" 8 &ara !/e a@*el ge!/( era *n elemen/( im&re!cindi3le &ara crear la !i/*acin nece!aria de G!alir de &a!e(G; Sin e!/a !e'al el &err( n( reacci(na3a;

dice" /an !l(" @*e el e>&erimen/ad(r Aa c(n!eg*id( en e!e ca!( cam3iar la G!i/*acin de alimen/(G del animalM la Aa c(m&licad( in/r(d*ciend( deli3eradamen/e en ella *n n*e7( elemen/(; T(d(! l(! Cenmen(! de!cri/(! c(mEnO men/e c(m( reCleB(! c(ndici(nad(! n( !l( !e Aallan m*8 leB(! !in( en (&(!icin c(n el carFc/er e!encial del &en!amien/( !im3lic( A*man(M l(! !2m3(l(!" en el !en/id( &r(&i( de e!/a &ala3ra" n( &*eden !er red*cid(! a mera! !e'ale!; Se'ale! 8 !2m3(l(! c(rre!&(nden a d(! *ni7er!(! diCeren/e! del di!c*r!(4 *na !e'al e! *na &ar/e del m*nd( C2!ic( del !erM *n !2m3(l( e! *na &ar/e del m*nd( A*man( del !en/id(; La! !e'ale! !(n G(&erad(re!GM l(! !2m3(l(! !(n Gde!ignad(re!G; ?) La! !e'ale!" a*n !iend( en/endida! 8 */iliDada! c(m( /ale!" &(O !een" n( (3!/an/e" *na e!&ecie de !er C2!ic( ( !*!/ancialM l(! !2m3(l(! &(!een Enicamen/e *n 7al(r C*nci(nal Si /enem(! &re!en/e e!/a di!/incin &(drem(! a3(rdar *n( de l(! &r(3lema! mF! c(n/r(7er/id(!; La c*e!/in de la inteligencia de los animales Aa c(n!/i/*id( !iem&re *n( de l(! ma8(re! r(m&eca3eDa! de la Cil(!(C2a an/r(&(lgica; Se Aan &r(digad( en(rme! e!C*erD(!" /an/( de &en!amien/( c(m( de (3!er7acin" &ara re!&(nder a e!/a c*e!/inM &er( la am3igJedad 8 la 7ag*edad del / rmin( Gin/eligenciaG Aa im&edid( !iem&re *na !(l*cin clara; `Cm( &(dem(! re!&(nder a *na c*e!/in c*8( !igniCicad( n( en/endem(!a L(! me/aC2!ic(! 8 l(! cien/2Cic(!" l(! na/*rali!/a! 8 l(! /el(g(! Aan em&lead( la &ala3ra Gin/eligenciaG c(n !en/id(! 7ari(! 8 c(n/radic/(ri(!; Alg*n(! &!icl(g(! 8 &!ic(3il(g(! !e Aan negad( en red(nd( a Aa3lar de la in/eligencia de l(! animale!; En /(da la c(nd*c/a animal n( 7en mF! @*e el B*eg( de *n cier/( a*/(ma/i!m(; E!/a /e!i! e!/F re!&aldada &(r la a*/(ridad de De!car/e!" &er( Aa !id( reaCirmada en la &!ic(l(g2a m(derna; El animal" Hdice E; L; TA(rndi{e en !* (3ra !(3re &a inteligencia animal H n( &ien!a @*e *na c(!a e! ig*al a (/ra ni /am&(c(" c(m( !e Aa dicA( m*cAa! 7ece!" c(nC*nde *na c(!a c(n (/ra; N( &ien!a" en m(d( alg*n(" acerca de ell(M &ien!a B*!/amen/e ello... La idea de @*e el animal reacci(na a *na im&re!in !en!i3le &ar/ic*lar 8 a3!(l*/amen/e deCinida 8 c(n!cien/e 8 @*e *na reaccin !imilar a *na im&re!in !en!i3le @*e diCiere de la an/eri(r &r*e3a *na a!(ciacin &(r !emeBanO Da" e! *n mi/(; 0Animal Intelligence/ N*e7a 6(r{" #$##" &&; ##$ !!;, O3!er7aci(ne! &(!/eri(re! mF! e>ac/a! c(nd*Ber(n a *na c(ncl*!in diCeren/e; En el ca!( de l(! animale! !*&eri(re! !e 7i( @*e eran ca&ace! de re!(l7er &r(3leO ma! mF! 3ien diC2cile! 8 @*e e!/a! !(l*ci(ne! n( !e c(n!eg*2an de *n m(d( &*ramen/e mecFnic(" &(r en!a8( 8 err(r; C(m( (3!er7a ^(eAler" e>i!/e la ma8(r diCerencia en/re *na !(l*cin &(r &*r( aDar 8 *na !(l*cin gen*ina" de !*er/e @*e la &rimera &*ede !er CFcilmen/e di!/ing*ida de la !eg*nda; Parece innega3le @*e" &(r l( men(! alg*na! de la! reacci(ne! de l(! animale! !*&eri(re!" n( !(n mer( &r(d*c/( del aDar !in( @*e !e Aallan g*iada! &(r *na G7i!in;G?- Si en/endem(! &(r in/eligencia la ada&/acin al medi( am3ien/e ( la m(diCicacin ada&/ad(ra del am3ien/e /endrem(! @*e a/ri3*ir al animal *na in/eligencia rela/i7amen/e m*8 de!O arr(llada; Tam3i n Aa8 @*e rec(n(cer @*e n( /(da! la! acci(ne! animale! !e Aallan
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Para la di!/incin en/re (&erad(re! 8 de!ignad(re!" 7 a!e CAarle! M(rri!" GTAe F(*nda/i(n (C /Ae TAe(r8 (C Sign!G" Encyclopedia of the $nified %ciences +#$.1,; ?_ a!e ^(eAler" op. cit./ ca&; _II" GCAance and Imi/a/i(nG;

g(3ernada! &(r la &re!encia de *n e!/2m*l( inmedia/(; El animal e! ca&aD de /(da !*er/e de r(de(! en !*! reacci(ne!; N( !l( &*ede a&render el *!( de in!/r*men/(! !in( in7en/ar in!/r*men/(! &ara !*! &r(&!i/(!; P(r e!(" alg*n(! &!ic(3il(g(! n( d*dan en Aa3lar de *na imaginacin cread(ra ( c(n!/r*c/i7a de l(! animale!;?5 Per( ni e!/a in/eligencia ni e!/a imaginacin !(n del /i&( e!&ec2Cicamen/e A*man(; En re!*men &(dem(! decir @*e el animal &(!ee *na imaginacin 8 *na in/eligencia &rFcO /ica!" mien/ra! @*e !l( el A(m3re Aa de!arr(llad( *na n*e7a Crm*la4 inteligencia e imaginacin sim!licas. P(r (/ra &ar/e" e! e7iden/e en el de!en7(l7imien/( men/al de la &!i@*e indi7id*al la /ran!icin de *na C(rma a (/ra" de *na ac/i/*d meramen/e &rFc/ica a *na ac/i/*d !im3licaM &er( e!/e &a!( c(n!/i/*8e el re!*l/ad( Cinal de *n &r(ce!( len/( 8 c(n/in*(; N( e! CFcil di!/ing*ir la! e/a&a! indi7id*ale! de e!/e c(m&licad( &r(ce!( !i a&elam(! a l(! m /(d(! *!*ale! de la (3!er7acin &!ic(lgica; Per( di!&(nem(! de (/r( camin( @*e n(! &*ede &r(&(rci(nar la 7i!in del carFc/er general 8 de la im&(r/ancia e>/ra(rdinaria de e!/a /ran!icin; La na/*raleDa mi!ma" &(r decirl( a!2" Aa realiDad( *n e>&erimen/( @*e &r(&(rci(na *na l*D ine!&erada !(3re l( @*e !e de3a/e; Se /ra/a de l(! ca!(! clF!ic(! de La*ra Lridgman 8 de :elen ^eller" d(! cria/*ra! ciega! 8 !(rd(m*da! @*e a&rendier(n a Aa3lar gracia! a m /(d(! e!&eciale!; A*n@*e l(! d(! ca!(! !(n 3ien c(n(cid(! 8 Aan !id( /ra/ad(! c(n Crec*encia en la 3i3li(graC2a &!ic(lgica"?1 cre( c(n7enien/e /raerl(! a rec(rdacin *na 7eD mF! &(r@*e re&re!en/an" aca!(" la meB(r il*!/racin del &r(3lema general @*e n(! 7iene (c*&and(; La !e'(ra S*lli7an" mae!/ra de :elen ^eller" Aa regi!/rad( la CecAa e>ac/a en @*e la ni'a em&eD a c(m&render realmen/e el !en/id( 8 la C*ncin del leng*aBe A*man(; Re&r(d*Dc( !*! &ala3ra!4 Teng( @*e e!cri3irle alg*na! l2nea! e!/a ma'ana &(r@*e Aa (c*rrid( alg( 7erdaderamen/e im&(r/an/e; :elen Aa dad( el !eg*nd( gran &a!( en !* ed*cacin; :a a&rendid( @*e cada c(!a /iene *n n(m3re 8 @*e el alCa3e/( man*al e! la lla7e &ara /(d( l( @*e de!ea c(n(cer;;; E!/a ma'ana" mien/ra! !e e!/a3a la7and(" de!e c(n(cer el n(m3re del Gag*a;G C*and( de!ea c(n(cer el n(m3re de alg( !e'ala en !* direccin 8 acaricia mi man(; 6( dele/re " GaOgO*OaG 8 8a n( &en! mF! en el a!*n/( Aa!/a de!&* ! del de!a8*n(;;; MF! /arde C*im(! a la C*en/e e Aice @*e :elen /*7iera la Barra 3aB( el griC( en /an/( @*e 8( da3a a la 3(m3a; Mien/ra! !al2a el ag*a Cr2a 8 llena3a la Barra dele/re GaOgO*OaG !(3re la man( a3ier/a de :elen; La &ala3ra" @*e !e B*n/a3a a la !en!acin del ag*a Cr2a @*e ca2a !(3re !* man(" &areci &(nerla en marcAa; Re/ir la Barra 8 !e @*ed c(m( e>/F/ica; S* cara &arec2a re!&landecer; Dele/re Gag*aG 7aria! 7ece!; Se inclin Aacia el !*el( 8 &reg*n/ &(r !* n(m3re 8 !e'al Aacia la C*en/e 8" dand( rF&idamen/e la 7*el/a" &reg*n/ &(r mi n(m3re; Dele/re Gmae!/raG; Al 7(l7er a la ca!a !e Aalla3a m*8 e>ci/ada 8 a&rendi el n(m3re de /(d(! l(! (3Be/(! @*e /(ca3a" de !*er/e @*e en &(ca! A(ra! Aa a'adid( /rein/a n*e7a! &ala3ra! a !* 7(ca3*lari(; A la ma'ana !ig*ien/e and*7( c(m( *n Aada radian/e; _(la3a de
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_ a!e R; M; 8 A; K; 6er{e!" >he Great Apes +Ne9 :a7en" 6ale Uni7er!i/8 Pre!!" #$?$," &&; .-1 !!;" )?N ss. S(3re La*ra Lridgman 7 a!e Ma*d :(9e 8 Fl(rence :(9e :all" &aura (ridgman +L(!/(n" #$N.,M Mar8 S9iC/ Lam!(n" &ife and Education of &aura 1eBey (ridgman +L(!/(n" #11#,M KilAelm Ier*!alem" &aura (ridgman/ ErDiehung einer >au!stummC(linden +Lerl2n" #$N),;

(3Be/( en (3Be/( &reg*n/and( &(r el n(m3re de cada c(!a 8 3e!Fnd(me de &*ra alegr2a;;; T(da! la! c(!a! /ienen @*e /ener aA(ra *n n(m3re; Ad(nde @*iera @*e 7a8am(! &reg*n/a c(n an!iedad &(r el n(m3re de c(!a! @*e n( Aa a&rendid( en ca!a; Se Aalla an!i(!a &(r dele/rear c(n !*! amiga! 8 mF! an!i(!a /(da72a &(r en!e'ar la! le/ra! a c*al@*iera @*e enc*en/re; Elimina l(! !ign(! 8 la! &an/(mima! @*e */iliDa3a an/e! en c*an/( di!&(ne de &ala3ra! @*e l(! !*&lan 8 la ad@*i!icin de *na n*e7a &ala3ra le &r(d*ce el ma8(r g(D(; N(! dam(! c*en/a de @*e !* cara !e Aace cada d2a mF! e>&re!i7a; ?$ Im&(!i3le de!cri3ir en C(rma mF! im&re!i(nan/e el &a!( deci!i7( @*e c(nd*ce del *!( de !ign(! 8 &an/(mima! al em&le( de &ala3ra!; `C*Fl C*e el 7erdader( de!c*3rimien/( de la cria/*ra en e!/e m(men/(a :elen ^eller a&rendi an/e! a c(m3inar *na cier/a c(!a ( !*ce!( c(n *n cier/( !ign( del alCa3e/( man*al; Se e!/a3leci *na a!(ciacin CiBa en/re e!/a! c(!a! 8 cier/a! im&re!i(ne! /Fc/ile!; Per( *na !erie de /ale! a!(ciaci(ne!" a*n@*e !e re&i/an 8 am&l2en" n( im&lica la in/eliO gencia de l( @*e e! 8 !igniCica el leng*aBe A*man(; Para llegar a e!/a in/eligencia la cria/*ra /iene @*e Aacer *n de!c*3rimien/( n*e7(" m*cA( mF! im&(r/an/e; Tiene @*e c(m&render @*e cada cosa tiene un nom!re/ @*e la C*ncin !im3lica n( !e Aalla re!/ringida a ca!(! &ar/ic*lare! !in( @*e c(n!/i/*8e *n &rinci&i( de a&lica3ilidad *ni7er!al @*e a3arca /(d( el cam&( del &en!a mien/( A*man(; En el ca!( de :elen ^eller e!/e de!c*3rimien/( !e &r(d*B( c(m( *n cA(@*e !E3i/(; Era *na ni'a de !ie/e a'(! @*e" c(n e>ce&cin de l(! deCec/(! en el *!( de cier/(! rgan(! de l(! !en/id(!" !e Aalla3a en e>celen/e e!/ad( de !al*d 8 &(!e2a *na in/eligencia m*8 de!arr(llada; P(r el de!c*id( de !* ed*cacin !e Aa32a re/ra!ad( m*cA(; Per(" re&en/inamen/e / /*7( l*gar el de!arr(ll( cr*cial; O&er c(m( *na re7(l*cin in/elec/*al; La ni'a em&eD a 7er el m*nd( ( *na n*e7a l*D; :a a&rendid( a em&lear la! &ala3ra!" n( meramen/e c(m( !ign(! ( !e'ale! mecFnica!" !in( c(m( *n in!/r*men/( en/eramen/e n*e7( de &en!amien/(; Se le Aa a3ier/( *n n*e7( A(riD(n/e" 8 de a@*2 en adelan/e la cria/*ra &(drF &a!ear!e a di!crecin en e!/a Frea inc(m&ara3lemen/e ancAa 8 li3re; L( mi!m( &(dem(! (3!er7ar en el ca!( de La*ra Lridgman" a*n@*e !* Ai!/(ria e! men(! e!&ec/ac*lar; Tan/( en ca&acidad men/al c(m( en de!arr(ll( in/elec/*al La*ra era m*8 inCeri(r a :elen; S* 7ida 8 !* ed*cacin n( c(n/ienen l(! mi!m(! elemen/(! dramF/ic(! @*e enc(n/ram(! en :elen ^eller; Per( en l(! d(! ca!(! !e Aallan &re!en/e! l(! mi!m(! elemen/(! /2&ic(!; De!&* ! @*e La*ra a&rendi el *!( del alCa3e/( man*al" /am3i n alcanD re&en/inamen/e el &*n/( en @*e c(menD a c(m&render el !im3(li!m( del leng*aBe A*man(; Enc(n/ram(! a e!/e re!&ec/( *n &araleli!m( !(r&renden/e en/re l(! d(! ca!(!; GN*nca (l7idar " He!O cri3e mi!! Dre9" *na de la! &rimera! mae!/ra! de La*raH la &rimera c(mida @*e Aicim(! de!&* ! @*e !e di( c*en/a del *!( del alCa3e/( man*al; T(d( (3Be/( @*e /(ca3a /en2a @*e /ener *n n(m3re 8 /*7e @*e llamar a alg*ien en a8*da &ara @*e me 7igilara l(! (/r(! ni'(! mien/ra! ella me en/re/en2a en dele/rear la! n*e7a! &ala3ra!;G.N
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_ a!e :elen ^eller" >he %tory (C My &ife. +N*e7a 6(r{" D(*3leda8" Page C(;" #$N?" #$N.,; N(/a !*&lemen/aria !(3re la 7ida 8 la ed*cacin de :elen ^eller" &&; .#) ss. .N _ a!e Mar8 S9iC/ Lam!(n" &ife and Education of &aura 1eBey (ridgman/ the 1eaf/ 1um! and

El &rinci&i( del !im3(li!m(" c(n !* *ni7er!alidad" !* 7alideD 8 !* a&lica3ilidad general" c(n!/i/*8e la &ala3ra mFgica" el G! !am( F3re/eG @*e da acce!( al m*nd( e!&ec2Cicamen/e A*man(" al m*nd( de la c*l/*ra; Una 7eD @*e el A(m3re !e Aalla en &(!e!in de e!/a cla7e mFgica e!/F a!eg*rad( el &r(gre!( *l/eri(r; SemeBan/e &r(gre!( n( re!*l/a (3!/r*id( ( im&(!i3ili/ad( &(r ning*na lag*na del ma/erial !en!i3le; El ca!( de :elen ^eller" @*e alcanD *n al/( grad( de de!arr(ll( &!2@*ic( 8 de c*l/*ra in/elec/*al" n(! m*e!/ra de *na manera clara e irreC*/a3le @*e *n !er A*man( n( de&ende en la c(n!/r*ccin de !* m*nd( A*man( de la c*alidad de !* ma/erial !en!i3le; Si C*eran 7erdad la! /e(r2a! del !en!*ali!m(" !i cada idea n( C*era mF! @*e *na c(&ia /en*e de *na im&re!in !en!i3le (riginal" la c(ndicin de *na cria/*ra ciega" !(rda 8 m*da /endr2a @*e !er de!e!&erada" &*e! e!/ar2a &ri7ada de la! 7erdadera! C*en/e! del c(n(cimien/(M !er2a" c(m( !i diB ram(!" *n de!/errad( de la realidad; Si e!/*diam(! la a*/(3i(O graC2a de :elen ^eller n(! &erca/am(! de @*e e!/( n( e! 7erdad 8" al mi!m( /iem&(" c(m&rendem(! &(r @* n( e! 7erdad; La c*l/*ra deri7a !* carFc/er e!&ec2Cic( 8 !* 7al(r in/elec/*al 8 m(ral n( del ma/erial @*e la c(m&(ne !in( de !* C(rma" de !* e!/r*c/*ra ar@*i/ec/nica; E!/a C(rma &*ede !er e>&re!ada c(n c*al@*ier ma/erial !en!i3le; El leng*aBe 7er3al &(!ee *na 7en/a Ba / cnica m*8 grande c(m&arad( c(n el leng*aBe /Fc/il" &er( l(! deCec/(! / cnic(! de e!/e El/im( n( de!/r*8en !* *!( e!encial; El li3re de!arr(ll( del &en!amien/( !im3lic( 8 de la e>&re!in !im3lica n( !e Aalla (3!/r*id( &(r el mer( em&le( de !ign(! /Fc/ile! en l*gar de l(! 7er3ale!; Si el ni'( Aa c(n!eg*id( ca&/ar el G!en/id(G del leng*aBe A*man(" 8a n( im&(r/a /an/( el ma/erial &ar/ic*lar en el @*e e!/e G!en/id(G !e le Aace acce!i3le; C(m( l( &r*e3a el ca!( de :elen ^eller" el A(m3re c(n!/r*8e !* m*nd( !im3lic( !ir7i nd(!e de l(! ma/eriale! mF! &(3re! 8 e!ca!(!; L( @*e 7i/almen/e im&(r/a n( !(n l(! ladrill(! 8 la! &iedra! c(ncre/(! !in( !* funcin general c(m( C(rma ar@*i/ec/nica; En el rein( del leng*aBe" !* C*ncin !im3lica general e! la @*e 7i7iCica l(! !ign(! ma/eriale! 8 l(! GAace Aa3larGM !in e!/e &rinci&i( 7i7iCicad(r el m*nd( A*man( !er2a !(rd( 8 m*d(; C(n e!/e &rinci&i(" Aa!/a el m*nd( de *na cria/*ra !(rd(m*da 8 ciega &*ede llegar a !er inc(m&ara3lemen/e mF! ancA( 8 ric( @*e el m*nd( del animal mF! de!arr(llad(; Una de la! ma8(re! &rerr(ga/i7a! del !im3(li!m( A*man( e! la a&lica3ilidad *ni7er!al" de3ida al AecA( de @*e cada c(!a &(!ee *n n(m3re; Per( n( e! la Enica; E>i!/e (/ra carac/er2!/ica de l(! !2m3(l(! @*e ac(m&a'a 8 c(m&le/a a !/a y C(rma !* nece!ari( c(rrela/(; Un !2m3(l( n( !l( e! *ni7er!al !in( e>/remadamen/e 7aO ria3le; P*ed( e>&re!ar el mi!m( !en/id( en idi(ma! di7er!(! 8" a*n den/r( de l(! l2mi/e! de *n !(l( idi(ma" *na mi!ma idea ( &en!amien/( &*ede !er e>&re!ada en / rmin(! diCeren/e!; Un !ign( ( !e'al e!/F relaci(nad( c(n la c(!a a @*e !e reCiere de *n m(d( Enic( 8 CiB(; T(d( !ign( c(ncre/( e indi7id*al !e re Ciere a *na cier/a c(!a indi7id*al; En l(! e>&erimen/(! de PF7l(7 el &err( &*ede !er en/renad( CFcilmen/e a 3*!car la c(mida Enicamen/e de!&* ! de darle *na !e 'al e!&ecialM n( c(merF Aa!/a (2r *n !(nid( &ar/ic*lar" @*e &*ede !er e!c(gid( a
(lind Girl +L(!/(n" :(*gA/(n" MiCClin C(;" #11#," &&; 5 ss.

di!crecin del e>&erimen/ad(r; Per( e!/( n( g*arda anal(g2a alg*na" c(m( Cal!amen/e !e Aa in/er&re/ad( /an/a! 7ece!" c(n el !im3(li!m( A*man(M &(r el c(n/rari(" !e Aalla en (&(!icin c(n el !im3(li!m(; Un !2m3(l( A*man( gen*in( n( !e carac/eriDa &(r !* *niC(rmidad !in( &(r !* 7aria3ilidad; N( e! r2gid( ( inCle>i3le !in( m7il; E! 7erdad @*e el darse cuenta &lena de e!/a m(7ilidad &arece !er" mF! 3ien" *n l(gr( /ard2( en el de!arr(ll( in/elec/*al 8 c*l/*ral del A(m3reM la men/alidad &rimi/i7a raramen/e !e &erca/a de e!/(; El !2m3(l( !ig*e c(n!iderad( c(m( *na &r(&iedad de la c(!a" ( ig*al @*e (/ra! &r(&iedade! C2!ica!; En el &en!amien/( m2/ic(" el n(m3re de *n di(! e! &ar/e in/egral de !* na/*raleDa; Si n( in7(c( al di(! c(n !* de3id( n(m3re la in7(cacin re!*l/a in(&eran/e; L( mi!m( (c*rre c(n la! acci(ne! !im3lica!; Un ri/( religi(!(" *n !acriCici(" /endrFn @*e !er realiDad(! !iem&re de la mi!ma manera 8 c(n el mi!m( (rden !i @*ieren /ener >i/(; .# L(! ni'(! !e @*edan a men*d( m*8 &er&leB(! c*and( !e dan c*en/a &(r &rimera 7eD @*e n( /(d( n(m3re de *n (3Be/( e! *n n(m3re &r(&i( 8 @*e la mi!ma c(!a &*ede /ener n(m3re! diCeren/e! en idi(ma! di7er!(!; Pr(&enden a &en!ar @*e *na c(!a Ge!G l( @*e !e la llama; Ma! e!/( re&re!en/a !l( el &rimer &a!(; T(d( ni'( n(rmal a&renderF m*8 &r(n/( @*e &*ede *!ar 7ari(! !2m3(l(! &ara e>&re!ar el mi!m( de!e( ( &en!amien/(; E! (37i( @*e en el m*nd( animal n( e>i!/e &aralel( &ara e!/a 7aria3ilidad 8 m(7ilidad;.? M*cA( an/e! de @*e La*ra Lridgman a&rendiera a Aa3lar de!arr(ll *n m(d( 7erdader( de e>&re!in" *n leng*aBe &r(&iamen/e !*8(; N( c(n !i!/2a en !(nid(! ar/ic*lad(! !in( en di7er!a! e>&re!i(ne! g*/*rale! @*e !(n de!cri/a! c(m( Gr*id(! em(/i7(!G; Ten2a la c(!/*m3re de emi/ir e!/(! r*id(! an/e la &re!encia de cier/a! &er!(na!; De e!/e m(d( re!*l/a3an en/eramen/e indi7id*aliDada!M cada &er!(na de !* alreded(r era !al*dada c(n *na emi!in e!&ecial; GSiem&re @*e enc(n/ra3a ine!&eradamen/e a *n c(n(cid( He!cri3e el Dr; Lie3erH" emi/2a re&e/idamen/e la w&ala3raw de e!/a &er!(na an/e! de @*e em&eDara a Aa3lar; Era la maniCe!/acin del rec(n(cimien/( agrada3le;G .. Per( c*and(" gracia! al alCa3e/( man*al" la ni'a ca&/ el !en/id( del leng*aBe A*man(" la c(!a cam3i; AA(ra el Gr*id(G realmen/e !e c(n7ir/i en *n n(m3reM 8 e!/e n(m3re n( !e Aalla3a 7inc*lad( a *na &er!(na c(ncre/a !in( @*e &(d2a !er cam3iad( !i la! circ*n!/ancia! &arec2an re@*erirl(; A!2" *n d2a La*ra reci3i *na car/a de !* an/eri(r mae!/ra" mi!! Dre9" @*ien" Aa3i nd(!e ca !ad(" era aA(ra la !e'(ra M(r/(n; En e!/a car/a in7i/a3a a La*ra a 7i!i/arla; E!/( le c(m&laci m*cA(" &er( enc(n/r @*e mi!! Dre9 Aa32a c(me/id( *na Cal/a" &(r@*e Aa32a Cirmad( la car/a c(n !* an/ig*( n(m3re en l*gar de *!ar el n(m3re de !* e!&(!(; DiB( @*e /en2a @*e enc(n/rar (/r( Gr*id(G &ara !* mae!/ra" &*e! el @*e c(rre!&(nd2a a Dre9 n( &(d2a !er el mi!m( @*e el @*e c(rre!&(nd2a a M(r/(n; .% E! clar( @*e l(! Gr*id(!G an/eri(re! Aan !*Crid( *n cam3i( de !en/id( im&(r/an/e 8 m*8 in/ere!an/e; 6a n( !(n e>&re!i(ne! e!&eciale!" in!e&ara3le!
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Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e Ca!!irer" %prache und Mythos +Lei&Dig" #$?),; S(3re e!/e &r(3lema 7 a!e K; M; Ur3an" &anguage and )eality/ Par/e I" III" $) ss. .. _ a!e Franci! Lie3er GA Pa&er (n /Ae _(cal S(*nd! (C La*ra LridgmanG" %mithsonian 6ontri!utions to <noBledge/ II" ar/; ?" &; ?5; .% _ a!e Mar8 S9iC/ Lam!(n" op. cit./ &; 1%;

de *na !i/*acin c(ncre/a &ar/ic*lar; Se Aan c(n7er/id( en n(m3re! a3!/rac/(!; P(r@*e el n*e7( n(m3re in7en/ad( &(r la ni'a n( de!igna3a a *n n*e7( indi7id*( !in( al mi!m( indi7id*( en *na n*e7a relacin; S*rge aA(ra (/r( a!&ec/( im&(r/an/e de n*e!/r( &r(3lema general4 el &r(3lema de la dependencia en ;ue se halla el pensamiento relacional con el pensamiento sim!lico. Sin *n !i!/ema c(m&leB( de !2m3(l(!" el &en!amien/( relaci(nal n( !e &r(d*cir2a 8 m*cA( men(! alcanDar2a !* &len( de!arr(ll(; N( !er2a c(rrec/( decir @*e el mer( darse cuenta de relaci(ne! &re!*&(ne *n ac/( in/elec/*al" *n ac/( de &en!amien/( lgic( ( a3!/rac/(; SemeBan/e &erca/amien/( e! nece!ari( Aa!/a en l(! ac/(! elemen/ale! de &erce&cin; La /e(r2a !en!*ali!/a !(l2a de!cri3ir la &erce&cin c(m( *n m(!aic( de !im&le! da/(! !en!i3le!; L(! &en!ad(re! de e!/a e!c*ela n( 7e2an el AecA( de @*e la !en!acin mi!ma n( e! en m(d( alg*n( *n mer( agregad( ( AaD de im&re!i(ne! ai!lada!; La m(derna &!ic(l(g2a de la Gestalt Aa rec/iCicad( e!/a idea; :a m(!/rad( cm( el &r(ce!( &erce&/i7( mF! !im&le im&lica elemen/(! e!/r*c/*rale! C*ndamen/ale!" cier/a! &a*/a! ( c(nCig*raci(ne!; El &rinci&i( !e a&lica /an/( al m*nd( A*man( c(m( al animal; Se Aa dem(!/rad( e>&erimen/almen/e la &re!encia de e!/(! elemen/(! e!/r*c/*rale! He!&ecialmen/e e!/r*c/*ra! e!&aciale! 8 &/ica!H en e/a&a! rela/i7amen/e inCeri(re! de la 7ida animal;.) P(r l( /an/(" el mer( &erca/ar!e de la! relaci(ne! n( &*ede !er c(n!iderad( c(m( *n ra!g( e!&ec2Cic( de la c(nciencia A*mana; Sin em3arg(" enc(n/ram(! en el A(m3re *n /i&( e!&ecial de &en!amien/( relaci(nal @*e n( enc*en/ra &aralel( en el m*nd( animal; En el A(m3re !e Aa de!arr(llad( *na ca&acidad &ara ai!lar relaci(ne!" &ara c(n!iderarla! en !* !en/id( a3!/rac/(; Para ca&/ar e!/e !en/id( n( de&ende 8a de da/(! !en!i3le! c(ncre/(!" de da/(! 7i!*ale!" a*di/i7(!" /Fc/ile!" {ine!/ !ic(!M c(n!idera e!/a! relaO ci(ne! Gen !2 mi!ma!G" " c(m( dice Pla/n; La ge(me/r2a re&re!en/a el eBem&l( clF!ic( de e!/e 7iraBe en la 7ida in/elec/*al del A(m3re; En la ge(me/r2a elemen/al n( n(! Aallam(! 7inc*lad(! a la a&reAen!in de Cig*ra! !ing*lare! c(ncre/a!M n( n(! (c*&am(! de c(!a! C2!ica! ( de (3Be/(! &erce&/i7(!" &*e! e!/*diam(! relaci(ne! e!&aciale! *ni7er!ale! &ara c*8a e>&re!in di!&(nem(! de *n !im3(li!m( adec*ad(; Sin el &a!( &reliminar del leng*aBe A*man( n( A*3ie!e !id( &(!i3le e!/a c(n@*i!/a; En /(da! la! &r*e3a! @*e !e Aan AecA( acerca de l(! &r(ce!(! de a3!/raccin ( generaliDacin en l(! animale! e!/e &*n/( Aa re!*l/ad( e7iden/e; ^(eAler &*d( m(!/rar la ca&acidad de l(! cAimO &anc ! &ara re!&(nder a la relacin en/re d(! ( mF! (3Be/(! en l*gar de a *n (3Be/( &ar/ic*lar; EnCren/ad( c(n d(! caBa! @*e c(n/ienen alimen/(" el cAim&anc e!c(ge !iem&re la ma8(r" en 7ir/*d de *n en/renamien/( general &re7i(" a*n@*e el (3Be/( &ar/ic*lar elegid( Aa8a !id( recAaDad( en *n e>&erimen/( an/eri(r &(r !er el men(r de la &areBa; Se &r(3 ig*al ca&acidad &ara re!&(nder al (3Be/( mF! &r>im(" al mF! 3rillan/e" al mF! aD*l" en 7eD de a *n (3Be/( c(ncre/(; L(! re!*l/ad(! de ^(eAler C*er(n c(nCirmad(! 8 am&liad(! &(r e>&erimen/(! *l/eri(re!; Se m(!/r ademF! @*e l(! animale! !*&eri(re! !(n ca&ace! de l( @*e
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_ a!e K(lCgang ^(eAler" GO&/i!cAe Un/er!*cA*ngen am ScAim&an!en *nd am :a*!A*AnM NacA9ei! einCacAer S/r*{/*rC*n{/i(nen 3eim ScAim&an!en *nd 3eim :a*!A*AnG" A!handlungen der (erliner A3ademie der Wissenschaften +#$#)" #$#1,;

Aa !id( llamad( el Gai!lamien/( de Cac/(re! &erce&/i7(!G; P(!een la ca&acidad de de!/acar *na c*alidad &erce&/i7a &ar/ic*lar de la !i/*acin e>&erimen/al 8 de reacci(nar c(nC(rme a ella; En e!/e !en/id(" l(! animale! !(n ca&ace! de a3!/raer el c(l(r del /ama'( 8 de la C(rma ( la C(rma del /ama'( 8 el c(l(r; En *n(! e>&erimen/(! realiDad(! &(r la !e'(ra ^(A/!" *n cAim&anc C*e ca&aD de !elecci(nar en/re *na c(leccin de (3Be/(! @*e 7aria3an e>/remadamen/e en l( @*e re!&ec/a a c*alidade! 7i!*ale! a@*ell(! @*e /en2an *na !(la c*alidad c( mEnM a!2" &(r eBem&l(" &(d2a rec(ger /(d(! l(! (3Be/(! de *n c(l(r de/erminad( 8 c(l(carl(! en *n 3*Dn; E!/(! eBem&l(! &arecen &r(3ar @*e l(! animale! !*&eri(re! !(n ca&ace! de e!e &r(ce!( @*e :*me" en !* /e(r2a del c(n(cimien/(" e@*i&ara c(n *na Gdi!/incin de raDnG; .-Per( /(d(! l(! e>&erimen/ad(re! @*e Aan /ra3aBad( en e!/a cla!e de e>&eriencia! Aan !*3ra8ad( /am3i n la rareDa" el carFc/er r*dimen/ari( 8 la im&erCeccin de e!/(! &r(ce!(!; De!&* ! @*e Aan a&rendid( a de!/acar *na c*alidad &ar/ic*lar 8 a dirigir!e Aacia ella" l(! animale! !e Aallan !*Be/(! a /(da !*er/e de c*ri(!a! e@*i7(caci(ne!; .5 Si e>i!/en alg*na! A*ella! de *na distinti rationis en el m*nd( animal e!/Fn" &(r decirl( a!2" c(m( encerrada! en ca&*ll(M n( !e de!arr(llan &(r@*e n( &(!een e!e rec*r!( ine!/ima3le e indi!&en!a3le del leng*aBe A*man(" de *n !i!/ema de !2m3(l(!; El &rimer &en!ad(r @*e /*7( *na clara n(cin de e!/e &r(3lema C*e :erder; :a3la3a c(m( *n Cil!(C( de la A*manidad @*e de!ea3a &lan/ear la c*e!/in en / rmin(! en/eramen/e GA*man(!G; RecAaDand( la /e!i! me/aC2!ica ( /e(lgica de *n (rigen !(3rena/*ral ( di7in( del leng*aBe" c(mienDa c(n *na re7i!in cr2/ica de la c*e!/in mi!ma; El leng*aBe n( e! *n (3Be/(" n( e! *na c(!a C2!ica &ara la c*al /engam(! @*e 3*!car *na ca*!a na/*ral ( !(3rena/*ralM e! *n &r(ce!(" *na C*ncin general de la &!i@*e A*mana; N( &(dem(! de!cri3irl( &!ic(lgicamen/e c(n la /ermin(l(g2a em&leada &(r /(da! la! e!c*ela! &!ic(lgica! del !igl( X_III; SegEn :erder" el leng*aBe n( e! *na creacin ar/iCicial de la raDn ni /am&(c( &*ede e>&licar!e &(r *n mecani!m( e!&ecial de a!(ciacin; En !* in/en/( &ara e!/a3lecer la na/*raleDa del leng*aBe &(ne /(d( el acen/( en l( @*e llama reflexin. ReCle>in ( &en!amien/( reCle>i7( e! a@*ella ca&acidad del A(m3re @*e c(n!i!/e en de!/acar de /(da la ma!a indi!criminada del c*r!( de l(! Cen men(! !en!i3le! Cl*8en/e! cier/(! elemen/(! CiB(!" al eCec/( de ai!larl(! 8 c(ncen/rar la a/encin !(3re ell(!; El A(m3re m*e!/ra reCle>in c*and( el &(der de !* alma ac/Ea /an li3remen/e @*e de /(d( el (c an( de !en!aci(ne! @*e Cl*8e a /ra7 ! de !*! !en/id(! &*ede !egregar" c(m( !i diB ram(!" una (ndaM 8 &*ede de/ener e!/a (nda" &(ner a/encin en ella 8 dar!e c*en/a de e!/a a/encin; M*e!/ra reCle>in c*and( en /(d( el !*e'( (nd*lan/e de imFgene! @*e Cl*8en a /ra7 ! de !*! !en/id(! &*ede rec(ger!e en *n m(men/( de 7igilia" m(rar en *na imagen e!&(n/Fneamen/e" (3!er7arla c(n claridad 8 c(n mF! &a*!a" 8 a3!/raer carac/er2!/ica! @*e le !e'alan @*e ste 8 n( (/r( e! el (3Be/(; A!2" m*e!/ra reCle>in c*and(" n( !l( &*ede &erci3ir de *na manera 7i7a 8 n2/ida /(da! la! c*alidade!" !in( c*and( &*ede
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La /e(r2a de :*me !(3re la Gdi!/incin de raDnG !e enc*en/ra e>&*e!/a en !* >reatise of Human Fature/ Par/e I" !ec; 5 +L(ndre!" Green and Gr(!e" #15%," I" &&; ..? ss. .5 EBem&l(! !(3re e!/( !e enc*en/ran en la (3ra de 6er{e!" 6himpanDees/ &&; #N. ss.

reconocer *na ( 7aria! de ella! c(m( c*alidade! di!/in/a!;;; `En 7ir/*d de @* medi(! !e &r(d*ce e!/e rec(n(cimien/(a Median/e *na carac/er2!/ica @*e l &(!ee &ara a3!/raer 8 @*e" c(m( *n elemen/( de c(n!ciencia" !e &re!en/a ella mi!ma claramen/e; En/(nce!" &(dem(! e>clamar te*re{au E!/e carFc/er inicial de c(n!ciencia era el leng*aBe del alma; C(n e!/(" !e Aa cread( el leng*aBe A*man(; +:erder" H!er den $rsprung der %prache/ #55?" Wer3e/ ed; S*&Aan" _" .% !;, E!/a de!cri&cin (Crece mF! 3ien el a!&ec/( de *n di!e'( &( /ic( @*e el de *n anFli!i! lgic( del leng*aBe A*man(; La /e(r2a de :erder !(3re !* (rigen era c(mO &le/amen/e e!&ec*la/i7aM n( &r(7en2a de *na /e(r2a general del c(n(cimien/( ni /am&(c( de *na (3!er7acin de AecA(! em&2ric(!; Se 3a!a3a en !* ideal de A*manidad 8 en !* &r(C*nda in/*icin del carFc/er 8 de!arr(ll( de la c*l/*ra; Sin em3arg(" c(n/iene elemen/(! lgic(! 8 &!ic(lgic(! del ma8(r 7al(r; T(d(! l(! &r(ce!(! de generaliDacin ( a3!/raccin en l(! animale!" @*e Aan !id( in7e!/igad(! 8 de!cri/(! c(n rig(r".1m*e!/ran claramen/e la a*!encia de e!/e ra!g( di!/in/i7( !*3ra8ad( &(r :erder; MF! /arde" !* idea enc(n/r *n e!clarecimien/( 8 *na c(rr(3(racin ine!&erada! de!de *n !ec/(r 3ien diCeren/e; In7e!/igaci(ne! recien/e! en el cam&( de la psicopatologa del lengua=e Aan c(nd*cid( a la c(ncl*!in de @*e !* & rdida ( al/eracin gra7e ca*!ada &(r *na le!in cere3ral n( e! BamF! *n Cenmen( ai!lad(M !emeBan/e deCec/( al/era /(d( el carFc/er de la c(nd*c/a A*mana; L(! &acien/e! @*e !*Cren de aCa!ia * (/ra! enCermedade! &arecida! n( !l( &ierden el *!( de la &ala3ra !in( @*e e>&erimen/an cam3i(! c(rre!&(ndien/e! en la &er!(nalidad @*e !(n diC2cile! de (3!er7ar en !* c(nd*c/a e>/eri(r" &*e! en ella &r(&enden a ac/*ar de *na manera &erCec/amen/e n(rmal; P*eden c*m&lir c(n la! /area! de la 7ida diariaM alg*n(! Aa!/a m*e!/ran *na Aa3ilidad c(n!idera3le en /(da! la! &r*e3a! de e!/a cla!eM &er( !e Aallan c(mO &le/amen/e &erdid(! en c*an/( la !(l*cin del &r(3lema re@*iere c*al@*ier ac/i7idad e!&ec2Cicamen/e /erica ( reCle>i7a; 6a n( !(n ca&ace! de &en!ar c(n c(nce&/(! ( ca/eg(r2a! generale!M Aa3iend( de!a&arecid( !* ca&/acin de *ni7er!ale! !e aCerran a l(! AecA(! inmedia/(!" a la! !i/*aci(ne! c(ncre/a!; SemeBan/e! &acien/e! !(n inca&ace! de eBec*/ar c*al@*ier /area @*e /enga @*e !er realiDada median/e la c(m&ren!in de l( a3!/rac/(;.$T(d( e!/( e! m*8 !igniCica/i7(" &(r@*e n(! m*e!/ra en @* grad( e!e /i&( de &en!amien/( @*e :erder llama GreCle>i7(G de&ende del &en!amien/( !im3lic(; Sin el !im3(li!m( la 7ida del A(m3re !er2a" la de l(! &ri!i(O ner(! en la ca7erna de Pla/n; Se enc(n/rar2a c(nCi nada den/r( de l(! l2mi/e! de !*! nece!idade! 3i(lgica! 8 de !*! in/ere!e! &rFc/ic(!M !in acce!( al m*nd( ideal @*e !e le a3re" de!de lad(! diCeren/e!" c(n la religin" el ar/e" la Cil(!(C2a 8 la ciencia;

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_ an!e" &(r eBem&l(" la! n(/a! de 6er{e! !(3re Gre!&*e!/a! generaliDada!G en cAim&anc !" op. cit./ &&; #.N !!; .$ Una narracin de/allada 8 m*8 in/ere!an/e !(3re e!/e Cenmen( !e &*ede enc(n/rar en 7aria! &*3licaci(ne! de ^; G(ld!/ein 8 A; Gel3; G(ld!/ein (Creci *n a!&ec/( general de !*! &*n/(! de 7i!/a /eric(! en !* Human Fature in the &ight of 5sychopathology/ lec/*ra! c(men/ada! de Killiam Iame! en la Uni7er!idad de :ar7ard" #$.5O.1 +Cam3ridge" Ma!!;" :ar7ard Uni7er!i/8 Pre!!" #$%N,; 6( Ae di!c*/id( e!/e &r(3lema de!de *n &*n/( de 7i!/a Cil(!Cic( general en mi 5hilosophie der sym!olischen ormen/ III" I_" ?.5O.?.;

I_; EL MUNDO :UMANO DEL ESPACIO 6 DEL TIEMPO 8 el /iem&( c(n!/i/*8en la *rdim3re en @*e !e Aalla /ra3ada /(da realidad; N( &(dem(! c(nce3ir ning*na c(!a real mF! @*e 3aB( la! c(ndici(ne! de e!&aci( 8 /iem&(; Nada en el m*nd(" !egEn dice :erFcli/(" &*ede e>ceder a !*! medida!" 8 !/a! !(n limi/aci(ne! e!&aciale! 8 /em&(rale!; En el &en!amien/( m2O /ic( el e!&aci( 8 el /iem&( BamF! !e c(n!ideran c(m( C(rma! &*ra! ( 7ac2a! !in( c(m( la! grande! C*erDa! mi!/eri(!a! @*e g(3iernan /(da! la! c(!a!" @*e g(3ier O nan 8 de/erminan n( !l( n*e!/ra 7ida m(r/al !in( /am3i n la de l(! di(!e!; La de!cri&cin 8 el anFli!i! del carFc/er e!&ec2Cic( @*e a!*men el e!&aci( 8 el /iem&( en la e>&eriencia A*mana c(n!/i/*8en *na de la! /area! mF! a/ra8en/e! e im&(r/an/e! de *na Cil(!(C2a an/r(&(lgica; Ser2a *na !*&(!icin ingen*a e inC*ndada c(n!iderar la a&ariencia del e!&aci( 8 del /iem&( c(m( nece!ariamen/e la mi!ma &ara /(d(! l(! !ere! (rgFnic(!; E! (37i( @*e n( &(dem(! a/ri3*ir a l(! (rgani!m(! inCeri(re! id n/ica cla!e de &erce&cin e!&acial @*e al A(m3re; A*n en/re el m*nd( A*man( 8 el m*nd( de l(! an/r(&(ide! !*&eri(re! enc(n/ram(! a e!/e re!&ec/( *na diCerencia innega3le e im3(rra3le; N( e! CFcil e>&licar e!/a diCerencia !i n( Aacem(! mF! @*e a&licar n*e!/r(! m /(d(! &!ic(lgic(! c(rrien/e!; Tenem(! @*e !eg*ir *na 72a indirec/a4 analiDar la! C(rma! de la c*l/*ra al eCec/( de de!c*3rir el carFc/er 7erdader( del e!&aci( 8 del /iem&( en n*e!/r( m*nd( A*man(; La &rimera c(!a @*e a&arece clara en !emeBan/e anFli!i! e! @*e e>i!/en tipos C*ndamen/almen/e diCeren/e! de e>&eriencia e!&acial 8 /em&(ralM n( /(da! la! C(rma! !e enc*en/ran en el mi!m( ni7el; E>i!/en ca&a! mF! 3aBa! 8 mF! al/a! di!&*e!/a! en *n cier/( (rden; La mF! 3aBa &*ede !er de!cri/a c(m( de espacio y tiempo org7nicos. T(d( (rgani!m( 7i7e en *n de/erminad( am3ien/e 8 /iene @*e ada&/ar!e c(n!/an/emen/e a la! c(ndici(ne! de e!/e am3ien/e !i @*iere !(3re7i7ir; En l(! mi!m(! (rgani!m(! inCeri(re! la ada&/acin re@*iere *n !i!/ema mF! 3ien c(m&licad( de reacci(ne!" *na diCerenciacin en/re e!/2m*l(! C2!ic(! 8 *na re!&*e!/a adec*ada a e!/(! e!/2m*l(! M l( @*e n( e! a&rendid( &(r la e>&eriencia indi7id*al; Animale! reci n nacid(! &arecen &(!eer *n !en/id( ne/( 8 &reci!( de la di!/ancia 8 de la direccin e!&acial; Un &(ll*el( al !alir del ca!carn marcAa Aacia adelan/e 8 &ica l(! gran(! e!&arcid(! en !* camin(; L(! 3il(g(! 8 l(! &!icl(g(! Aan e!/*diad( c*idad(!amen/e la! c(ndici(ne! e!&eciale! de @*e de&ende e!/e &r(ce!( de (rien/acin e!&acialM a*n@*e n( !(m(! ca&ace! de c(n/e!/ar a /(da! la! in/rincada! c*e!/i(ne! @*e !e reCieren a la ca&acidad de (rien/acin en la! a3eBa!" en la! A(rmiga! 8 en la! a7e! migra/(ria!" &(dem(! &(r l( men(! &r(&(rci(nar *na re!&*e!/a nega/i7a; N( &(dem(! !*&(ner @*e c*and( l(! animale! eBec*/an e!a! c(m&licada! reacci(ne! e!/ n g*iad(! &(r ningEn &r(ce!( ideacional. P(r el c(n/rari(" &arecen (3edecer a im&*l!(! c(r&(rale! de *n g ner( &ar/ic*larM n( &(!een *n c*adr( ( idea men/ale! del e!&aci(" *na &r(!&eccin de relaci(ne! e!&aciale!; Al acercarn(! a l(! animale! !*&eri(re! n(!
EL ESPACIO

enc(n/ram(! c(n *na n*e7a C(rma de e!&aci( @*e &(dem(! de!ignar c(m( espacio percepti-oI n( e! *n mer( da/( !en!i3leM &(!ee *na na/*raleDa m*8 c(m&licada" c(n/eniend( elemen/(! de l(! diCeren/e! g ner(! de e>&eriencia !en!i3le" &/ica" /Fc/il" acE!/ica 8 {ine!/ !ica; Una de la! c*e!/i(ne! mF! diC2cile! de la m(derna &!ic(l(g2a de la! !en!aci(ne! e! !a3er en @* C(rma /(d(! e!/(! elemen/(! c((&eran en la c(n!/r*ccin del e!&aci( &erce&/i7(; Un gran cien/2Cic(" :ermann 7(n :elmA(l/D" cre8 nece!ari( ina*g*rar *na n*e7a rama del c(n(cimien/(" la ciencia de la &/ica Ci!i(lgica" &ara re!(l7er el &r(3lema @*e /enem(! delan/e; Sin em3arg(" @*edan en el aire di7er!a! c*e!/i(ne! @*e" &(r el m(men/(" n( !e &*eden c(n/e!/ar en *na C(rma clara e ine@*27(ca; En la Ai!/(ria de la &!ic(l(g2a m(derna la l*cAa de!arr(llada en el G(!c*r( cam&( de 3a/alla del na/i7i!m( 8 el em&iri!m(G Aa &arecid( in/ermina3le; %NN( n(! in/ere!a aA(ra e!/e a!&ec/( del &r(3lema; La c*e!/in gen /ica" la reCeren/e al (rigen de la &erce&cin e!&acial" @*e d*ran/e larg( /iem&( Aa ecli&!ad( a /(da! la! demF!" n( c(n!/i/*8e la Enica" ni !i@*iera la mF! im&(r/an/e; De!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a de *na /e(r2a general del c(n(cimien/( 8 de la Cil(!(C2a an/r(&(lgica" (/r( /ema a/rae n*e!/r( in/er ! 8 de3e !er c(l(cad( en el cen/r( de la a/encin; MF! 3ien @*e in7e!/igar el (rigen 8 el de!arr(ll( del e!&aci( &erce&/i7( /enem(! @*e analiDar el espacio sim!lico. Al a3(rdar e!/e /ema n(! enc(n/ram(! en la Cr(n/era en/re el m*nd( A*man( 8 el animal; P(r l( @*e re!&ec/a al e!&aci( (rgFnic(" el espacio de la accin/ el A(m3re &arece en m*cA(! re!&ec/(! m*8 inCeri(r a l(! animale!; Un ni'( /iene @*e a&render m*cAa! Aa3ilidade! @*e el animal /rae c(n!ig(" &er( el A(m3re !e Aalla c(m&en!ad( de e!/a deCiciencia &(r (/r( d(n @*e !l( l de!arr(lla 8 @*e n( g*arda anal(g2a alg*na c(n nada de la na/*raleDa (rgFnica; N( de *na manera inmedia/a !in( median/e *n &r(ce!( men/al 7erdaderamen/e c(m&leB( 8 diC2cil" llega a la idea del espacio a!stracto/ y e!/a idea e! la @*e le a3re &a!( n( !l( &ara *n n*e7( cam&( del c(n(cimien/( !in( &ara *na direccin en/eramen/e n*e7a de !* 7ida c*l/*ral; L(! Cil!(C(! Aan /r(&eDad( de!de *n &rinci&i( c(n la! ma8(re! diCic*l/ade! al /ra/ar de e>&licar 8 de!cri3ir la na/*raleDa real del e!&aci( a3!/rac/( ( !im3lic(; Un( de l(! &rimer(! 8 mF! im&(r/an/e! de!c*3rimien/(! del &en!amien/( grieg( C*e el AecA( de la e>i!/encia de *na c(!a /al c(m( el e!&aci( a3!/rac/(" 8 la im&(r/ancia de !emeBan/e de!c*3rimien/( C*e !*3ra8ada /an/( &ara l(! ideali!/a! c(m( &ara l(! ma/eriali!/a! @*e !e 7ier(n ig*almen/e en7*el/(! en diCic*l/ade! &ara e>&licar !* carFc/er lgic( 8 &r(&endier(n a reC*giar!e en aCirmaci(ne! &aradBica!; Dice Demcri/( @*e el e!&aci( e! *n n( !er + , 8 @*e e!/e n( !er" !in em3arg(" &(!ee 7erdadera realidadM Pla/n en el >imeo !e reCiere al c(nce&/( de e!&aci( c(m( *n ofiSVX]n Y]efn *n c(nce&/( A23rid(" @*e diC2cilmen/e &*ede de!cri3ir!e en / rmin(! adec*ad(!; En la ciencia 8 en la Cil(!(C2a m(derna! !ig*en !in re!(l7er e!/a! diCic*l/ade! &rimera!; N(! ad7ier/e Ne9/(n @*e n( c(nC*ndam(! el e!&aci( a3!/rac/(" el 7erdader( e!&aci( ma/emF/ic(" c(n el de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia !en!i3le; La gen/e" dice" &ien!a el e!&aci(" el /iem&( 8 el m(7imien/( a/eni nd(!e al &rinci&i(
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_ an!e la! (3!er7aci(ne! de Killiam! S/ern en !* 5sychology of Early 6hildhood/ /rad; al ingl ! &(r Anna LarO 9ell +?a ed; N*e7a 6(r{" :(l/ C(;" #$.N," &&; ##% ss.

de la! relaci(ne! @*e e!/(! c(nce&/(! g*ardan c(n l(! (3Be/(! !en!i3le!M &er( Aa8 @*e a3and(nar e!/e &rinci&i( !i @*erem(! llegar a c*al@*ier 7erdad cien/2Cica ( Cil(!Cica4 en Cil(!(C2a /enem(! @*e a3!/raer de n*e!/r(! da/(! !en!i3le!; %# E!/e &*n/( de 7i!/a ne9/(nian( !e c(n7ir/i en el ca3all( de 3a/alla de /(d(! l(! !i!/ema! !en!*ali!/a!" 8 c(n/ra l endereD Ler{ele8 /(d(! !*! a/a@*e! cr2/ic(!" !(!/eniend( @*e el G7erdaO der( e!&aci( ma/emF/ic(G de Ne9/(n n( era" de AecA(" mF! @*e imaginari(" *na Ciccin de la men/e A*mana; 6" eCec/i7amen/e" !i ace&/am(! l(! &rinci&i(! generale! de la /e(r2a del c(n(cimien/( de Ler{ele8 diC2cilmen/e &(drem(! reC*/ar !* &*n/( de 7i!/a 8 Aa3rF @*e admi/ir @*e el e!&aci( a3!/rac/( n( Aalla !* c(n/ra&ar/ida ni !* C*ndacin en ning*na realidad C2!ica ( &!ic(lgica; L(! &*n/(! 8 l2nea! @*e enc*en/ra n( !(n (3Be/(! C2!ic(! ni &!ic(lgic(! !in( !2m3(l(! de relaci(ne! a3!/rac/a!; Si a/ri3*im(! 7erdad a e!/a! relaci(ne!" el !en/id( del / rmin( 7erdad re@*erirF inmedia/amen/e *na redeCinicinM &(r@*e en el ca!( del e!&aci( a3!/rac/( n( n(! Aallam(! in/ere!ad(! en la 7erdad de la! c(!a! !in( en la 7erdad de &r(&(!ici(ne! 8 B*ici(!; An/e! de dar e!/e &a!( 8 @*e &*eda !er C*ndad( !i!/emF/icamen/e" la Cil(!(C2a 8 la ciencia Aan /enid( @*e rec(rrer *n larg( camin( 8 &a!ar a /ra7 ! de 7a ria! e/a&a! in/ermedia!; N( !e Aa e!cri/( aEn la Ai!/(ria de e!/e &r(3lema" a*n@*e !er2a *na /area 7erdaderamen/e a/ra8en/e la de /raDar la! di7er!a! e/a&a! @*e Aan lle7ad( a e!/e de!en7(l7imien/(" l( @*e n(! &r(&(rci(nar2a *na 7i!in del 7erdader( carFc/er 8 de la /endencia general de la 7ida c*l/*ral A*mana; Me c(n/en/ar c(n de!/acar *na! &(ca! e/a&a! /2&ica!; En la 7ida &rimi/i7a 8 3aB( la! c(ndici(ne! de la !(ciedad &rimi/i7a" a&ena! !i enc(n/ram(! A*ella! de la idea de *n e!&aci( a3!/rac/(; El e!&aci( &rimi/i7( e! *n e!&aci( de accinM 8 la accin !e Aalla cen/rada en /(rn( a in/ere!e! 8 nece!idade! &rFc/ica! inmedia/a!; En la medida en @*e &(dem(! Aa3lar de *na c(nce&cin &rimi/i7a del e!&aci(" n( &(!ee *n carFc/er &*ramen/e /eric(" !e Aalla meDclada c(n !en/imien/(! &er!(nale! ( !(ciale! c(ncre/(!" c(n elemen/(! em(/i7(!; En la medida en @*e el A(m3re &rimi/i7( eBec*/a ac/i7idade! / cnica! en el e!&aci( He!cri3e :einD KernerH" en @*e mide di!/ancia!" dirige !* can(a" lanDa !* ClecAa a *n 3lanc( de/erminad(" 8 a!2 !*ce!i7amen/e" !* e!&aci(" en calidad de cam&( de accin" de e!&aci( &ragmF/ic(" n( de3e diCerir en !* e!/r*c/*ra del n*e!/r(; Per( c*and( el A(m3re &rimi/i7( c(n7ier/e e!/e e!&aci( en ma/eria de re&re!en/acin 8 de &en!amien/( reCle>i7(" !*rge *na idea e!&ec2Cicamen/e &rim(rdial @*e diCiere radicalmen/e de c*al@*ier 7er!in in/elec/*aliDada; La idea del e!&aci( del A(m3re &rimi/i7(" a*n c*and( e!/ !i!/ema/iDada" !e Aalla 7inc*O lada !incr /icamen/e c(n el !*Be/(; E! *na n(cin m*cA( mF! eCec/i7a 8 c(ncre/a @*e el e!&aci( a3!/rac/( del A(m3re de c*l/*ra a7anDada;;; N( e! /an (3Be/i7(" men!*ra3le 8 de carFc/er a3!/rac/(; OCrece carac/er2!/ica! eg(c n/rica! ( an/r(&(mrCica!" 8 e! dinFmic(OCi!i(gnmic(" arraigad( en l( c(ncre/( 8 !*!/ancial; 06omparati-e 5sychoClogy of Mental 1e-elopment/ N*e7a 6(r{" :ar&er Lr(!;" #$%N" &; #-5; En e!&a'(l" 5sicologa e-oluti-a.? Para el &*n/( de 7i!/a de la men/alidad 8 de la c*l/*ra &rimi/i7a! !e (Crece
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_ a!e la (3ra 5rincipia/ de Ne9/(n" Li3; I" deCinicin 1" e!c(li(;

c(m( *na /area ca!i im&(!i3le la de dar e!e &a!( deci!i7(" Enic( @*e n(! &*ede c(nd*cir del Ge!&aci( de la accinG a *n c(nce&/( /eric( ( cien/2Cic( del e!&aci(" el e!&aci( de la ge(me/r2a" en el c*al Aan !id( !*&rimida! /(da! la! diCerencia! c(ncre/a! de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia !en!i3le inmedia/a; 6a n( &(!eem(! *n e!&aci( 7i!*al" /Fc/il" acE!/ic( * (lCa /i7(; El e!&aci( ge(m /ric( Aace a3!/raccin de /(da la 7ariedad 8 Ae/er(geneidad @*e n(! e! im&*e!/a &(r la na/*raleDa di!&areBa de n*e!/r(! !en/id(!M n(! enc(n/ram(! c(n *n e!&aci( A(m(g ne(" *ni7er!al" 8 !l( &(r medi( de e!/a n*e7a C(rma carac/er2!/ica del e!&aci( &*d( llegar el A(m3re al c(nce&/( de *n (rden csmico Enic(" !i!/emF/ic(; Una idea !emeBan/e" de la *nidad 8 legalidad del *ni7er!(" n*nca &*d( Aa3er !id( alcanDada !in la de *n e!&aci( *niC(rme; Per( /ran!c*rri m*cA( /iem&( an/e! de @*e !e &*diera dar e!/e &a!(; El &en!amien/( &rimi/i7( n( !l( e! inca&aD de &en!ar en *n !i!/ema e!&acial !in( @*e ni !i@*iera &*ede c(nce3ir *n es;uema del e!&aci(M !* e!&aci( c(ncre/( n( &*ede !er m(ldead( en *na C(rma e!@*emF/ica; La e/n(l(g2a n(! m*e!/ra @*e la! /ri3*! &rimi/i7a! !e Aallan d(/ada!" &(r l( general" de *na &erce&cin e>/ra(rdinariamen/e ag*da del e!&aci(; Un ind2gena de e!/a! /ri3*! ca&/a l(! mF! nimi(! de/alle! de !* c(n/(rO n(" e! e>/remadamen/e !en!i3le a c*al@*ier cam3i( de la &(!icin de l(! (3Be/(! c(m*ne! en /(rn( !*8(" !erF ca&aD de !alir adelan/e en circ*n!/ancia! 7erdaderamen/e diC2cile!; C*and( na7ega &(r el r2(" !ig*e c(n la ma8(r e>ac/i/*d /(d(! l(! gir(! de la c(rrien/e &(r la @*e l !*3e 8 3aBa" &er( e>aminada la c(!a mF! de cerca" de!c*3rim(! c(n !(r&re!a @*e" a &e!ar de e!/a Cacilidad" !e ac*!a *na e>/ra'a lag*na en !* a&reAen!in del e!&aci(; Si le &ed2! @*e (! &r(&(rci(ne *na de!cri&cin general" *na delineacin del c*r!( del r2(" n( !erF ca &aD de Aacerl(M !i le &ed2! @*e /race *n ma&a del r2( 8 de !*! di7er!(! meandr(!" n( &arece en/ender 7*e!/ra demanda; Ca&/am(! en e!/(" de manera 3ien clara" la diCerencia @*e e>i!/e en/re la a&reAen!in c(ncre/a 8 la a3!/rac/a del e!&aci( 8 de la! relaci(ne! e!&aciale!; El ind2gena !e Aalla &erCec/amen/e CamiliariDad( c(n el c*r!( del r2(" &er( e!/a Camiliaridad e!/F m*8 leB(! de !er l( @*e &*di ram(! llamar c(n(cimien/( en *n !en/id( a3!/rac/(" /eric(M n( !igniCica mF! @*e &re!en/acin" mien/ra! @*e el c(n(cimien/( incl*8e 8 &re!*&(ne la re&re!en/acin; La re&re!en/acin de *n (3Be/( e! *n ac/( m*8 diCeren/e de la mani&*lacin del mi!m(; E!/a El/ima n( e>ige mF! @*e *na !erie deCinida de acci(ne!" de m(7imien/(! c(r&(rale! c((rdinad(! en/re !2 ( @*e !e !ig*en *n(! a (/r(!; E! *na c*e!/in de AF3i/(" ad@*irid( median/e la eBec*cin in7aria3lemenO /e re&e/ida de cier/(! ac/(!" &er( la re&re!en/acin del e!&aci( 8 de la! relaci(ne! e!&aciale! !igniCica m*cA( mF!; Para re&re!en/ar *na c(!a n( 3a!/a !er ca&aD de maneBarla de la manera adec*ada 8 &ara *!(! &rFc/ic(!; De3em(! &(!eer *n c(nce&cin general del (3Be/( 8 mirarl( de!de Fng*l(! diCeren/e! a l(! Cine! de enc(n/rar !*! relaci(ne! c(n (/r(! (3Be/(! 8 l(caliDarl( 8 de/erminar !* &(!icin en *n !i!/ema general; E!/a gran generaliDacin @*e c(nd*ce a la c(nce&cin de *n (rden c!mic( &arece @*e !e lle7 a ca3( &(r &rimera 7eD en la Ai!/(ria de la c*l/*ra c(n la a!O /r(n(m2a 3a3ilnica; En ella enc(n/ram(! la &rimera &r*e3a deCini/i7a de *n

&en!amien/( @*e /ra!ciende la e!Cera de la 7ida &rFc/ica c(ncre/a del A(m3re" @*e /ra/a de a3arcar el *ni7er!( en/er( en *na 7i!in c(m&reAen!i7a; P(r e!/a raDn" la c*l/*ra 3a3ilnica Aa !id( c(n!iderada c(m( el c(mienD( de /(da 7ida c*l/*ralM de aA2 @*e m*cA(! !a3i(! Aa8an !(!/enid( @*e /(da! la! c(nce&ci(ne! mi/(lgica!" religi(!a! 8 cien/2Cica! del g ner( A*man( &r(7ienen de e!/a C*en/e; N( &re/end( di!c*/ir a@*2 e!/a! /e(r2a! &an3a3ilnica!" %?&(r@*e me in/ere!a de!/acar (/ra c*e!/in; ` E! &(!i3le ad*cir alg*na raDn @*e n(! e>&li@*e el AecA( de @*e l(! 3a3il(ni(! C*eran n( !l( l(! &rimer(! en (3!er7ar l(! Cenmen(! cele!/e!" !in( /am3i n en c(l(car l(! C*ndamen/(! de *na a!/r(n(m2a 8 de *na c(!m(l(g2a cien/2Cicaa N*nca !e Aa ign(rad( la im&(r/ancia de l(! Cenmen(! cele!/e! de *n m(d( c(m&le/(; M*8 &r(n/( Aa /enid( @*e caer el A(m3re en la c*en/a del AecA( de @*e /(da !* 7ida de&end2a de cier/a! c(ndici(ne! c!mica! generale!; La !alida 8 la &*e!/a del !(l" de la l*na" de la! e!/rella!" el cicl( de la! e!/aci(ne!" /(d(! e!/(! Cenmen(! na/*rale! !(n AecA(! 3ien c(n(cid(! @*e de!em&e'an *n &a&el im&(r/an/e en la mi/(l(g2a &rimi/i7a; Para c(l(carl(! en *n !i!/ema de &en!amien/( era mene!/er (/ra c(ndicin @*e !l( &(d2a !er realiDada en circ*n!/ancia! e!&eciale!; E!/a! circ*n!/ancia! Ca7(ra3le! !e dier(n en l(! (r2gene! de la c*l/*ra 3a3ilnica; O//( Ne*ge3a*er Aa e!cri/( *n e!/*di( m*8 in/ere!an/e de la Ai!/(ria de la ma/emF/ica an/ig*a en el @*e rec/iCica alg*na! de la! (&ini(ne! @*e d(minan en e!/a ma/eria; Se !(l2a creer @*e n( era &(!i3le en O c(n/rar &r*e3a! de la e>i!/encia de *na ma/emF/ica cien/2Cica an/eri(r a la &(ca de l(! grieg(!M !e !*&(n2a @*e l(! 3a3il(ni(! 8 l(! egi&ci(! Aa32an realiDad( granO de! &r(gre!(! &rFc/ic(! 8 / cnic(! &er( n( Aa32an de!c*3ier/(" !in em3arg(" l(! elemen/(! &rimer(! de *na ma/emF/ica /erica; SegEn Ne*ge3a*er" el anFli!i! cr2O /ic( de la! C*en/e! a n*e!/ra di!&(!icin c(nd*ce a *na in/er&re/acin diCeren/e 8 re!*l/a clar( @*e el &r(gre!( realiDad( en la a!/r(n(m2a 3a3ilnica n( c(n!/i/*8e *n Cenmen( ai!lad(; De&ende de *n AecA( mF! C*ndamen/al" del de!c*3rimien/( 8 del *!( de *n n*e7( in!/r*men/( in/elec/*al; L(! 3a3il(ni(! de!c*3rier(n *n 7lge!ra sim!lica @*e c(m&arada c(n l(! de!arr(ll(! *l/eri(re! del &en!amien/( ma/emF/ic( re!*l/a3a en 7erdad m*8 !im&le 8 elemen/al; Sin em3arg(" al3erga3a *na c(nce&cin n*e7a 8 e>/ra(rdinariamen/e Cec*nda; Ne*ge3a*er c(l(ca !*! (r2gene! en l(! c(mienD(! mi!m(! de la c*l/*ra 3a3ilnica; Para en/ender la C(rma carac/er2!/ica del Flge3ra 3a3ilnica n(! ac(n!eBa @*e /engam(! en c*en/a el /ra!C(nd( Ai!/ric( de la ci7iliDacin 3a3ilnica" de!en7*el/a en c(ndici(ne! e!&eciale!; F*e el &r(d*c/( de *na c(nCl*encia 8 c(li!in de d(! raDa! diCeren/e!" l(! !Emen(! 8 l(! acadi(!M raDa! de (rigen di7er!( @*e Aa3lan leng*aBe! !in ning*na relacin en/re !2; El leng*aBe de l(! acadi(! c(rre!&(nde al /i&( !emi/aM el de l(! !*meri(! &er/enece a *n gr*&( @*e n( e! !emi/a ni ind(e*r(&e(; C*and( e!/(! d(! &*e3l(! !e B*n/ar(n 8 llegar(n a &ar/ici&ar en *na 7ida &(l2/ica !(cial 8 c*l/*ral c(mEn" /*7ier(n @*e reO !(l7er &r(3lema! n*e7(! 8 &ara !* !(l*cin !e 7ier(n en la nece!idad de
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Para e!/a /e(r2a 7 an!e l(! e!cri/(! de :*g( Kinc{ler" e!&ecialmen/e Himmels!ild und Welten!ild der (a!ylanier als Grundlage der Weltanschauung und Mythologie aller 2Jl3er +Lei&Dig" #$N#, 8 1ie !a!ylonische Geistes3ultur in ihren (eDiehungen Dur <ulturentBic3lung der Menschheit +Lei&Dig" #$N#,;

de!arr(llar n*e7(! rec*r!(! in/elec/*ale!; El leng*aBe *!*al de l(! !*meri(! n( &(d2a !er en/endid( ni !*! /e>/(! e!cri/(! &(d2an !er de!ciCrad(! &(r l(! acadi(! !in *na gran diCic*l/ad 8 a c(!/a de grande! e!C*erD(! men/ale!; Gracia! a e!/e e!C*erD(" l(! 3a3il(ni(! C*er(n l(! &rimer(! en llegar a c(m&render el !en/id( 8 el *!( de *n !im3(li!m( a3!/rac/(; T(da (&eracin alge3raica Hdice Ne*ge3a*erH &re!*&(ne @*e *n( !e Aalle en &(!e!in de cier/(! !2m3(l(! CiB(!" /an/( &ara la! (&eraci(ne! ma/emF /ica! c*an/( &ara la! can/idade! a la! c*ale! !e a&lican; A Cal/a de e!/e !im3(li!m( c(nce&/*al" n( !er2a &(!i3le c(m3inar can/idade! @*e n( e!/Fn n*m ricamen/e de/erminada! 8 de!ignada!" ni /am&(c( deri7ar n*e7a! c(m3inaci(ne! de ella!; Per( *n !im3(li!m( !emeBan/e !e &re!en/ &(r !2 mi!m( de *n m(d( inmedia/( 8 nece!ari( en la e!cri/*ra de l(! /e>/(! acadi(!;;; P(r l( /an/(" de!de *n &rinci&i( l(! 3a3il(ni(! di!&*!ier(n de *n in!/r*men/( mF! im&(r/an/e &ara *n de!arr(ll( alge3raic(" de *n !im3(li!m( a&r(&iad( 8 adec*ad(; +G_(rgriecAi!cAe Ma/Aema/i{G" en 2orlesungen K!er die Geschichte der anti3en mathematischen Wissenschaften/ Lerl2n" I; S&ringer" #$.%" I" &&; -1 !!;,; Cier/( @*e en la a!/r(n(m2a 3a3ilnica !l( enc(n/ram(! la! &rimera! Ca!e! de e!e gran &r(ce!( @*e c(nd*ce Cinalmen/e a la c(n@*i!/a in/elec/*al del e!&aci( 8 al de!c*3rimien/( de *n (rden c!mic(" de *n !i!/e ma del *ni7er!(; El &en!amien/( ma/emF/ic( en c*an/( /al n( &(d2a c(nd*cir a *na !(l*cin inmedia/a del &r(3lema &(r@*e en los al3(re! de la ci7iliDacin BamF! a&arece a@* l" c(n !* 7erdadera C(rma lgicaM !e enc*en/ra" c(m( !i diB ram(!" !*mergid( en la a/m!Cera del &en!amien/( m2/ic(; L(! &rimer(! de!c*3rid(re! de *na ma/emF/ica cien/2Cica n( &*dier(n de!garrar e!/e 7el(; L(! &i/agric(! Aa3lan de l(! nEmer(! c(m( de *n &(der mFgic( 8 mi!/eri(!(" 8 /am3i n en !* /e( r2a del e!&aci( em&lean *n leng*aBe mi/(lgic(M e!/a in/er&ene/racin de elemen/(! &a/en/emen/e Ae/er(g ne(! re!*l/a e!&ecialmen/e clara en /(d(! l(! !i!/ema! &rimi/i7(! de c(!m(l(g2a; La a!/r(n(m2a 3a3ilnica" en !* c(nB*n/(" !ig*e !iend( *na in/er&re/acin m2/ica del *ni7er!(" n( e!/a3a 8a re!/ringida a la e!Cera ang(!/a del e!&aci( c(ncre/(" c(r&re(" &rimi/i7(M el e!&aci(" &(r decirl( a!2" Aa !id( /ran!&(r/ad( de la /ierra al ciel(" &er(" al a/ender al (rden de l(! Cenmen(! cele!/e!" el A(m3re n( &(d2a (l7idar !*! nece!idade! /erre!/re!; Si dirigi &rimeramen/e !* mirada a l(! ciel(! n( C*e &ara !a/i!Cacer *na mera c*ri(!idad in/elec/*al" l( @*e realmen/e 3*!ca3a en el ciel( era !* &r(&i( reCleB( 8 el (rden de !* *ni7er!( A*man(; Sen/2a @*e e!/e m*nd( !e Aalla3a 7inc*lad( c(n inn*mera3le! laD(! 7i!i3le! e in7i!i3le! al (rden general del *ni7er!( 8 /ra/ de &ene/rar en e!/a c(ne>in mi!/eri(!a; P(r l( /an/(" l(! Cenmen(! cele!/e! n( &*dier(n !er e!/*diad(! c(n *n e!&2ri/* de!em3araDad( de medi/acin a3!/rac/a" de ciencia &*raM eran c(n!iderad(! c(m( d*e'(! 8 regen/e! del m*nd( 8 c(m( g(3ernan/e! de la 7ida A*mana; Parec2a nece!ari( 7(l7er la 7i!/a al ciel( al eCec/( de (rganiDar la 7ida &(l2/ica" !(cial 8 m(ral del A(m3re; NingEn Cenmen( A*man( !e e>&lica3a a !2 mi!m( 8 era mene!/er reCerirl( al Cenmen( cele!/e c(rre!&(ndien/e del @*e de&end2a; E!/a! c(n!ideraci(ne! n(! Aacen 7er c(n claridad cm( 8 &(r @* el e!&aci( de l(! &rimer(! !i!/ema! a!/r(nmic(! n(

&*d( !er meramen/e /eric(" ni c(n!i!/ir en &*n/(! ( l2nea! ( !*&erCicie!" en el !en/id( ge(m /ric( a3!/rac/( de e!/(! / rmin(!; Se Aalla3a im&regnad( de &(dere! mFgic(!" di7in(! 8 dem(n2ac(!; El &rimer( 8 e!encial &r(&!i/( de la a!/r(n(m2a c(n!i!/i en (3/ener *na l*D acerca de la na/*raleDa 8 ac/i7idad de e!/(! &(dere! al eCec/( de &re7er !*! inCl*encia! &eligr(!a! 8 el*dirla!; La a!/r(n(m2a n( &*d( !*rgir !in( en e!/a C(rma m2/ica 8 mFgica" en C(rma de astrologa. C(n!er7 e!/e carFc/er d*ran/e mile! de a'(! 8" en cier/( !en/id(" &reO 7alec2a /(da72a en l(! &rimer(! !igl(! de n*e!/ra &r(&ia &(ca" en la c*l/*ra del Renacimien/(; ^e&ler" el 7erdader( C*ndad(r de n*e!/ra a!/r(n(m2a cien/2Cica" /*7( @*e de3a/ir!e d*ran/e /(da !* 7ida c(n e!/e &r(3lema; Per( e!/e El/im( &a!( /iene @*e !er realiDad(; La a!/r(n(m2a !*cede a la a!/r(l(g2a 8 el e!&aci( ge(m /ric( (c*&a el l*gar del e!&aci( m2/ic( 8 mFgic(; La C(rma Cal!a 8 errnea del &en!amien/( !im3lic( &re&ar la 72a &ara *n n*e7( !im3(li!m( 7erdader(" el de la ciencia m(derna; Una de la! /area! &rimera! 8 mF! diC2cile! de la Cil(!(C2a m(derna c(n!i!/i en c(m&render e!/e !im3(li!m( en !* 7erdader( !en/id( 8 en !* &lena !igniCicacin; Si e!/*diam(! la e7(l*cin del &en!amien/( car/e!ian( 7erem(! @*e De!car/e! n( c(menD c(n !* cogito ergo sum/ !in( c(n !* c(nce&/( ( ideal de *na mathesis uni-ersalis/ C*ndad( en *n gran de!c*3rimien/( ma/emF/ic(" la ge(me/r2a anal2/ica; C(n ella" el &en!amien/( !im3lic( realiD (/r( &a!( @*e Aa32a de /ener la! c(n!ec*encia! !i!/emF/ica! mF! im&(r/an/e!; Se 7i( clar( @*e /(d( n*e!/r( c(n(cimien/( del e!&aci( 8 de la! relaci(ne! e!&aciale! !e &(d2a /rad*cir en (/r( leng*aBe" el de l(! nEmer(!" 8 @*e" gracia! a e!/a /rad*ccin 8 /ran!C(rmacin" !e &(d2a c(nce3ir en C(rma m*cA( mF! clara 8 adec*ada el 7erdader( carFc/er lgic( del &en!amien/( ge(m /ric(; Enc(n/ram(! el mi!m( &r(gre!( carac/er2!/ic( !i &a!am(! del &r(3lema del e!&aci( al pro!lema del tiempo. E! cier/( @*e n( !l( e>i!/en e!/recAa! anal(g2a! !in( /am3i n diCerencia! carac/er2!/ica! en el de!arr(ll( de am3(! c(nce&/(!; SegEn ^an/" el e!&aci( e! la C(rma de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia e>/erna 8 el /iem&( la de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia in/ernaM en la in/er&re/acin de !* e>&eriencia in/erna el A(m3re /iene @*e a3(rdar n*e7(! &r(3lema!" n( &*ede em&lear l(! mi!m(! m /(d(! @*e */iliD en !* &rimer in/en/( &ara (rganiDar 8 !i!/ema/iDar !* c(n(cimien/( del m*nd( C2!ic(; Sin em3arg(" e>i!/e *n /ra!C(nd( c(mEn &ara am3a! c*e!/i(ne!; El /iem&( e! &en!ad(" en *n &rinci&i(" n( c(m( *na C(rma e!&ec2Cica de la 7ida A*mana !in( c(m( *na c(ndicin general de la 7ida (rgFnica e>i!/en/e en la medida en @*e !e de!en7*el7e en el /iem&(; N( e! *na c(!a !in( *n &r(ce!(" *na c(rrien/e c(n/in*a de acaecere! !in /reg*a" en la @*e nada 7*el7e c(n id n/ica C(rma; La aCirmacin de :erFcli/( !e a&lica m*8 3ien a /(da la 7ida (rgFnica4 Gn( e! &(!i3le 3a'ar!e d(! 7ece! en el mi!m( r2(G; Al /ra/ar c(n el &r(3lema de la 7ida (rgFnica" /enem(! @*e li3erarn(! &rimer( 8 !(3re /(d( de l( @*e KAi/eAead Aa llamad( el &reB*ici( de la Gl(caliDacin !im&leG" &*e! el (rgani!m( BamF! e!/F l(caliDad( en *n in!/an/e !ing*lar; En !* 7ida" l(! /re! m(d(! del /iem&(" el &a!ad(" el &re!en/e 8 el C*/*r(" C(rman *n /(d( @*e n( &*ede !er di!gregad( en elemen/(! indi7id*ale!; &e prsent est charg du pass/ et gros de

l+a-enir/ dec2a Lei3niD; N( e! &(!i3le de!cri3ir el e!/ad( m(men/Fne( de *n (rgani!m( !in /(mar en c(n!ideracin !* Ai!/(ria 8 !in reCerirla a *n e!/ad( C*/*r( c(n re!&ec/( al c*al el &re!en/e e! meramen/e *n &*n/( de &a!ada; Un( de l(! Ci!il(g(! mF! de!/acad(! de la cen/*ria an/eri(r" E9ald :ering" deCendi la /e(r2a de @*e la memoria /iene @*e !er c(n!iderada c(m( *na C*ncin general de /(da ma/eria (rgFnicaM %. n( e! !l( *n Cenmen( de n*e!/ra 7ida c(n!cien/e !in( @*e !e e>/iende a /(d( el d(mini( de la na/*raleDa 7i7a; E!/a /e(r2a C*e ace&/ada 8 de!arr(llada &(r R; Sem(n" @*ien de!en7(l7i !(3re e!/a 3a!e *n n*e7( e!@*ema general de &!ic(l(g2a; SegEn Sem(n" la Enica manera de ela3(rar *na &!ic(l(g2a cien/2Cica e! median/e *na !iologa mnmica. La GmnemeG C*e deCinida &(r Sem(n c(m( el &rinci&i( de c(n!er7acin en la m*/a3ilidad de /(d( acaecer (rgFnic(M la mem(ria 8 la Aerencia c(n!/i/*8en d(! a!&ec/(! de la mi!ma C*ncin (rgFnica; T(d( e!/2m*l( @*e ac/Ea en *n (rgani!m( deBa en l *na A*ella" *n ra!/r( Ci!i(lgic( deCinid(M 8 la! C*/*ra! acci( ne! del (rgani!m( de&enden de la cadena de e!/a! A*ella!" del c(m&leB( de A*ella! en c(ne>in; %% A*n ace&/and( la /e!i! general de :ering 8 de Sem(n n(! Aallam(! /(da72a m*8 leB(! de Aa3er e>&licad( el &a&el 8 la im&(r/ancia @*e a la mem(ria inc*m3e en n*e!/r( m*nd( A*man(M el c(nce&/( an/r(&(lgic( de mneme o mem(ria e! alg( 3ien diCeren/e; Si en/endem(! &(r mem(ria *na C*ncin general de /(da ma/eria (rgFnica" @*erem(! decir Enicamen/e @*e el (rgani!m( c(n!er7a alg*na! A*ella! de !*! an/eri(re! e>&eriencia! 8 @*e e!/a! A*ella! /ienen *na inCl*encia deCinida en !*! reacci(ne! *l/eri(re!; Para @*e &*eda Aa3er mem(ria en el !en/id( A*man( de la &ala3ra n( 3a!/a c(n @*e @*ede *n re!id*( la/en/e de la accin an/eri(r de *n e!/2m*l(" %) la mera &re!encia" la !*ma /(/al de e!/(! re!id*(! n( &*ede e>&licar el Cenmen( de la mem(ria; S*&(ne *n &r(ce!( de rec(n(cimien/( e iden/iCicacin" *n &r(ce!( ideaci(nal de *n g ner( m*8 c(m&leB(; Tienen @*e re&e/ir!e la! im&re!i(ne! an/eri(re!" 8 ademF!" de3en !er (rdenada! 8 l(caliDada! 8 reCerida! a &*n/(! diCeren/e! en el /iem&(; N( e! &(!i3le !emeBan/e l(caliDacin !i n( !e c(nci3e el /iem&( c(m( *n e!@*ema general" c(m( *n (rden !erial @*e a3arca /(d(! l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! !ing*lare!; El &erca/amien/( del mi!m( im&lica nece!ariamen/e el c(nce&/( de *n (rden !erial @*e c(rre!&(nde a e!e (/r( e!@*ema @*e den(minam(! e!&aci(; La mem(ria" c(m( !im&le re&r(d*ccin de !*ce!(! &a!ad(!" !e &re!en/a /am3i n en la 7ida de l(! animale! !*&eri(re!; E! *n &r(3lema diC2cil 8 m*8 c(n/r(7er/id( !a3er en @* grad( de&ende de &r(ce!(! ideaci(nale! c(m&ara3le! a l(! @*e !e dan en el A(m3re; R(3er/ M; 6er{e! dedica en !* El/im( li3r( un ca&2/*l( e!&ecial a la in7e!/igacin 8 e!clarecimien/( del &r(3lema; `E! @*e e!/(! animale! H&reg*n/a reCiri nd(!e a l(! cAim&anc !H (3ran c(m(
% %
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_ a!e E9ald :ering" H!er das GedLchtnis als eine allgemeine un3tion der organischen Materie +#15N,; %% Para de/alle! 7 an!e la! (3ra! Mneme +#$N$, 8 1ie nineM mischen Empfindungen +#$N$," de Sem(n; Una 7er!in a3re7iada de e!/(! li3r(!" edi/ada &(r Lella D*CC8" C*e &*3licada 3aB( el /2/*l(4 Mnemic 5sychology +N*e7a 6(r{" #$?.,; %) 1er latente )est einer frKheren )eiDBir3ung +Sem(n,;

!i C*eran ca&ace! de ac(rdar!e" de rec(rdar" de rec(n(cer e>&eriencia! an/eri(re! ( carecen de e!a 7i!ina `P*eden an/ici&ar" e!&erar" imaginar 8 &re&arar!e &ara acaecere! C*/*r(! !(3re la 3a!e de e!/e c(n(cimien/(a;;; `P*eden re!(l7er &r(3lema! 8 ada&/ar!e de *n m(d( general a la! !i/*aci(ne! del am3ien/e c(n la a8*da de &r(ce!(! !im3lic(! anFl(g(! a n*e!/r(! !2m3(l(! 7er3ale!" l( mi!m( @*e !ir7i nd(!e de a!(ciaci(ne! @*e C*nci(nan c(m( !ign(!a 06himpanDees/ &; #%);, 6er{e! !e inclina a c(n/e!/ar /(da! e!/a! c*e!/i(ne! en !en/id( aCirma/i7(; A*n@*e ace&/em(! /(da! !*! &r*e3a! la c*e!/in cr*cial &er!i!/e" &(r@*e l( @*e im&(r/a en e!/e ca!( n( e! el hecho de la e>i!/encia de &r(ce!(! ideaci(nale! en el A(m3re 8 en el animal !in( la forma de e!/(! &r(ce!(!; El rec*erd( en el A(m3re n( !e &*ede de!cri3ir c(m( *n !im&le re/(rn( de *n !*ce!( an/eri(r" c(m( *na imagen &Flida ( c(&ia de im&re!i(ne! Aa3ida!M n( e! /an/( *na re&e/icin c*an/( *na re!*rreccin del &a!ad( e im&lica *n &r(ce!( cread(r 8 c(n!/r*c/i7(; N( 3a!/a c(n mem(rar da/(! de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia &a!ada !in( @*e /enem(! @*e rec(rdarl(!" (rganiDarl(!" !in/e/iDarl(!" B*n/arl(! en *n C(c( de &en!amien/( 8 /al g ner( de rec(rdacin n(! !e'ala la C(rma carac/er2!/icamen/e A*mana de la mem(ria 8 la di!/ing*e de /(d(! l(! demF! Cenmen(! de la 7ida animal * (rgFnica; E! cier/( @*e en n*e!/ra e>&eriencia c(mEn enc(n/ram(! m*cAa! C(rma! @*e n( c(rre!&(nden a e!/a de!cri&cin; M*cA(!" aca!( l(! mF!" de l(! ca!(! de mem(ria !e &*eden e>&licar adec*adamen/e !egEn la! /e(r2a! maneBada! &(r el !en!*ali!m(" e! decir" &(r *n !im&le mecani!m( de a!(ciacin de idea!; Alg*n(! &!icl(g(! e!/Fn c(n7encid(! de @*e n( Aa8 meB(r manera &ara &r(3ar la mem(ria de *na &er!(na @*e la de a7erig*ar c*Fn/a! &ala3ra! ( !2la3a! !in !en/id( &*ede c(n!er7ar 8 re&e/ir de!&* ! de cier/( la&!( 8 c(n!ideran l(! e>&erimen/(! lle7ad(! a ca3( c(n e!/e !*&*e!/( c(m( l(! Enic(! en &r(&(rci(nar la medida e>ac/a de la mem(ria A*mana; Una de la! c(n/ri3*ci(ne! de Lerg!(n a la &!ic(l(g2a c(n!i!/e en !*! a/a@*e! a /(da! e!/a! /e(r2a! mecFnica!; SegEn l" la mem(ria" c(m( l( e>&lica en !* li3r( Materia y memoria/ re&re!en/a *n Cenmen( m*cA( mF! &r(C*nd( 8 c(m&leB(; SigniCica Gin/eri(riDacinG e in/en!iCicacinM !igniCica la in/er&ene/racin de /(d(! l(! elemen/(! de n*e!/ra 7ida &a!ada; En la (3ra de Lerg!(n e!/a /e(r2a !e c(n7ir/i en *n n*e7( &*n/( de &ar/ida me/aC2!ic( @*e c(n!/i/*8 la &iedra ang*lar de !* Cil(!(C2a de la 7ida; N( n(! in/ere!a aA(ra el a!&ec/( me/aC2!ic( del &r(3lema" n*e!/r( (3Be/i7( l( c(n!/i/*8e *na fenomenologa de la cultura. De3em(! /ra/ar" &(r c(n!ig*ien/e" de il*!/rar 8 aclarar el a!*n/( c(n eBem&l(! c(ncre/(! rec(gid(! de la 7ida c*l/*ral del A(m3re; Una il*!/racin clF!ica la enc(n/ram(! en la 7ida 8 la! (3ra! de G(e/Ae; La memoria sim!lica e! a@*el &r(ce!( en el c*al el A(m3re n( !l( re&i/e !* e>&eriencia &a!ada !in( @*e la rec(n!/r*8eM la imaginacin !e c(n7ier/e en *n eleO men/( nece!ari( del gen*in( rec(rdar; P(r e!/a raDn /i/*l G(e/Ae !* a*/(3i(graC2a 5oesa y -erdad. N( @*er2a dar a en/ender @*e Aa32a in!er/ad( en el rela/( de !* 7ida elemen/(! imaginari(! ( Cic/ici(!M /ra/a3a de de!c*3rir 8 de!cri3ir la 7erdad acerca de !* 7ida" &er( e!/a 7erdad !l( &(d2a !er enc(n/rada

&re!/and( a l(! AecA(! ai!lad(! 8 di!&er!(! de !* 7ida *na C(rma &( /ica" e! decir" !im3lica; Tam3i n (/r(! &(e/a! Aan c(n!iderad( !* (3ra en C(rma &arecida; Ser &(e/a" dice :enri{ I3!en" !igniCica &re!idir c(m( B*eD !(3re *n( mi!m(; La &(e!2a e! *na de la! C(rma! en @*e *n A(m3re &*ede &r(n*nciar el 7eredic/( !(3re !2 mi!m( 8 !* 7ida" e! a*/(gn(!i! 8 a*/(cr2/ica; Tal cri/ici!m( n( Aa de !er en/endid( en *n !en/id( m(ralM n( @*iere decir B*!/iCicacin ( c(ndenacin" a&r(3acin ( re&r(3acin !in( *na c(m&ren!in n*e7a 8 mF! &r(C*nda" *na rein/er&re/acin de la 7ida &er!(nal del &(e/a; El &r(ce!( n( !e Aalla limi/ad( a la &(e!2a" &*e! e! &(!i3le en c*al@*ier (/r( medi( de la e>&re!in ar/2!/ica; Si re&a!am(! l(! a*/(rre/ra/(! de Rem3rand/ &in/ad(! en diCeren/e! &(ca!" enc(n/ram(! en !*! ra!g(! /(da la Ai!/(ria de !* 7ida" de !* &er!(nalidad" de !* de!arr(ll( c(m( ar/i!/a; Sin em3arg(" la &(e!2a n( e! la Enica ni /am&(c( aca!( la mF! carac/er2!/ica C(rma de mem(ria !im3lica; El &rimer gran eBem&l( de l( @*e e! 8 !igniCica *na a*/(3i(graC2a n(! l( (Crecen la! 6onfesiones de San Ag*!/2nM a@*2 /r(&eDam(! c(n *n /i&( 3ien di!/in/( de e>amen &r(&i(; Ag*!/2n n( rela/a l(! !*ce!(! de !* 7ida @*e &ara l C*eran &(c( dign(! de rec(rdacinM el drama @*e n(! c(m*nica e! el drama religi(!( de la A*manidad; S* c(n7er!in n( e! !in( la re&e/icin 8 el reCleB( del &r(ce!( religi(!( *ni7er!al" de la ca2da 8 la redencin del A(m3re; Cada l2nea del li3r( de Ag*!/2n &(!ee ademF! de *n !en/id( meramen/e Ai!/ric( (/r( !im3lic( (c*l/(; N( &(d2a en/ender !* &r(&ia 7ida ( Aa3lar de ella mF! @*e c(n el leng*aBe !im3lic( de la Ce cri!/ianaM c(n e!/e &r(cedimien/( !e c(n7ir/i en *n gran &en!ad(r religi(!( 8 en el C*ndad(r de *na n*e7a &!ic(l(g2a" de *n n*e7( m /(d( de in/r(!&eccin 8 a*/(e>amen; :a!/a aA(ra n( Aem(! /enid( en c*en/a mF! @*e *n !(l( a!&ec/( del /iem&(" la relacin del &re!en/e c(n el &a!ad(" &er( e>i!/e (/r(" al &arecer mF! im&(r/an/e 8 Aa!/a mF! carac/er2!/ic( de la e!/r*c/*ra de la 7ida A*mana; Se /ra/a de l( @*e &*di ram(! llamar la /ercera dimen!in del /iem&(" la dimen!in del C*/*r(; En n*e!/ra c(nciencia del /iem&( c(n!/i/*8e el C*/*r( *n elemen/( indi!&en!a3le; En la! e/a&a! &rimera! de la 7ida em&ieDa a de!em&e'ar *n &a&el d(minan/e; GE! carac/er2!/ic( de /(d( el &rimer de!en7(l7imien/( de la 7ida de la! idea! H e!cri3e G*illerm( S/ernH @*e n( !e &re!en/a /an/( c(m( mem(ria @*e a&*n/a Aacia alg( en el &a!ad( !in( c(m( e>&ec/acin dirigida al C*/*r(" a*n@*e !e /ra/a de *n C*/*r( inmedia/(; Tr(&eDam(! &(r &rimera 7eD c(n *na le8 general del de!arr(ll(; La reCerencia al C*/*r( e! ca&/ada &(r la c(nciencia an/e! @*e !* reCerencia al &a!ad(;G 0'p. cit./ &&; ##? ss.?. En n*e!/ra 7ida *l/eri(r e!/a /endencia !e acen/Ea; _i7im(! mF!" m*cA( mF! en n*e!/ra! d*da! 8 /em(re!" en n*e!/ra! an!iedade! 8 e!&eranDa! &(r el C*/*r( @*e en n*e!/r(! rec*erd(! ( en n*e!/ra! e>&eriencia! &re!en/e!; A &rimera 7i!/a" !e &(dr2a c(n!iderar c(m( *na 7en/aBa A*mana 3a!/an/e d*d(!a" &*e! !e in/r(d*ce en la 7ida *n elemen/( de incer/id*m3re @*e e! aBen( a /(da! la! demF! cria/*ra!; Parece @*e el A(m3re !er2a mF! &r*den/e 8 CeliD !i &*diera &re!cindir de e!a idea Can/F!/ica" de e!/e e!&eBi!m( del C*/*r(; Fil!(C(!" &(e/a! 8 grande! religi(!(! Aan ad7er/id( c(n!/an/emen/e al A(m3re !(3re e!/a C*en/e de c(n!/an/e deCra*dacin; La

religin ac(n!eBa al A(m3re @*e n( /ema el d2a @*e Aa de 7enir 8 la !a3id*r2a A*mana le ad7ier/e de @*e g(ce del d2a @*e &a!a !in c*idar!e del C*/*r(; #uid sit futurum cras fuge ;uaerere/ dice :(raci(; Per( el A(m3re BamF! &*ede !eg*ir e!/e c(n!eB(; Pen!ar en el C*/*r( 8 7i7ir en l c(n!/i/*8e *na &ar/e nece!aria de !* na/*raleDa; En cier/( !en/id(" e!/a /endencia n( &arece e>ceder l(! l2mi/e! de la 7ida (rgFnica" carac/eriDa a /(d( &r(ce!( (rgFnic( el @*e n( &(dam(! de!cri3irle !in la reCerencia al C*/*r(; La ma8(r2a de l(! in!/in/(! animale! /ienen @*e !er in/er&re/ad(! de e!/e m(d(M la! acci(ne! in!/in/i7a! n( e!/Fn de!encadenada! &(r nece!idade! inmedia/a!" !(n im&*l!(! dirigid(! Aacia el C*/*r( 8" a men*d(" a *n C*/*r( rem(/(; L(! eCec/(! de e!/a! acci(ne! n( !erFn &erci3id(! &(r el animal @*e l(! lle7e a ca3(" 8a @*e c(rre!&(nden a la 7ida de la generacin !ig*ien/e; Si e>aminam(! *na (3ra c(m( el li3r( de I;O:; Fa3re" %ou-enirs entomologi;ues/ enc(n/ram(! ca!i a cada &Fgina eBem&l(! de!/acad(! de e!/a carac/er2!/ica de l(! in!/in/(! animale!; Nada de e!/( re@*iere ni &r*e3a @*e e>i!/a ning*na idea" ning*na c(nce&cin ( c(nciencia del C*/*r( en l(! animale! inCeri(re!; Si llegam(! a l(! animale! !* O &eri(re! el ca!( !e Aace d*d(!(; M*cA(! (3!er7ad(re! c(m&e/en/e! Aan Aa3lad( de &re7i!in en l(! animale! !*&eri(re! 8 &arece @*e !in e!/e !*&*e!/( n(! !eO rla diC2cil (Crecer *na de!cri&cin adec*ada de !* c(m&(r/amien/(; En l(! e>&erimen/(! de K(lCe *n animal ace&/a c(m( gra/iCicacin la !e'al en l*gar de la gra/iCicacin real 8 e!/( &arece im&licar *na an/ici&acin c(n!cien/e de AecA(! C*/*r(!M el animal e!&era @*e la !e'al &(drF !er cam3iada mF! /arde &(r alimen/(; El nEmer( de (3!er7aci(ne! He!cri3e K(lCgang ^(eAlerH en la! @*e !e &*ede !e'alar *n rec(n(cimien/( de *na c(n/ingencia C*/*ra e! &e@*e'(; 8 me &arece @*e /iene im&(r/ancia /erica el AecA( de @*e la c(n!ideracin mF! clara de *n ac(n/ecimien/( C*/*r( (c*rre c*and( el ac(n/ecimien/( an/ici&ad( e! *n ac/( &lanead( del animal mi!m(; En *n ca!( !emeBan/e &*ede (c*rrir @*e *n animal derr(cAe *n /iem&( c(n!idera3le en *na (3ra &re&ara/(ria +en *n !en/id( ine@*27(c(,;;; C*and( !emeBan/e /ra3aB( &reliminar" em&rendid( &a/en/emen/e /eniend( en c*en/a *na Cinalidad" d*ra *n larg( /iem&( &er( n( (Crece &(r !2 mi!m( *n acercamien/( 7i!i3le a /al Cinalidad" /enem(!" !in d*da" el !ign( de algEn !en/id( del C*/*r(; 0>he Mentatity of Apes/ &; ?1?;, S(3re la 3a!e de e!/a! &r*e3a! &arece ded*cir!e @*e la an/ici&acin de !*ce!(! C*/*r(! 8 Aa!/a el &laneamien/( de acci(ne! C*/*ra! n( !e Aallan &(r en/er( C*era de la! &(!i3ilidade! de la 7ida animal" &er( en el !er A*man( la c(nciencia del C*/*r( e>&erimen/a el mi!m( cam3i( carac/er2!/ic( del !en/id( @*e an(/am(! en l( @*e re!&ec/a a la 7ida del &a!ad(; El C*/*r( n( e! !l( *na imagen !in( @*e !e c(n7ier/e en *n GidealG; El !en/id( de e!/a /ran!C(rmacin !e &(ne de maniCie!/( en /(da! la! Ca!e! de la 7ida c*l/*ral; Mien/ra! el A(m3re &ermanece en/eramen/e a3!(r3id( &(r !*! ac/i7idade! &rFc/ica!" n( !e &*ede (3!er7ar c(n claridad la diCerencia @*e &arece !er Enicamen/e de grad( 8 n( e!&ec2Cica; E! 7erdad @*e el C*/*r( c(n!iderad( &(r el A(m3re !e e>/iende &(r *n Frea m*cA(

mF! 7a!/a 8 !* &laneamien/( e! m*cA( mF! c(n!cien/e 8 c*idad(!(M &er( /(d( e!/( &er/enece al rein( de la &r*dencia 8 n( al de la !a3id*r2a; El / rmin( G&r*denciaG !e Aalla /im( lgicamen/e relaci(nad( c(n el de G&r(7idenciaG4 Sig O niCica la ca&acidad de &re7er !*ce!(! C*/*r(! 8 de &re&arar!e &ara nece!idade! C*/*ra!; La idea /erica del C*/*r( He!a idea @*e e! *n re@*i!i/( &re7i( a /(da! la! ac/i7idade! c*l/*rale! !*&eri(re! del A(m3reH e! de /i&( m*8 diCeren/e; E! alg( mF! @*e la mera e>&ec/acinM re!*l/a *n im&era/i7( de la 7ida A*mana @*e alcanDa m*cA( mF! allF de la! nece!idade! &rFc/ica! e inmedia/a! del A(m3re 8 en !* C(rma mF! al/a !*&era l(! l2mi/e! de la 7ida em&2rica; E! el futuro sim!lico del A(m3re @*e c(rre!&(nde a !* &a!ad( !im3lic( 8 g*arda e!/ric/a anal(g2a c(n l; P(dem(! den(minarl( C*/*r( G&r(C /ic(G" &*e! en ningEn l*gar enc*en/ra meB(r e>&re!in @*e en la 7ida de l(! grande! &r(Ce/a! religi(!(!" @*iene! n*nca !e c(n/en/ar(n c(n c(m*nicar !im&lemen/e C*/*r(! !*ce!(! ( c(n ad7er/ir c(n/ra daO '(! &(!i3le!; Tam&(c( Aa3la3an c(m( a*g*re! ni ace&/a3an la e7idencia de l(! omina y l(! &re!agi(!M !* &r(&!i/( era (/r(" de AecA( (&*e!/( al de l(! adi7in(!; El C*/*r( del @*e Aa3la3an n( era *n AecA( em&2ric( !in( *na /area /ica 8 religi(!a; A!2" la &rediccin !e /ran!C(rm en &r(Cec2a; La &r(Cec2a n( !igniCica" !im&lemen/e" &rediccin !in( &r(me!a; b!/e e! el n*e7( ra!g( @*e a&arece c(n claridad &(r &rimera 7eD en l(! &r(Ce/a! de I!rael" I!a2a!" Ierem2a! 8 EDe@*iel; S* C*/*r( ideal !igniCica la negacin del m*nd( em&2ric(" el GCin de l(! /iem&(!GM &er( c(n/iene" al mi!m( /iem&(" la e!&eranDa 8 la !eg*ridad de *n n*e7( ciel( 8 de *na n*e7a /ierra; Tam3i n en e!/e ca!( el &(der !im3lic( del A(m3re !e a/re7e mF! allF de l(! l2mi/e! de !* e>i!/encia Cini/a; Per( e!/a negacin im&lica *n ac/( n*e7( 8 grande de in/egracinM !e'ala *na Ca!e deci!i7a en la 7ida /ica 8 religi(!a del A(m3re;

_; :EC:OS E IDEALES !* 6rtica del =uicio &lan/ea ^an/ la c*e!/in de !i e! &(!i3le de!c*3rir *n cri/eri( general c(n el c*al &(dam(! de!cri3ir la e!/r*c/*ra C*ndamen/al del in/elec/( A*man( 8 di!/ing*ir e!/a e!/r*c/*ra de /(d(! l(! demF! m(d(! &(!i3le! de c(n(cimien/(; De!&* ! de *n anFli!i! &ene/ran/e llega a la c(ncl*!in de @*e /al cri/eri( Aa8 @*e 3*!carl( en el carFc/er del c(n(cimien /( A*man(" @*e e! de /al 2nd(le @*e el en/endimien/( !e Aalla en la nece!idad de Aacer *na di!/incin ne/a en/re la realidad 8 la &(!i3ilidad de la! c(!a!; E!/e ca O rFc/er del c(n(cimien/( A*man( e! el @*e de/ermina el l*gar del A(m3re en la cadena general del !er; Ni &ara l(! !ere! &(r de3aB( del A(m3re ni &ara l(! @*e !e Aallan &(r encima de l e>i!/e la diCerencia en/re Gl( realG 8 Gl( &(!i3leG; L(! !ere! &(r de3aB( del A(m3re !e Aallan c(nCinad(! den/r( del m*nd( de !* &erce&cin !en!i3le" !(n !*!ce&/i3le! a l(! e!/2m*l(! C2!ic(! &re!en/e! 8 reacci(nan a e!/(! e!/2m*l(!" &er( n( &*eden C(rmar la idea de c(!a! G&(!i3le!G; P(r (/ra &ar/e" el in/elec/( !(3reA*man(" la men/e di7ina n( c(n(ce di!/incin en/re
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realidad 8 &(!i3ilidad; Di(! e! actus purus. T(d( l( @*e c(nci3e e! real; La in/eligencia de Di(! e! *n intellectus archetypus ( intuittis originarius. N( &*ede &en!ar *na c(!a !in crear 8 &r(d*cir la c(!a en e!/e 7erdader( ac/( de &en!ar; Sl( en el A(m3re" en !* Gin/eligencia deri7adaG 0intellectus ectypus? !*rge el &r(3lema de la &(!i3ilidad; La diCerencia en/re realidad 8 &(!i3ilidad n( e! me/aC2!ica !in( e&i!/em(lgicaM n( den(/a ningEn carFc/er de la! c(!a! en !2 mi!ma! !in( @*e !e a&lica Enicamen/e a n*e!/r( c(n(cimien/( de ella!; ^an/ n( @*er2a decir" en *na C(rma &(!i/i7a 8 d(gmF/ica" @*e e>i!/a realmen/e *n in/elec/( di7in(" *n intuitus originariusI em&le Enicamen/e el c(nce&/( de !emeBan/e Gen/endimien/( in/*i/i7(G al eCec/( de de!cri3ir la na/*raleDa 8 l(! l2mi/e! del in/elec/( A*man(; El El/im( e! *n Gen/endimien/( di!c*r!i7(G @*e de&ende de d(! elemen/(! Ae/er(g ne(!M n( &(dem(! &en!ar !in imFgene!" ni &(dem(! in/*ir !in c(nce&/(!; GC(nce&/(! !in in/*ici(ne! !(n 7ac2(!M in/*ici(ne! !in c(nce&/(! !(n ciega!;G E!/e d*ali!m( en la! c(ndici(ne! C*ndamen/ale! del c(n(cimien/( e! el @*e" !egEn ^an/" !e Aalla en la 3a!e de n*e!/ra di!/incin en/re &(!i3ilidad 8 realidad; %De!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a del &r(3lema @*e n(! (c*&a" e!/e &a!aBe de ^an/ H*n( de l(! mF! im&(r/an/e! 8 mF! diC2cile! en !*! (3ra! cr2/ica!H re7i!/e &ar/ic*lar in/er !; Se'ala *n &r(3lema cr*cial de /(da Cil(!(C2a an/r(&(lgica; En l*gar de decir @*e el in/elec/( A*man( e! *n in/elec/( @*e /iene nece!idad de imFgene! %5 Aa3rem(! de decir" mF! 3ien" @*e nece!i/a !2m3(l(!; El c(n(cimien/( A*man( e!" &(r !* 7erdadera na/*raleDa" !im3lic(; E!/e ra!g( carac/eriDa" a la 7eD" !* C*erDa 8 !* limi/acin; Para el &en!amien/( !im3lic( e! indi!&en!a3le lle7ar a ca3( *na di!/incin ag*da en/re c(!a! ac/*ale! 8 &(!i3le!" en/re c(!a! reale! e ideale!; Un !2m3(l( n( &(!ee e>i!/encia real c(m( &ar/e del m*nd( C2!ic(M &(!ee *n !en/id(; En el &en!amien/( &rimi/i7( re!*l/a m*8 diC2cil di!/ing*ir en/re la! d(! e!Cera! del !er 8 del !en/id(" !e Aallan c(n!/an/emen/e c(nC*ndida!4 *n !2m3(l( e! c(n!iderad( c(m( !i e!/*7iera d(/ad( de &(dere! mFgic(! ( C2!ic(!" &er( en el &r(gre!( *l/eri(r de la c*l/*ra !e !ien/e claramen/e la diCerencia en/re c(!a! 8 !2m3(l(!" l( c*al @*iere decir @*e la di!/incin en/re realidad 8 &(!i3ilidad !e Aace cada 7eD mF! &r(n*nciada; Se &*ede &r(3ar e!/a inde&endencia &(r 72a indirec/a; Enc(n/ram(! @*e" c*and( &(r e!&eciale! c(ndici(ne! la C*ncin del &en!amien/( !im3lic( !e Aalla im&edida ( &er/*r3ada" la diCerencia en/re la realidad 8 la &(!i3ilidad !e Aace incier/aM 8a n( &*ede !er claramen/e &erci3ida; La &a/(l(g2a del leng*aBe arr(Ba *na l*D in/ere!an/e !(3re e!/e &r(3lema; Se Aa 7i!/( c(n Crec*encia en ca!(! de aCa!ia @*e l(! &acien/e! n( !l( &ierden el *!( de cla!e! e!&eciale! de &ala3ra! !in( @*e m*e!/ran" al mi!m( /iem&(" *na c*ri(!a deCiciencia en !* ac/i/*d general; :a3land( &rFc/icamen/e" e!/(! &acien/e! n( !e de!72an m*cA( del c(m&(r/amien/( de la! &er!(na! n(rmale! &er(" al !er c(nCr(n/ad(! c(n *n &r(3lema @*e e>ige *n m(d( mF! a3!/rac/( de &en!ar" c*and( /ienen @*e &en!ar en &(!i3ilidade! mF! 3ien @*e en realidade!" e>&erimen/an inmedia/amen/e
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_ a!e ^an/" 6rtica del =uicio/ !ec!; 5-" 55; ...ein der (ilder !edKrftiger 2erstand +^an/,;

grande! diCic*l/ade!; N( &*eden &en!ar ( Aa3lar de c(!a! irreale!; Un &acien/e @*e !*Cr2a de Aemi&leBia" de *na &arFli!i! de la man( derecAa" n( &(d2a" &(r eBem&l(" &r(n*nciar la! &ala3ra!4 G6( &*ed( e!cri3ir c(n mi man( derecAaG; Se re!i!/2a a re&e/ir e!/a! &ala3ra! c*and( eran &r(n*nciada! an/e l &(r el m dic(M &er( &(d2a decir c(n Cacilidad4 G6( &*ed( e!cri3ir c(n mi man( iD@*ierdaG" &(r@*e e!/( era la c(m&r(3acin de *n AecA( 8 n( la de *n ca!( Ai&(/ /ic( ( irreal; %1 E!/e 8 (/r(! eBem&l(! !imilare! Hdeclara ^*r/ G(ld!/einH n(! m*e!/ran @*e el &acien/e e! inca&aD de /ra/ar c(n c*al@*ier !i/*acin meramen/e G&(!i3leG; P(dem(!" &*e!" de!cri3ir la deCiciencia de e!/(! &acien/e! c(m( *na Cal/a de ca&acidad &ara a3(rdar *na !i/*acin meramen/e G&(!i3leG;;; N*e!/r(! &acien/e! e>&erimen/an la ma8(r diCic*l/ad en realiDar alg( @*e n( e!/F de/erminad( direc/amen/e &(r e!/2m*l(! e>/ern(!;;; Sien/en *na gran diCic*l/ad en el cam3i( 7(l*n/ari(" en &a!ar 7(l*n/ariamen/e de *n /&ic( a (/r(; P(r c(n!ig*ien/e" Craca!an en la! acci(ne! en @*e e!/e cam3i( e! nece!ari(;;; El cam3i( &re!*&(ne @*e 8( &(!e( en la men/e" !im*l/Fneamen/e" el (3Be/( an/e el c*al reacci(n( en el m(men/( 8 a@*el an/e el @*e me &r(&(ng( reacci(nar; Un( e!/F en el &rimer &lan(" (/r( en el C(nd(; Per( e! e!encial @*e el (3Be/( @*e !e Aalla en el C(nd( !e enc*en/re en l c(m( (3Be/( &(!i3le de reaccin C*/*ra; Sl( en e!e ca!( &*ed( 8( &a!ar de *n( a (/r(; E!/( &re!*&(ne la ca&acidad de a3(rdar c(!a! Enicamen/e imaginada!" c(!a! G&(!i3le!G" @*e n( e!/Fn dada! en la !i/*acin c(ncre/a;;; El A(m3re men/almen/e enCerm( e! inca&aD de e!/( en 7ir/*d de !* inAa3ilidad &ara ca&/ar l( @*e e! a3!/rac/(; N*e!/r(! &acien/e! !(n inca&ace! de imi/ar ( c(&iar alg( @*e n( c(n!/i/*8a &ar/e de !* e>&eriencia c(ncre/a inmedia/a; Una e>&re!in m*8 in/ere!an/e de e!/a inca&acidad la /enem(! en el AecA( de @*e enc*en/ran la ma8(r diCic*l/ad en re&e/ir *na Cra!e @*e carece de !en/id( &ara ell(!" e! decir" c*8( c(n/enid( n( c(rre!&(nde a la realidad @*e !(n ca&ace! de ca&/ar;;; De cir /ale! c(!a! re@*iere" a l( @*e &arece" el a!*mir *na ac/i/*d 7erdaderamen/e diC2cil; Re@*iere" &(r decirl( a!2" la Aa3ilidad de 7i7ir en d(! e!Cera!" la e!Cera c(ncre/a d(nde (c*&an !* l*gar la! c(!a! reale! 8 la e!Cera n( c(ncre/a" la meramen/e G&(!i3leG;;; El &acien/e e! inca&aD de Aacer e!/(; nicamen/e &*ede 7i7ir 8 ac/*ar en la e!Cera c(ncre/a; 0Human Fature in the &ight of 5sychopathology/ &&; %$ ss./ ?#N;, C(n e!/( dam(! en el nEcle( de *n &r(3lema *ni7er!al" de im&(r/ancia
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Tam3i n l(! ni'(! &arece @*e /ienen" a 7ece!" diCic*l/ade! &ara imaginar ca!(! Ai&(/ /ic(!; E!/( !e c(m&r*e3a CFcilmen/e c*and( el de!arr(ll( de *n ni'( !e re/ra!a &(r circ*n!/ancia! e!&eciale!; Un !(r&renden/e &araleli!m( c(n l(! ca!(! &a/(lgic(! arri3a menci(nad(! &(dem(! en/re!acar de la 7ida 8 ed*cacin de La*ra Lridgman; GSe Aa &(did( (3!er7ar He!cri3i *n( de !*! mae!/r(!H @*e en el c(mienD( C*e m*8 diC2cil Aacerle c(m&render la! Cig*ra! del leng*aBe" CF3*la! ( ca!(! !*&*e!/(! de c*al@*ier cla!e" 8 e!/a diCic*l/ad n( Aa !id( 7encida /(da72a c(m&le/amen /e; C*and( !e le da algEn &r(3lema de ari/m /ica" la &rimera im&re!in !*8a e! @*e el &r(3lema !*&*e!/( le !*cede a ella en e!e m(men/(; P(r eBem&l(" Aace alg*n(! d2a!" c*and( !* &r(Ce!(r de ari/m /ica le &idi @*e le8e!e *n &r(3lema" c(n/e!/4 `Cm( e! @*e el A(m3re @*e e!cri3i e!/e li3r( !a32a @*e 8( e!/a3a a@*2a El &r(3lema e>&*e!/( an/e ella era4 wSi /E &*ede! c(m&rar *n 3arril de !idra &(r c*a/r( dlare!" `c*Fn/a !idra &*ede! c(m&rar &(r *n dlaraw S* &rimer c(men/ari( a e!/e &r(3lema C*e4 Fo puedo dar mucho por la sidra por;ue es muy agria.N _ a!e Ma*d :(9e 8 Fl(rence :(9e :all" &aura (ridgman/ &; ##?;

e>/ra(rdinaria &ara el carFc/er 8 de!arr(ll( de la c*l/*ra; L(! em&iri!/a! 8 l(! &(!i/i7i!/a! Aan !(!/enid( !iem&re @*e la /area !*&eri(r del c(n(cimien/( A*man( c(n!i!/e en &r(&(rci(narn(! l(! AecA(! 8 nada mF! @*e l(! AecA(!4 *na /e(r2a n( 3a!ada en l(! AecA(! !er2a *n ca!/ill( en el aire; Per( e!/a n( e! *na re!&*e!/a al &r(3lema @*e c(m&(r/a *n 7erdader( m /(d( cien/2Cic(M &(r el c(n/rari(" e! el &r(3lema mi!m(; P*e! `@* @*iere decir" c*Fl e! el !en/id( de *n GAecA( cien/2Cic(Ga E! &a/en/e @*e ningEn AecA( !emeBan/e !e n(! da en la (3!er7acin C(r/*i/a ( en la mera ac*m*lacin de da/(! !en!i3le!; L(! AecA(! de la ciencia im&lican !iem&re *n elemen/( /eric(" l( @*e @*iere decir *n elemen/( !im3lic(; M*cA(!" !i n( la ma8(r2a" de l(! AecA(! cien/2Cic(! @*e Aan cam3iad( /(d( el c*r!( de la Ai!/(ria de la! ciencia! C*er(n Ai&(/ /ic(! an/e! de llegar a !er (3!er7a3le!; C*and( Galile( C*nd !* n*e7a ciencia de la dinFmica /*7( @*e c(menDar c(nci3iend( *n c*er&( en/eramen/e ai!lad(" @*e !e m*e7e !in la inCl*encia de ning*na C*erDa e>/eri(r; IamF! !e Aa32a (3!er7ad( !emeBan/e c*er&( ni &*d( BamF! (3!er7ar!e; N( era *n c*er&( real !in( &(!i3le Hen cier/( !en/id(" n( era /am&(c( &(!i3le" &*e! la c(ndicin en @*e Galile( 3a!a3a !* c(ncl*!in" la a*!encia de /(da C*erDa e>/eri(r" n( !e realiDa BamF! en la na/*raleDa;%$ Se Aa !*3ra8ad( c(n raDn @*e la! c(nce&ci(ne! @*e c(nd*Ber(n al de!c*3rimien/( del &rinci&i( de inercia n( eran en m(d( alg*n( e7iden/e! ( na/*rale! 8 @*e &ara l(! grieg(!" l( mi!m( @*e &ara la! gen/e! de la Edad Media" e!/a! c(nce&ci(ne! Aa3r2an a&arecid( c(m( e7iden/emen/e Cal!a! 8 Aa!/a a3!*rda!;)NSin em3arg(" !in la a8*da de e!a! c(nce&ci(ne! /(/almen/e irreale! Galile( n( &(dr2a Aa3er &r(&*e!/( !* /e(r2a del m(7imien/(M /am&(c( &(dr2a Aa3er de!arr(llad( G*na n*e7a ciencia @*e /ra/a de *n /ema m*8 an/i g*(G; L( mi!m( !e &*ede decir de la ma8(r2a de la! demF! grande! /e(r2a! cien/2Cica!; A &rimera 7i!/a !e /ra/a3a de grande! &arad(Ba!" c*8a &r(&*e!/a 8 deCen!a re@*er2a *n 7al(r in/elec/*al de!*!ad(; N( Aa8 aca!( meB(r manera de &r(3ar e!/e &*n/( @*e c(n!iderar la historia de la matem7tica. Un( de !*! c(nce&/(! C*ndamen/ale! e! el nEmer( 8 de!de l(! /iem&(! de l(! &i/agric(! !e Aa rec(n(cid( el nEmer( c(m( /ema cen/ral del &en!amien/( ma/emF/ic(; La /area mF! *rgen/e 8 mF! grande de l(! e!/*di(!(! de e!/e cam&( c(n!i!/i en enc(n/rar *na /e(r2a c(m&ren!i7a 8 adec*ada del nEmer(; Per( a cada &a!( en e!/a direccin l(! ma/emF/ic(! 8 l(! Cil!(C(! /r(&eDar(n c(n la mi!ma diCic*l/ad; Se enc(n/rar(n c(n!/an/emen/e an/e la nece!idad de am&liar !* cam&( 8 de in/r(d*cir n*e7(! nEmer(! @*e (Crec2an *n carFc/er al/amen/e &aradBic(; S* &rimera &re!en/acin de!&er/ la! mF! &r(C*nda! !(!&ecAa! de ma/emF/ic(! 8 lgic(! 8 !e &en! @*e eran a3!*rd(! ( im&(!i3le!; P(dr2am(! /raDar e!/e de!arr(ll( en la Ai!/(ria de l(! nEmer(! nega/i7(!" irraci(nale! e imaginari(!; El / rmin( Girraci(nalG +WggU\fY, !igniCica *na c(!a @*e n( !e &*ede &en!ar ni de la @*e e! &(!i3le Aa3lar; L(! nEmer(! nega/i7(!
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Para *n c(n(cimien/( mF! de/allad( de e!/e &r(3lema 7 a!e Ca!!irer" %u!stanD!egriff und un3tions!egriff. Trad*ccin ingle!a &(r K; C; 8 M; C; S9a3e8" %u!stance and unction +CAicag( 8 L(ndre!" #$?.,; )N _ a!e A; ^(8r " GGalile( and /Ae Scien/iCic Re7(l*/i(n (C /Ae Se7en/een/A Cen/*r8G" 5hilosophical )e-ieB/ LII +#$%.," &&; .$? ss.

a&arecier(n &(r &rimera 7eD en el !igl( X_I en la Arithmtica integra de MicAael S/iCel Hd(nde !(n llamad(! nEmer(! Cic/ici(! 0numeri ficti?. D*ran/e m*cA( /iem&( l(! mF! grande! ma/emF/ic(! c(n!iderar(n la idea de l(! nEmer(! imaginari(! c(m( *n mi!/eri( in!(l*3le; El &rimer( en (Crecer *na e>&licacin !a/i!Cac/(ria 8 *na /e(r2a !lida de e!/(! nEmer(! C*e Ga*!!; La! mi!ma! d*da! 8 7acilaci(ne! (c*rrier(n en el cam&( de la ge(me/r2a c*and( c(menDar(n a a&arecer l(! !i!/ema! n( e*clidean(!" l(! de L(3a/!cAe9!{i" L(l8ai 8 Riemann; En /(d(! l(! grande! !i!/ema! de raci(nali!m( la ma/emF/ica Aa !id( c(n!iderada c(m( el (rg*ll( de la raDn A*mana" la &r(7incia de la! idea! clara! 8 di!/in/a!; E!/a re&*/acin &areci 7acilar de &r(n/(; LeB(! de !er clar(! 8 di!/in/(! l(! c(nce&/(! ma/emF/ic(! C*ndamen/ale! a&arec2an en7*el/(! en e@*27(c(! 8 (!c*ridade!" @*e n( !e &*dier(n di!i&ar !in( Aa!/a @*e !e rec(n(ci claramen/e el carFc/er general de l(! c(nce&/(! ma/emF/ic(!" Aa!/a @*e !e Aa rec(n(cid( @*e la ma/emF/ica n( e! *na /e(r2a de la! c(!a! !in( *na /e(r2a de !2m3(l(!; La leccin @*e !acam(! de la Ai!/(ria del &en!amien/( ma/emF/ic( &*ede !er c(m&lemen/ada 8 c(nCirmada &(r (/ra! c(n!ideraci(ne! @*e a &rimera 7i!/a &arecen &er/enecer a *na e!Cera diCeren/e; La ma/emF/ica n( e! el Enic( cam&( en @*e !e &*ede e!/*diar la C*ncin general del &en!amien/( !im3lic(; La na/*raleDa real 8 la C*erDa &lena de e!/e &en!amien/( !e Aacen mF! &a/en/e! !i c(n!ideram(! el de!arr(ll( de n*e!/ra! ideas e ideales ticos. La (3!er7acin de ^an/ de @*e e! nece!ari( e indi!&en!a3le &ara el en/endimien/( A*man( di!/ing*ir en/re realidad 8 &(!i3ilidad de la! c(!a!" n( !l( e>&re!a *na carac/er2!/ica general de la raDn /erica !in( /am3i n *na 7erdad acerca de la raDn &rFc/ica; Carac/eriDa a /(d(! l(! grande! Cil!(C(! /ic(! el @*e n( &ien!an en / rmin(! de &*ra realidad; S*! idea! n( &*eden a7anDar *n !(l( &a!( !in en!ancAar 8 Aa!/a /ra!cender l(! l2mi/e! del m*nd( real; En &(!e!in de grande! &(dere! in/elec/*ale! 8 m(rale! l(! mae!/r(! de m(ral de la A*manidad e!/Fn d(/ad(!" ademF!" de *na &r(C*nda imaginacin; S* 7i!in imagina/i7a im&regna 8 anima /(da! !*! aCirmaci(ne!; La! (3ra! de Pla/n 8 de !*! !eg*id(re! Aan !id( cri/icada! !iem&re diciend( @*e !e reCieren a *n m*nd( c(m&le/amen/e irreal; Per( el gran &en!ad(r /ic( n( /em2a e!/a (3Becin" la ace&/ 8 !e encar c(n ella; Se Aa !*&*e!/( He!cri3e ^an/ en !* 6rtica de la raDn puraH" @*e la re&E3lica de Pla/n e! *n eBem&l( de &erCeccin &*ramen/e imaginaria; Se Aa c(n7er/id( en *na @*imera" en alg( @*e !l( &*ede e>i!/ir en el cere3r( de *n &en!ad(r (ci(O !(;;; :ar2am(! meB(r" !in em3arg(" al !eg*ir e!/e &en!amien/(" !i /ra/Fram(! de c(l(carl( &(r n*e!/r( &r(&i( e!C*erD( 3aB( *na l*D mF! clara en l*gar de Aacerl( a *n lad( &(r inE/il 3aB( el &re/e>/( mi!era3le 8 7erdaderamen/e &eligr(!( de !* im&rac/ica3ilidad;;; &*e! nada &*ede !er mF! e@*i7(cad( 8 mF! indign( de *n Cil!(C( @*e la a&elacin 7*lgar a l( @*e !e llama e>&eriencia ad7er!a" la c*al" &(!i3lemen/e" &*d( n( Aa3er e>i!/id( n*nca !i &(r el mi!m( /iem&( !e A*3ie ran C(rmad( in!/i/*ci(ne! de ac*erd( c(n e!/a! idea! 8 n( de ac*erd( c(n c(nce&ci(ne! cr*da! @*e" &(r l( mi!m( @*e !e deri7a3an Enicamen/e de la

e>&eriencia" Aan deCra*dad( /(da! la! 3*ena! in/enci(ne!; La! /e(r2a! /ica! 8 &(l2/ica! m(derna! @*e Aan !id( m(ldeada! !ig*iend( la &a*/a de la )ep4!lica de Pla/n Aan !id( c(nce3ida! c(n la mi!ma 7ena de &en!amien/(; C*and( T(mF! M(r( e!cri3i !* $topa e>&re! e!/e &*n/( de 7i!/a en el mi!m( /2/*l( de !* (3ra; Una */(&2a n( e! *na de!cri&cin del m*nd( real ( del (rden &(l2/ic( ( !(cial reale!; N( e>i!/e en ningEn m(men/( del /iem&( ni en ningEn &*n/( del e!&aci(M e!/F Gen ning*na &ar/eG; Per(" B*!/amen/e" !emeBan/e c(nce&cin de Gen ning*na &ar/eG Aa re!i!/id( la &r*e3a 8 Aa dem(!/rad( !* C*erDa en el de!arr(ll( del m*nd( m(dern(; De la 7erdadera na/*raleDa 8 carFc/er del &en!aO mien/( /ic( !e !ig*e @*e BamF! &*ede de!cender a ace&/ar l( dad(; El m*nd( /ic( n*nca e! Gdad(GM !iem&re !e Aalla GAaci nd(!eG; G_i7ir en el m*nd( ideal Hdice G(e/AeH" c(n!i!/e en /ra/ar l( im&(!i3le c(m( !i C*era &(!i3le;G L(! grande! reC(rmad(re! &(l2/ic(! 8 !(ciale! !e Aallan c(n!/an/emen/e 3aB( la nece!idad de /ra/ar l( im&(!i3le c(m( !i C*era &(!i3le; En !* &rimer e!cri/( &(l2/ic( R(*!!ea* &arece Aa3lar c(m( *n re!*el/( na/*rali!/aM de!ea re!/a*rar l(! derecA(! na/*rale! del A(m3re 8 rec(nd*cirl( a !* e!/ad( (riginal" el e!/ad( de na/*raleDa; El A(m3re na/*ral 0l+homme de nature? /iene @*e reem&laDar al A(m3re c(n7enci(nal" al A(m3re !(cial 0l+homme de l+homme?. Per( !i !eg*im(! el de!arr(ll( *l/eri(r del &en!amien/( de R(*!!ea* 7erem(! claramen/e @*e e!/e A(m3re na/*ral e!/F leB(! de !er *n c(nce&/( C2!ic(" &*e! e!" de AecA(" *n c(nce&/( !im3lic(; El mi!m( R(*!!ea* n( &*d( men(! de rec(n(cerl(; C(mencem(! Hdice en la in/r(d*ccin a !* 1iscurso so!re el origen y los fundamentos de la desigualdad entre los hom!res H &(r deBar a *n lad( l(! AecA(!" &*e! n( aCec/an a la c*e!/in; La! in7e!/igaci(ne! @*e a3(rdam(! en e!/a (ca!in n( /ienen @*e !er /(mada! &(r 7erdade! Ai!/rica! !in(" !im&lemen/e" c(m( raD(namien/(! Ai&(/ /ic(! 8 c(ndici(nale!" mF! adec*ad(! &ara il*!/rar la na/*raleDa de la! c(!a! @*e &ara m(!/rar !* 7erdader( (rigenM al ig*al de e!(! !i!/ema! @*e c(n!/r*8en diariamen/e n*e!/r(! na/*rali!/a! acerca de la C(rmacin del m*nd(; C(n e!/a! &ala3ra! /ra/a R(*!!ea* de in/r(d*cir el m /(d( Ai&(/ /ic(" @*e C*e em&lead( &(r Galile( &ara el e!/*di( de l(! Cenmen(! na/*rale!" en el cam&( de la! ciencia! m(rale!M 8 e!/F c(n7encid( de @*e !l( &(r e!/a 72a de raD(namien/(! Ai&(/ /ic(! 8 c(ndici(nale! &(dem(! llegar a *na 7erdadera c(m&ren!in de la na O /*raleDa del A(m3re; La de!cri&cin @*e R(*!!ea* Aace del e!/ad( de na/*raleDa n( l( e! en el !en/id( de *n rela/( Ai!/ric( del &a!ad( del A(m3re; Se /ra/a de *na c(n!/r*ccin !im3lica @*e !e &r(&(ne de!cri3ir 8 /raer a la realidad *n ine!&erad( C*/*r( de la A*manidad; En la Ai!/(ria de la ci7iliDacin la */(&2a Aa c*m&lid( !iem&re e!/a /area; En la Cil(!(C2a de la Il*!/ra cin !e c(n7ir/i en *n g ner( li/erari( 8 re!*l/ *na de la! arma! mF! &(der(!a! en /(d(! l(! a/a@*e! al (rden &(l2/ic( 8 !(cial e>i!/en/e!; C(n e!/e !en/id( C*e em&lead( &(r M(n/e!@*ie*" &(r _(l/aire 8 &(r S9iC/; En el !igl( XIX Sam*el L*/ler AiD( *n *!( !imilar de l; La gran mi!in de la */(&2a n( c(n!i!/e !in( en Aacer l*gar a l( &(!i3le" c(m( l( (&*e!/( a la a@*ie!cencia &a!i7a al e!/ad( ac/*al de l(! a!*n/(! A*man(!; E!/e &en!amien/( !im3lic( !*&era la inercia na/*ral del A(m3re 8 le

d(/a de *na n*e7a Cac*l/ad4 la de reaB*!/ar c(n!/an/emen/e !* *ni7er!( A*man(;

SEGUNDA PARTE E& H'M()E O &A 6$&>$)A

_I; DEFINICIN DEL :OMLRE EN TbRMINOS DE CULTURA *n 7iraBe en la c*l/*ra 8 el &en!amien/( grieg(! @*e Pla/n in/er&re/ara la mF>ima Gc(nce/e a /i mi!m(G en *n !en/id( c(m&le/amen/e n*e7(; E!/a in/er&re/acin in/r(d*B( *n &r(3lema @*e n( !l( era e>/ra'( al &en!amien/( &re!(crF/ic( !in( @*e i3a /am3i n m*cA( mF! allF de l(! l2mi/e! del m /(d( !(crF/ic(; Scra/e! !e Aa acercad( al A(m3re indi7id*al &ara c*m&lir c(n la e>igencia del di(! deiCic(" &ara c*m&lir el de3er religi(!( de a*/(e>amen 8 a*/(gn(!i!; Pla/n !e di( c*en/a de la! limi/aci(ne! @*e lle7a3a c(n !ig( el m /(d( !(crF/ic( de in7e!/igacin; Para re!(l7er el &r(3lema /enem(! @*e &r(8ec/arl( en *n &lan( mF! am&li(; L(! Cenmen(! @*e enc(n/ram(! en n*e!O /ra e>&eriencia indi7id*al !(n /an 7ari(!" /an c(m&licad(! 8 c(n/radic/(ri(! @*e a&ena! !i &(drem(! e>&licarl(!; :a8 @*e e!/*diar al A(m3re" n( en !* 7ida indi7id*al" !in( en !* 7ida &(l2/ica 8 !(cial; La na/*raleDa A*mana" !egEn Pla/n" e! c(m( *n /e>/( diC2cil c*8( !en/id( /iene @*e !er de!ciCrad( &(r la Cil(!(C2a &er( en n*e!/ra e>&eriencia &er!(nal e!/e /e>/( !e Aalla e!cri/( en carac/ere! /an men*d(! @*e re!*l/a ilegi3le; La &rimera la3(r del Cil!(C( Aa3rF de c(n!i!/ir en agrandar e!/(! carac/ere!; La Cil(!(C2a n( n(! &*ede &r(&(rci(nar *na /e(r2a !a/i!Cac/(ria del A(m3re Aa!/a @*e n( Aa de!arr(llad( *na /e(r2a del E!/ad(; La na/*raleDa del A(m3re !e Aalla e!cri/a c(n le/ra! ma8E!c*la! en la na/*raleDa del E!/ad(; En !/e !*rge de &r(n/( el !en/id( (c*l/( del /e>/( 8 re!*l/a clar( 8 legi3le l( @*e an/e! a&arec2a (!c*r( 8 c(nC*!(; La 7ida &(l2/ica n( e!" !in em3arg(" la C(rma Enica de *na e>i!/encia A*mana en c(mEn; En la Ai!/(ria del g ner( A*man( el E!/ad(" en !* C(rma ac/*al" e! *n &r(d*c/( /ard2( del &r(ce!( de ci7iliDacin; M*cA( an/e! de @*e el A(m3re Aa8a de!c*3ier/( e!/a C(rma de (rganiDacin !(cial Aa realiDad( (/r(! en!a8(! &ara (rdenar !*! !en/imien/(!" de!e(! 8 &en!amien/(!; SemeBan/e! (rganiDaci(ne! 8 !i!/ema/iDaci(ne! !e Aallan c(n/enida! en el leng*aBe" en el mi/(" en la religin 8 en el ar/e; :a8 @*e admi/ir e!/a 3a!e mF! ancAa !i @*erem(! de!arr(llar *na /e(r2a del A(m3re; El E!/ad(" a*n@*e im&(r/an/e" n( e! /(d(" n( &*ede e>&re!ar ( a3!(r3er /(da! la! demF! ac/i7idade! del A(m3re; E! cier/( @*e e!/a! ac/i7idade! !e Aallan 2n/imamen/e c(ne>a! en !* e7(l*cin Ai!/rica c(n el de!arr(ll( del E!/ad(M en cier/(! a!&ec/(!" de&enden de la! C(rma! de la 7ida &(l2/icaM &er( a*n@*e n( &(!een *na e>i!/encia Ai!/rica !e&arada al3ergan" !in em3arg(" *na Cinalidad 8 *n 7al(r @*e le! !(n &r(&i(!; En la Cil(!(C2a m(derna C*e C(m/e *n( de l(! &rimer(! en a3(rdar e!/e &r(3lema
SIGNIFIC

8 C(rm*larl( de *n m(d( clar( 8 !i!/emF/ic(; Tiene alg( de &aradBic( @*e" en e!/e a!&ec/(" /engam(! @*e c(n!iderar el &(!i/i7i!m( de C(m/e c(m( *n &aralel( m(dern( de la /e(r2a &la/nica del A(m3re; Cier/( @*e C(m/e BamF! C*e *n &la/nic(" n( &(d2a ace&/ar l(! !*&*e!/(! lgic(! 8 me/aC2!ic(! en @*e !e 3a!a la /e(r2a de la! idea! de Pla/n" &er(" &(r (/ra &ar/e" !e (&(n2a re!*el/amen/e al &*n/( de 7i!/a de l(! idel(g(! Crance!e!; En !* Berar@*2a del c(n(cimien/( A*man( d(! ciencia! n*e7a!" la de la e!/F/ica !(cial 8 la de la dinFmica !(cial" (c*&an el rang( !*&eri(rM de!de e!/e &*n/( de 7i!/a !(ci(lgic( a/aca C(m/e al &!ic(l(gi!m( de !* /iem&(; Una de la! mF>ima! C*ndamen/ale! de !* Cil(!(C2a e! @*e n*e!/r( m /(d( &ara e!/*diar al A(m3re /iene @*e !er" cier/amen/e" !*3Be/i7(" &er( @*e n( &*ede !er indi7id*al" &(r@*e el !*Be/( @*e /ra2am(! de c(n(cer n( e! la c(nciencia indi7id*al !in( el !*Be/( *ni7er!al; Si de!ignam(! e!/e !*Be/( c(n el / rmin( GA*manidadG /endrem(! @*e aCirmar en/(nce! @*e n( e! la A*manidad la @*e de3e !er e>&licada &(r el A(m3re !in( el A(m3re &(r la A*manidad; El &r(3lema /iene @*e !er C(rm*lad( 8 e>aminad( de n*e7( 8 &lan/ead( !(3ra *na 3a!e mF! ancAa 8 mF! !lida; SemeBan/e 3a!e la Aem(! de!c*3ier/( en el &en!amien/( !(ci(lgic( e Ai!/ric(; GPara c(n(cer(! a 7(!(/r(! mi!m(! Hdice C(m/eH" c(n(ced la Ai!/(ria;G P(r e!(" la &!ic(l(g2a Ai!/rica reem&laDa a /(da! la! C(rma! an/eri(re! de &!ic(l(g2a indi7id*al; GLa! llamada! (3!er7aci(ne! de la &!i@*e" c(n!iderada en ella mi!ma 8 a priori He!cri32a C(m/e en *na car/aH" !(n &*ra il*!in; T(d( l( @*e llamam(! lgic(" me/aC2!ic(" ide(l(g2a" e! *na Can/a!mag(r2a 7ana 8 *n !*e'(" c*and( n( *n a3!*rd(;G )# En el 6urso de filosofa positi-a &(dem(! !eg*ir &a!( a &a!( la /ran!icin (cA(cen/i!/a en l(! ideale! me/(d(lgic(!; C(m/e c(menD c(m( cien/2Cic(" &*e! !* in/er ! a&arec2a c(m&le/amen/e a3!(r3id( &(r l(! &r(3lema! ma/emF/ic(!" C2!ic(! 8 @*2mic(!; En !* Berar@*2a del c(n(cimien/( A*man( la e!cala marcAa de!de la a!/r(n(m2a" a /ra7 ! de la ma/emF/ica" de la C2!ica 8 de la @*2mica" Aa!/a la 3i(l(g2a; En e!e m(men/( !e &r(d*ce l( @*e a&arece c(m( *na in7er!in !E3i/a de e!/e (rden; C*and( n(! acercam(! al m*nd( A*man( l(! &rinci&i(! de la! ciencia! ma/emF/ica! 8 na/*rale! n( re!*l/an in7Flid(! &er( 8a n( !(n !*Cicien/e!; L(! Cenmen(! !(ciale! !e Aallan !(me/id(! a la! mi!ma! le8e! @*e l(! Cenmen(! C2!ic(! &er( (Crecen *n carFc/er diCeren/e 8 m*cA( mF! c(m&licad(" n( &*eden !er de!cri/(! meramen/e en / rmin(! de C2!ica" @*2mica 8 3i(l(g2a; En /(d(! l(! Cenmen(! !(ciale! Hdice C(m/eH &erci3im(! la ac/*acin de la! le8e! Ci!i(lgica! del indi7id*( 8" ademF!" alg( @*e m(diCica !*! eCec/(! 8 @*e c(rre!&(nde a la inCl*encia de l(! indi7id*(! en/re !2" !ing*larmen/e c(m&licada en el ca!( de la e!&ecie A*mana &(r la inCl*encia de la! generaci(ne! !(3re l(! !*ce!(re!; P(r e!/( re!*l/a clar(" &(r *na &ar/e" @*e n*e!/ra ciencia !(cial /iene @*e !*rgir de la @*e !e reCiere a la 7ida del indi7id*(; Per(" &(r (/ra" n( Aa8 m(/i7( &ara !*&(ner" c(m( l( Aan AecA( alg*n(! Cil!(C(! eminen/e!" @*e la C2!ica !(cial n( e! mF! @*e *n a& ndice de la Ci!i(l(g2a; L(! Cenmen(! de am3a! n( !(n id n/ic(!" a*n@*e !ean A(m(g ne(!" 8 re7i!/e la ma8(r im&(r/ancia el
)
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C(m/e" &ettres . 2alat/ &; 1$M ci/; de L; L 78OLr*Al" &a 5hilosophie d+Auguste 6omte. Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e L 78OLr*Al" op. cit.

man/ener la! d(! ciencia! !e&arada!; C(m( la! c(ndici(ne! !(ciale! m(diCican la accin de la! le8e! Ci!i(lgica!" la C2!ica !(cial de3e &(!eer *n AaD de (3!er7aci(ne! @*e le !ea &r(&i(; 06ours de philosophie positi-e. In/r(d;" ca&; II;, L(! di!c2&*l(! 8 !eg*id(re! de C(m/e n( e!/a3an inclinad(!" !in em3arg(" a ace&/ar e!/a di!/incin; Negar(n la diCerencia en/re Ci!i(l(g2a 8 !(ci(l(g2a" &(r@*e /em2an @*e rec(n(ci nd(la !e 7er2an c(nd*cid(! a *n d*ali!m( me/aC2!ic(M !* am3icin !e ciCra3a en e!/a3lecer *na /e(r2a &*ramen/e na/*rali!/a del m*nd( !(cial 8 c*l/*ral; A e!/e Cin c(n!iderar(n nece!ari( negar 8 de!/r*ir /(da! la! 3arrera! @*e &arecen !e&arar el m*nd( A*man( del animal; La /e(r2a de la e7(l*cin Aa 3(rrad( e7iden/emen/e /(da! e!/a! diCerencia!; A*n an/e! de Dar9in" el &r(gre!( de la Ai!/(ria na/*ral Cr*!/r /(d(! l(! in/en/(! de !emeBan/e diCerenciacin; En la! &rimera! e/a&a! de la (3!er7acin em&2rica el cien/2Cic( &(d2a man/ener la e!&eranDa de enc(n/rar alg*na 7eD *n carFc/er ana/mic( re!er7ad( al A(m3reM a*n en el !igl( X_III !e ace&/a generalmen/e *na diCerencia marcada 8" en alg*n(! a!&ec/(!" *n r*d( c(n/ra!/e en/re la e!/r*c/*ra ana/mica del A(m3re 8 la de (/r(! animale!; Un( de l(! ma8(re! m ri/(! de G(e/Ae en el cam&( de la ana/(m2a c(m&arada c(n!i!/i en Aa3er c(m3a/id( 7ig(r(!amen/e e!a! idea!; Per( Aa32a @*e dem(!/rar la e>i!/encia de la mi!ma A(m(geneidad n( !l( en la e!/r*c/*ra ana/mica 8 Ci!i(lO gica !in( /am3i n en la &!2@*ica; A e!/e &r(&!i/(" /(d(! l(! a/a@*e! c(n/ra la 7ieBa manera de &en!ar de32an !er c(ncen/rad(! en *n !(l( &*n/( 8 &r(3ar @*e l( @*e llamam(! in/eligencia del A(m3re n( e! en m(d( alg*n( *na Cac*l/ad a*/n(ma (riginal; L(! deCen!(re! de la! /e(r2a! na/*rali!/a! a&ela3an" c(m( &r*e3a" a l(! &rinO ci&i(! de &!ic(l(g2a e!/a3lecid(! &(r la! 7ieBa! e!c*ela! !en!*ali!/a!; Taine de!arr(ll la 3a!e &!ic(lgica de !* /e(r2a general de la c*l/*ra A*mana en *na (3ra !(3re la in/eligencia del A(m3re; )? SegEn l" l( @*e n(!(/r(! llamam(! c(m&(r/amien/( in/eligen/e n( c(n!/i/*8e *n &rinci&i( e!&ecial ( *n &ri7ilegi( de la na/*raleDa A* O manaM n( e! mF! @*e *n B*eg( mF! reCinad( 8 c(m&licad( del mi!m( mecani!m( 8 a*/(ma/i!m( a!(cia/i7( @*e enc(n/ram(! en /(da! la! reacci(ne! animale!; Si ace&/am(! e!/a e>&licacin" la diCerencia en/re in/eligencia e in!/in/( re!*l/a in!igniCican/eM n( e! mF! @*e de grad( 8 n( de c*alidad; La &ala3ra Gin/eligenciaww re!*l/a *n / rmin( inE/il 8 cien/2Cicamen/e !in !en/id( El ra!g( mF! !(r&renden/e 8 &aradBic( de la! /e(r2a! de e!/e /i&( e! el C(rmida3le c(n/ra!/e en/re l( @*e &r(me/en 8 l( @*e realmen/e (Crecen; L(! &en!ad(re! @*e c(n!/r*8er(n !emeBan/e! /e(r2a! eran 7erdaderamen/e rig*r(!(! en l( @*e re!&ec/a a !*! &rinci&i(! me/(d(lgic(!; N( !e c(n/en/a3an c(n Aa3lar de la na/*raleDa A*mana en l(! / rmin(! de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia c(mEn" &*e! anda3an 3*!cand( *n ideal m*cA( mF! al/(" de a3!(l*/a e>ac/i/*d cien/2CicaM &er( !i c(m&aram(! !*! re!*l/ad(! c(n e!/e &a/rn n( &(drem(! di!im*lar *n gran de!encan/(; GIn!/in/(G e! *n / rmin( realmen/e 7ag(M &*ede &(!eer cier/( 7al(r de!cri&/i7( &er( re!*l/a e7iden/e @*e n( (Crece ningEn 7al(r e>&lica/i7(; Al red*cir alg*na! cla!e! de Cenmen(! (rgFnic(! ( A*man(! a cier/(! in!/in/(! C*ndamen/ale! n( &(r e!( Aem(! ad*cid( *na n*e7a ca*!aM n( Aem(! AecA( mF! @*e in/r(d*cir *n n(m3re n*e7(" &lan/ead( *na c*e!/in en 7eD de re!(l7erla;
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1e l+tntelligence +Par2!" #15N,; ? 7(l!;

T(d( l( mF! el / rmin( in!/in/( n(! &r(&(rci(na *n i dem per idem 8" en la ma8(r2a de l(! ca!(!" *n o!scurum per o!scurius. La ma8(r2a de l(! 3il(g(! 8 &!ic(3il(g(! m(dern(! !(n m*8 &r*den/e! en el *!( de e!/e 7(ca3l(" &reci!aO men/e en la de!cri&cin de la c(nd*c/a animalM n(! ad7ier/en acerca de la! Calacia! @*e acarrea c(n!ig( e!e / rmin(; Pr(&enden a el*dir ( a3and(nar e!e c(nce&/( de in!/in/(" im&regnad( de err(r" 8 el c(nce&/( e>ce!i7amen/e !im&le de in/eligencia; En *na de !*! &*3licaci(ne! mF! recien/e!" R(3er/ M; 6er{e! n(! dice @*e l(! / rmin(! Gin!/in/(G e Gin/eligenciaG e!/Fn &a!ad(! de m(da 8 @*e l(! c(nce&/(! @*e &re/enden re&re!en/ar nece!i/an *rgen/emen/e *na redeCinicin; ). Per( en el cam&( de la Cil(!(C2a an/r(&(lgica n(! Aallam(!" a l( @*e &arece" 3a!/an/e leB(! de !emeBan/e redeCinicinM en ella e!(! / rmin(! !e ace&/an" Crec*en/emen/e" de *n m(d( ingen*( 8 !in anFli!i! cr2/ic(; Em&lead( de e!/e m(d(" el c(nce&/( de in!/in/( c(n!/i/*8e *n eBem&l( de e!e err(r me/(d(lgic( /2&ic( @*e Killiam Iame! !e'ala3a c(m( GCalacia del &!icl(g(G; La &ala3ra in!/in/(" @*e &*ede !er m*8 E/il &ara la de!cri&cin de la c(n d*c/a animal ( A*mana" !e Ai&(!/a!ia en *na e!&ecie de &(der na/*ral; C(!a c*ri(!aM e!/e err(r C*e c(me/id( a men*d( &(r &en!ad(re! @*e en /(d(! l(! demF! a! &ec/(! !e !en/2an m*8 !eg*r(! de n( recaer en el reali!m( e!c(lF!/ic( ( &!ic(l(g2a de la! Cac*l/ade!; En la (3ra Human Fature and 6onduct de I(An De9e8 Aallam(! *na cr2/ica m*8 clara e im&re!i(nan/e de e!/a manera de &en!ar; N( e! cien/2Cic( Hn(! diceH /ra/ar de red*cir ac/i7idade! (riginale! a *n nEmer( deCinid( de cla!e! 3ien &erCilada! de in!/in/(!M el re!*l/ad( &rFc/ic( de e!/e in/en/( e! de!a!/r(!(; Cla!iCicar e! alg( /an E/il c(m( na/*ral; La men/e !e enCren/a c(n la m*l/i/*d indeCinida de Cenmen(! &ar/ic*lare! 8 cam3ian/e! median/e ac/(! deCin2O/(ri(!" in7en/ariand(" e!/a3leciend( li!/a!" red*ciend( a e&2graCe! c(m*ne! 8 enca!illand(;;; P*e! !i !*&(nem(! @*e n*e!/ra! li!/a! 8 enca!illad(! re&re!en/an !e&araci(ne! 8 c(m&ilaci(ne! CiBa! in rerum natura/ en/(nce! im&edim(!" en l*gar de Cacili/ar" n*e!/r( /ra/( c(n la! c(!a!; N(! Aacem(! c*l&a3le! de *na &re!*ncin @*e la na/*raleDa !anci(na m*8 &r(n/(; N(! Aacem(! inc(m&e/en/e! &ara /ra/ar eCec/i7amen/e c(n l(! ma/ice! 8 n(7edade! de la na/*raleDa 8 de la 7ida;;; La /endencia a (l7idar el !er7ici( @*e &re!/an la! di!/inci(ne! 8 cla!iCicaci(ne! 8 a /(marla! c(m( !i ca&/aran la! c(!a! en !2 mi!ma! c(n!/i/*8e la Calacia c(rrien/e del e!&eciali!m( cien/2Cic(;;; E!/a ac/i/*d" @*e Cl(reci *na 7eD en la ciencia C2!ica" im&era aA(ra en la! /e(r2a! acerca de la na/*raleDa A*O mana; Se Aa red*cid( al A(m3re a *n AaD deCinid( de in!/in/(! &rimari(!" @*e &*eden !er n*merad(!" ca/al(gad(! 8 de!cri/(! e>Aa*!/i7amen/e *n( &(r *n(; L(! /eric(! diCieren Enicamen/e" ( &rinci&almen/e" en c*an/( a !* nEmer( 8 en c*an/( a !* (rden; Un(! dicen *n !(l( in!/in/(4 el am(r &r(&i(M (/r(!" d(!4 eg(2!m( 8 al/r*i!m(M (/r(!" /re!4 &lacer" /em(r 8 gl(riaM mien/ra! @*e" en la ac/*alidad" a*/(re! de *n e!&2ri/* mF! em&2ric( ele7an !* nEmer( a cinc*en/a ( !e!en/a; Per( de AecA( e>i!/en /an/a! reacci(ne! e!&ec2Cica! &ara c(ndici(ne! e!/im*lan/e! diCeren/e! c*an/( /iem&( Aa8a &ara &r(3arla!" 8 n*e!/ra! li!/a! n( !(n mF! @*e cla!iCicaci(ne! @*e !ir7en a *n Cin; +N*e7a 6(r{" :(l/ C(;" #$??" Par/e II" !ec; )" &; #.#; :a8 /rad;
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6himpanDees/ &; ##N;

e!&a'(la" ed; &a lectura.? De!&* ! de e!/a 3re7e in!&eccin de l(! diCeren/e! m /(d(! @*e Aan !id( em&lead(! Aa!/a aA(ra &ara re!&(nder a la c*e!/in `@* e! el A(m3rea 7(l7em(! a n*e!/r( /ema cen/ral; `E! @*e e!/(! m /(d(! !(n !*Cicien/e! 8 e>Aa*!/i7(!a `E>i!/e" aca!(" (/ra manera de a3(rdar la Cil(!(C2a an/r(&(lgicaa `E>i!/e (/r( camin(" ademF! del @*e n(! !e'alan la in/r(!&eccin &!ic(lgica" la (3!er7acin 8 el e>&erimen/( 8 la in7e!/igacin Ai!/ricaa :e /ra/ad( de de!c*3rir e!a n*e7a 72a en mi ilosofa de las formas sim!licas.)9 El m /(d( de e!a (3ra n( !igniCica" en m(d( alg*n(" *na inn(7acin radicalM n( /ra/a de !*&rimir !in( de c(m&le/ar &*n/(! de 7i!/a an/eri(re!; La Cil(!(C2a de la! C(rma! !im3lica! &ar/e del !*&*e!/( de @*e" !i e>i!/e alg*na deCinicin de la na/*raleDa ( e!encia del A(m3re" de3e !er en/endida c(m( *na deCinicin funcional y n( !*!/ancial; N( &(dem(! deCinir al A(m3re median/e ningEn &rinci&i( inAeren/e @*e c(n!/i/*8a !* e!encia me/aC2!ica" ni /am&(c( &(r ning*na Cac*l/ad ( in!/in/( c(ng ni/(! @*e !e le &*diera a/ri3*ir &(r la (3!er7acin em&2rica; La carac/er2!/ica !(3re!alien/e 8 di!/in/i7a del A(m3re n( e! *na na/*raleDa me/aC2!ica ( C2!ica !in( su o!ra. E! e!/a (3ra" el !i!/ema de la! ac/i7idade! A*mana!" l( @*e deCine 8 de/ermina el c2rc*l( de A*manidad; El leng*aBe" el mi/(" la religin" el ar/e" la ciencia 8 la Ai!/(ria !(n (/r(! /an/(! Gc(n!/i/*8en/e!G" l(! di7er!(! !ec/(re! de e!/e c2rc*l(; Una Cil(!(C2a del A(m3re !er2a" &(r l( /an/(" *na Cil(!(C2a @*e n(! &r(&(rci(nara la 7i!in de la e!/r*c/*ra C*ndamen/al de cada *na de e!a! ac/i7idade! A*mana! 8 @*e" al mi!m( /iem&(" n(! &ermi/iera en/enderla! c(m( *n /(d( (rgFnic(; El leng*aBe" el ar/e" el mi/( 8 la religin n( !(n creaci(ne! ai!lada! ( C(r/*i/a!" !e Aallan en/relaDada! &(r *n 72nc*l( c(mEnM n( !e /ra/a de *n 72nc*l( !*!/ancial" c(m( el c(nce3id( 8 de!cri/( &(r el &en!amien/( e!c(lF!/ic(" !in(" mF! 3ien" de *n -nculo funcional. Tenem(! @*e 3*!car la C*ncin 3F!ica del leng*aBe" del mi/(" del ar/e 8 de la religin" m*cA( mF! allF de !*! inn*mera3le! C(rma! 8 maniCe!/aci(ne! 8" en El/im( anFli!i!" /ra/arem(! de red*cirl(! a *n (rigen c(mEn; E! e7iden/e @*e al lle7ar a ca3( e!/a /area n( &(drem(! de!c*idar ning*na C*en/e &(!i3le de inC(rmacinM /endrem(! @*e e>aminar /(da la &r*e3a em&2rica a n*e!/ra di!&(!icin 8 */iliDar l(! m /(d(! de in/r(!&eccin" (3!er7acin 3i(lgica e in7e!/igacin Ai!/rica; N( !e /ra/a de eliminar e!/(! m /(d(! mF! an/ig*(! !in( de reCerirl(! a *n n*e7( cen/r( in/elec/*al 8 7erl(!" &(r l( /an/(" en (/ra &er!&ec/i7a; Al de!cri3ir la e!/r*c/*ra del leng*aBe" del mi/(" de la religin" del ar/e 8 de la ciencia" !en/im(! la nece!idad c(n!/an/e de *na /ermin(l(g2a &!ic(lgicaM Aa3lam(! de G!en/imien/(G religi(!(" de GimaginacinG ar/2!/ica ( m2/ica" del &en!amien/( lgic( ( raci(nal; N( &(dem(! en/rar en ning*n( de e!/(! m*nd(! !in e!/ar en &(!e!in de *n m /(d( &!ic(lgic( cien/2Cicamen/e !an(; La &!ic(l(g2a inCan/il n(! &r(&(rci(na cla7e! cer/era! &ara el e!/*di( del de! arr(ll( general del leng*aBe A*man(M /(da72a ma8(r a8*da !e &*ede (3/ener del e!/*di( de la !(ci(l(g2a general; N( &(dem(! c(m&render la C(rma del &en!amien/( m2/ic( &rimi/i7( !in /(mar en c(n!ideracin la! C(rma! de la !(ciedad &rimi/i7a; E!
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5hilosophie der sym!olischen ormen. _(l; I" 1ie %prache +#$?.,M 7(l; II" Da! mythische 1en3en +#$?),M 7(l; III" 5haenomenologie der Er3enntnis +#$?$,;

aEn mF! *rgen/e el *!( de l(! m /(d(! Ai!/ric(!; La c*e!/in acerca de @* !ean el leng*aBe" el mi/( 8 la religin n( &*ede !er re!*el/a !in *n e!/*di( &ene/ran/e de !* de!en7(l7imien/( Ai!/ric(; Per( a*n en el ca!( en @*e C*era &(!i3le c(n/e!/ar a /(da! e!/a! c*e!/i(ne! &!ic(lgica!" !(ci(lgica! e Ai!/rica!" !eg*ir2am(! &ermaneciend( en el a/ri( del m*nd( &r(&iamen/e A*man(M n( Aa3r2am(! a/ra7e!ad( el *m3ral; T(da! la! (3ra! A*mana! !*rgen en &ar/ic*lare! c(ndici(ne! Ai!/rica! 8 !(ciale! 8 n( c(m&rendeO r2an BamF! e!/a! c(ndici(ne! e!&eciale! !i n( C* ram(! ca&ace! de ca&/ar l(! &rinci&i(! e!/r*c/*rale! generale! @*e !e Aallan en la 3a!e de e!a! (3ra!; En n*e!/r( e!/*di( del leng*aBe" del ar/e 8 del mi/(" el &r(3lema del G!en/id(G an/ecede al &r(3lema del de!arr(ll( /eric(; Tam3i n en e!/e /erren( &(dem(! c(m&r(3ar *n cam3i( len/( 8 c(n/in*( en l(! c(nce&/(! e ideale! me/(d(lgic(! de la ciencia em&2rica; A!2" &(r eBem&l(" en la lingJ2!/ica" la idea de @*e la Ai!/(ria del leng*aBe c*3re el cam&( en/er( de !*! e!/*di(! C*e *n d(gma admi/id( d*ran/e larg( /iem&( @*e marc !* im&r(n/a al de!arr(ll( de la lingJ2!/ica en el !igl( XIX; En la ac/*alidad &arece Aa3er!e !*&erad( deCini/i7amen/e e!/a *nila/eralidad; Se rec(n(ce en general la nece!idad de m /(d(! inde&endien/e! de anFli!i! de!cri&/i7(;)) N( &(drem(! medir la &r(C*ndidad de *na rama e!&ecial de la c*l/*ra A*mana !i n( !e le &recede &(r *n anFli!i! de!cri&/i7(; La 7i!in e!/r*c/*ral de la c*l/*ra de3e an/eceder a la meramen/e Ai!/rica; La mi!ma Ai!/(ria !e &erder2a en la ma!a inC(rme de AecA(! di!&er!(! !i n( &(!e8era *n e!@*ema e!/r*c/*ral general en c*8a 7ir/*d &(der cla!iCicar" (rdenar 8 (rganiDar e!/(! AecA(!; En el cam&( de la Ai!/(ria del ar/e *n e!@*ema !emeBan/e C*e de!O arr(llad( &(r :einricA KlCClin4 el Ai!/(riad(r del ar/e !er2a inca&aD de carac/eriDar el ar/e de &(ca! diCeren/e! ( de ar/i!/a! diCeren/e! !i n( !e Aallara en &(!e!in de alg*na! categoras C*ndamen/ale! de la de!cri&cin ar/2!/ica @*e enc*en/ra al e!/*diar 8 analiDar l(! diCeren/e! m(d(! 8 &(!i3ilidade! de la e>&re!in ar/2!/ica; E!/a! &(!i3ilidade! n( !(n ilimi/ada!4 en realidad" &*eden !er red*cida! a *n &e@*e'( nEmer(; C(n e!e &*n/( de 7i!/a &*d( /raDar KlCClin !* Cam(!a de!cri&cin de l( clF!ic( 8 l( 3arr(c(; L(! / rmin(! GclF!ic(G 8 G3arr(c(G n( C*er(n em&lead(! c(m( n(m3re! de Ca!e! Ai!/rica! deCinida!M &re/end2an de!ignar cier/a! &ar/e! e!/r*c/*rale! generale! n( limi/ada! a *na &(ca &ar/ic*lar; N( era el ar/e de l(! !igl(! X_I 8 X_II Hdice KlCClin al Cinal de !*! 5rincipios de historia del arteH l( @*e Aa32a @*e analiDar !in(" Enicamen/e" el e!@*ema 8 la! &(!i3ilidade! 7i!*ale! 8 cread(ra! den/r( de la! c*ale! &ermanece en am3(! ca!(!; Para il*!/rar e!/( /*7im(! @*e reCerirn(!" c(m( e! na/*ral" a la (3ra indi7id*al de ar/e" &er( /(d( l( @*e !e diB( de RaCael 8 de TiDian(" de Rem3rand/ 8 de _elFD@*eD l( C*e" Enicamen/e" c(n la in/encin de e!clarecer el c*r!( general de la! c(!a!;;; T(d( e! /ran!icin 8 e! diC2cil c(n/e!/ar al A(m3re @*e c(n!idera la Ai!/(ria c(m( *n r2( !in Cin; Para n(!(/r(!" la a*/(&re!er7acin in/elec/*al im&(ne la nece!idad de cla!iCicar la inCinidad de l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! &(r reCerencia a *n(! &(c(! re!*l/ad(!; +Trad; e!&a'(la de I(! M(ren( _illa" Madrid;,
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))

Para *n e>amen de/allad( 7 a!e ca&; _III" &&; #1) !!;

Si el lingJi!/a 8 el Ai!/(riad(r del ar/e nece!i/an ca/eg(r2a! e!/r*c/*rale! C*ndamen/ale! &ara !* a*/(&re!er7acin in/elec/*al" /ale! ca/eg(r2a! !(n /(da72a mF! nece!aria! en *na de!cri&cin Cil(!Cica de la ci7iliDacin; La Cil(!(C2a n( &*ede c(n/en/ar!e c(n analiDar la! C(rma! &ar/ic*lare! de la c*l/*raM 3*!ca *na 7i!in !in/ /ica *ni7er!al @*e la! incl*8e; SemeBan/e 7i!in (mnic(m&ren!i7a `n( !er2a" aca!(" *na /area im&(!i3le" *na &*ra @*imeraa En la e>&eriencia A*mana n( enc(n/ram(! en m(d( alg*n( @*e la! di7er!a! ac/i7idade! @*e c(n!/i/*8en el m*nd( de la c*l/*ra c(n7i7an en arm(n2aM &(r el c(n/rari(" c(n/em&lam(! la l*cAa &er&e/*a de di7er!a! C*erDa! en c(nClic/(; El &en!amien/( cien/2Cic( c(n/radice 8 !*&rime el &en!amien/( m2/ic(; &a religin" en !* de!arr(ll( /eric( 8 /ic( mF! al/(" !e Aalla 3aB( la nece!idad de deCender la &*reDa de !* &r(&i( ideal c(n/ra la! Can/a!2a! e>/ra7agan/e! del mi/( ( del ar/e; Re!*l/a" &*e!" @*e la *nidad 8 la arm(n2a de la c*l/*ra n( &a!an de !er *n pium desiderium/ *n Cra*de &iad(!(" c(n!/an/emen/e Cr*!/rad( &(r el c*r!( real de l(! ac(n/ecimien/(!; En e!/e m(men/( /enem(! @*e /raDar *na di!/incin ne/a en/re *n &*n/( de 7i!/a ma/erial 8 (/r( C(rmal; Sin d*da @*e la c*l/*ra !e Aalla di7idida en ac/i7idade! @*e !ig*en l2nea! diCeren/e! 8 &er!ig*en Cine! diCeren/e!; Si n(! limi/am(! a c(n/em&lar !*! re!*l/ad(! Hla! creaci(ne! del mi/(" l(! ri/(! ( cred(! religi(!(!" la! (3ra! de ar/e" la! /e(r2a! cien/2Cica!H &arece im&(!i3le red*cirl(! a *n den(minad(r c(mEn; Per( la !2n/e!i! Cil(!Cica !igniCica alg( diCeren/e; N( 3*!cam(! *na *nidad de eCec/(! !in( *na *nidad de accin" n( *na *nidad de &r(d*c/(! !in( *na *nidad del proceso creador. Si el / rmin( A*manidad /iene alg*na !igniCicacin @*iere decir @*e" a &e!ar de /(da! la! diCerencia! 8 (&(!ici(ne! @*e e>i!/en en/re !*! 7aria! C(rma!" c((&eran en *n Cin c(mEn; :a3rF @*e enc(n/rar" a la larga" *n ra!g( !(3re!alien/e" *n carFc/er *ni7er!al en el c*al c(nc*rran 8 !e arm(nicen /(da!; Si acer/am(! a de/erminar e!/e carFc/er" &(drem(! B*n/ar l(! ra8(! di7ergen/e! 8 Aacerl(! c(n7erger en *n C(c( c(mEn del &en!amien/(; C(m( Aem(! !e'alad(" !emeBan/e (rganiDacin de l(! AecA(! de la c*l/*ra !e e!/F lle7and( 8a a ca3( en la! ciencia! &ar/ic*lare!4 en la lingJ2!/ica" en el e!/*di( c(m&arad( del mi/( 8 de la religin" en la Ai!/(ria del ar/e; T(da! e!/a! ciencia! 7an en 3*!ca de cier/(! &rinci&i(!" de ca/eg(r2a! deCinida! en c*8a 7ir/*d &(der (rdenar en *n !i!/ema l(! Cenmen(! de la religin" del ar/e 8 del leng*aBe; Si n( C*era &(r e!/a !2n/e!i! &re7ia lle7ada a ca3( &(r la! ciencia! &ar/ic*lare!" la Cil(!(C2a n( c(n/ar2a c(n &*n/( de &ar/ida alg*n(; Per(" &(r (/ra &ar/e" la Cil(!(C2a n( &*ede de/ener!e a@*2; Pr(c*rarF realiDar *na c(ncen /racin 8 cen/raliDacin ma8(re!; En medi( de la m*l/i&licidad 8 de la 7ariedad !in l2mi/e! de la! imFgene! m2/ica!" de l(! d(gma! religi(!(!" de la! C(rma! lingJ2!/ica!" de la! (3ra! de ar/e" el &en!amien/( Cil(!Cic( n(! re7ela la *nidad de *na C*ncin general en c*8a 7ir/*d /(da! e!/a! creaci(ne! !e man/ienen 7inc*lada!; El mi/(" la religin" el ar/e" el leng*aBe 8 Aa!/a la ciencia" !e c(n!ideran aA(ra c(m( (/ra! /an/a! 7ariaci(ne! de *n mi!m( /ema 8 la /area de la Cil(!(C2a c(n!i!/e en Aac rn(!l( c(m&ren!i3le;

_II; MITO 6 RELIGIN /(d(! l(! Cenmen(! de la c*l/*ra l(! mF! reCrac/ari(! a *n anFli!i! meramen/e lgic( !(n el mi/( 8 la religin; El mi/( &arece a &rimera 7i!/a *n &*r( ca(!" *na ma!a inC(rme de idea! inc(Aeren/e! 8 7an( 8 (ci(!( /ra/ar de 3*!car !*! raD(ne!; Si alg( Aa8 @*e &*ede carac/eriDar al mi/( e! el AecA( de @*e e!/F Gde!&r(O 7i!/( de rima 8 de raDnG; En c*an/( al &en!amien/( religi(!(" en m(d( alg*n( !e (&(ne nece!ariamen/e al raci(nal ( Cil(!Cic(; Una de la! /area! &rinci&ale! de la Cil(!(C2a medie7al c(n!i!/i en e!/a3lecer el 7erdader( 72nc*l( en/re e!/(! d(! m(d(! de &en!amien/(; En l(! !i!/ema! del al/( e!c(la!/ici!m( &arec2a @*e el &r(3lema e!/a3a re!*el/(M !egEn T(mF! de A@*in( la 7erdad religi(!a e! !(3rena/*ral 8 !*&rarraci(nal &er( n( irraci(nal; C(n !l( la raDn n( &(dem(! &ene/rar en l(! mi!/eri(! de la Ce" &er( e!/(! mi!/eri(! n( c(n/radicen !in( @*e c(m&le/an 8 &erCecci(nan la raDn; Sin em3arg(" !iem&re Aa Aa3id( &r(C*nd(! &en!ad(re! religi(!(! @*e !e (&*!ier(n a e!/(! in/en/(! de rec(nciliacin de la! d(! C*erDa! c(n/raria!M man/*7ier(n *na /e!i! m*cA( mF! radical 8 !in c(m&r(mi!(; El credo ;uia a!surdum de Ter/*lian( BamF! &erdi !* C*erDa; Pa!cal declara @*e la (!c*ridad e inc(m&ren!i3ilidad c(n!/i/*8en l(! 7erdader(! elemen/(! de la religinM el Di(! 7erdader(" el Di(! de la religin cri!/iana C*e !iem&re *n 1eus a!sconditus. )E ^ier{egaard de!cri3e la 7ida religi(!a c(m( la gran G&arad(BaG; SegEn l" /(d( in/en/( &(r a/en*ar e!/a &arad(Ba !igniCica la negacin 8 la de!/r*ccin de la 7ida religi(!a; La religin !ig*e !iend( *n enigma n( !l( en *n !en/id( /eric( !in( /am3i n /ic(M !e Aalla cargada de an/in(mia! /erica! 8 de c(n/radicci(ne! /ica!; N(! &r(me/e *na c(m*nin c(n la na/*raleDa" c(n l(! A(m3re!" c(n l(! &(dere! !(3rena/*rale! 8 c(n l(! di(!e! mi!m(! 8" !in em3arg(" !* eCec/( e! /(d( l( c(n/rari(; En !* &re!encia c(ncre/a !e c(n7ier/e en la C*en/e de la! mF! &r( O C*nda! di!en!i(ne! 8 de l*cAa! CanF/ica!M &re/ende Aallar!e en &(!e!in de la 7erdad a3!(l*/a" &er( !* Ai!/(ria e! la Ai!/(ria de l(! err(re! 8 de la! AereB2a!; N(! /rae la &r(me!a 8 la &er!&ec/i7a de *n m*nd( /ra!cenden/al" !i/*ad( m*8 leB(! de l(! l2mi/e! de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia A*mana" 8 &ermanece !iend( A*mana" dema!iad( A*mana; El &r(3lema a&arece en *na n*e7a &er!&ec/i7a /an &r(n/( c(m( n(! re!(l7em(! a cam3iar n*e!/r( &*n/( de 7i!/aM *na Cil(!(C2a de la c*l/*ra n( de3e &lan/ear la mi!ma c*e!/in @*e *n !i!/ema me/aC2!ic( ( /e(lgic(; N( n(! c(m&e/e in7e!/igar en la ma/eria mi!ma !in( en la C(rma de la imaginacin m2/ica 8 del &en!amien/( religi(!(; La ma/eria" l(! /ema! 8 m(/i7(! del &en!amien/( m2/ic( !(n inmen!(!; Si a3(rdam(! el m*nd( m2/ic( de!de e!/e lad(" /enem(!" en &ala3ra! de Mil/(n" un negro ocano sin lmites/ sin dimensiones/ donde se pierden lo largo/ lo Pancho/ lo profundo/ el tiempo y el espacio.
ENTRE

)-

_ a!e supra/ ca&; I" &; .#;

N( e>i!/e Cenmen( na/*ral ni de la 7ida A*mana @*e n( !ea ca&aD de *na in/er&re/acin m2/ica 8 @*e n( reclame !emeBan/e in/er&re/acin; T(d(! l(! in/en/(! de la! di7er!a! e!c*ela! de mi/(l(g2a c(m&arada &ara *niCicar la! idea! m2/ica!" &ara red*cirla! a cier/(! /i&(! *niC(rme!" e!/a3an a3(cad(! a *n /(/al Craca!(; Sin em3arg(" a &e!ar de e!/a 7ariedad 8 di!cre&ancia de la! creaci(ne! m2/ica!" la C*ncin mi/iCicad(ra ( mi/(O&(8 /ica n( carece de *na real A(m(geneidad; Preci!amen/e" l(! an/r(&l(g(! 8 l(! e/nl(g(! !e Aan !(r&rendid( m*cAa! 7ece! al enc(n/rar l(! mi!m(! &en!amien/(! elemen/ale! re&ar/id(! !(3re /(da la !*&erCicie de la /ierra 8 en la! c(ndici(ne! !(ciale! 8 c*l/*rale! mF! di7er!a!; L( mi!m( (c*rre c(n la Ai!/(ria de la religin; L(! ar/2c*l(! de Ce" l(! cred(! d(gmF/ic(! 8 l(! !i!/ema! /e(lgic(! !e Aallan in7(l*crad(! en *na l*cAa in/ermina3le; Tam3i n l(! ideale! /ic(! de la! di7er !a! religi(ne! !(n am&liamen/e di7ergen/e! 8 e!ca!amen/e rec(ncilia3le!; Sin em3arg(" nada de e!/( aCec/a a la C(rma e!&ec2Cica del !en/imien/( religi(!( 8 a la *nidad in/erna de !* &en!amien/(;)5 L(! !2m3(l(! cam3ian ince!an/emen/e" &er( el &rinci&i( @*e !e Aalla en !* 3a!e" la ac/i7idad !im3lica c(m( /al" &ermanece la mi!ma4 una est religio in ritiuum -arietate. De /(d(! m(d(!" *na /e(r2a del mi/( !e &re!en/a" de!de *n &rinci&i(" cargada de grande! diCic*l/ade!; El mi/(" en !* 7erdader( !en/id( 8 e!encia" n( e! /eO ric(M de!aC2a n*e!/ra! ca/eg(r2a! C*ndamen/ale! del &en!amien/(; S* lgica" !i /iene alg*na" e! inc(nmen!*ra3le c(n /(da! n*e!/ra! c(nce&ci(ne! de la 7erdad em&2rica ( cien/2CicaM &er( la Cil(!(C2a n( &*d( admi/ir BamF! !emeBan/e 3iC*rcacin; E!/a3a c(n7encida de @*e la! creaci(ne! de la C*ncin mi/(&(8 /ica de32an de /ener *n G!en/id(G Cil(!Cic(" in/eligi3le; Si el mi/( (c*l/a e!/e !en/id( /ra! /(d( g ner( de imFgene! 8 !2m3(l(!" la /area de la Cil(!(C2a c(n!i!/irF en de!enma!cararl(M de!de la &(ca de l(! e!/(ic(! Aa de!arr(llad( *na / cnica e!&ecial" m*8 ela3(rada" de in/er&re/acin alegrica; D*ran/e 7ari(! !igl(! !e c(n!ider e!/a / cnica c(m( el Enic( acce!( &(!i3le al m*nd( m2/ic(" &re7aleci d*ran/e la Edad Media 8 !e man/en2a en 7ig(r a c(mienD(! de la Edad M(dernaM Lac(n e!cri3i *n /ra/ad( e!&ecial !(3re &a sa!idura de los antiguos/ en el @*e da m*e!/ra! de *na gran !agacidad en la in/er&re/acin de la mi/(l(g2a an/ig*a; Si e!/*diam(! e!/e /ra/ad( n( &(drem(! men(! de !(nre2r c(n la! in/er&re/aci(ne! alegrica! @*e &ara *n lec/(r m(dern( &arecen" en la ma8(r2a de l(! ca!(!" e>/remadamen/e ingen*a!; Sin em3arg(" n*e!/r(! m /(d(! m*cA( mF! reCinad(! 8 alam3icad(! &*eden !er !*Be/(!" en *na gran medida" a la mi!ma (3Becin; S* Ge>&licacinG de l(! Cenmen(! m2/ic(! re!*l/a" a la &(!/re" *na negacin en/era de /ale! Cenmen(!M el m*nd( m2/ic( a&arece c(m( *n m*nd( ar/iCicial" c(m( *n &re/e>/( &ara (/ra c(!a; En l*gar de !er *na creencia e! *n mer( GAacer @*e !e creeG; L( @*e di!/ing*e a e!/(! m /(d(! m(dern(! de la! C(rma! an/eri(re! de in/er&re/acin alegrica e! el AecA( de @*e 8a n( c(n!ideran el mi/( c(m( *na mera in7encin c(n &r(&!i/(! e!&eciale!; A*n@*e el mi/( e!
)
)5

En la (3ra de ArcAi3ald Alian L(9man" %tudies in the 5hilosophy of )eligin +L(ndre!" #$.1," ? 7(l!;" !e da *na e>celen/e de!cri&cin de e!/a *nidad in/eri(r;

Cic/ici( !e /ra/a de una Ciccin inc(n!cien/e; La men/e &rimi/i7a n( !e da3a c*en/a del !en/id( de !*! &r(&ia! creaci(ne!; A n(!(/r(!" al anFli!i! cien/2Cic( c(rre!&(nde re7elar e!/e !en/id(" de!7elar el r(!/r( 7erdader( /ra! e!a! mF!cara! innEmera!; El anFli!i! &*ede &r(ceder en *na direccin d(3le" a&licar *n m /(d( (3Be/i7( ( !*3Be/i7(; En el &rimer ca!(" /ra/arF de cla!iCicar l(! o!=etos del &enO !amien/( m2/ic(M en el !eg*nd( in/en/arF l( mi!m( c(n !*! moti-os. Una /e(r2a &arece /an/( mF! &erCec/a c*an/( mF! leB(! camine en e!/e &r(ce!( de !im&liCiO cacin; Si al Cin c(n!ig*e de!c*3rir un !(l( (3Be/( ( *n !(l( m(/i7( !im&le @*e c(n/enga 8 c(m&renda a /(d(! l(! demF!" Aa3rF alcanDad( !* me/a 8 c*m&lid( !* /area; La e/n(l(g2a 8 la &!ic(l(g2a m(derna! Aan en!a8ad( la! d(! 72a!; Alg*na! e!c*ela! e/n(lgica! 8 an/r(&(lgica! &ar/ier(n del !*&*e!/( de @*e l( &rimer( @*e Aa32a @*e 3*!car era *n cen/r( (3Be/i7( del m*nd( m2/ic(; Para l(! &ar/idari(! de e!/a e!c*ela Hdice Malin(9!{iH /(d( mi/( &(!ee" c(m( nEcle( ( realidad El/ima" algEn Cenmen( na/*ral" en/re/eBid( la3(ri(!amen/e en *na CF3*la a /al grad( @*e" a 7ece!" ca!i l( c*3re 8 di!im*la &(r c(m&le/(; N( Aa8 m*cA( ac*erd( en/re ell(! en c*an/( a @* /i&( de Cenmen( na/*ral !e Aalla en la 3a!e de la ma8(r2a de la! creaci(ne! m2/ica!; E>i!/en e>agerad(! mi/l(g(! l*nF/ic(! /an c(m&le/amen/e ca!ad(! c(n !* idea" @*e n( rec(n(cerFn @*e ningEn (/r( Cenmen( &*eda c(nd*cir a *na ra&!dica in/er&re/acin !al7aBe C*era del !a/ li/e n(c/*rn( de la /ierra;;; O/r(!;;; c(n!ideran al !(l c(m( el Enic( Cenmen( en c*8( /(rn( el A(m3re &rimi/i7( Aa /eBid( !*! CF3*la! !im3lica!; Tam3i n /enem(! la e!c*ela de l(! in/ r&re/e! me/e(r(lgic(! @*e c(n!ideran el 7ien/(" el ag*a 8 l(! c(l(re! del ciel( c(m( la e!encia del mi/(;;; AlO g*n(! de e!/(! mi/l(g(! de&ar/amen/ale! l*cAan Cer(Dmen/e &(r !* c*er&( cele!/e ( &(r !* &rinci&i(M (/r(! !(n de *n /alan/e mF! *ni7er!al 8 e!/Fn di!&*e!/(! a c(nceder @*e el A(m3re &rimi/i7( Aa c(n!/r*id( !* m*nd( mi/(lgic( 7ali nd(!e de /(d(! l(! c*er&(! cele!/e!; 0Myth in 5rimiti-e 5sychology/ N*e7a 6(r{" N(r/(n" #$?-" &&; #? ss.? En la /e(r2a &!ic(anal2/ica del mi/( @*e n(! (Crece Fre*d la! creaci(ne! m2/ica! n( !er2an !in( 7ariacin 8 di!CraD de *n mi!m( /ema &!ic(lgic(" la !e>*alidad; N( nece!i/am(! e>aminar al de/alle e!/a! /e(r2a!M &(r m*cA( @*e diCieran de c(n/enid( n(! re7elan /(da! la mi!ma ac/i/*d me/dica; Pre/enden Aacern(! c(m&render el m*nd( m2/ic( &(r *n &r(ce!( de red*ccin in /elec/*alM &er( ning*na de ella! &*ede l(grar !* Cin !in c(n!/re'ir 8 m*/ilar c(n!/an/emen/e l(! AecA(! al eCec/( de c(n7er/ir la /e(r2a en *n /(d( A(m(g ne(; El mi/( c(m3ina *n elemen/( /eric( 8 *n elemen/( de creacin ar/2!/ica; L( &rimer( @*e n(! llama la a/encin e! !* e!/recA( &aren/e!c( c(n la &(e!2a; GEl mi/( an/ig*(" !e Aa dicA(" c(n!/i/*8e la wma!aw de d(nde Aa id( emergiend( &(c( a &(c( la &(e!2a m(derna median/e el &r(ce!( @*e l(! e7(l*ci(ni!/a! den(minan diCerenciacin 8 e!&ecialiDacin; La men/e mi/(&(8 /ica e! el &r(/(/i&(M 8 la men/e del &(e/a;;; !ig*e !iend( e!encialmen/e mi/(&(8 /ica;G +F; C; Pre!c(//" 5oetry and Myth/ N*e7a 6(r{" Macmillan" #$?5" &; #N;, Per(" a &e!ar de e!/a c(ne>in gen /ica" n( &(dem(! men(! de rec(n(cer la diCerencia e!&ec2Cica @*e e>i!/e en/re el mi/( 8 el ar/e; Una cla7e la enc(n/ram(! en la aCirmacin de ^an/ de @*e la

c(n/em&lacin e!/ /ica e! &(r c(m&le/( indiCeren/e a la e>i!/encia ( ine>i!/encia de !* (3Be/(" &er(" &reci!amen/e" !emeBan/e indiCerencia e! &(r en/er( aBena a la imaginacin m2/icaM en ella 7a incl*id(" !iem&re" *n ac/( de creencia; Sin la creencia en la realidad de !* (3Be/( el mi/( &erder2a !* 3a!e; C(n e!/a c(ndicin in/r2n!eca 8 nece!aria &arece c(nd*cirn(! al &(l( (&*e!/(; A e!/e re!&ec/( &arece &(!i3le" 8 Aa!/a indi!&en!a3le" c(m&arar el &en!amien/( m2/ic( c(n el cien/2Cic(; Cier/( @*e n( !ig*en la! mi!ma! 72a! &er( &arecen &re(c*&ar!e &(r la mi!ma c(!a4 la realidad. En la an/r(&(l(g2a m(derna e!/a aCinidad C*e !*3ra8ada &(r Sir Iame! FraDer; Pre!en/a la /e!i! de @*e n( e>i!/e *na Cr(n/era clara @*e !e&are el ar/e mFgic( de n*e!/r(! m(d(! de &en!ar cien/2Cic(!; Tam3i n la magia" a &e!ar de !er /an Can/F!/ica en !*! medi(!" e! cien/2Cica en c*an/( al Cin; En /e(r2a" la magia e! ciencia" a*n@*e &rFc/icamen/e Aa3land( !ea *na ciencia il*!(ria" *na !e*d(cienciaM &*e! la magia arg*men/a 8 (3ra 3a!Fnd(!e en el !*&*e!/( de @*e en la na/*raleDa *n !*ce!( !*cede a (/r( nece!aria e in7aria3lemen/e !in la in/er7encin de ningEn agen/e e!&iri/*al ( &er!(nal; Tiene c(m( c(n7iccin @*e el c*r!( de la na/*raleDa n( e!/F de/erminad( &(r la! &a!i(ne! ( l(! ca&ricA(! de !ere! &er!(nale! !in( &(r la (&eracin de le8e! @*e ac/Ean mecFnicamen/e; P(r l( /an/(" la magia re&re!en/a *na Ce im&l2ci/a" &er( real 8 Cirme" en el (rden 8 la *niC(rmidad de la na/*raleDa; )1 E! *na /e!i! @*e n( &*ede re!i!/ir el e>amen cr2/ic(M la an/r(&(l(g2a m(derna &arece Aa3er a3and(nad( &(r en/er( l(! &*n/(! de 7i!/a de FraDer; )$ Se rec(n(ce generalmen/e en la ac/*alidad c(m( *na c(nce&cin m*8 inadec*ada del mi/( 8 de la magia el c(n!iderarl(! c(n *n carFc/er /2&icamen/e e/i(lgic( ( e>&lica/i7(; N( &(dem(! red*cir el mi/( a cier/(! elemen/(! e!/F/ic(! CiB(!" !in( in/en/ar ca&/ar !* 7ida in/erna" !* m(7ilidad 8 !* 7er!a/ilidad" !*! &rinci&i(! dinFmic(!; N(! !erF mF! CFcil de!cri3ir e!/e &rinci&i( !i a3(rdam(! el &r(3lema de!de *n Fng*l( diCeren/e; El mi/( (Crece" c(m( !i diB ram(!" *n r(!/r( d(3le; P(r *na &ar/e n(! m*e!/ra Una e!/r*c/*ra Gc(nce&/*alG 8" &(r (/ra" *na e!/r*c/*ra G&erce&/*alG; N( e! Una mera ma!a de idea! c(nC*!a! 8 !in (rganiDacinM de&ende de *n m(d( deCinid( de &erce&cin; Si el mi/( n( &erci 3iera el m*nd( de *n m(d( diCeren/e n( &(dr2a B*Dgarl( ( in/er&re/arl( en !* manera e!&ec2Cica; Tenem(! @*e acercarn(! a e!/a ca&a mF! &r(C*nda de la &erce&cin &ara &(der c(m&render el carFc/er del &en!amien/( m2/ic(; L( @*e n(! in/ere!a en el &en!amien/( em&2ric( !(n l(! ra!g(! c(n!/an/e! de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia !en!i3le; En ella Aacem(! !iem&re la di!/incin en/re l( @*e e! !*!/ancial ( acciden/al" nece!ari( ( c(n/ingen/e" in7aria3le ( /ran!i/i7(; C(n e!/a di!criminacin n(! 7em(! c(nd*cid(! al c(nce&/( de *n m*nd( de (3Be/(! C2!ic(! d(/ad(! de c*alidade! CiBa! 8 de/erminada! @*e im&lica *n &r(ce!( anal2/ic( (&*e!/( a la e!/r*c/*ra C*ndamen/al de la &erce&cin 8 del &en!amien/( m2/ic(!; El m*nd( m2/ic( !e Aalla" c(m( !i diB ram(!" en *n e!/ad( m*cA( mF! Cl*id( 8 Cl*c/*an/e
)
)1

_ a!e FraDer" >he Magic Art and the E-olution (C {ings/ 7(l; I de >he Golden (ough +?a ed;" Macmillan" #$NN," &&; -# ss./ ??N ss. _ a!e /am3i n4 &a rama dorada/ &*3licada &(r el F(nd( de C*l/*ra Ec(nmica; )$ Para *n B*ici( cr2/ic( de la /e!i! de FraDer" 7 a!e R; R; Mare//" >he >hreshold of )eligin +?a ed; L(ndre!" Me/A*en" #$#%," &&; %5 ss./ #55 ss.

@*e n*e!/r( m*nd( /eric( de c(!a! 8 &r(&iedade!" de !*!/ancia! 8 de acciden/e!; Para &(der ca&/ar 8 de!cri3ir e!/a diCerencia &(dr2am(! decir @*e l( @*e &rimaO riamen/e &erci3e el mi/( n( !(n carac/ere! (3Be/i7(! !in( fisiognmicos. La na/*raleDa en !* !en/id( em&2ric( ( cien/2Cic( &*ede !er deCinida c(m( Gla e>i!/encia de la! c(!a! en c*an/( e!/F de/erminada &(r le8e! *ni7er!ale!G; -N SemeBan/e Gna/*raleDaG n( e>i!/e &ara el mi/(M !* m*nd( e! dramF/ic(" de acci(ne!" de C*erDa!" de &(dere! en &*gna; En /(d( Cenmen( de la na/*ra leDa n( 7e mF! @*e la c(li!in de e!/(! &(dere!; La &erce&cin m2/ica !e Aalla im&regnada !iem&re de e!/a! c*alidade! em(/i7a!M l( @*e !e 7e ( !e !ien/e !e Aalla r(dead( de *na a/m!Cera e!&ecial" de alegr2a ( de &ena" de ang*!/ia" de e>ci/acin" de e>al/acin ( &(!/racin; N( e! &(!i3le Aa3lar de la! c(!a! c(m( de *na ma/eria m*er/a ( indiCeren/e; L(! (3Be/(! !(n 3en Cic(! ( mal Cic(!" amiga3le! * A(!/ile!" Camiliare! ( e>/ra'(!" Ca!cinad(re! 8 a/ra8en/e! ( amenaDad(re! 8 re&elen/e!; P(dem(! rec(n!/r*ir c(n Cacilidad e!/a C(rma elemen/al de la e>&eriencia A*mana" &*e! /am&(c( en la 7ida del A(m3re ci7iliDad( Aa &erdid( en m(d( alg*n( !* C*erDa (riginal; Si n(! enc(n/ram(! 3aB( la accin de *na em(cin 7i(len/a" !e c(n!er7a e!/a c(nce&cin dramF/ica de la! c(!a!; 6a n( &re!en/an !* a!&ec/( Aa3i/*al" cam3ian 3r*!camen/e de Ci!(n(m2a 8 !e Aallan ma/iDada! c(n el /in/e e!&ec2Cic( de n*e!/ra &a!in" c(n am(r * (di(" c(n /em(r ( e!&eranDa; A&ena! !i !e &*ede imaginar *n c(n/ra!/e ma8(r @*e el @*e e>i!/e en/re e!/a direccin (riginal de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia 8 el ideal de 7erdad in/r(d*cid( &(r la ciencia; L(! e!C*erD(! del &en!amien/( cien/2Cic( !e dirigen a 3(rrar /(d( 7e!/igi( de e!a &rimera 7i!inM a la n*e7a l*D de la ciencia" la &erce&cin m2/ica de3e de!a&arecer; N( @*iere decir @*e l(! da/(! de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia Ci!i(gnmica !ean de!/r*id(! 8 ani@*ilad(! c(m( /ale!M Aan &erdid( /(d( 7al(r (3Be/i7( ( c(!m(lgic( &er( &er!i!/e !* 7al(r an/r(&(lgic(; En n*e!/r( m*nd( A*man( n( &(dem(! negarl(! ni &re!cindir de ell(!" &*e! man/ienen !* l*gar 8 !* !igniCicacin" ni 3(rrar e!/(! da/(! en la 7ida !(cial" en n*e!/r( /ra/( diari( c(n l(! A(m3re!; En el (rden gen /ic(" la di!/incin en/re c*alidade! Ci!i(gnmica! &arece &receder a la di!/incin en/re c*alidade! &erce&/i7a!; En la! &rimera! e/a&a! de !* de!en7(l7imien/( el ni'( &arece !en!i3le a la! &rimera!; -# Si la ciencia /iene @*e Aacer a3!/raccin de e!/a! c*alidade! &ara lle7ar a ca3( !* Caena" n( &(r e!( &*ede !*&rimirla! &(r c(m&le/(; N( Aan !id( de!arraigada! !in(" Enicamen/e" limi/ada! a !* cam&( &r(&i(; E!/a re!/riccin de la! c*alidade! !*3Be/i7a! e! l( @*e marca la 72a general de la ciencia @*e delimi/a !* (3Be/i7idad &er( n( &*ede de!/r*ir &(r c(m&le/( !* realidad" &*e! /(d( ra!g( de la e>&eriencia A*mana reclama !* realidad; En n*e!/r(! c(nce&/(! cien/2Cic(! red*cim(! la diCerencia en/re d(! c(l(re!" digam(! r(B( 8 aD*l" a *na diCerencia n*m rica" &er( !er2a *n m(d( inadec*ad( de Aa3lar decir @*e el nEmer( e! mF! real @*e el c(l(r; L( @*e !e @*iere decir" en 7erdad" e! @*e el nEmer( e! mF! general; La e>&re!in ma/emF/ica n(! (Crece *na 7i!in n*e7a 8 mF! am&lia" *n A(riD(n/e
-N -#

CC; ^an/" Pr(legmen(! a /(da me/aC2!ica del &(r7enir" !ec; #%; C(n relacin a e!/e &r(3lema" 7 a!e Ca!!irer" 5hiloso phie der sym!olischen ormen/ 7(l; III" Par/e 7" ca&!; II 8 III;

mF! li3re 8 mF! dila/ad( de c(n(cimien/(; Per( Ai&(!/a!iar l(! nEmer(!" c(m( Aicier(n l(! &i/agric(!" 8 Aa3lar de ell(! c(m( realidad El/ima" c(m( 7erdadera e!encia 8 !*!/ancia de la! c(!a!" e! *na Calacia me/aC2!ica; Si /enem(! en c*en/a e!/e &rinci&i( me/(d(lgic( 8 e&i!/em(lgic(" Aa!/a la ca&a mF! 3aBa de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia !en!i3le Hla de n*e!/ra! c*alidade! aCec/i7a!H a&arece a *na l*D n*e7a; El m*nd( de n*e!/ra! &erce&ci(ne! !en!i3le!" de la! llamada! c*alidade! !ec*ndaria!" (c*&a *na &(!icin in/ermedia; :a a3and(nad( 8 !*&erad( la &rimera e/a&a r*dimen/aria de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia Ci!i(gnmica !in Aa3er alcanDad( /(da72a e!a C(rma de generaliDacin @*e !e l(gra c(n n*e!/r(! c(nce&/(! cien/2Cic(!" c(n n*e!/r(! c(nce&/(! del m*nd( C2!ic(; Cada *na de e!/a! /re! e/a&a! &(!ee !* 7al(r C*nci(nal deCinid(M ning*na e! &*ra il*!in; Cada *na de ella!" en !* medida" re&re!en/a *n &a!( en n*e!/r( camin( Aacia la realidad; El meB(r 8 mF! clar( &lan/eamien/( de e!/e &r(3lema !e de3e" !egEn cre(" a I(An De9e8" *n( de l(! &rimer(! en rec(n(cer 8 !*3ra8ar el derecA( rela/i7( de e!a! c*alidade! aCec/i7a! @*e m*e!/ran /(d( !* &(der en la &erce&cin m2/ica 8 !(n c(n!iderada! c(m( l(! elemen/(! 3F!ic(! de la realidad; F*e !* c(nce&cin acerca de la /area @*e inc*m3e a *n em&iri!m( a*/ n/ic( l( @*e le c(nd*B( a !emeBan/e c(ncl*!in; Em&2ricamen/e Hdice De9e8H" la! c(!a! !(n d(l(r(!a!" &rFc/ica!" 3ella!" gr(/e!ca!" !erena!" &er/*r3ad(ra!" c(nC(r/a3le!" a3*rrida!" F!&era!" c(n!(lad(ra!" e!&l ndida!" /emi3le!M 8 l( !(n de *n m(d( inmedia/( &(r !2 mi!ma!;;; E!/(! ra!g(! !e &re!en/an en el mi!m( ni7el @*e l(! c(l(re!" l(! !(nid(!" la! c*alidade! /Fc/ile!" el g*!/( 8 el (lCa/(; C*al@*ier cri/eri( @*e enc*en/re @*e e!/(! El/im(! !(n da/(! El/im(! 8 Gre!i!/en/e!G" llegarF a la mi!ma c(ncl*!in re!&ec/( a l(! &rimer(! !i e! a&licad( im&arcialmen/e; >oda c*alidad" en c*an/( /al" e! GCinalGM e!" a la 7eD" inicial 8 /erminalM e!" B*!/amen/e" c(m( e>i!/e; P*ede !er reCerida a (/ra! c(!a!" &*ede !er /ra/ada c(m( *n eCec/( ( c(m( *n !ign(; Per( e!/( im&lica *na am&liacin 8 *!( e>/ra'(!; N(! lle7a mF! allF de la c*alidad en !* inmedia/a c*aliCicacin;;; La red*ccin de la! c*alidade! inmedia/a!" !en!i3le! 8 !igniCican/e!" c(m( (3Be/(! de ciencia" c(m( C(rma! &r(&ia! de cla!iCicacin e in/eraccin" la! deBa" en realidad" c(m( e!/a3anM c(m( la! tenemos n( nece!i/am(! conocerlas. Per(;;; la idea /radici(nal de @*e el (3Be/( del c(n(cimien/( e! la realidad por excelencia lle7 a la c(ncl*!in de @*e el (3Be/( de la ciencia era" en grad( eminen/e" me/a C2!icamen/e real; De a@*2 @*e la! c*alidade! inmedia/a! a&ar/ada! del (3Be/( de la ciencia !e a3and(naran c(m( de!ligada! del (3Be/( GrealG; C(m( n( !e &(d2a negar !* existencia !e la! agr*& en *n rein( &!2@*ic( del !er" enCren/ad( al (3Be/( de la C2!ica; Dada e!/a &remi!a" !e !eg*2an nece!ariamen/e /(d(! l(! &r(3lema! reCeren/e! a la relacin del e!&2ri/* 8 la ma/eria" de l( &!2@*ic( 8 l( c(r&re(; Cam3iem(! la &remi!a me/aC2!icaM re!/a*rem(! la! c*alidade! inmedia/a! en !* leg2/ima &(!icin de c*alidade! de !i/*aci(ne! incl*!i7a!" 8 e!(! &r(3lema! deBarFn de !er &r(3lema! e&i!/em(lgic(!; Se c(n7ier/en en &r(3lema! cien/2Cic(! e!&eciCica3le!M c*e!/i(ne! de cm( /al 8 /al Cenmen( @*e &(!ee /ale! 8 /ale! c*alidade! (c*rre realmen/e; 0Experience and Fature/ CAicag(" O&en C(*r/ P*3li!Aing C(;" #$?)" &&; $-" ?-% ss. Edi/ad( &(r el F(nd( de C*l/*ra Ec(nmica" en /rad; de I(! Ga(!;,

Si @*erem(!" &(r l( /an/(" e>&licarn(! el m(d( de la &erce&cin 8 de la imaginacin m2/ica! n( de3em(! c(menDar c(n *na cr2/ica de am3a! AecAa de!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a de n*e!/r(! ideale! /eric(! de c(n(cimien/( 8 de 7erdad !in( ac(ger la! c*alidade! de la e>&eriencia m2/ica en !* Ginmedia/( carFc/er c*ali/a/i7(G; L( @*e nece!i/am(! n( e! *na e>&licacin de mer(! &en!amien/(! ( creencia! !in( *na in/er&re/acin de la 7ida m2/ica; El mi/( n( c(n!/i/*8e *n !i!/ema de cred(! d(gmF/ic(!; C(n!i!/e" m*cA( mF!" en acci(ne! @*e en mera! imFgene! ( re&re!en/aci(ne!; Un !ign( del &r(gre!( deCini/i7( de la an/r(&(l(g2a 8 de la Ai!/(ria m(derna de la religin l( /enem(! en @*e e!/e &*n/( de 7i!/a !e 7a im&(niend( cada 7eD mF!; Parece !er *na mF>ima ad(&/ada generalmen/e @*e l( ri/*al e! an/eri(r a l( d(gmF/ic(" /an/( en *n !en/id( Ai!/ric( c(m( &!ic(lgic(; A*n@*e llegFram(! a analiDar el mi/( en !*! El/im(! elemen/(! c(nce&/*ale!" BamF! a&reAender2am(! c(n e!/e &r(cedimien/( anal2/ic( !* &rinci&i( 7i/al" @*e e! dinFmic( 8 n( e!/F/ic(M !e le &*e de de!cri3ir" Enicamen/e" en / rmin(! de accin; El A(m3re &rimi/i7( n( e>&re!a !*! !en/imien/(! 8 em(O ci(ne! c(n mer(! !2m3(l(! a3!/rac/(! !in( de *n m(d( c(ncre/( e inmedia/(M 8 &ara darn(! c*en/a de la e!/r*c/*ra del mi/( 8 de la religin &rimi/i7a de3em(! e!/*diar la /(/alidad de e!/a e>&re!in; Una de la! /e(r2a! mF! clara! 8 mF! c(n!i!/en/e! de e!a e!/r*c/*ra n(! la (Crece la e!c*ela !(ci(lgica Crance!a en la (3ra de D*r{Aeim" !*! di!c2&*l(! 8 c(n/in*ad(re!; D*r{Aeim &ar/e del &rinci&i( de @*e n( !erF &(!i3le e>&licar el mi/( mien/ra! /ra/em(! de 3*!car !*! C*en/e! en el m*nd( C2!ic(" en *na in/*icin de l(! Cenmen(! na/*rale!; N( e! la na/*raleDa !in( la !(ciedad el 7erdader( m(del( del mi/(; T(d(! !*! m(/i7(! C*ndamen/ale! !(n &r(8ecci(ne! de la 7ida !(cial del A(m3re median/e la! c*ale! la na/*raleDa !e c(n7ier/e en la imagen del m*nd( !(cialM reCleBa !*! ra!g(! C*ndamen/ale!" !* (rganiDacin 8 ar@*i/ec/*ra" !*! di7i!i(ne! 8 !*3di7i!i(ne!; -? La /e!i! de D*r{Aeim Aa !id( de!arr(llada &(r c(m&le/( en la (3ra de L 78 Lr*Al" &er( /r(&eDam(! c(n *na carac/er2!/ica mF! general; Se de!cri3e el &en!amien/( m2/ic( c(m( pensamiento prelgico. Si 3*!ca ca*!a!" n( !(n lgica! ni em&2rica!M !(n Gca*!a! m2!/ica!G; GN*e!/ra ac/i7idad c(/idiana im&lica *na c(nCianDa a3!(l*/a 8 &erCec/a en la in7aria3ilidad de la! le8e! na/*rale!; La ac/i/*d del A(m3re &rimi/i7( e! diCeren/e" &ara l la na/*raleDa den/r( de la c*al 7i7e !e &re!en/a c(n *n a!&ec/( 3ien di!/in/(; T(da! la! c(!a! 8 cria/*ra! c(m&rendida! en ella !e Aallan en7*el/a! &(r *na red de &ar/ici&aci(ne! 8 e>cl*!i(ne! m2!/ica!G; SegEn L 78OLr*Al e!/e carFcO /er m2!/ic( de la religin &rimi/i7a &r(cede del AecA( de @*e !*! re&re!en/aci(ne! !(n Gre&re!en/aci(ne! c(lec/i7a!G; N( &(dem(! a&licar a ella! la! le8e! de n*e!/ra &r(&ia lgica" encaminada! a (/r(! &r(&!i/(!; C*and( &i!am(! e!/e /erren( Aa!/a la le8 de c(n/radiccin 8 /(da! la! demF! le8e! del &en!amien/( raci(nal reO !*l/an in7Flida!;-. A mi en/ender" la e!c*ela !(ci(lgica Crance!a n(! Aa (Crecid( *na &r*e3a &lena 8 c(ncl*8enO/e de la &rimera &ar/e de !* /e!i! &er( n( de la
-? -.

CC; D*r{Aeim" &es formes lmentaires de la -ie religieuse +Par2!" #$#?,; CC; L 78OLr*Al" &es fonctions mentales dans les socits inferieures +Par2!" #$#N, 8 &a mentalit primiti-e +Par2!" #$??,M 5rimiti-e Mentality +N*e7a 6(r{" #$?.,M &+Ame primiti-e +Par2!" #$?1,M >he N%oulN (C the 5rimiti-e +N*e7a 6(r{" #$?1,;

!eg*ndaM el carFc/er C*ndamen/almen/e !(cial del mi/( e! alg( inc(n/r(7er/i3le; Per( @*e /(da men/alidad &rimi/i7a !ea nece!ariamen/e &relgica ( m2!/ica &arece *na aCirmacin en c(n/radiccin c(n la! &r*e3a! an/r(&(lgica! 8 e/n(lgica!; Enc(n/ram(! di7er!a! e!Cera! de la 7ida 8 la c*l/*ra &rimi/i7a! @*e (Crecen l(! ra!g(! 3ien c(n(cid(! de n*e!/ra &r(&ia 7ida c*l/*ral; Mien/ra! !*&(ngam(! la e>i!/encia de *na Ae/er(geneidad a3!(l*/a en/re n*e!/ra &r(&ia lgica 8 la men/alidad &rimi/i7aM mien/ra! &en!em(! @*e e! e!&ec2Cicamen/e diCeren/e 8 radicalmen/e (&*e!/a a la n*e!/ra" diC2cilmen/e &(drem(! e>&licar e!/e AecA(; Enc(n/ram(! en la 7ida &rimi/i7a *na e!Cera !ec*lar ( &r(Cana @*e !e Aalla C*era de la e!Cera !agrada; E>i!/e *na /radicin !ec*lar c(m&*e!/a de regla! c(n!*e/*dinaria! ( legale! @*e de/erminan la C(rma en @*e Aa3rF de c(nd*cir!e la 7ida !(cial; La! regla! @*e enc(n/ram(! en e!/e ca!( Hdice Malin(9!{iH" !(n del /(d( inde&endien/e! de la magia" de la! !anci(ne! !(3rena/*rale!" 8 BamF! !e ac(m&a'an de elemen/(! cerem(niale! ( ri/*ale!; E! *n err(r !*&(ner @*e en la e/a&a &rimi/i7a de !* de!arr(ll( el A(m3re 7i72a en *n m*nd( c(nC*!( d(nde l( real 8 l( irreal C(rma3an me!c(lanDa" d(nde el mi!/ici!m( 8 la raDn eran in/erO cam3ia3le! c(m( la m(neda Cal!a 8 la 3*ena en *n &a2! de!(rganiDad(; Para n(!(/r(!" el &*n/( mF! e!encial acerca de la magia 8 del ri/( reli gi(!( e! @*e a-anDa Enicamen/e d(nde Calla el c(n(cimien/(; La! cerem(nia! 3a!ada! en l( !(O 3rena/*ral !*rgen de la 7ida mi!ma &er( n*nca e!/*l/iCican l(! e!C*erD(! &rFc/ic(! del A(m3re; En !*! ri/(! mFgic(! ( religi(!(! el A(m3re /ra/a de (3/ener milagr(!" n( &(r@*e ign(re l(! l2mi/e! de !*! C*erDa! men/ale!" !in(" &(r l( c(n/rari(" &(r@*e l(! c(n(ce &lenamen/e; 6 dand( *n &a!( mF!" me &arece @*e el rec(n(cimien/( de e!/( e! indi!&en!a3le !i de!eam(! e!/a3lecer de *na 7eD &ara !iem&re la 7erdad de @*e la religin /iene !* ma/eria &r(&ia" !* cam&( leg2/im( de de!en7(l7imien/(; 0>he oundations of aith and Morals/ L(ndre!" O>C(rd Uni7er!i/8 Pre!!" #$.-" &*3li!Aed C(r /Ae Uni7er!i/8 D*rAam" &; .%;, Preci!amen/e en e!/e El/im( cam&(" en el cam&( leg2/im( del mi/( 8 de la religin" la c(nce&cin de la na/*raleDa 8 de la 7ida A*mana en m(d( alg*n( !e Aalla de!&r(7i!/a de !en/id( raci(nal; L( @*e de!de n*e!/r( &*n/( de 7i!/a &(dem(! llamar irraci(nal" &relgic(" m2!/ic(" c(n!/i/*8e la! &remi!a! de d(nde &ar/e la in/er&re/acin m2/ica ( religi(!a &er( n( c(n!/i/*8e el m(d( de in/er&re/acin; Si ace&/am(! e!/a! &remi!a! 8 la! en/endem(! de3idamen/e H!i la! 7em(! a la mi!ma l*D @*e la! 7e el A(m3re &rimi/i7(H la! inCerencia! !acada! de ella! ce!arFn de &re!en/ar!e c(m( algica! ( ilgica!; En realidad" /(d(! l(! in/en/(! de in/elec/*aliDar el mi/(" de e>&licarl( c(m( e>&re!in alegrica de *na 7erdad /erica ( m(ral" Aan Craca!ad( &(r c(m&le/("-% ign(ra3an l(! AecA(! C*ndamen/ale! de la e>&eriencia m2/ica; S* !*!/ra/( real n( e! de &en!amien/( !in( de !en/imien/(M el mi/( 8 la religin &rimi/i7a n( !(n" en m(d( alg*n(" en/eramen/e inc(Aeren/e!" n( !e Aallan de!&r(7i!/(! de G!en/id(G ( raDnM &er( !* c(Aerencia de&ende en m*cA( ma8(r grad( de la *nidad del !en/imien/( @*e de
-%

Preci!amen/e en la 3i3li(graC2a m(derna &(dem(! enc(n/rar m*cA(! indici(! de e!/a! /endencia! in/elec/*ali!/a!; _ a!e" &(r eBem&l(" F; Langer" Intellectualmythologie +Lei&Dig" #$#-,;

regla! lgica!; E!/a *nidad re&re!en/a *n( de l(! im&*l!(! mF! C*er/e! 8 &r(C*nd(! del &en!amien/( &rimi/i7(; C*and( el &en!amien/( cien/2Cic( &re/ende de!cri3ir 8 e>&licar la realidad /iene @*e em&lear !* m /(d( general" @*e e! el de cla!iCicacin 8 !i!/ema/iDacin; La 7ida e! di7idida en &r(7incia! !e&arada! @*e !e di!/ing*en ne/amen/e en/re !2M l(! l2mi/e! en/re el rein( 7ege/al" el animal 8 el A*man(" la! diCerencia! en/re e!&ecie!" Camilia! 8 g ner(! !(n C*ndamen/ale! e im3(rra3le!; Per( la men/alidad &rimi/i7a l(! ign(ra 8 l(! recAaDa; S* 7i!in de la 7ida e! !in/ /ica 8 n( anal2/icaM n( !e Aalla di7idida en cla!e! 8 !*3cla!e!; E! sentida c(m( *n /(d( c(n/in*( @*e n( admi/e e!ci!in" ni di!/incin /aBan/e; L(! l2mi/e! en/re la! diCeren/e! e!Cera! n( !(n (3!/Fc*l(! in!*&era3le! !in( Cl*8en/e! 8 (!cilan/e!M n( e>i!/e diCerencia e!&ec2Cica en/re l(! di7er!(! rein(! de la 7ida; Nada &(!ee *na C(rma deCinida" in7aria3le" e!/F/icaM median/e *na me/am(rC(!i! !E3i/a" c*al@*ier c(!a !e &*ede c(n7er/ir en c*al@*ier c(!a; Si e>i!/e algEn ra!g( carac/er2!/ic( 8 !(3re!alien/e del m*nd( m2/ic(" alg*na le8 @*e l( g(3ierna" e! e!/a de la me/am(rC(!i!; A*n a!2" diC2cilmen/e &(dem(! e>&licar la ine!/a3ilidad del m*nd( m2/ic( &(r la inca&acidad del A(m3re &rimi/i7( &ara ca&/ar la! diCerencia! em&2rica! de la! c(!a!; En e!/e a!&ec/( el !al7aBe m*e!/ra a men*d( !* !*&eri(ridad !(3re el A(m3re ci7iliDad(" e! ca&aD de ca&/ar m*cA(! ra!g(! di!/in/i7(! @*e e!ca&an a n*e!/ra a/encin; La! e!c*l/*ra! 8 &in/*ra! de animale! @*e enc(n/ram(! en la! e/a&a! mF! 3aBa! de la c*l/*ra A*mana" en el ar/e &ale(l2/ic(" Aan !id( admirada! a men*d( &(r !* carFc/er na/*rali!/a" m*e!/ran *n c(n(cimien/( !(r&renden/e de /(da !*er/e de C(rma! animale!; La e>i!/encia enO /era del A(m3re &rimi/i7( de&ende en gran &ar/e de !*! d(/e! de (3!er7acin 8 di!criminacinM !i e! caDad(r" /iene @*e e!/ar CamiliariDad( c(n l(! de/alle! mF! nimi(! de la 7ida animal" !er ca&aD de di!/ing*ir en/re la! A*ella! de di7er!(! animale!; T(d( e!/( e! diC2cilmen/e c(m&agina3le c(n el !*&*e!/( de @*e la men/e &rimi/i7a" &(r !* na/*raleDa 8 e!encia" e! indiCerenciada ( c(nC*!a" *na men/e &relgica ( m2!/ica; L( @*e carac/eriDa a la men/alidad &rimi/i7a n( e! !* lgica !in( !* !en/imien/( general de la 7ida; El A(m3re &rimi/i7( n( mira a la na/*raleDa c(n l(! (B(! de *n na/*rali!/a @*e de!ea cla!iCicar la! c(!a! &ara !a/i!Cacer *na c*ri(!idad in/elec/*al" ni !e acerca a ella c(n in/ere!e! meramen/e &ragmF/ic(! ( / cnic(!; N( e! &ara l ni *n mer( (3Be/( de c(n(cimien/( ni el cam&( de !*! nece!idade! &rFc/ica! inmedia/a!; E!/am(! ac(!/*m3rad(! a di7idir n*e!/ra 7ida en la! d(! e!Cera! de la ac/i7idad &rFc/ica 8 la /erica 8 al Aacer e!/a di7i !in CFcilmen/e (l7idam(! @*e e>i!/e" B*n/( a la! d(!" (/ra ca&a mF! 3aBa; El A(m3re &rimi/i7( n( e! 72c/ima de /al (l7id(M !*! &en!amien/(! 8 !*! !en/imien/(! c(nO /inEan enca*Dad(! en e!/e e!/ra/( (riginal; S* 7i!in de la na/*raleDa n( e! &*ramen/e /erica ni meramen/e &rFc/icaM es simpatticaI !i de!c*idam(! e!/e &*n/( n( &(drem(! a3(rdar el m*nd( m2/ic(; El ra!g( C*ndamen/al del mi/( n( e! *na direccin e!&ecial del &en!amien/( ( *na direccin e!&ecial de la imaginacin A*manaM 3r(/a de la em(cin 8 !* /ra!C(nd( em(/i7( /i'e !*! &r(d*cci(ne! de !* &r(&i( c(l(r e!&ec2Cic(; En m(d( alg*n( le Cal/a al A(m3re &rimi/i7( ca&acidad &ara ca&/ar la! diCerencia! em&2rica! de la! c(!a!" &er( en !* c(nce&cin de la

na/*raleDa 8 de la 7ida /(da! e!/a! diCerencia! !e Aallan !*&erada! &(r *n !en/imien/( mF! C*er/e4 la c(n7iccin &r(C*nda de *na solidaridad C*ndamen/al e indele3le de la -ida @*e !al/a &(r !(3re la m*l/i&licidad de !*! C(rma! !ing*lare!; N( !e a/ri3*8e a !2 mi!m( *n l*gar Enic( 8 &ri7ilegiad( en la Berar@*2a de la na/*raleDa; La c(n!ang*inidad de /(da! la! C(rma! de la 7ida &arece !er *n !*&*e!/( general del &en!amien/( m2/ic(" la! creencia! /(/ mica! re&re!en/an *n( de l(! ra!g(! mF! carac/er2!/ic(! de la c*l/*ra &rimi/i7a; La 7ida religi(!a 8 !(cial de la! /ri3*! mF! &rimi/i7a! H&(r eBem&l(" la! /ri3*! a3(r2gene! de A*!/ralia" @*e Aan !id( e!/*diada! 8 de!cri/a! de/alladamen/e &(r S&encer 8 Gillen-)H !e Aalla g(3ernada &(r c(nce&ci(ne! /(/ mica!; 6 en e/a&a! m*cA( mF! a7anDada!" en la religin de naci(ne! m*8 ci7iliDada!" enc(n/ram(! *n !i!/ema m*8 c(m&leB( 8 ela3(rad( de c*l/( D((lF/ric(; En el /(/emi!m( el A(m3re n( !l( !e c(n!idera c(m( de!cendien/e de cier/a e!&ecie animalM *n 72nc*l( /an/( ac/*al 8 real c(m( gen !ic( c(nec/a /(da !* 7ida C2!ica 8 /(da !* e>i!/encia !(cial c(n !*! an/e&a!ad(! /(/ mic(!; En m*cA(! ca!(! e!/a c(ne>in e! !en/ida 8 e>&re!ada c(m( iden/idad; El e/nl(g( ^arl 7(n den S/einen c*en/a @*e l(! miem3r(! de cier/( clan /(/ mic( de *na /ri3* india aCirma 3an @*e eran *na mi!ma c(!a @*e el animal del @*e deri7a3an !* (rigen4 e>&re!amen/e declara3an ser animale! ac*F/ic(! ( &a&aga8(! r(B(!; -- N(! c*en/a FraDer @*e en/re la! /ri3*! dieri de A*!/ralia el ca3ecilla de *n //em" @*e c(n!i!/2a en *na cla!e &ar/ic*lar de !imien/e" era n(m3rad( &(r !* &*e3l( c(m( siendo la &lan/a mi!ma @*e &r(d*ce la !emilla; -5 _em(! &(r e!/(! eBem&l(! cm( la creencia Cirme en la *nidad de la 7ida (&aca la! diCerencia! @*e de!de n*e!/r( &*n/( de 7i!/a &arecen innega3le! e im3(rra3le!" &er( n( 7a8am(! a !*&(ner @*e e!/a! diCerencia! !(n c(m&le/amen/e ign(rada!; N( !(n negada! en *n !en/id( em&2ric( &er( !e c(n!ideran Gin!igniCican/e!G en *n !en/id( religi(!(; Para el !en/ir m2/ic( 8 religi(!( la na/*raleDa !e c(n7ier/e en *na gran !(ciedad" la !(ciedad de la 7ida; El A(m3re n( (c*&a *n l*gar de!/acad( en e!/a !(ciedadM C(rma &ar/e de ella &er( en ningEn a!&ec/( !e Aalla !i/*ad( mF! al/( @*e ningEn (/r( miem3r(; La 7ida &(!ee la mi!ma dignidad religi(!a en !*! C(rma! mF! A*milde! 8 mF! ele7ada!M l(! A(m3re! 8 l(! animale!" l(! animale! 8 la! &lan/a! !e Aallan al mi!m( ni7el; En la! !(ciedade! /(/ mica! enc(n/ram(! &lan/a! ttem B*n/( a animale! ttem y el mi!m( &rinci&i( de la !(lidaridad 8 *nidad c(n/in*a de la 7ida !i &a!am(! del e!&aci( al /iem&(; _ale n( !l( en el (rden de la !im*l/aneidad !in( /am3i n en el de la !*ce!in; La! generaci(ne! de A(m3re! C(rman *na cadena Enica 8 n( in/err*m&idaM la! e/a&a! an/eri(re! de la 7ida e!/Fn &re!er7ada! &(r la reencarna O cinM el alma de *n an/e&a!ad( a&arece en el reci n nacid( en *n e!/ad( reB*7enecid(; El &re!en/e" el &a!ad( 8 el &(r7enir !e C*nden *n( en (/r( !in @*e Aa8a *na l2nea ne/a de !e&aracinM l(! l2mi/e! en/re la! generaci(ne! !e Aacen incier/(!;
-)

Sir Lald9in S&encer 8 F; I; Gillen" >he Fati-e >ri!es (C 6entral Australia/ >he Forthern >ri!es of 6entral Australia. -CC; ^arl 7(n den S/einen" $nter den Fatur-Jl3ern QentralC(rasiliens +Lerl2n" #1$5," &; .N5; -5 FraDer" &ectures on the Early History of <ingship +L(ndre!" Macmillan" #$N)," &; #N$;

El !en/imien/( de la *nidad inde!/r*c/i3le de la 7ida e! /an C*er/e e inc(nm(7i3le @*e re&*gna 8 niega el AecA( de la m*er/e; En el &en!amien/( &rimi/i7( BamF! !e c(n!idera la m*er/e c(m( *n Cenmen( na/*ral @*e (3edece a le8e! generale!M !* acaecimien/( n( e! nece!ari( !in( acciden/al; De&ende" !iem&re" de ca*!a! !ing*lare! 8 C(r/*i/a!M e! (3ra de AecAicer2a ( de magia ( de alg*na (/ra inCl*encia &er!(nal A(!/il; En !* de!cri&cin de la! /ri3*! a3(r2gene! de A*!/ralia !*3ra8an S&encer 8 Gillen @*e l(! na/i7(! n( !e dan c*en/a BamF! de l( @*e llamam(! m*er/e na/*ral; Si *n A(m3re m*ere e! @*e Aa !id( m*er/( nece!ariamen/e &(r (/r( ( aca!( &(r *na m*BerM 8" mF! /arde ( mF! /em&ran(" e!e A(m3re ( e!a m*Ber !erFn a/acad(!; -1 La m*er/e n( Aa e>i!/id( !iem&reM !e in/r(d*B( &(r *n !*ce!( &ar/ic*lar" &(r la Calla de *n A(m3re ( &(r algEn accidenO /e; M*cA(! rela/(! m2/ic(! !e reCieren al (rigen de la m*er/e; La idea de @*e el A(m3re e! m(r/al &(r na/*raleDa 8 e!encia &arece e>/ra'a &(r c(m&le/( al &en!aO mien/( m2/ic( 8 al religi(!( &rimi/i7(; A e!/e re!&ec/( e>i!/e *na diCerencia n(/a3le en/re la creencia m2/ica en la inm(r/alidad 8 la! C(rma! &(!/eri(re! de *na creencia &*ramen/e Cil(!Cica; Si leem(! el edn de Pla/n n(! darem(! c*en/a de /(d( el e!C*erD( @*e Aace el &en!amien/( Cil(!Cic( &ara &r(&(rci(narn(! *na &r*e3a clara e irreC*/a3le de la inm(r/alidad del alma A*mana; En el &en!amien/( m2/ic( el ca!( e! 3ien di!/in/(; La carga de la &r*e3a c(rre!&(nde a la &ar/e c(n/raria; Si alg( nece!i/a &r*e3a n( e! el AecA( de la inm(r/alidad !in( el de la m*er/e 8 el mi/( 8 la religin &rimi/i7a n*nca admi/en e!/a! &r*e3a!" &*e! niegan enCF/icamen/e la &(!i3ilidad real de la m*er/e; En cier/( !en/id(" /(d( el &en!amien/( m2/ic( &*ede !er in/er&re/ad( &(r *na negacin c(n!/an/e 8 (3!/inada del Cenmen( de la m*er/e; En 7ir/*d de e!/a c(n7iccin acer ca de la *nidad c(m&ac/a 8 de la c(n/in*idad de la 7ida el mi/( /iene @*e eliminar e!/e Cenmen(M la religin &rimi/i7a re&re!en/a aca!( la aCirmacin mF! 7ig(r(!a 8 en rgica de la 7ida @*e &(dem(! enc(n/rar en la c*l/*ra; En *na de!cri&cin de l(! /e>/(! mF! an/ig*(! de la! PirFmide! dice Lrea!/ed @*e la n(/a &rinci&al 8 d(minan/e e! *na &r(/e!/a in!i!/en/e 8 Aa!/a a&a!i(nada c(n/ra la m*er/e; GSe &(dr2a decir @*e !(n el /e!/im(ni( de la &rimera re3elin !*&rema de la A*manidad c(n/ra la gran (!c*ridad 8 !ilenci( de d(nde nadie 7*el7e; IamF! enc(n/ram(! la &ala3ra m*er/e en l(! /e>/(! de la! PirFmide! mF! @*e en !en/id( nega/i7( ( a&licada a *n enemig(; Una 7eD 8 (/ra e!c*cAam(! la aCirmacin recalci/ran/e de @*e el m*er/( 7i7e;G 01e-elopment of )eligin and >hought in Ancient Egypt/ N*e7a 6(r{" CAarle! Scri3nerw! S(n!" #$#?" &; $#;, En !* !en/imien/( indi7id*al 8 !(cial el A(m3re &rimi/i7( !e Aalla in!&irad( &(r e!/a !eg*ridad; La 7ida del A(m3re n( enc*en/ra l2mi/e! deCinid(! en el e!&aci( ( en el /iem&(" !e e>/iende !(3re /(d( el rein( de la na/*raleDa 8 !(3re /(da la Ai!/(ria A*mana; :er3er/ S&encer deCendi la /e!i! de @*e !e Aa de c(n!iderar el c*l/( a l(! an/e&a!ad(! c(m( la C*en/e &rimera 8 el (rigen de la religin; En /(d( ca!( re&re!en/a *n( de l(! m(/i7(! religi(!(! mF! generale!; P(ca! raDa! &arece Aa3er @*e n( &rac/i@*en en *na C(rma * (/ra algEn g ner( de c*l/( a la m*er/e; Un( de l(! de3ere! religi(!(! mF! al/(! del !*& r!/i/e c(n!i!/e en &r(7eer al an/e&a!ad(
-1

S&encer 8 Gillen" >he Fati-e >ri!es of 6entral Australia/ &; %1;

m*er/( de alimen/( 8 de (/ra! c(!a! E/ile! &ara man/enerl( en el n*e7( e!/ad( en @*e Aa ingre!ad(;-$ En m*cA(! ca!(! el c*l/( a l(! an/e&a!ad(! 7iene a !er el ra!g( general @*e carac/eriDa 8 de/ermina /(da la 7ida religi(!a 8 !(cial; En CAina e!/e c*l/( a l(! an/e&a!ad(!" !anci(nad( 8 reg*lad( &(r la religin (Cicial" e! c(nce3id( c(m( la Enica religin @*e &*ede /ener el &*e3l(; SigniCica Hc(m( dice De Gr((/" en !* de!cri&cin de la religin cAinaH" @*e l(! laD(! Camiliare! c(n el m*er/( n( !e r(m&en 8 !/e c(n/inEa eBerciend( !* a*/(ridad 8 di!&en!and( !* &r(/eccin; L(! m*er/(! !(n l(! &a/r(n(! di7in(! na/*rale! del &*e3l( cAin(" l(! di(!e! d(m !/ic(! @*e &r(/egen c(n/ra l(! e!&ec/r(! 8 &r(m*e7en a!2 la Celicidad;;; E! el c*l/( a l(! an/e&a!ad(! el @*e" c(n!ig*iend( &ara el A(m3re la &r(/eccin de l(! miem3r(! diC*n/(! de la Camilia" le &r(&(rci(na ri@*eDa 8 &r(!&eridad; P(r e!/(" /(d( l( @*e &(!ee e! &(!e!in real de l(! m*er/(!M !/(! c(n/inEan c(Aa3i/and( c(n l 8 la! le8e! de la a*/(ridad &a/ernal 8 &a/riarcal c(n!ideran @*e l(! an/e&a!ad(! !(n l(! &r(&ie/ari(! de /(d( l( @*e *na cria/*ra &(!ee;;; Tenem(!" &*e!" @*e c(n!iderar el c*l/( a l(! &adre! 8 a l(! an/e&a!ad(! c(m( el 7erdader( c(raDn de la 7ida religi(!a 8 !(cial del &*e3l( cAin(; 0>he )eligin of the 6hinese/ N*e7a 6(r{" Macmillan" #$#N" &&; -5 8 1?; Para ma8(r inC(rmacin 7 a!e De Gr((/" >he )eligious %ystem of 6hina/ Le8den" #1$? 8 ss./ 7(l!; I_O_I;, CAina e! el &a2! clF!ic( del c*l/( a l(! an/e&a!ad(! 8 en l &(dem(! e!/*diar /(d(! !*! ra!g(! C*ndamen/ale! 8 !*! c(n!ec*encia! e!&eciale!M !in em3arg(" el m(/i7( religi(!( general @*e !e Aalla en la 3a!e del c*l/( a l(! an/e&a!ad(! n( de&ende de c(ndici(ne! c*l/*rale! ( !(ciale! &ar/ic*lare!; L( enc(n/ram(! en am3ien/e! c*l/*rale! m*8 di7er!(!M en la an/igJedad clF!ica /r(&eDarem(! c(n el mi!m( m(/i7( en la religin r(mana 8 /am3i n en e!/e ca!( Aa ac*'ad( el carFc/er; En !* c(n(cid( li3r( &a ciudad antigua/ F*!/el de C(*lange! n(! (Crece *na de!cri&cin de la religin r(mana en la @*e /ra/a de dem(!/rar @*e /(da la 7ida !(cial 8 &(l2/ica de l(! r(man(! lle7a la! A*ella! del c*l/( a l(! mane!; El c*l/( a l(! an/e&a!ad(! !ig*i !iend( !iem&re *na de la! carac/er2!/ica! 3F!ica! 8 d(minan/e! de la religin r(mana; P(r (/ra &ar/e" *n( de l(! ra!g(! mF! !e'alad(! de la religin de l(! indi(! american(!" en el @*e &ar/ici&an ca!i /(da! la! /ri3*! @*e !e e>/ienden de Ala!{a a la Pa/ag(nia" e! !* creencia en la 7ida de!&* ! de la m*er/e 3a!ada !(3re la creencia" ig*almen/e general" de la c(m*nicacin en/re l(! 7i7(! 8 l(! e!&2ri/*! de l(! m*er/(!; 5N T(d( e!/( n(! da a en/ender de *na manera clara @*e Aem(! llegad( a /(&ar c(n *na carac/er2!/ica realmen/e *ni7er!al" irred*c/i3le 8 e!encial de la religin &rimi/i7a; 6 n( e! &(!i3le c(m&render e!/e elemen/( en !* 7erdader( !en/id( mien/ra! !igam(! &en!and( @*e la! religi(ne! /ienen !* (rigen en el /em(r; :a8 @*e 3*!car *na C*en/e mF! &r(C*nda !i !e &re/ende c(m&render el 72nc*l( c(mEn @*e /ra3a el Cenmen( del /(/emi!m( c(n el del c*l/( a l(! an/e&a!ad(!; E! cier/( @*e l( !an/(" l( !acr(" l( di7in( c(n/iene !iem&re *n elemen/( de /em(r4 e!" al mi!m(
5
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Un 7ali(!( ma/erial e/n(lgic(" @*e il*!/ra e!/e &*n/(" !e &*ede enc(n/rar en el ar/2c*l( !(3re el c*l/( a l(! an/e&a!ad(! en la Encyclopedia of )eligin and Ethics de :a!/ing!" I" %?) ss. 5N CC; GEl c*l/( a l(! an/e&a!ad(!G" en la Encyclopedia de :a!/ing! I" %..;

/iem&(" *n m ysterium fascinosum/ 8 *n mysterium treCmendum. 58 Si n(! a/enem(! a l( dicA(" !i B*Dgam(! la men/alidad del A(m3re &rimi/i7( /an/( &(r !*! acO ci(ne! c(m( &(r !*! re&re!en/aci(ne! 8 cred(!" 7erem(! @*e e!/a! acci(ne! !*&(nen *n m(/i7( diCeren/e 8 mF! C*er/e; La 7ida del A(m3re &rimi/i7( !e Aalla amena O Dada &(r &eligr(! de!c(n(cid(! de!de /(d(! l(! c(!/a d(! 8 a cada m(men/(; El an/ig*( dicA( primus in or!e deos fecit timor c(n/iene" &(r l( /an/(" *na in/erna 7er(!imili/*d &!ic(lgicaM &er( &arece c(m( !i en la! e/a&a! &rimera! 8 mF! 3aBa! de la ci7iliDacin A*3iera enc(n/rad( el A(m3re *na C*erDa n*e7a c(n la c*al &( O der Aacer Cren/e 8 eliminar al /em(r a la m*er/e; Le (&(n2a !* c(nCianDa en la !(lidaridad" en la *nidad c(m&ac/a e inde!/r*c/i3le de la 7ida; Preci!amen/e el /(/emi!m( e>&re!a e!/a c(n7iccin &r(C*nda de *na c(m*nidad de /(d(! l(! !ere! 7i7ien/e!" @*e de3e !er &re!er7ada 8 C(r/alecida &(r l(! e!C*erD(! c(n!/an/e! del A(m3re" &(r la eBec*cin e!/ric/a de ri/(! mFgic(! 8 de &rFc/ica! religi(!a!; Un( de l(! m ri/(! ma8(re! del li3r( de K; R(3er/!(nOSmi/A !(3re la religin de l(! !emi/a! c(n!i!/e en Aa3er !*3ra8ad( e!/e &*n/(; A!2 le C*e &(!i3le relaci(nar el Cenmen( del /(/emi!m( c(n (/r(! de la 7ida religi(!a @*e" a &rimera 7i!/a" !e B*Dgan de *n /i&( diCeren/e; :a!/a la! !*&er!/ici(ne! mF! cr*da! 8 cr*ele! a&arecen a *na n*e7a l*D c*and( !(n mirada! de!de e!/e Fng*l(; Alg*n(! de l(! ra!g(! mF! n(/a3le! 8 c(n!/an/e! de /(d( el &agani!m( an/ig*( Hn(! diceH" em&eDand( de!de el /(/emi!m( de l(! !al7aBe!" enc*en/ran !* e>&licacin !*Cicien/e en el &aren/e!c( C2!ic( @*e *ne a l(! miem3r(! A*man(! 8 !(3reA*man(! de la mi!ma c(m*nidad religi(!a 8 !(cial;;; El 72nc*l( indi!(l*3le en/re l(! A(m3re! 8 !*! di(!e! e! el mi!m( 72nc*l( de &aren/e!c( de !angre @*e en la !(ciedad &rimi/i7a c(n!/i/*8e el e!la3n en/re A(m3re 8 A(m3re 8 el &rinci&i( !agrad( de (3ligacin m(ral; _em(! a!2 @*e Aa!/a en !*! C(rma! mF! r*da! la religin era *na C*erDa m(ral;;; De!de l(! &rimer(! /iem&(! la religin" di!/in/a de la magia ( de la AecAicer2a" !e dirig2a a !ere! em&aren/ad(! 8 amiga3le! @*e &(d2an e!/ar enCadad(! c(n !* &*e3l( d*ran/e algEn /iem&( &er( /am3i n !er a&lacad(!" &er( n( &(r l(! enemig(! de !*! !er7id(re! ( &(r l(! miem3r(! renegad(! de la c(m*nidad;;; En e!/e !en/id( la religin n( e! AiBa del /err(r" 8 la diCerencia en/re ella 8 la amenaDa !al7aBe de enemig(! in7i!i3le! e! a3!(l*/a 8 C*ndamen/al /an/( en la! &rimera! c(m( en la! El/ima! e/a&a! de de!arr(ll(; 0&ectures on the )eligion of the %emites/ Edim3*rg(" A; C; Llac{" #11$" Lec/*re II" &&; ). ss. CC; Lec/*re X" &&; ..% ss.?. L(! ri/(! C*nerari(! @*e enc(n/ram(! en /(da! &ar/e! /ienden Aacia el mi!m( &*n/(; El /em(r a la m*er/e re&re!en/a" !in d*da" *n( de l(! in!/in/(! A*man(! mF! generale! 8 mF! &r(C*ndamen/e arraigad(!; La &rimera reaccin del A(m3re an/e el cadF7er Aa de3id( de !er el a3and(narl( a !* !*er/e 8 A*ir de l c(n /err(r" &er( !emeBan/e reaccin la enc(n/ram(! !l( en *n(! c*an/(! ca!(! e>ce&ci(nale!; M*8 &r(n/( e! !*&erada &(r la ac/i/*d c(n/raria" &(r el de!e( de de/ener ( e7(car el e!&2ri/* del m*er/(; N*e!/r( ma/erial e/n(lgic( n(! m*e!/ra la l*cAa en/re e!/(! d(! im&*l!(!M &er( &arece @*e" &(r l( general" aca3a &(r d(minar el !e g*nd(; E! cier/( @*e enc(n/ram(! /am3i n di7er!(! in/en/(! &ara e7i/ar @*e el e!&2ri/* del
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CC; R*d(lC O//(" 1as Heilige +G(/inga" #$#?,; Trad*ccin e!&a'(la de la Re7i!/a de Occiden/e;

m*er/( re/(rne a la ca!a4 !e e!&arcen ceniDa! de/rF! del cadF7er a medida @*e e! c(nd*cid( al !e&*lcr(" a Cin de @*e el e!&2ri/* !e de!&i!/e; Se Aa e>&licad( la c(!/*m3re de cerrar l(! (B(! de l(! m*er/(! c(m( *n in/en/( &ara cegar el cadF7er 8 e7i/ar a!2 @*e 7ea el camin( &(r el c*al e! c(nd*cid( a la /*m3aM 5? &er( en la ma8(r2a de l(! ca!(! &re7alece la /endencia c(n/raria; L(! !*& r!/i/e! /ra/an c(n /(da! !*! C*erDa! de re/ener el e!&2ri/* en la 7ecindad; M*8 a men*d( el c*er&( e! en/errad( en la mi!ma ca!a" @*e !e c(n7ier/e a!2 en !* Aa3i/Fc*l( &ermanen/e; L(! e!&2ri/*! de l(! diC*n/(! !e c(n7ier/en en l(! di(!e! d(m !/ic(! 8 la 7ida 8 la &r(!&eridad de la Camilia de&enden de !* !(c(rr( 8 Ca7(r; C*and( m*ere el &adre !e le im&l(ra &ara @*e n( !e marcAe; GSiem&re /e @*i!im(! Hdice *na cancin rec(gida &(r T8l(rH" 8 Aem(! 7i7id( m*cA( /iem&( B*n/(! 3aB( el mi!m( /ecA(M tn( l( a3and(ne! aA(rauM t 7*el7e a /* ca!au E! d*lce &ara /i 8 lim&iaM 8 a@*2 e!/am(! n(!(/r(!" @*e /e @*i!im(! !iem&reM 8 a@*2 /iene! el arr(D &re&arad( &ara /i" 8 ag*aM t7*el7e a ca!a" 7*el7e a ca!a" 7*el7e de n*e7( a n(!(/r(!uG 0'p. cif./ .a ed;" II" .? s.? En e!/( n( Aa8 diCerencia radical en/re el &en!amien/( m2/ic( 8 el religi(!(M l(! d(! !e (riginan en el mi!m( Cenmen( C*ndamen/al de la 7ida A*mana; En el de!arr(ll( de la c*l/*ra n( &(dem(! CiBar el &*n/( d(nde ce!a el mi/( y c(mienDa la religin; En el c*r!( de !* Ai!/(ria la religin &ermanece indi!(l*3lemen/e c(nec/ada e im&regnada c(n elemen/(! m2/ic(!; P(r (/ra &ar/e" el mi/(" Aa!/a en !*! C(rma! mF! cr*da! 8 r*dimen/aria!" al3erga alg*n(! m(/i7(! @*e" en cier/( !en/id(" an/ici&an l(! ideale! religi(!(! !*&eri(re! de de!&* !; El mi/( e!" de!de !*! c(mienD(!" religin &(/encial; L( @*e c(nd*ce de *na e/a&a a (/ra n( e! *na cri!i! !E3i/a del &en!amien/( ni *na re7(l*cin del !en/imien/(; En &as dos fuentes de la moral y la religin /ra/a de c(n7encern(! Lerg!(n de @*e e>i!/e *na (&(!icin irred*c/i3le en/re l( @*e l llama religin est7tica y religin din7mica. La &rimera e! *n &r(d*c/( de la &re!in !(cialM la !eg*nda !e 3a!a en la li3er/ad; En la religin dinFmica n( n(! rendim(! a *na &re!in !in( a *na a/raccin 8 median/e e!/a a/raccin r(m&em(! c(n /(d(! l(! 72nc*l(! !(ciale! an/eri(re! de *na m(ral e!/F/ica" c(n7enci(nal 8 /radici(nal; N( llegam(! a la C(rma mF! al/a de religin" a *na religin de la A*manidad" &(r grad(!" a /ra7 ! de la! e/a&a! de la Camilia 8 de la nacin; C(n *n !(l( !al/( Hn(! dice Lerg!(nH !(m(! lle7ad(! m*cA( mF! leB(!" 8" !in Aa3erla c(n7er/id( en n*e!/r( Cin" la alcanDam(! 3r*!camen/e;;; 6a Aa3lem(! el leng*aBe de la religin ( el de la Cil(!(C2a" 8a !ea *na c*e!/in de am(r ( de re!O &e/(" !(3re7iene *na m(ral diCeren/e" (/r( g ner( de (3ligacin &(r encima 8 mF! allF de la &re!in m(ral;;; Mien/ra! @*e la (3ligacin na/*ral e! *na &re!in ( C*erDa &r(&*l!i7a" la m(ral c(m&le/a 8 &erCec/a !*r/e el eCec/( de *n llamamienO /(;;; N( e! median/e *n &r(ce!( de e>&an!in del 8( c(m( &(dem(! &a!ar de la &rimera e/a&a a la !eg*nda;;; C*and( recAaDam(! la! a&ariencia! &ara ca&/ar la realidad;;; enc(n/ram(! en l(! d(! e>/rem(! &re!in 8 a!&iracin4 la &rimera /an/( mF! &erCec/a c*an/( mF! im&er!(nal !e Aace" mF! &r>ima a e!a! C*erDa!
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Para ma/erial e/n(lgic(" 7 a!e Sir Ed9ard L*rne// T8l(r" 5rimiti-e 6ulture +N*e7a 6(r{" :enr8 :(l/ C(;" #15%," ca&; XI_;

na/*rale! @*e llamam(! AF3i/( ( in!/in/(" la !eg*nda /an/( mF! &(der(!a c*an/( en ma8(r grad( !ea de!&er/ada en n(!(/r(! &(r &er!(na! de/erminada! 8 mF! &aO /en/emen/e /ri*nCe !(3re la na/*raleDa; 0&es deux sources de la morale et de la religin/ II" ?)" ?-" .N" %? de la /rad*ccin ingle!a" N*e7a 6(r{" :(l/ C(;" #$.);, Re!*l/a !(r&renden/e @*e Lerg!(n" c*8a d(c/rina Aa !id( de!cri/a m*cAa! 7ece! c(m( *na Cil(!(C2a 3i(lgica" c(m( *na Cil(!(C2a de la 7ida 8 de la na/*raleDa" &areDca en !* El/ima (3ra c(nd*cid( a *n ideal m(ral 8 religi(!( @*e !(3re&a!a c(n m*cA( e!/e cam&(; El A(m3re !*&era a la na/*raleDa c*and( e>/iende la !(lidaridad !(cial Aa!/a la Cra/ernidad de l(! A(m3re!M &er(" al mi!m( /iem&(" la enga'a" &*e! a@*ella! !(ciedade! @*e !e Aalla3an &reCig*rada! en la e!/r*c/*ra (riginal del alma A*maO na;;; re@*ieren @*e el gr*&( !e Aalle c(m&ac/amen/e *nid( &er( @*e en/re gr*&( 8 gr*&( e>i!/a *na A(!/ilidad 7ir/*al;;; El A(m3re" reci n !alid( de la! man(! de la na/*raleDa" era" a la 7eD" *n !er in/eligen/e 8 !(cial" e!/and( !* !(cia3ilidad endereDada a enc(n/rar !* Cin en &e@*e'a! c(m*nidade! 8 !* in/eligencia a &r(m(7er la 7ida indi7id*al 8 de gr*&(; Per( la in/eligencia" e>&andi nd(!e &(r !*! &r(&i(! e!C*erD(!" !e Aa de!arr(llad( ine!&eradamen/e; :a li3er/ad( a l(! A(m3re! de la! re!/ricci(ne! a @*e e!/a3an c(ndenad(! &(r la! limi/aci(ne! de !* na/*raleDa; Siend( e!/( a!2" n( era im&(!i3le @*e alg*n(! de ell(!" e!&ecialmen/e d(/ad(!" 7(l7ieran a a3rir l( @*e e!/a3a cerrad( e Aicieran" &(r l( men(! &ara !2 mi!m(!" l( @*e la na/*raleDa &(!i3lemen/e n( &(dr2a Aa3er AecA( &(r la e!&ecie A*mana; 0'p. cit.? La /ica de Lerg!(n e! c(n!ec*encia 8 c(r(lari( de !* me/aC2!ica; La /area @*e !e &r(&*!( C*e la de in/er&re/ar la 7ida m(ral del A(m3re en l(! / rmin(! de !* !i!/ema me/aC2!ic(; En !* Cil(!(C2a de la na/*raleDa el m*nd( (rgFnic( Aa !id( de!cri/( c(m( re!*l/ad( de d(! C*erDa! c(n/raria!; Enc(n/ram(!" &(r *na &ar/e" el mecani!m( de la ma/eria 8" &(r (/ra" el &(der cread(r 8 c(n!/r*c/i7( del lan -ital. El & nd*l( de la 7ida (!cila c(n!/an/emen/e en/re *n &(l( 8 (/r(M la inercia de la ma/eria re!i!/e a la energ2a del im&*l!( 7i/al; SegEn Lerg!(n" la 7ida /ica del A(m3re reCleBa la mi!ma l*cAa me/aC2!ica en/re *n &rinci&i( ac/i7( 8 (/r( &a!i7(; La 7ida !(cial re&i/e 8 reCleBa el &r(ce!( *ni7er!al @*e enc(n/ram(! en la 7ida (rgFnica 8 !e Aalla di7idida en/re d(! C*erDa! (&*e!/a!; La *na /iende a &re!er7ar 8 Aacer e/ern( el e!/ad( &re!en/e de la! c(!a!M la (/ra /ra/a de crear n*e7a! C(rma! de 7ida A*mana @*e n( e>i!/ier(n an/e!; La &rimera /endencia carac/eriDa a la religin e!/F/ica" la !eg*nda a la dinFmicaM BamF! !e &(drFn red*cir am3a! a *n den(minad(r c(mEn; El g ner( A*man( &*ede &a!ar de *n &*n/( a (/r( !l( median/e !al/(! 3r*!c(!M de la &a!i7idad a la ac/i7idad" de la &re!in !(cial a *na 7ida indi7id*al" a*/n(ma" /ica; N( 7(8 a negar @*e e>i!/e *na diCerencia C*ndamen/al en/re e!a! d(! C(rma! de religin de!cri/a! &(r Lerg!(n c(m( religin de &re!in 8 de llamamien/(; S* li3r( n(! (Crece *n anFli!i! clar( e im&re!i(nan/e de am3a! C(rma!; Sin em3arg(" *n !i!/ema me/aC2!ic( n( &*ede c(n/en/ar!e c(n *na mera de!cri&cin anal2/ica de l(! Cenmen(! !in( @*e Aa de &r(c*rar red*cirl(! a !*! ca*!a! El/ima!M &(r e!( Lerg!(n

/iene @*e deri7ar l(! d(! /i&(! de 7ida m(ral 8 religi(!a de d(! C*erDa! di7ergen/e!" *na @*e g(3ierna la 7ida !(cial &rimi/i7a 8 (/ra @*e r(m&e la cadena de la !(ciedad &ara crear *n n*e7( ideal de *na 7ida &er!(nal li3re; Si ace&/am(! e!/a /e!i!" n( e>i!/e *n &r(ce!( c(n/in*( @*e n(! &*eda lle7ar de *na C(rma a la (/ra; Una cri!i! !E3i/a del &en!amien/( 8 *na re7(l*cin del !en/imien/( !e'ala la /ran!icin de la religin e!/F/ica a la dinFmica; Sin em3arg(" *n e!/*di( de/enid( de la Ai!/(ria de la religin diC2cilmen/e &*ede c(rr(3(rar e!/a c(nce&cin; De!de *n &*n/( de 7i!/a Ai!/ric(" e! m*8 diC2cil man/ener la di!/incin /aBan/e en/re la! d(! C*en/e! de religin 8 m(ral; Seg*ramen/e Lerg!(n n( &re/end2a enc(n/rar !* /e(r2a /ica 8 religi(!a 3a!Fnd(la Enicamen/e en raD(ne! me/aC2!ica!M c(n!/an/emen/e !e reCiere a la! &r*e3a! em&2rica! @*e !e c(n/ienen en la! (3ra! de l(! !(cil(g(! 8 de l(! an/r(&l(g(!; Per( en/re l(! dedicad(! a la an/r(&(l(g2a Aac2a /iem&( @*e era (&inin c(rrien/e @*e n( e! &(!i3le Aa3lar" en la! c(ndici(ne! de la 7ida !(cial &rimi/i7a" de ning*na ac/i7idad &(r &ar/e del indi7id*(M &*e! l( indi7id*al n( /en2a *n l*gar &r(&i(; L(! !en/imien/(!" l(! &en!amien/(!" l(! ac/(! del A(m3re n( &r(ced2an de l !in( @*e le eran im&*e!/(! &(r *na C*erDa e>/erna; La 7ida &rimi/i7a !e carac/eriDa &(r *n mecani!m( r2gid(" *niC(rme" ine>(ra3le; La /radicin 8 la c(!/*m3re eran (3edecida! !er7il 8 e!&(n/Fneamen/e gracia! a *na &*ra inercia men/al ( a *n in!/in/( de gr*&( @*e /(d( l( d(mina3a; E!/a !*mi!in a*/(mF/ica de cada miem3r( de la /ri3* a !*! le8e! C*e c(n!iderada m*cA( /iem&( c(m( el a>i(ma C*ndamen/al @*e !er72a de 3a!e a la! in7e!/igaci(ne! del (rden &rimi/i7( 8 del a&eg( a la le8; In7e!/igaci(ne! an/r(&(lgica! recien/e! Aan c(nm(7id( m*cA( e!/e d(gma del mecani!m( 8 el a*/(ma/i!m( c(m&le/(; SegEn Malin(9!{i" Aa c(l(cad( la realidad de la 7ida de l(! ind2gena! 3aB( *na &er!&ec/i7a Cal!a; C(m( l mi!m( !*3ra8a" el !al7aBe &(!ee" !in d*da" el ma8(r re!&e/( &(r la! c(!/*m3re! 8 /radici(ne! de !* /ri3*" &er( la C*erDa de !/a! n( e! l( Enic( en la 7ida !al7aBeM Aa!/a en *n &lan( 7erdaderamen/e 3aB( de la c*l/*ra enc(n/ram(! A*ella! deCinida! de *na C*erDa diCeren/e;5. Una 7ida de mera &re!in" *na 7ida A*mana en la c*al /(da! la! ac/i7idade! indi7id*ale! e!/ar2an c(m&le/amen/e !*&rimida! 8 eliminada!" &arece mF! 3ien *na c(n!/r*ccin !(ci(lgica ( me/aC2!ica @*e *na realidad Ai!/rica; En la Ai!/(ria de la c*l/*ra griega enc(n/ram(! *n &eri(d( en el @*e l(! 7ieB(! di(!e!" l(! di(!e! de :(rner( 8 de :e!2(d(" c(mienDan a declinar" !(n a/acada! 7ig(r(!amen/e la! c(nce&ci(ne! &(&*lare! de e!/(! di(!e!; S*rge *n n*e7( ideal religi(!( C(rmad( &(r indi7id*alidade!; L(! grande! &(e/a! 8 l(! grande! &en!ad(re!" E!@*il( 8 E*r2&ide!" IenCane!" :erFcli/(" Ana>ag(ra!" crean (/ra! &a*/a! in/elec/*ale! 8 m(rale!; Al !er medid(! c(n ella! l(! di(!e! A(m ric(! &ierden !* a*/(ridad" !e 7e c(n claridad !* carFc/er an/r(&(mrCic(" @*e e! cri/icad( !e7eramen/e; Sin em3arg(" e!/e an/r(&(m(rCi!m( de la religin &(&*lar griega n( e!/a3a de!&r(7i!/( en m(d( alg*n( de *n 7al(r 8 !igniCicad( &(!i/i7(!; La A*maniDacin de l(! di(!e! re&re!en/ *n &a!( indi!&en!a3le en la e7(l*cin del &en!amien/( religi(!(; En m*cA(! c*l/(! l(cale! de Grecia enc(n/ram(! /(da72a
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_ a!e Malin(9!{i" 6rime and 6ustom in %a-age %o ciety +L(ndre! 8 N*e7a 6(r{" #$?-,;

A*ella! deCinida! de D((la/r2a 8 Aa!/a de cred(! /(/ mic(!; 5% El &r(gre!( de la religin griega Hdice Gil3er/ M*rra8 H !e de!arr(lla na/*ralmen/e en /re! e/a&a!" la! c*ale! !(n Ai!/ricamen/e im&(r/an/e!; Primeramen/e /enem(! la &rimi/i7a Euetheia/ o edad de la in(cencia" an/e! de @*e <e*! /ra!/(rnara la men/e de l(! A(m3re!; Una e/a&a de la @*e n*e!/r(! an/r(&l(g(! 8 e>&l(rad(re! Aan enc(n/rad( &aralel(! en /(da! la! &ar/e! del m*nd(;;; Si en alg*n(! a!&ec/(! carac/er2!/icamen/e griega" e! en (/r(! /an /2&ica c(m( e/a&a! !imilare! del &en!amien/( en c*al@*ier (/ra &ar/e" 8 *n( e!/F /en/ad( a c(n!iderarla c(m( el c(mienD( n(rmal de /(da religin (" &(r l( men(!" c(m( la ma/eria &rima n(rmal c(n la @*e !e Aace la religin; 0 i-e %tages of Gree3 )eligin/ C(l*m3ia Uni7er!i/8 Lec/*re!" N*e7a 6(r{" C(l*m3ia Pre!!" #$.N" &; #-;, L*eg( 7iene e!e &r(ce!( @*e en la (3ra de Gil3er/ M*rra8 e! de!cri/( c(m( la Gc(n@*i!/a (l2m&icaG; De!&* ! de e!/a c(n@*i!/a" el A(m3re c(nci3e la na/*raleDa 8 !* &r(&i( l*gar en ella en *n !en/id( diCeren/e; El !en/imien/( general de la !(lidaridad de la 7ida cede !* l*gar a *n m(/i7( n*e7( 8 mF! C*er/e" al !en/id( e!&ec2Cic( de la indi7id*alidad del A(m3re; 6a n( e>i! /2a *n &aren/e!c( na/*ral" *na c(n!ang*inidad @*e c(nec/a al A(m3re c(n la! &lan/a! ( l(! animale!; El A(m3re c(menD a 7er en !*! di(!e! &er!(nale! !* &r(&ia &er!(nalidad a *na n*e7a l*D; E!/e &r(gre!( !e !ien/e claramen/e en el de!arr(ll( del di(! !*&rem(" del <e*! (l2m&ic(; Tam3i n <e*! e! *n di(! de la na/*raleDa" *n di(! ad(rad( en la! cima! de la! m(n/a'a! 8 @*e g(3ierna !(3re la! n*3e!" la ll*7ia 8 el ra8(" &er( grad*almen/e 7a a!*miend( *na n*e7a C(rma; En E!@*il( !e Aa c(n7er/id( en la e>&re!in de l(! ideale! /ic(! mF! al/(!" en el g*ardiFn 8 &r(/ec/(r de la B*!/icia; La religin A(m rica Hdice M*rra8H re&re!en/a *na e/a&a en la a*/(rrealiDacin de Grecia;;; N( !e c(nci3e el m*nd( de!&r(7i!/( de *n g(3iern( e>/ern( ni /am&(c( c(m( !*Be/( &*ramen/e a la! inc*r!i(ne! de la! !er&ien/e! 8 /(r(! 8 de aer(li/(! 8 m(n!/r*(! mana/ !in( g(3ernad( &(r *n c*er&( (rgFnic( de g(3ernan/e! &er!(nale! 8 raci(nale!" &adre! !a3i(! 8 e!&l ndid(!" &arecid(! al A(m3re &(r la in/eligencia 8 la C(rma" !l( @*e inc(m&ara3lemen/e !*&eri(re!; 0'p. cit./ &; 1?;, En e!/e &r(gre!( del &en!amien/( religi(!( n(! dam(! c*en/a del de!&er/ar de *n n*e7( 7ig(r 8 *na n*e7a ac/i7idad del e!&2ri/* A*man(; L(! Cil!(C(! 8 l(! an/r(&l(g(! n(! Aan dicA( a men*d( @*e la C*en/e 7erdadera 8 El/ima de la religin e! el !en/imien/( de de&endencia del A(m3re; SegEn ScAleiermacAer la re O ligin Aa !*rgid( del !en/imien/( de a3!(l*/a de&endencia de l( di7in(; En &a rama dorada +I" 51," I; G; FraDer ad(&/a e!/a /e!i!; GA!2" la religin" @*e c(menD c(m( *n rec(n(cimien/( liger( 8 &arcial de la e>i!/encia de &(dere! !*&eri(re! al A(m3re" c(n el a*men/( del c(n(cimien/( /iende a de!cender a *na c(nCe!in de la de&endencia en/era 8 a3!(l*/a del A(m3re re!&ec/( a l( di7in(M !* 7ieBa ac/i/*d li3re !e /r*eca en *na ac/i/*d de la mF! 3aBa &(!/racin an/e l(! &(dere!
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Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e Iane Ellen :arri!(n" 5rolegomena to the %tudy of Gree3 )eligin +Cam3ridge" #$N.," ca&; I;

mi!/eri(!(! de l( in7i!i3le;G Si e!/a de!cri&cin de la religin c(n/iene alg*na 7erdad n( n(! (Crece mF! @*e la mi/ad de ellaM en ningEn cam&( de la c*l/*ra !e &*ede &en!ar @*e *na ac/i/*d de la mF! 3aBa &(!/racin &*eda c(n!/i/*ir *n im&*l!( gen*in( 8 deci!i7(; N( &*ede !*rgir ning*na energ2a cread(ra a 3a!e de *na ac/i/*d en/eramen/e &a!i7a; En e!/e a!&ec/(" Aa!/a la magia de3e !er c(n!iderada c(m( *n &a!( im&(r/an/e en el de!en7(l7imien/( de la c(nciencia A*mana; La Ce en la magia c(n!/i/*8e *na de la! &rimera! 8 mF! C*er/e! e>&re!i(ne! del de!&er/ar de la c(nCianDa del A(m3re en !2 mi!m(; 6a n( !e !ien/e a la merced de C*erDa! na/*rale! ( !(3rena/*rale!M em&ieDa a de!em&e'ar !* &a&el 8 !e c(n7ier/e en *n ac/(r en el e!&ec/Fc*l( de la na/*raleDa; T(da &rFc/ica mFgica !e 3a!a en la c(n7iccin de @*e l(! eCec/(! na/*rale! de&enden en al/( grad( de l(! AecA(! A*man(!; La 7ida de la na/*raleDa de&ende de la B*!/a di!/ri3*cin 8 c((&eracin de la! C*erDa! A*mana! 8 !(3reA*mana!; Un ri/*al e!/ric/( 8 c(m&licad( reg*la e!/a c((&eracin; Cada cam&( &ar/ic*lar di!&(ne de !*! &r(&ia! regla! mFgica!; La! Aa8 e!&eciale! &ara la agric*l/*ra" &ara la caDa" &ara la &e!caM en la! !(ciedade! /(/ mica! l(! di7er!(! clane! &(!een ri/(! mFgic(! diCeren/e! @*e c(n!/i/*8en !* &ri7ilegi( 8 !* !ecre/( 8 !(n /an/( mF! nece!ari(! c*an/( mF! diC2cil 8 &eligr(!( e! l( @*e !e 7a a eBec*/ar; La magia n( !e *!a c(n &r(&!i/(! &rFc/ic(!" &ara a8*dar al A(m3re en la! nece!idade! de cada d2aM /iene (3Be/i7(! mF! al/(!" em&re!a! a7en/*rada! 8 &eligr(!a!; En !* de!cri&cin de la mi/(l(g2a de l(! na/i7(! de la! i!la! Tr(3riand n(! c*en/a Malin(9!{i @*e en la! /area! @*e n( re@*ieren e!C*erD(! &ar/ic*lare! 8 e>ce&ci(nale!" @*e n( nece!i/an de *n 7al(r ( ag*an/e e!&ecial" n( enc(n/ram(! ni magia ni mi/(l(g2a; Per( enc(n/ram(! *na magia m*8 de!arr(llada 8" en c(ne>in c(n ella" *na mi/(l(g2a" !iem&re @*e *na em&re!a e! &eligr(!a 8 !* re!*l/ad( incier/(; El A(m3re n( nece!i/a de la magia en Caena! ec(nmica! men(re! c(m( la! de la ar/e!an2a" la caDa" la rec(leccin de ra2ce! 8 Cr*/(! M5)!l( 3aB( *na /en!in em(/i7a C*er/e rec*rre a l(! ri/(! mFgic(!; Per( &reci!amen/e !* eBec*cin le &r(&(rci(na *n n*e7( !en/imien/( de !* &r(&i( &(der" del &(der de !* 7(l*n/ad 8 de !* energ2a; L( @*e el A(m3re c(n!ig*e c(n la magia e! la c(ncen/racin mF>ima de !*! e!C*erD(!" @*e en circ*n!/ancia! (rdinaria! !(n di!O &er!(! ( inc(Aeren/e!; La / cnica mi!ma de la magia e! la @*e re@*iere !emeBan/e c(ncen/racin in/en!a; C*al@*ier &rFc/ica mFgica reclama la mF>ima a/encin; Si n( !e eBec*/a en el (rden de3id( 8 de ac*erd( c(n la! mi!ma! regla! in7aria3le!" Calla en !*! eCec/(!; En e!/e a!&ec/( !e &*ede decir @*e la magia re&re!en/a la &rimera e!c*ela &(r d(nde /iene @*e &a!ar el A(m3re &rimi/i7(; A*n@*e n( &*eda c(nd*cir a l(! Cine! &rFc/ic(! @*e anAela" ni a !a/i!Cacer !*! de!e(!" le en!e'a a /ener c(nCianDa en !*! &r(&ia! C*erDa!" a c(n!iderar!e c(m( *n !er @*e n( nece!i/a !(me/er!e !im&lemen/e a la! C*erDa! de la na/*raleDa !in( @*e e! ca&aD" &(r el 2m&e/* e!&iri/*al" de reg*larla! 8 c(n/r(larla!" La relacin en/re la magia 8 la religin c(n!/i/*8e *na de la! ma/eria! mF! (!c*ra! 8 c(n/r(7er/ida!; An/r(&l(g(! 8 Cil!(C(! Aan /ra/ad( ince!an/emen/e de aclarar e!/a c*e!/in" &er( !*! /e(r2a! di7ergen am&liamen/e 8 a men*d( !e enc*en/ran en Clagran/e c(n/radiccin; E! na/*ral @*e de!eem(! *na deCinicin ne/a @*e n(! &ermi/a /raDar *na l2nea n2/ida
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Malin(9!{i" TAe F(*nda/i(n! (C Fai/A and M(ral!" &; ??;

de !e&aracin en/re la magia 8 la religin; :a3land( /ericamen/e e!/am(! c(n7encid(! de @*e n( &*eden !igniCicar la mi!ma c(!a 8 n(! re!i!/im(! a red*cirla! a *n (rigen c(mEn; Pen!am(! @*e la religin e! la e>&re!in !im3lica de n*e!/r(! ideale! m(rale! !*&rem(!" mien/ra! @*e c(n!ideram(! a la magia c(m( *n agregad( 3r*/( de !*&er!/ici(ne!; Si admi/im(! c*al@*ier aCinidad c(n la magia" la creencia religi(!a &arece c(n7er/ir!e en mera cred*lidad !*&er!/ici(!a; P(r (/ra &ar/e" el carFc/er de n*e!/r( ma/erial an/r(&(lgic( 8 e/n(grFCic( Aace e>/remadamen/e diC2cil !e&arar l(! d(! cam&(!; L(! in/en/(! en e!/a direccin !(n cada 7eD mF! CrFgile!; Parece *n &(!/*lad( de la an/r(&(l(g2a m(derna la c(n/in*idad c(m&le/a en/re magia 8 religin; 5- FraDer C*e *n( de l(! &rimer(! @*e /ra/ar(n de &r(3ar @*e" &reci!amen/e de!de *n &*n/( de 7i!/a an/r(&(lgic(" n( e! &(!i3le c(l(car 3aB( *n mi!m( rengln a la magia 8 a la religin; SegEn l" !(n en/eramen/e diCeren/e! &(r !* (rigen &!ic(lgic( 8 /ienden /am3i n a Cine! c(n/rari(!; El Craca!( 8 la 3ancarr(/a de la magia &re&ar la 72a de la religin; T*7( @*e derr*m3ar!e la magia &ara @*e &*diera emerger la religin; G_i( el A(m3re @*e Aa32a /(mad( &(r ca*!a! la! @*e n( l( eran 8 @*e /(d( !* e!C*erD( &ara /ra3aBar &(r medi( de e!/a! ca* !a! imaginaria! Aa32a !id( 7an(; S* &en(!( in!/r*men/( !e Aa32a de!ga!/ad(" !* ingen*a c*ri(!idad !e Aa32a derr(cAad( !in Cin alg*n(; :a32a e!/ad( /irand( de *na c*erda @*e n( arra!/ra3a nada;G De!e!&erand( de la magia e! c(m( el A(m3re enc(n/r la religin 8 de!c*O 3ri !* 7erdader( !en/id(; GSi el inmen!( m*nd( !ig*e en !* camin( !in la a8*da de l ( de !*! c(m&a'er(!" !erF !eg*ramen/e &(r@*e e>i!/en (/r(! !ere!" &arecid(! &er( m*cA( mF! C*er/e!" @*e" in7i!i3le!" dirigen !* c*r!( 8 &r(d*cen /(da la 7ariada !erie de ac(n/ecimien/(! @*e Aa!/a en/(nce! Aa32a cre2d( @*e de&end2an de !* &r(&ia magia;G 0'p. cit.? E!/a di!/incin &arece" !in em3arg(" ar/iCicial" l( mi!m( !i !e la c(n!idera de!de *n &*n/( de 7i!/a !i!/emF/ic( c(m( de!de l(! AecA(! e/n(lgic(!; N( &(!eem(! &r*e3a! em&2rica! de @*e e>i!/iera BamF! *na &(ca de la magia @*e Aa8a !id( !eg*ida 8 !*&erada &(r *na &(ca de la religin; 55 AdemF!" el anFli!i! &!ic(lgic( en @*e !e 3a!a la di!/incin en/re la! d(! &(ca! e! d*d(!(; FraDer c(n!idera la magia c(m( la cria/*ra de *na ac/i7idad /erica ( cien/2Cica" c(m( el re!*l/ad( de la c*ri(!idad del A(m3re @*e le lle7 a in@*irir la! ca*!a! de la! c(!a!" &er(" al !er inca&aD de de!c*3rir la! reale!" /*7( @*e c(n/en/ar!e c(n la! Cic/icia!; 51 La religin" &(r (/ra &ar/e" n( /iene &r(&!i/(! /eric(!" e! *na e>&re!in de ideale! /ic(!; Per( am3a! idea! !(n in!(!/eni3le! !i /enem(! en c*en/a l(! AecA(! de la religin &rimi/i7a; De!de *n &rinci&i(" la religin Aa c*m&lid( c(n *na C*ncin /erica 8 (/ra &rFc/ica; C(n/iene *na c(!m(l(g2a 8 *na an/r(&(l(g2aM c(n/e!/a a la c*e!/in del (rigen del m*nd( 8 de la !(ciedad A*manaM de e!/e (rigen deri7a l(! de3ere! 8 (3ligaci(ne! del A(m3re; L(! d(! a!&ec/(! n( !e di!/ing*en rig*r(!amen/eM !e Aallan c(m3inad(! 8 C*ndid(! en e!e !en/imien/( C*ndamen/al @*e Aem(! /ra/ad( de de!c*3rir c(m( el
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_ a!e" &(r eBem&l(" R; R; Mare//" aith/ Hope/ and 6harity in 5rimiti-e )eligin/ en la! GiCC(rd Lec/*re! +MacOmillan" #$.?," Lec/*re II" &&; ?# ss. 55 _ a!e la cr2/ica de la /e(r2a de FraDer en Mare//" >he >hreshold of )eligin/ &&; ?$ ss. 51 _ a!e supra. &; ##1;

!en/imien/( de la !(lidaridad de la 7idaM C*en/e c(mEn de la magia 8 de la religin; La magia n( e! *na e!&ecie de ciencia" *na !e*d(cienciaM /am&(c( !e &*ede deri7ar de e!e &rinci&i( @*e el m(dern( &!ic(anFli!i! Aa de!cri/( c(m( la G(mni&(/encia del &en!amien/(G; 5$ Ni el mer( de!e( de c(n(cer ni el mer( de!e( de &(!eer 8 d(minar la na/*raleDa &*eden e>&licarn(! l(! AecA(! de la magia; FraDer e!/a3lece *na di!/incin rig*r(!a en/re d(! C(rma! de magia @*e de!igna c(m( magia imi/a/i7a 8 magia !im&a/ /ica; 1N Per( /(da magia e! !im&a/ /ica en !* (rigen 8 en !* !igniCicad(M &(r@*e el A(m3re n( &en!ar2a en/rar en *n c(n/ac/( mFgic( c(n la na/*raleDa !i n( /*7iera la c(n7iccin de @*e e>i!/e *n 72nc*l( c(mEn @*e *ne a /(da! la! c(!a!" @*e la !e&aracin en/re l 8 la na/*raleDa 8 en/re la! diCeren/e! cla!e! de (3Be/(! na/*rale! e!" de!&* ! de /(d(" ar/iCicial 8 n( real; En el leng*aBe Cil(!Cic(" e!/a c(n7iccin Aa !id( e>&re!ada" &(r la mF>ima e!/(ica \[Y ]o[Y" @*e en *n cier/( !en/id( e>&re!a" c(nci!amen/e" la creencia C*ndamen/al @*e !e Aalla en la 3a!e de /(d(! l(! ri/(! mFgic(!; Cier/( @*e &arece &eligr(!(" 8 ar3i/rari( a&licar *na c(nce&cin de la Cil(!(C2a griega a la! creencia! mF! r*dimen/aria! de la A*manidadM &er( l(! e!/(ic(!" @*e ac*'ar(n e!/e c(nce&/( de la G!im&a/2a del /(d(G" en m(d( alg*n( Aa32an !*&erad( &(r c(m&le/( la! idea! de la religin &(&*lar; En 7ir/*d de !* &rinci&i( de la! notitiae communes Hde e!a! n(ci(ne! c(m*ne! @*e !e enc*en/ran &(r /(da! &ar/e! 8 en /(d(! l(! /iem&(!H /ra/ar(n de c(nciliar el &en!amien/( m2/ic( 8 el Cil(!Cic( 8 admi/ier(n @*e /am3i n el &rimer( c(n/en2a alg*n(! elemen/(! de 7erdad; N( d*dar(n en em&lear el arg*men/( de la G!im&a/2a del /(d(G &ara in/er&re/ar 8 B*!/iCicar la! creencia! &(&*lare!; En realidad" la d(c/rina e!/(ica de *n pneuma @*e l( &ene/ra /(d(" de *n AFli/( diC*ndid( a /ra7 ! del *ni7er!( @*e c(m*nica a /(da! la! c(!a! la /en!in &(r la @*e !e man/ienen *nida!" g*arda anal(g2a! m*8 C*er/e! c(n c(nce&/(! &rimi/i7(!" c(n el mana de l(! &(line!i(!" c(n el orenda de l(! ir(@*e!e!" c(n el Ba3an de l(! !i(*>" c(n el manitu de l(! alg(n@*in(!;1# Cier/( @*e n( e! ac(n!eBa3le c(l(car la in/er&re/acin Cil(!Cica al mi!m( ni7el de la in/er&re/acin mFgic(Om2/icaM !in em3arg(" &(dem(! red*cir am3a! a *na ra2D c(mEn" a *na ca&a 7erdaderamen/e A(nda del !en/imien/( religi(!(; Para &ene/rar en ella n( nece!i/am(! ac*dir a la c(n!/r*ccin de *na /e(r2a de la magia 3a!ada en l(! &rinci&i(! de n*e!/ra &!ic(l(g2a em&2rica" e!&ecialmen/e en l(! de la a!(ciacin de idea!"1? &*e! n( 3a!/a c(n a3(rdar el &r(3lema de!de el lad( del ri/*al mFgic(; Malin(9!{i Aa (Crecid( *na de!cri&cin 7erdaderamen/e im&re!i(nan/e de la! Ce!/i7idade! /ri3ale! de l(! na/i7(! de la! i!la! Tr(3riand; Se 7en ac(m&a'ada! !iem&re de rela/(! m2/ic(! 8 cerem(nia! mFgica!; D*ran/e la e!/acin !agrada" la e!/acin de la alegre rec(leccin" a la generacin mF! B(7en le e! rec(rdad( &(r !*! ma8(re! @*e l(! e!&2ri/*! de !*! an/e&a!ad(! e!/Fn a &*n/( de 7(l7er del m*nd( !*3/errFne(; L(! e!&2ri/*! llegan &(r *na! c*an/a! !emana! 8 !e in!/alan (/ra 7eD
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CC; Fre*d" >otem und >a!u +_iena" #$?N,; CC; FraDer" op. cit./ I" $; 1# Para *na e>&(!icin mF! de/allada de e!/(! c(nce& /(! 8 de !* !igniCicacin en el &en!amien/( m2/ic(" 7 a!e 5hilosophie der sym!olischen ormen/ II" $1 ss. 1? Tal /e(r2a C*e de!arr(llada &(r FraDer" &ectures on the Early History of <ingship/ &&; )? ss.

en la aldea" !*3id(! en l(! Fr3(le!" !en/ad(! en ele7ada! &la/aC(rma! m(n/ada! e!&ecialmen/e &ara ell(!" 7igiland( la! danDa! mFgica!;1. SemeBan/e ri/( n(! (Crece *na im&re!in clara 8 c(ncre/a del !en/id( 7erdader( de la magia !im&a/ /ica 8 de !* C*ncin !(cial 8 religi(!a; L(! A(m3re! @*e cele3ran la Ce!/i7idad" @*e &rac/ican !*! danDa! mFgica!" !e Aallan C*ndid(! en/re !2 8 c(n /(da! la! c(!a! de la na/*raleDa; N( !e Aallan ai!lad(!" !* alegr2a e! !en/ida &(r el c(nB*n/( de la na/*raleDa 8 &ar/ici&ada &(r !*! an/e&a!ad(!; :an de!a&arecid( el e!&aci( 8 el /iem&(M el &a!ad( !e Aa c(n7er/id( en &re!en/e 8 Aa re/(rnad( la Edad de Or(; 1% La religin n( /iene &(der c(m( &ara in/en/ar !i@*iera !*&rimir ( de!arraigar e!/(! in!/in/(! &r(C*nd2!im(! de la A*manidadM c*m&le *n mi!in diCeren/e" de3e */iliDarl(! enca*DFnd(l(! &(r n*e7a! 72a!; La creencia en la !im&a/2a del /(d( e! *n( de l(! C*ndamen/(! mF! Cirme! de la religin mi!ma" &er( la !im&a/2a religi(!a e! de g ner( di!/in/( @*e la !im&a/2a m2/ica 8 mFgicaM &r(&(rci(na Cinalidad a *n n*e7( !en/imien/(" el de indi7id*alidad; N(! enCren/am(! a@*2 c(n *na de la! an/in(mia! C*ndamen/ale! del &en!amien/( religi(!(; La indi7id*alidad &arece im&licar *na negacin (" al men(!" *na re!/riccin de e!a *ni7er!alidad del !en/id( &(!/*lada &(r la religin4 omnis determinatio est negatio. SigniCica e>i!/encia Cini/a 8 mien/ra! n( r(m&am(! la! 3arrera! de e!/a e>i!/encia Cini/a n( &(dem(! ca&/ar l( inCini/(; El &r(gre!( del &en!amien/( religi(!( /en2a @*e re!(l7er e!/a diCic*l/ad 8 e!/e enigma; P(dem(! !eg*ir e!/e &r(gre!( en *na direccin /ri&leM de!cri3irl( en !*! im&licaci(ne! &!2@*ica!" !(ciale! 8 /ica!; El de!en7(l7imien/( de la c(nciencia indi7id*al" de la c(nciencia !(cial 8 de la m(O ral /iende al mi!m( &*n/(" m*e!/ra *na diCerenciacin &r(gre!i7a @*e c(nd*ce Cinalmen/e a *na n*e7a in/egracin; La! c(nce&ci(ne! de la religin &rimi/i7a !(n m*cA( mF! 7aga! e inde/erminada! @*e n*e!/ra! &r(&ia! c(nce&ci(ne! e ideale!; El mana de l(! &(line!i(!" l( mi!m( @*e la! c(nce&ci(ne! &aralela! @*e enc(n/raO m(! en (/ra! &ar/e! del m*nd(" m*e!/ra e!/e carFc/er 7ag( 8 Cl*c/Ean/eM n( &(!ee indi7id*alidad" ni !*3Be/i7a ni (3Be/i7a; E! c(nce3id( c(m( *na ma/eria c(mEn mi!/eri(!a @*e im&regna /(da! la! c(!a!; SegEn la deCinicin de R; :; C(dring/(n" @*e C*e el &rimer( en de!cri3ir el c(nce&/( de mana/ e! G*n &(der ( inCl*encia n( C2!ica 8" en algEn !en/id(" !(3rena/*ralM &er( !e m*e!/ra c(m( C*erDa C2!ica ( en c*al@*ier g ner( de &(der ( e>celencia @*e &(!ee *n A(m3reG; 0>he Metanesians/ O>C(rd" Clarend(n Pre!!" #1$#" &; ##1;, P*ede !er a/ri3*id( a *n alma ( e!&2ri/*" &er( n( e! en !2 mi!m( e!&2ri/*M n( !e /ra/a de *na c(nce&cin animi!/a !in( &reanimi!/a; 1) Se &*ede enc(n/rar en /(da! la! c(!a!"
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CC; Malin(9!{i" op. cit./ &; #%; L(! ar*n/a del de!ier/( de A*!/ralia" dice Mare//" G&(r medi( de !*! ri/(! dramF/ic(! &r(7(can *na e!&ecie de alcheringa/ C*era del /iem&(" en la c*al &*eden reC*giar!e de la! &ena! de !* de!/in( &re!en/e 8 /am3i n &ara reani mar!e &(r medi( de *na c(nCra/erniDacin c(n !ere! de (/r( m*nd( @*e !(n a la 7eD !*! an/e&a!ad(! 8 !* &r(&i( ideal; AdemF!" Aace Cal/a de!/acar @*e e!/(! !*&erA(m3re! de la alcheringa n( /ienen *na &er!(nalidad deCinida; El c(r( &re/ende !im&lemen/e in*ndar !* alma c(lec/i7a c(n el AecAiD( de l(! an/e&a!ad(!" c(n la c(nciencia del 3ien; El mana en el @*e &ar/ici&an e! /ri3alG; aith/ Hope/ and 6harity in 5rimiti-e )eligin/ &; .-; 1) Para e!/e &r(3lema 7 a!e Mare//" GTAe C(nce&/i(n (C ManaG" >he >hreshold of )eligin/ &&; $$ ss. R8 C(dring/(n" op. cit./ &; ##$;

c(n inde&endencia de !* na/*raleDa e!&ecial 8 de !* di!/incin gen rica; Una &iedra @*e llama la a/encin &(r !* /ama'( ( &(r !* C(rma !ing*lar !e Aalla llena de mana y eBercerF &(dere! mFgic(!; N( e!/F 7inc*lad( a *n !(&(r/e e!&ecialM el mana de *n A(m3re &*ede !er r(3ad( 8 /ran!Cerid( a *n n*e7( &(!eed(r; N( &(dem(! di!/ing*ir en l ra!g(! indi7id*ale! ni iden/idad &er!(nal; Una de la! C*nci(ne! &rimera! 8 mF! im&(r/an/e! de /(da! la! religi(ne! !*&eri(re! c(n!i!/i en de!c*3rir 8 re7elar /ale! elemen/(! &er!(nale! en l( @*e era llamad( l( !an/(" l( !agrad(" l( di7in(; Para alcanDar e!/e Cin el &en!amien/( religi(!( /*7( @*e rec(rrer *n larg( camin(; El A(m3re n( &*d( &re!/ar a !*! di(!e! *na C(rma indi7id*al 8 deCini/i7a an/e! de Aa3er enc(n/rad( *n n*e7( &rinci&i( de diCeren ciacin en !* &r(&ia e>i!/encia 8 en !* 7ida !(cial; N( enc(n/r e!/e &rinci&i( en el &en!amien/( a3!/rac/( !in( en la accin; De AecA( C*e la di7i!in del /ra3aB( la @*e in/r(d*B( *na n*e7a era de &en!amien/( religi(!(; M*cA( an/e! de la a&aricin de l(! di(!e! &er!(nale! n(! /r(&eDam(! c(n e!(! di(!e! @*e Aan !id( den(minad(! dioses funcionales. N( !(n c(m( l(! di(!e! &er!(nale! de la religin griega" l(! di(!e! (l2m&ic(! de :(rner(" &er( n( (Crecen la 7ag*edad de la! c(nce&ci(ne! m2/ica! &rimi/i7a!; S(n !ere! c(ncre/(! en !*! acci(ne!" n( en !* a&ariencia ( e>i!/encia &er!(nal" &(r e!( n( &(!een n(m3re! &r(&i(!" c(m( <e*!" :era 8 A&(l(" !in( n(m3re! adBe/i7(! @*e carac/eriDan !* C*ncin ( ac/i7idad e!&ecial; En alg*n(! ca!(! !e Aallan ligad(! c(n de/erminad(! l*gare!M !(n di(!e! l(cale!; Si @*erem(! en/ender el 7erdader( carFc/er de e!/(! di(!e! C*nci(nale! 8 el &a&el @*e de!em&e'ar(n en el de!en7(l7imien/( del &en!amien/( religi(!( 3a!/a c(n ac*dir a la religin r(manaM en ella la diCerenciacin Aa alcanDad( el grad( mF>im(; En la 7ida de *n rE!/ic( r(man( /(d( ac/(" &(r m*8 e!&ecialiDad( @*e !ea" &(!ee !* !en/id( religi(!( e!&ec2Cic(; E>i!/2a *na cla!e de di7inidade!" de 1i Indigites/ @*e 7igila3a l(! ac/(! de la !iem3ra" (/ra l(! de la rec(leccin" l(! de e!/erc(lar" e/c;M e>i!/2a *n Sa/(r" *n Occa/(r" *n S/erc*lin*!; 1- T(d( ac/( de la! la3(re! agr2c(la! e!/a3a 3aB( la g*2a 8 &r(/eccin de deidade! C*nci(nale! 8 cada cla!e &(!e2a !*! &r(&i(! ri/(! 8 &rFc/ica!; En e!/e !i!/ema religi(!( &(dem(! 7er /(d(! l(! ra!g(! /2&ic(! del e!&2ri/* r(man(; Se /ra/a de *na men/e !(3ria" &rFc/ica" en rgica" d(/ada de *n gran &(der de c(ncen/racin; Para *n r(man( 7ida !igniCica 7ida ac/i7a" 8 &(!ee el d(n e!&ecial de (rganiDarla" de reg*lar 8 c((rdinar /(d(! !*! e!C*erD(!; La e>&re!in religi(!a de e!/a /endencia la enc(n/ram(! en l(! di(!e! C*nci(nale! r(man(!; Tienen @*e c*m&lir de/erminada! Caena! &rFc/ica!; N( !(n el &r(d*c/( de la imaginacin ( la in!&iracin religi(!aM e!/Fn c(nce3id(! c(m( regid(re! de ac/i7idade! &ar/ic*lare!; S(n" &(r decirl( a!2" di(!e! admini!/ra/i7(! @*e !e Aan re&ar/id( en/re !2 l(! di7er!(! de&ar/amen/(! de la 7ida A*mana; N( &(!een &er!(nalidad deCinida &er( !e Aallan claramen/e diCerenciad(! &(r !* (Cici( 8 !* dignidad religi(!a de&ende de e!/e (Cici(; De *n /i&( m*8 diCeren/e !(n l(! di(!e! ad(rad(! en cada ca!a r(mana4 l(! di(!e! del A(gar; N( !e (riginan en *na e!Cera e!&ecial 8 re!/ringida de la 7ida
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Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e PAil(!(&Aie der !8m3(li!cAen F(rmen" II" &&; ?%- !!;

&rFc/icaM e>&re!an l(! !en/imien/(! mF! A(nd(! de la 7ida CamiliarM c(n!/i/*8en el cen/r( !agrad( del A(gar r(man(; :an nacid( de la &iedad Aacia l(! an/e&a!ad(!" &er( n( &(!een *na Ci!(n(m2a indi7id*al; S(n l(! Di Manes/ l(! G3*en(! di(!e!G" c(nce3id(! en *n !en/id( c(lec/i7( 8 n( &er!(nal; El / rmin( manes n*nca a&arece en !ing*larM !l( mF! /arde" c*and( &re7aleci la inCl*encia griega" e!/(! di(!e! ad(&/ar(n *na C(rma mF! &er!(nal; En !* e/a&a &rimera l(! Di Manes !ig*en !iend( *na ma!a indeCinida de e!&2ri/*! 7inc*lad(! en/re !2 &(r !* relacin c(mEn c(n la Camilia 8 Aan !id( de!cri/(! c(m( mera! &(/encialidade! &en!ada! en gr*&(! mF! 3ien @*e c(m( indi7id*(!; GLa! cen/*ria! !ig*ien/e!" !e Aa dicA(" !a/*rada! c(n Cil(!(C2a griega 8 llena! de *na idea de indi7id*alidad @*e Cal/a3a &(r c(m&le/( en l(! &rimer(! d2a! de R(ma" iden/iCicar(n e!/a &(3re &(/encialidad de !(m3ra c(n el alma A*mana 8 cre8er(n rec(n(cer en el a!*n/( *na creencia en la inm(r/alidad;G En R(ma la Gidea de la Camilia C*e /an C*ndamen/al en la e!/r*c/*ra !(cial de la 7ida r(mana @*e /ri*nC &(r encima del !e&*lcr( 8 &(!e8 *na inm(r/alidad @*e el indi7id*( n( lleg a (3/enerG;15A l( @*e &arece" en la religin griega &re7alece *na /endencia 3ien diCeren/e de &en!amien/( 8 de !en/imien/( de!de l(! &rimer(! /iem&(!M /am3i n enc(n/ram(! A*ella! c(ncre/a! de c*l/( a l(! an/e&a!ad(!; 11 La li/era/*ra clF!ica griega n(! Aa c(n!er7ad( m*cA(! de e!/(! 7e!/igi(!; E!@*il( 8 SC(cle! de!cri3en la! (Crenda! Hli3acin de lecAe" g*irnalda! de Cl(re!" 3*cle!O (Crecida! en la /*m3a de Agamenn &(r !*! AiB(!; Per( 3aB( la inCl*encia de l(! &(ema! A(m ric(! em&ieDan a diC*minar!e /(d(! e!/(! ra!g(! arcaic(! de la religin griega" e!/Fn (!c*recid(! &(r *na n*e7a direccin del &en!amien/( m2/ic( 8 religi(!(; El ar/e grieg( &re&ar el camin( &ara *na n*e7a c(nce&cin de l(! di(!e!; C(m( dice :er(d(/(" :(mer( 8 :e!2(d( Gdier(n a l(! di(!e! grieg(! !*! n(m3re! 8 di3*Bar(n !*! Cig*ra!;G La (3ra c(menDada &(r la &(e!2a griega C*e c(m&le/ada &(r la e!c*l/*ra4 n(! e! diC2cil &en!ar en el <e*! (l2m&ic( !in re&re!en/Frn(!l( en la C(rma @*e le &re!/ Fidia!; L( @*e e!/a3a negad( al e!&2ri/* ac/i7( 8 &rFc/ic( de l(! r(man(! C*e lle7ad( a ca3( &(r el e!&2ri/* c(n/em&la/i7( 8 ar/2!/ic( de l(! grieg(!; N( C*e *na /endencia m(ral la @*e cre a l(! di(!e! A(m ric(!; Ten2an raDn l(! Cil!(C(! c*and( !e @*eBa3an del carFc/er de e!/(! di(!e!; G:(mer( 8 :e!2(d( Hdice IenCane!H" Aan a/ri3*id( a l(! di(!e! /(d(! l(! AecA(! @*e !(n 7ergJenDa 8 de!dicAa en/re l(! A(m3re!4 el r(3(" el ad*l/eri(" el Cra*de;G Sin em3arg(" e!/a deCiciencia real de l(! di(!e! &er!(nale! grieg(! C*e la ca&aD de e!/a3lecer el &*en/e en/re la na/*raleDa A*mana 8 la di7ina; En l(! &(ema! A(m ric(! n( enc(n/ram(! *na 3arrera deCinida en/re l(! m*nd(!; El A(m3re !e re/ra/a a !2 mi!m(" en !*! di(!e!" en /(da !* 7ariedad 8 m*l/iC(rO midad" c(n !* men/alidad" !* /em&eramen/(" e!/( e!" !* idi(!incra!iaM &er( n( (c*rre" c(m( en la religin r(mana" @*e el A(m3re &r(8ec/e en la di7inidad el a!&ec/( &rFc/ic( de !* na/*raleDa; L(! di(!e! A(m ric(! n( re&re!en/an idea! m(rale!" &er( e>&re!an ideale! e!&iri/*ale! realmen/e carac/er2!/ic(!M n( !(n e!a! di7inidade! C*nci(nale! 8 annima! @*e /ienen @*e 7igilar *na e!&ecial ac/i7idad
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_ a!e" I; L; CFr/er" ar/2c*l( en la Encyclopedia de :a!/ing! I" %-?; Para e!/a c*e!/in 7 a!e Er9in R(Ade" 5syche/ >he 6ulte of %ouls and (elief in Inmortality among the Gree3s +N*e7a 6(r{" :arc(*r/" Lrace" #$?),; Trad; e!&a'(la del (riginal alemFn" F(nd( de C*l/*ra Ec(nmica;

del A(m3re4 e!/Fn in/ere!ad(! en el A(m3re indi7id*al 8 l( &r(/egen; Cada di(! 8 cada di(!a /iene !*! Ca7(ri/(!" @*e !(n e!/imad(!" amad(! 8 !(c(rrid(! n( en raDn de *na mera &redileccin &er!(nal !in( en 7ir/*d de *na !*er/e de &aren/e!c( e!&iri/*al @*e *ne al di(! 8 al A(m3re; M(r/ale! e inm(r/ale! n( !(n la encarnacin de ideale! m(rale! !in( de d(/e! e inclinaci(ne! e!&iri/*ale! e!&eciale!; En l(! &(ema! A(m ric(! enc(n/ram(! a men*d( e>&re!i(ne! m*8 clara! 8 carac/er2!/ica! de e!/e n*e7( !en/imien/( religi(!(; C*and( Uli!e! 7*el7e a I/aca !in !a3er @*e Aa llegad( a !* &a2! na/al" !e le a&arece A/enea en C(rma de *n B(7en &a!/(r 8 le &reg*n/a !* n(m3re; Uli!e!" @*e de!ea g*ardar !* incgni/(" rF&idamen/e *rde *na Ai!/(ria llena de &a/ra'a!; La di(!a !(nr2e al e!c*cAar el rela/(" rec(n(ciend( l( @*e ella mi!ma le Aa in!&irad(4 SagaD /iene @*e !er 8 &2car( el @*e @*iera !*&erar/e en c*al@*ier g ner( de enga'(" a*n@*e C*era *n di(! el @*e /r(&eDara c(n/ig(; :(m3re (!ad(" de a!/*/( c(n!eB(" in!acia3le en ardide!" ni !i@*iera en /* &r(&i( &a2!" a l( @*e &arece" &(O dr2a! ren*nciar a l(! rela/(! enre7e!ad(! 8 Calace! @*e ama! de!de el C(nd( de /* c(raDn; Per( n( Aa3lem(! mF! de e!/(" @*e l(! d(! e!/am(! 3ien 7er!ad(! en e!/e ar/e &*e!/( @*e /E ere!" c(n m*cA(" el meB(r de /(d(! l(! A(m3re! en c(n!eB(! 8 en di!c*r!(! 8 8( en/re /(d(! l(! di(!e! !(8 Cam(!a &(r la !a3id*r2a 8 &(r la a!/*cia;;; A!2 e! !iem&re el &en!amien/( en /* &ecA(" 8 &(r e!( n( /e &*ed( a3and(nar en /* c*idad(" &*e! ere! d*lce de &ala3ra!" ag*d( de ingeni( 8 &r*den/e; 0'disea.? En la! grande! religi(ne! m(n(/e2!/a! /r(&eDam(! c(n *n a!&ec/( /(/almen/e di!/in/( de l( di7in(; E!/a! religi(ne! !(n &r(d*c/( de C*erDa! m(rale!M !e c(ncen O /ran en *n !(l( &*n/(" en el &r(3lema del 3ien 8 del mal; En la religin de <(r(a!/r( n( Aa8 mF! @*e *n !er !*&rem(" AA*ra MaDda" el GSe'(r !a3i(G; MF! allF de l" a&ar/ad( de l 8 !in l nada e>i!/e; E! el !er &rimer( 8 mF! &erCec/(" el !(3eran( a3!(l*/(; N( enc(n/ram(! indi7id*aliDacin" ni *na &l*ralidad de di(O !e!" @*e !(n l(! re&re!en/an/e! de di7er!(! &(dere! na/*rale! ( de diCeren/e! c*alidade! &!2@*ica!; La &rimi/i7a mi/(l(g2a e! a/acada 8 !*&erada &(r *na n*e7a C*erDa" &*ramen/e /ica; En la! &rimera! c(nce&ci(ne! de l( !an/(" de l( !(3rena/*ral" !e ign(ra &(r c(m&le/( *na C*erDa !emeBan/e; El mana/ el Ba3an ( el orenda &*ede !er em&lead( &ara 3ien ( &ara mal 8 !iem&re (&era de la mi!ma manera; O3ra" c(m( dice C(dring/(n Gde /(da! manera! &ara 3ien 8 &ara malG; El mana &*ede !er de!cri/( c(m( la dimen!in &rimera ( e>i!/encial de l( !(3rena/*ral" &er( nada /iene @*e 7er c(n !* dimen!in m(ral; La! maniCe!/aci(ne! 3en Cica! del &(der !(3rena/*ral @*e l( &ene/ra /(d( !e Aallan al mi!m( ni7el @*e la! maligna! ( de!/r*c/(ra!; 113i! De!de !*! c(mienD(! la religin de <(r(a!/r( !e (&(ne radicalmen/e a e!/a indiCerencia m2/ica ( a la indiCerencia e!/ /ica @*e carac/eriDa al &(li/e2!m( grieg(M n( e! el &r(d*c/( de *na imaginacin m2/ica ( e!/ /icaM e! e>&re!in de *na gran 7(l*n/ad m(ral &er!(nal; :a!/a la na/*raleDa ad(&/a *na n*e7a C(rma &(r@*e e! 7i!/a e>cl*!i7amen/e en el e!&eB( de la 7ida m(ral; Ning*na religin &*d( &en!ar n*nca en c(r/ar ( !i@*iera aCl(Bar el 72nc*l( en/re la na/*raleDa 8 el
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113i!

_ a!e Mare//" op. cit./ &&; ##? ss.

A(m3re" &er( en la! grande! religi(ne! /ica! e!/e 72nc*l( !e Aalla /ra3ad( 8 CiBad( c(n *n n*e7( !en/id(; N( !e niega ( de!/r*8e la c(ne>in !im&a/ /ica @*e enc(n/ram(! en la magia 8 en la mi/(l(g2a &rimi/i7a" ma! aA(ra la na/*raleDa e! a3(rdada de!de el lad( raci(nal 8 n( de!de el em( /i7(; Si la na/*raleDa c(n/iene *n elemen/( di7in( n( !e reCleBa !/e en la a3*ndancia de !* 7ida !in( en la !encilleD de !* (3ra; La na/*raleDa n( e!" c(m( en la! religi(ne! &(li/e2!/a!" la grande 8 3enigna madre" el !en( di7in( de d(nde &r(cede /(da 7ida; E! c(nce3ida c(m( la e!Cera de la le8 8 de la legi/imidad" 8 c(n !l( e!/e ra!g( dem*e!/ra !* (rigen di7in(; En la religin de <(r(a!/r( la na/*raleDa e! de!cri/a c(n el c(nce&/( de Asha. A!Aa e! la !a3id*r2a de la na/*raleDa @*e reCleBa la !a3id*r2a de !* cread(r" de AA*ra MaDda" el GSe'(r !a3i(G; E!/e (rden *ni7er!al" e/ern(" in7i(la3le" g(3ierna el m*nd( 8 de/ermina /(d(! l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! !ing*lare!4 la /ra8ec/(ria del !(l" de la l*na" de l(! a! /r(!" el crecimien/( de la! &lan/a! 8 de l(! animale!" la marcAa de l(! 7ien/(! 8 de la! n*3e!; T(d( e!/( e! man/enid( 8 &re!er7ad(" n( &(r mera! C*erDa! C2!ica!" !in( &(r la C*erDa de Di(!; El m*nd( !e Aa c(n7er/id( en *n gran drama m(ral en el @*e la na/*raleDa 8 el A(m3re /ienen *n &a&el @*e de!em&e'ar; :a!/a en *na e/a&a m*8 &rimi/i7a del &en!amien/( m2/ic( e>i!/e la c(n7iccin de @*e &ara alcanDar el A(m3re *n Cin de!ead( /iene @*e c((&erar c(n la na/*O raleDa 8 c(n !*! &(dere! di7in(! dem(niac(!; La na/*raleDa n( le regala !*! d(ne! !in !* ac/i7a c(la3(racin; En la religin de <(r(a!/r( enc(n/ram(! la mi!ma c(nce&cin" &er( a&*n/a en *na direccin c(m&le/amen/e n*e7a; El !en/id( /ic( Aa reem&laDad( 8 !*&erad( el !en/id( mFgic(; La 7ida en/era del A(m3re !e c(n7ier/e en *na l*cAa inin/err*m&ida &(r el Cin de la B*!/icia; La /r2ada de l(! 3*en(! &en!amien/(!" de la! 3*ena! &ala3ra! 8 de l(! 3*en(! AecA(! /iene la &ar/e ca&i/al en e!/a l*cAa; 6a n( !e 3*!ca 8 !e acerca l( di7in( median/e &(dere! mFgic(! !in( &(r el &(der de la B*!/icia; A &ar/ir de aA(ra n( e>i!/e ni *n !(l( &a!( en la 7ida c(/idiana del A(m3re @*e !ea c(n!iderad( c(m( in!igniCican/e ( indiCeren/e en *n !en/id( religi(!( 8 m(ral; Nadie &*ede e!/ar al margen en el c(m3a/e en/re el &(der di7in( 8 el dem(niac(" en/re AA*ra MaDda 8 Angra Main8*; L(! d(! e!&2ri/*! &rimigeni(!" dice *n( de l(! /e>/(!" @*e !e re7elar(n en la 7i!in c(m( gemel(!" !(n el 3ien 8 el mal; El &r*den/e !a3e cm( e!c(ger c(rrec/amen/e en/re l(! d(!" el in!en!a/( n( l( !a3e; T(d( ac/(" &(r m*8 c(mEn ( A*milde @*e !ea" &(!ee !* 7al(r /ic( deCinid( 8 !e Aalla /e'id( de *n c(l(r m(ral e!&ec2Cic(M !igniCica (rden ( de!(rden" &re!er7acin ( de!/r*ccin; El A(m3re @*e c*l/i7a ( riega el !*el(" @*e &lan/a *n Fr3(l" @*e ma/a *n animal da'in(" c*m&le c(n *n de3er religi(!(M &re&ara 8 a!eg*ra la 7ic/(ria Cinal del &(der del Se'(r" 3*en(" !a3i(" !(3re !* ad7er!ari( dem(niac(; Sen/im(! en /(d( e!/( *n e!C*erD( Aer(ic( de la A*manidad &ara li3rar!e de la &re!in 8 c(m&*l!in de l(! &(dere! mFgic(!" *n n*e7( ideal de li3er/ad" &*e! !l( median/e *na deci!in &r(&ia !e &(ne el A(m3re en c(n/ac/( c(n l( di7in( 8 !e c(n7ier/e en aliad( de la di7inidad; La deci!in en/re l(! d(! m(d(! de 7ida inc*m3e al indi7id*(M el A(m3re e! el ar3i/r( de !* de!/in(; P(!ee el &(der 8 la li3er/ad &ara e!c(ger en/re la 7erdad 8

la men/ira" en/re la B*!/icia 8 la ini@*idad" en/re el 3ien 8 el malM e! re!&(n!a O 3le de la eleccin m(ral @*e Aace 8 &(r c(n!ig*ien/e de !*! acci(ne!; Si e!c(ge 3ien 8 !e a3raDa a la B*!/icia reci3irF !* rec(m&en!a" &er( !i" en calidad de agen/e li3re" a3raDa la ini@*idad /am3i n !erF !*8a la c*l&a 8 !* &r(&i( 8( ( daena le c(nd*cirF a la re/ri3*cin;;; |Al Cinal llegarF} el &eri(d( en @*e cada indi7id*(" en !* &r(&ia ca&acidad" (3rarF rec/amen/e 8 AarF @*e el m*nd( en/er( de l(! A(m3re! gra7i/e Aacia A!Aa;;; T(d(! ;;; /ienen @*e c(n/ri3*ir a e!/a (3ra &(der(!a; L(! B*!/(! 7i7en en &(ca! diCeren/e! 8 en l*gare! diCeren/e! c(n!/i/*8en l(! miem3r(! de *n gr*&( B*!/(" l( mi!m( @*e /(d(! ell(! e!/Fn ac/*ad(! &(r *n( 8 el mi!m( m(/i7( 8 (3ran &(r la ca*!a c(mEn; +M; N; DAalla" History of Qoroastrianism/ N*e7a 6(r{" O>C(rd Uni7er!i/8 Pre!!" #$.1" &&; )? ss.? E!a C(rma de !im&a/2a /ica *ni7er!al l(gra la 7ic/(ria en la religin m(n(/e2!/a !(3re el !en/imien/( &rimi/i7( de *na !(lidaridad na/*ral ( mFgica de la 7ida; C*and( la Cil(!(C2a griega a3(rd el &r(3lema" diC2cilmen/e &*d( !(3re&a!ar la grandeDa 8 !*3limidad de e!/e &en!amien/( religi(!(M en la El/ima &(ca Aelen2!O /ica c(n!er7 *na gran can/idad de m(/i7(! religi(!(! 8 Aa!/a m2/ic(!; En la Cil(!(C2a e!/(ica el c(nce&/( de *na &r(7idencia *ni7er!al +rg]YfSc, @*e g(3ierna el m*nd( 8 l( dirige Aacia !* me/a e! cen/ral" 8 en ella el A(m3re" c(m( !er c(n!cien/e 8 raci(nal" /iene @*e /ra3aBar &(r l(! Cine! de la Pr(7idencia; bl *ni7er!( c(n!/i/*8e *na gran !(ciedad en/re Di(! 8 l(! A(m3re!" ur!s 1is homini!us;ue communis. 1S G_i7ir c(n l(! di(!e!G +VdYheUn (, @*iere decir c(la3(rar c(n ell(!; El A(m3re n( e! mer( e!&ec/ad(rM e!" a /en(r de !*! alcance!" el cread(r del (rden c!mic(; El !a3i( e! *n !acerd(/e 8 mini!/r( de l(! di(!e!; Enc(n/ram(! /am3i n a@*2 la c(nce&cin de la G!im&a/2a del /(d(G" &er( en/endida e in/er&re/ada c(n *n !en/id( /ic( n*e7(; T(d( e!/( !e &*d( l(grar gracia! a *n len/( 8 c(n/in*( de!arr(ll( del &en!amien/( 8 del !en/imien/( religi(!(M n( !e realiD median/e *n !al/( 3r*!c( el &a!( de la! C(rma! mF! r*dimen/aria! a la! mF! al/a! 8 !*&eri(re!; Lerg!(n n(! dice @*e !in *n !al/( !emeBan/e la A*manidad n( A*3iera !id( ca&aD de enc(n/rar !* camin( Aacia *na religin &*ramen/e dinFmica" @*e n( !e 3a!a en la &re!in 8 en la (3ligacin !(cial !in( en la li3er/adM &er( !* &r(&ia /e!i! me/aC2!ica de la e7(l*cin cread(ra e!ca!amen/e Ca7(rece e!/a (/ra /e!i!; Sin l(! grande! e!&2ri/*! cread(re!" !in l(! &r(Ce/a! @*e !e !en/2an in!&irad(! &(r el &(der de Di(! 8 de!/inad(! a re7elar !* 7(l*n/ad" la religin n( A*3iera enc(n/rad( !* camin(; Tam&(c( e!/(! &(dere! indi7id*ale! &*dier(n cam3iar !* carFc/er !(cial C*ndamen/al ni crear *na religin n*e7a &ar/iend( de la nada; L(! grande! reC(rmad(re! religi(!(! n( 7i72an en *n de!ier/(" en el e!&aci( de !* &r(&ia e>&eriencia e in!&iracin religi(!aM mile! de 72nc*l(! l(! *n2an a !* amO 3ien/e !(cial; N( e! &(r *na e!&ecie de re3elin c(m( la A*manidad &a!a de la (3ligacin m(ral a la li3er/ad religi(!a; El mi!m( Lerg!(n admi/e @*e" Aa3land( Ai!/ricamen/e" el e!&2ri/* m2!/ic( @*e" !egEn l" c(n!/i/*8e el e!&2ri/* de la 7erdadera religin" n( !e da en c(n/in*idad; El mi!/ici!m( n(! re7ela" ( mF! 3ien n(! re7elar2a" !i realmen/e l( @*i!i ram(!" *na &er!&ec/i7a mara7ill(!aM &er(
1
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S neca" Ad Marciam de consolatione/ #1; .1 Marc( A*reli(" Ad se ipsum/ Li3; III" %;

n(!(/r(! n( l( @*erem(! 8" en la ma8(r2a de l(! ca!(!" n( l( &(dem(! @*ererM de!Callecer2am(! 3aB( el e!C*erD(; P(r e!( n(! @*edam(! c(n *na religin mi>/a; En la Ai!/(ria enc(n/ram(! /ran!ici(ne! en/re d(! c(!a! @*e" en realidad" !(n radicalmen/e diCeren/e! &(r na/*raleDa 8 @*e" a &rimera 7i!/a" diC2cilmen/e &*eden merecer el mi!m( n(m3re; $N Para el Cil!(C(" &ara el me/aC2!ic( e!/a! d(! C(rma! de religin &ermanecen !iem&re an/agnica!M n( &*ede deri7arla! del mi!m( (rigen &(r@*e !(n e>&re!in de C*erDa! /(/almen/e diCeren/e!; La *na !e 3a!a &(r en/er( en el in!/in/(M e! el in!/in/( de la 7ida @*ien Aa cread( la C*ncin mi/(&(8 /ica" &er( la religin n( !*rge del in!/in/( ni /am&(c( de la in/eligencia ( raDn; Re@*iere *n n*e7( 2m&e/*" *n g ner( e!&ecial de in/*icin 8 de in!&iracin; Para llegar a la 7erdadera e!encia de la religin 8 c(m&render la Ai!/(ria de la A*manidad e! mene!/er @*e &a!em(! de la religin e!/F/ica 8 e>/erna a la religin dinFmica" in/erna; La &rimera e!/a3a de!/inada a g*ardarn(! de l(! &eligr(! a @*e la in/eligencia &(dr2a e>&(ner al A(m3reM era inCrain/elec/*al;;; MF! /arde" 8 median/e *n e!C*erD( @*e m*8 3ien &*d( n( Aa3er!e realiDad( BamF!" el A(m3re !e AiD( li3re de e!/e m(7imien/( de !* &r(&i( eBe; Se !*mergi de n*e7( en la c(rrien/e de la e7(l*cin lle7Fnd(la al mi!m( /iem&( Aacia adelan/e; Tenem(! a@*2 *na religin dinFmica a&areBada" !in d*da" c(n *na in/elec/*alidad !*&eri(r &er( di!/in/a de !/a; La &rimera C(rma de la religin Aa !id( inCrain/elec/*al;;; La !eg*nda C*e !*&rain/elec/*al; 0'p. cit./ &&; 5) !;, SemeBan/e di!/incin dial c/ica rig*r(!a en/re /re! &(dere! C*ndamen/ale! H in!/in/(" in/eligencia e in/*icin m2!/icaH e! diC2cil de c(m&aginar c(n l(! AecA(! de la Ai!/(ria de la! religi(ne!; Tam3i n la /e!i! de FraDer de @*e la A*manidad c(menD c(n *na &(ca de magia @*e mF! /arde C*e !eg*ida 8 reem&laDada &(r *na &(ca de religin e! in!(!/eni3le; La magia C*e &erdiend( /erren( &(r *n &r(ce!( m*8 len/(; Si e>aminam(! la Ai!/(ria de n*e!/ra &r(&ia ci7iliDacin e*r(&ea 7erem(! @*e Aa!/a la! e/a&a! mF! a7anDada!" e/a&a! de *na c*l/*ra in/elec/*al al/amen/e de!arr(llada 8 reCinada" la creencia en la magia n( e!/a3a !eriamen/e c(m&r(me/ida; La mi!ma religin &*d( admi/ir e!/a creencia Aa!/a cier/( grad(M &r(Ai3i 8 c(nden alg*na! &rFc/ica! mFgica! &er( e>i!/2a *na e!Cera de Gmagia 3lancaG de la @*e !e &en!a3a @*e era in(c*a; L(! &en!ad(re! del Renacimien/( HP(m&(naDDi" Cardan(" Cam&anella" Lr*n(" Giam3a//i!/a della P(r/a" Paracel!(H &re!en/ar(n !*! &r(&ia! /e(r2a! Cil(!Cic(Ocien/2Cica! del ar/e mFgic(; Un( de l(! mF! n(3le! 8 mF! &iad(!(! &en!ad(re! del Renacimien/(" Gi(7anni Pic( della MirFnd(la" e!/a3a c(n7encid( de @*e la magia 8 la reli gin !e Aallan /ra3ada! &(r 72nc*l(! indi!(l*3le!; Fulla est scientia ;uae nos magis certificet de di-initate 6hristi ;uam Magia et 6a!ala. P(dem(! c(legir de e!/(! eBem&l(! l( @*e realmen/e !igniCica la e7(l*cin reli gi(!a; N( e! la de!/r*ccin c(m&le/a de la! &rimera! 8 mF! C*ndamen/ale! carac/er2!/ica! del &en!amien/( m2/ic(; Si l(! grande! reC(rmad(re! religi(!(! @*ieren !er e!c*cAad(! 8 c(m&rendid(! n( !l( /ienen @*e Aa3lar el leng*aBe de Di(! !in( /am3i n el del
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Lerg!(n" op. cit./ &&; ?N# ss.

A(m3re; L(! grande! &r(Ce/a! de I!rael 8a n( Aa3la3an !l( &ara !* &r(&ia nacin" !* Di(! era *n Di(! de B*!/icia 8 !* men!aBe n( e!/a3a re!/ringid( a *n gr*&( e!&ecialM &redica3an *n n*e7( ciel( 8 *na n*e7a /ierra; L( real men/e n*e7( n( e! /an/( el c(n/enid( de e!/a religin &r(C /ica !in( !* /endencia in/erna" !* !en/id( /ic(; Un( de l(! milagr(! ma8(re! a realiDar &(r /(da! la! religi(ne! !*&eri(re! c(n!i!/2a en de!arr(llar (/r( carFc/er" !* in/er&re/acin /ica 8 religi(!a de la 7ida 3a!Fnd(!e en el r*d( ma/erial de la! c(nce&ci(ne! mF! &rimi/i7a!" de la! !*&er!/ici(ne! mF! gr(!era!; Aca!( n( c(n/am(! c(n *n eBem&l( meB(r de e!/a /ran!C(rmacin @*e el de!en7(l7imien/( del c(nce&/( de ta!4. E>i!/en 7aria! e/a&a! de ci7iliDacin en la! @*e n( enc(n/ram(! idea! deCinida! de &(dere! di7in(! ni /am&(c( *n animi!m( deCinid(" *na /e(r2a del alma A*manaM &er( &arece n( e>i!/ir !(ciedad" &(r m*8 &rimi/i7a @*e !ea" @*e n( Aa8a de!arr(llad( *n !i!/ema de /a3E 8" en la ma8(r2a de l(! ca!(!" de *na e!/r*c/*ra 7erdaderamen/e c(m&leBa; En la! i!la! &(lin !ica!" de d(nde &r(cede el / rmin( G/a3EG" el n(m3re !e a&lica a /(d( el !i!/ema de la religin" $# 8 enc(n/ram(! di7er!a! !(ciedade! &rimi/i7a! en la! @*e el Enic( &ecad( c(n(cid( e! el @*e3ran/amien/( del /a3E; $? En la! e/a&a! elemen/ale! de la ci7iliDacin A*mana el / rmin( a3arca /(d( el cam&( de la religin 8 de la m(ralM en e!/e !en/id( alg*n(! Ai!/(riad(re! de la religin Aan a/ri3*id( al !i!/ema de /a3E *n 7al(r m*8 ele7ad(; A &e!ar de !*! deCec/(! &a/en/e!" !e dec2a !er el &rimer germen indi!&en!a3le de *na 7ida c*l/*ral mF! al/aM Aa!/a !e Aa32a llegad( a aCirmar @*e c(n!/i/*2a *n &rinci&i( a priori del &en!amien/( m(ral 8 religi(!(; Ie7(n! de!cri3e el /a3E c(m( *na e!&ecie de im&era/i7( ca/egric(" el Enic( c(n(cid( 8 acce!i3le al A(m3re &rimi /i7(; bl !en/imien/( de @*e e>i!/en alg*na! c(!a! @*e n( de3en !er AecAa!" n(! dice" e! &*ramen/e C(rmal 8 !in c(n/enid(M la e!encia del /a3E c(n!i!/e en @*e" !in c(n!*l/ar la e>&eriencia" declara a priori @*e cier/a! c(!a! !(n &eligr(!a!; E!/a! c(!a!" en realidad" n( eran en cier/( !en/id( &eligr(!a! 8 la creencia en !* &eligr( era irraci(nal; 6" !in em3arg(" de n( Aa3er e>i!/id( e!/a creencia n( /endr2am(! aA(ra m(ral 8" &(r c(n!ig*ien/e" /am&(c( /endr2am(! ci7iliDacin;;; La creencia era *n enga'(;;; Per( e!/e enga'( c(n!/i/*2a la 7aina @*e encerra3a 8 &r(/eg2a *na c(nce&cin de la @*e i3a a germinar 8 Cl(recer *n Cr*/( ine!/ima3le4 el c(nce&/( de (3ligacin !(cial" 0Idem/ &&; 1- s.? `Cm( e! &(!i3le @*e !emeBan/e c(nce&cin !e de!arr(llara &ar/iend( de *na c(n7iccin @*e" en !2 mi!ma" n( g*arda3a ning*na relacin c(n 7al(re! /ic(!a En !* !en/id( (riginal 8 li/eral" /a3E &arece !igniCicar /an !l( *na c(!a @*e e! de!/acada" @*e n( e!/F al mi!m( ni7el @*e la! (/ra! c(!a! c(rrien/e!" &r(Cana! e in(c*a!M !e Aalla r(deada &(r *na a/m!Cera de amenaDa 8 &eligr( @*e Aa !id( de!cri/( a men*d( c(m( de /i&( !(3rena/*ral &er( @*e en m(d( alg*n( e! de /i&( m(ral; Si el /a3E !e di!/ing*e de (/ra! c(!a!" /al di!/incin n( !igniCica *na di!criminacin m(ral ni im&lica *n B*ici( /ic(; El A(m3re @*e c(me/e *n crimen re!*l/a /a3E" &er( l( mi!m( (c*rre c(n *na m*Ber @*e da a l*D; La im&*reDa
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CC; Mare//" GI! Ta3(( a Nega/i7e MagicaG >he >hresChold of )eligin/ &; 1%; CC; F; L; Ie7(n!" An Introduction to the History of )eligin +L(ndre!" Me/A*en" #$N?," &; 5N;

inCecci(!a !e e>/iende a /(da! la! e!Cera! de la 7idaM el c(n/ac/( c(n l( di7in( e! /an &eligr(!( c(m( el c(n/ac/( c(n c(!a! C2!icamen/e im&*ra!M l( !agrad( 8 l( a3(mina3le !e enc*en/ran al mi!m( ni7el; La GinCeccin de l( !an/(G &r(d*ce l(! mi!m(! re!*l/ad(! @*e la G&(l*cin de l( im&*r(G; El @*e /(ca *n cadF7er !e im&*riCica &er( el reci n nacid( e! /emi3le en el mi!m( !en/id(; En/re alg*n(! &*e3l(! l(! ni'(! eran en /al m(d( /a3E @*e el d2a del nacimien/( n( &(d2an !er c(l(cad(! en el !*el(; 6 a c(n!ec*encia del &rinci&i( de la /ran!mi!i3ilidad de la inCeccin (riginal" n( Aa8 l2mi/e &(!i3le a !* &r(&agacinM !e Aa dicA( @*e *na !(la c(!a /a3E &(dr2a inCec/ar /(d( el *ni7er!(; $. N( e>i!/e ni !(m3ra de re!&(n!a3ilidad indi7id*al en e!/e !i!/ema; Si *n A(m3re c(me/e *n crimen n( !l( l @*eda marcad( !in( /(da !* Camilia" !*! amig(!" la /ri3* en/eraM e!/Fn e!/igma/iDad(! 8 &ar/ici&an en el mi!m( mia!ma; L(! ri/(! de &*riCicacin c(rre!&(nden a e!/a c(nce&cin; La a3l*cin !e alcanDa &(r medi(! &*ramen/e C2!ic(! 8 e>/ern(!; El ag*a al c(rrer &*ede la7ar la mancAa del crimen; Alg*na! 7ece! el &ecad( e! /ra!mi/id( a *n animal" al cAi7( e>&ia/(ri( ( a *n a7e @*e 7*ela 8 e!ca&a c(n el &ecad(;$% E!/F &r(3ad( @*e e! e>/remadamen/e diC2cil a /(da! la! religi(ne! !*&eri(re! !*&erar e!/e !i!/ema del /a3*i!m( &rimi/i7(" &er( de!&* ! de m*cA(! e!C*erD(! c(n!ig*en !alir adelan/e; Para ell( nece!i/an el mi!m( &r(ce!( de di!criminacin e indi7id*aliDacin @*e /ra/am(! de de!cri3ir arri3a; El &rimer &a!( nece!ari( c(n!i!/i en enc(n/rar *na l2nea de demarcacin @*e !e&ara!e la e!Cera !an/a de la e!Cera im&*ra ( indecen/e; A&ena! !i &*ede d*dar!e de @*e /(da! la! religi(ne! !emi/a! e!/a3an 3a!ada!" en !* &rimera C(rma" !(3re *n !i!/ema m*8 c(m&licad( de /a3Ee!; En !*! in7e!/igaci(ne! !(3re la religin de l(! !emi/a! K; R(3er/!(nOSmi/A n(! dice @*e la! &rimera! regla! de !an/idad e im&*reDa n( !e &*eden di!/ing*ir en !*! (r2gene! de l(! /a3Ee! !al7aBe!; :a!/a en e!a! religi(ne! @*e !e Aallan 3a!ada! en l(! m(/i7(! /ic(! mF! &*r(! !e c(n!er7an di7er!(! ra!g(! @*e a&*n/an Aacia *na e/a&a an/eri(r del &en!amien/( religi(!( en el @*e la &*reDa ( la im&*reDa eran en/endida! en *n !en/id( meramen/e C2!ic(; A!2" la de <(r(a!/r( c(n/iene &re!cri&ci(ne! m*8 !e7era! Cren/e a la im&*reDa &(r elemen/(! C2!ic(!M !e c(n!idera c(m( *n &ecad( m(r/al en!*ciar el elemen/( &*r( del C*eg( &(r el c(n/ac/( c(n *n cadF7er * (/ra c(!a im&*ra; E! *n crimen lle7ar C*eg( a *na ca!a en @*e Aa Callecid( *n A(m3re" den/r( de n*e7e n(cAe! en el in7iern( ( de *n me! en el 7eran(; $) Para la! religi(ne! !*&eri(re! C*e im&(!i3le ign(rar ( !*&ri O mir e!/(! ri/(! 8 regla! lE!/rale!; L( @*e &(d2a cam3iar!e 8 /en2a @*e cam3iar!e en el &r(gre!( del &en!amien/( religi(!( n( eran l(! /a3Ee! ma/eriale! mi!m(! !in( l(! m(/i7(! @*e Aa32a /ra! ell(!" /(/almen/e in!igniCican/e!" en el !i!/ema (riginal; De/rF! de la regin de n*e!/ra! c(!a! c(rrien/e! 8 Camiliare! e>i!/e (/ra &r(7i!/a de &(dere! 8 rie!g(! de!c(n(cid(!; Una c(!a @*e &er/eneDca a e!/a regin @*eda marcada" &er( l( @*e !e'ala e! Enicamen/e la diCerenciacin 8 n( el !en/id( de la mi!ma; P*ede !er /a3E &(r !* !*&eri(ridad ( &(r !* inCeri(ridad"
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Para el ma/erial an/r(&(lgic(" 7 a!e FraDer >he Golden (ough/ I" &&; #-$ s. y Par/e _I" >he %capegoatI y Ie7(n! (&; cit./ ca&!" _I 8 _III;; $% Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e R(3er/!(nOSmi/A" op. cit./ n(/a G" &&; %?5 ss. $) Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e DAalla" op. cit./ &&; ))" ??# ss.

&(r !* 7ir/*d ( &(r !* 7ici(" &(r !* e>celencia ( &(r !* de&ra7acin; En !*! c(mienD(! la religin n( &*d( (!ar el recAaDar el /a3E mi!m( &(r@*e c*al@*ier a/a@*e a e!/a e!Cera !agrada !*&(ndr2a el &eligr( de &erder la &r(&ia 3a!e" &er( c(mienDa in/r(d*ciend( *n elemen/( n*e7(; El AecA( de @*e /(d(! l(! !emi/a! c(n(Dcan regla! de im&*reDa l( mi!m( @*e de !an/idad Hdice R(3er/!(nOSmi/AH" 8 @*e l(! l2mi/e! en/re la! d(! !(n incier/(! a men*d( 8 @*e l( mi!m( la! *na! @*e la! (/ra! c(nc*erdan !(r&renden/emen/e en c*an/( a l(! de/alle! c(n /a3Ee! !al7aBe!" n( n(! deBa d*da en c*an/( al (rigen 8 relaci(ne! El/ima! de la idea de !an/idad; P(r (/ra &ar/e" el AecA( de @*e l(! !emi/a!;;; di!/ingan en/re l( !an/( 8 l( im&*r( !e'ala *n &r(gre!( real re!&ec/( a l(! !al7aBe!; T(d(! l(! /a3Ee! !e Aallan in!&irad(! &(r el re!&e/( a l( !(3rena/*ral" &er( e>i!/e *na gran diCerencia m(ral en/re la! &reca*ci(ne! @*e !e /(man c(n/ra la in7a!in de &(dere! mi!/eri(!(! A(!/ile! 8 la! &reca*ci(ne! 3a!ada! en el re!&e/( &(r la! &rerr(ga/i7a! de *n Di(! amig(; L( &rimer( &er/enece a la !*&er!/icin mFgica;;; @*e e!/and( C*ndada Enicamen/e en el /em(r ac/Ea c(m( *n (3!/Fc*l( del &r(gre!( 8 *n im&edimen/( del li3re *!( de la na/*raleDa &(r la energ2a 8 el ingeni( A*man(!; Per( la! re!/ricci(ne! de la licencia indi7id*al @*e !e de3en al re!&e/( &(r *n &(der c(n(cid( 8 amiga3le aliad( al A(m3re" a*n@*e &*edan a&arecer m*8 /ri7iale! 8 a3!*rda! en !*! de/alle!" c(n/ienen l(! &rinci&i(! germinale! del &r(gre!( !(cial 8 del (rden m(ral; 0'p. cit./ &&; #%. !;, Para de!arr(llar e!/(! &rinci&i(! era nece!ari( e!/a3lecer *na di!/incin ne/a en/re la 7i(lacin !*3Be/i7a 8 la (3Be/i7a de *na le8 religi(!a @*e es a3!(l*/amen/e e>/ra'a al !i!/ema de /a3E &rimi/i7(; L( @*e im&(r/a en l e! la accin mi!ma 8 n( el m(/i7( de la accin; El &eligr( de la /a3*iDacin e! C2!ic(" !e Aalla &(r c(m&le/( C*era del alcance de n*e!/r(! &(dere! m(rale!; El eCec/( e! a3!(l*/amen/e el mi!m( en el ca!( de *n ac/( in7(l*n/ari( ( 7(l*n/ari(; La inCeccin e! en/eramen/e im&er!(nal 8 !e /ran!mi/e en C(rma &*ramen/e &a!i7a; :a3land( en general &(dem(! de!cri3ir el !en/id( de *n /a3E c(m( *na e!&ecie de noli me tangere/ e! l( in/(ca3le" *na c(!a a la @*e n( de3em(! ni acercarn(!M n( /iene im&(r/ancia el m(d( ( la in/encin de a&r(>imar!e; Se &*ede c(n/agiar del /a3E n( !l( median/e c(n/ac/( !in( /am3i n &(r el (2d( 8 &(r la 7i!/a" 8 la! c(n!ec*encia! !(n la! mi!ma! !i deli3eradamen/e mir( al (3Be/( /a3E ( !l( &(r acciden/e /r(&ieDa mi 7i!/a c(n l; El !er 7i!/( &(r *na &er!(na /a3E" &(r *n !acerd(/e ( *n re8" e! /an &eligr(!( c(m( el mirarla; ;;;la accin del /a3E e! !iem&re mecFnicaM el c(n/ac/( c(n el (3Be/( /a3E c(m*nica la inCeccin /a3E de manera /an cier/a c(m( el c(n/ac/( c(n el ag*a c(m*nica la A*medad ( *na c(rrien/e el c/rica *n cA(@*e el c/ric(; La! in/enci(ne! del @*e @*e3ran/a el /a3E n( /ienen eCec/( alg*n( !(3re la accin de !/eM &*ede /(carl( &(r de!c*id( ( &ara Ca7(recer a la &er!(na @*e /(ca" &er( re!*l/a /a3*iDad( de m(d( /an cier/( c(m( !i !*! m(/i7(! C*eran la irre7erencia ( *na accin A(!/il; Tam&(c( el g ner( de la &er!(na !agrada" el Mi{ad(" el BeCe &(lin !ic(" la !acerd(/i!a de Ar/emi!a" :8mnia" m(diCica la accin mecFnica del /a3EM !* c(n/ac/( ( !* mirada e! /an Ca/al &ara amig(! c(m( &ara enemig(!" &ara la 7ida de la! &lan/a!

c(m( &ara la 7ida A*mana; Tam&(c( im&(r/a la m(ralidad del @*e3ran/ad(r" &*e! la &ena de!ciende c(m( la ll*7ia /an/( !(3re B*!/(! c(m( !(3re &ecad(re!; +Ie7(n!" op. cit./ &; $#;, Per( Ae a@*2 @*e c(mienDa e!e len/( &r(ce!( @*e Aem(! /ra/ad( de de!ignar c(n el n(m3re de *n Gcam3i( religi(!( de !en/id(G; Si e>aminam(! el de!en7(l7imien/( del B*dai!m( n(! darem(! c*en/a de c*Fn c(m&le/( 8 deci!i7( C*eM en l(! li3r(! &r(C /ic(! del An/ig*( Te!/amen/( enc(n/ram(! *na direccin en/eramen/e n*e7a de &en!amien/( 8 de !en/imien/(; El ideal de &*reDa !igniCica alg( m*8 diCeren/e de /(da! la! c(nce&ci(ne! m2/ica! an/eri(re!; Re!*l/a im&(!i3le 3*!car la &*reDa ( la im&*reDa en *n (3Be/(" en *na c(!a ma/erialM /am&(c( la! acci(ne! A*mana! en c*an/( /ale! !(n c(n!iderada! 8a c(m( &*ra! ( im&*ra!; La Enica &*reDa @*e re7i!/e *n !en/id( 8 *na dignidad religi(!(! e! la &*reDa del c(raDn; C(n e!/a &rimera di!criminacin !(m(! c(nd*cid(! a (/ra n( men(! im&(r/an/e; El !i!/ema de /a3E im&(ne al A(m3re inn*mera3le! (3ligaci(ne! 8 de3ere!" &er( /(da! &(!een *n carFc/er c(mEn" !(n en/eramen/e nega/i7a!" n( incl*8en ningEn ideal &(!i/i7(; :a8 @*e e7i/ar cier/a! c(!a!" Aa8 @*e a3!/ener!e de cier/a! acci(ne!; Enc(n/ram(!" &*e!" inAi3ici(ne! 8 &r(Ai3ici(ne! &er( n( manda/(! m(rale! ( religi(!(!; L( @*e d(mina el !i!/ema de /a3E e! el /em(r 8 !/e !a3e Enicamen/e cm( &r(Ai3ir &er( n( cm( dirigir; N(! ad7ier/e c(n/ra el &eligr( &er( n( le e! &(!i3le de!&er/ar *na n*e7a energ2a ac/i7a ( m(ral en el A(m3re; C*an/( mF! !e de!arr(lla el !i!/ema de /a3E /an/( ma8(r e! el &eligr( de @*e !e c(ngele la 7ida A*mana en *na c(m&le/a &a!i7idad; El A(m3re n( &*ede c(mer ( 3e3er" ni e!/ar @*ie/( ( deam3*larM Aa!/a el Aa3lar re!*l/a diCic*l/(!(M /ra! cada &ala3ra !e 7e amenaDad( &(r &eligr(! de!c(n(cid(!; En P(line!ia n( !l( e!/F &r(Ai3id( e>&re!ar el n(m3re de *n BeCe ( de *na &er!(na Callecida !in( @*e (/ra! &ala3ra! ( !2la3a! en @*e a!(ma e!/e n(m3re /am&(c( &*eden !er *!ada! en la c(n7er!acin; A@*2 e! d(nde la religin" en !* &r(gre!(" enc(n/r *na n*e7a Caena" &er( el &r(3lema al @*e /en2a @*e Aacer Cren/e era e>/remadamen/e diC2cil 8" en cier/( !en/id(" &arec2a in!(l*3le; A &e!ar de !*! deCec/(! &a/en/e! el !i!/ema de /a3E era el Enic( !i!/ema de re!/ricci(ne! 8 (3ligaci(ne! !(ciale! de!c*3ier/( &(r el A(m3reM c(n!/i/*2a la cla7e de /(d( el (rden !(cialM !*! &ar/e! e!/a3an reg*lada! 8 g(3ernada! &(r /a3Ee! e!&eciale!; La relacin en/re g(3ernan/e! 8 g(3ernad(!" la 7ida &(l2/ica" la !e>*al" la de Camilia" n( c(n(cier(n ningEn (/r( 72nc*l( mF! !agrad(; L( mi!m( &*ede decir!e de /(da la 7ida ec(nmicaM Aa!/a la &r(&iedad &arece !er" en !*! (r2gene!" *na in!/i/*cin /a3E; La &rimera manera de /(mar &(!e!in de *na c(!a ( de *na &er!(na" de (c*&ar *n l(/e de /ierra ( de a&(derar!e de *na m*Ber e! la de !e'alarl(! c(n *n !ign( /a3E; Era im&(!i3le &ara la religin !*&rimir e!/e !i!/ema c(m&le/( de &r(O Ai3ici(ne!" &*e! /al c(!a A*3iera !igniCicad( la anar@*2a c(m&le/a; L(! grande! mae!/r(! religi(!(! de la A*manidad enc(n/rar(n" !in em3arg(" *n n*e7( im&*l!( c(n el c*al" de a@*2 en adelan/e" !e c(nd*B( la 7ida del A(m3re en (/ra direccin; De!c*3rier(n en !2 mi!m(! *n &(der &(!i/i7(" n( de inAi3icin !in( de in!&iracin 8 a!&iracin; C(n7ir/ier(n la (3ediencia &a!i7a en *n !en/imien/( religi(!( ac/i7(; El !i!/ema de /a3E amenaDa3a c(n Aacer de la 7ida del A(m3re

*na carga @*e" a la &(!/re" re!*l/a3a in!(&(r/a3leM !* e>i!/encia" /an/( C2 !ica c(m( m(ral" !e Aalla3a a3r*mada &(r la &re!in c(n!/an/e de e!/e !i!/ema; En e!/e &*n/( in/er7iene la religin; T(da! la! religi(ne! /ica! !*&eri(re!" la de l(! &r(Ce/a! de I!rael" el D(r(a!/ri!m(" el cri!/iani!m(" !e im&*!ier(n *na /area c(mEn; Ali7iar(n la carga in!*Cri3le del !i!/ema de /a3EM &er(" &(r (/ra &ar/e" inBer/ar(n *n !en/id( mF! &r(C*nd( de (3ligacin religi(!a @*e" en l*gar de !er *na re!/riccin ( c(m&*l!in" era la e>&re!in de *n n*e7( ideal &(!i/i7( de li3er/ad A*mana;

_III; EL LENGUAIE 8 el mi/(" !(n e!&ecie! &r>ima!; En la! e/a&a! &rimera! de la c*l/*ra A*mana !* relacin e! /an e!/recAa 8 !* c((&eracin /an &a/en/e @*e re!*l/a ca!i im&(!i3le !e&arar *n( de (/r(; S(n d(! 3r(/e! diCeren/e! de *na mi!ma ra2D; Siem&re @*e /r(&eDam(! c(n el A(m3re l( enc(n/ram(! en &(!e!in de la Cac*l/ad del leng*aBe 8 3aB( la inCl*encia de la C*ncin mi/(&(8 /ica; De a@*2 @*e &ara *na Cil(!(C2a an/r(&(lgica re!*l/e /en/ad(r red*cir a *n mi!m( den(minad(r e!/a! d(! carac/er2!/ica! e!&ec2Cicamen/e A*mana!; M*cAa! 7ece! !e Aan AecA( in/en/(! en e!/a direccin; F; Ma> MJller de!arr(ll *na c*ri(!a /e(r2a !egEn la c*al el mi/( !e e>&lica3a c(m( *n &r(d*c/( acce!(ri( del leng*aBe; C(n!idera3a el mi/( c(m( *na e!&ecie de enCermedad de la men/e A*mana" c*8a! ca*!a! Aa32a @*e 3*!car en la Cac*l/ad del leng*aBe; El leng*aBe e!" &(r na/*raleDa 8 e!encia" me/aCric(M inca&aD de de!cri3ir la! c(!a! direc/amen/e" a&ela a m(d(! indirec/(! de de!cri&cin" a / rmin(! am3ig*(! 8 e@*27(c(!; A e!/a am3igJedad" inAeren/e al leng*aBe" de3e !* (rigen" !egEn Ma> MJller" el mi/(" 8 en ella Aa enc(n/rad( !iem&re !* alimen/( e!&iri/*al; La c*e!/in de la mi/(l(g2a Hdice MJllerH Aa re!*l/ad(" de AecA(" *na c*e!/in de &!ic(l(g2a" 8 c(m( n*e!/ra &!i@*e !e Aace (3Be/i7a &ara n(!(/r(! &rinci&almen/e a /ra7 ! del leng*aBe" !e Aa c(n7er/id(" en deCini/i7a" en *na c*e!/in de la ciencia del leng*aBe; :e a@*2 &(r @* ;;; caliCi@* 8( al mi/( de enCermedad del leng*aBe meB(r @*e del &en!amien/(;;; Un( 8 (/r( !(n in!e&ara3le! 8;;; *na enCermedad del leng*aBe e!" &(r c(n!ig*ien/e" l( mi!m( @*e *na enCermedad del &en!amien/(;;; Re&re!en/ar!e al di(! !*&rem( c(me/iend( /(da cla!e de cr2mene!" !iend( enga'ad( &(r l(! A(m3re!" enc(leriDad( c(n !* m*Ber 8 7i(len/( c(n !*! AiB(! e!" cier/amen/e" &r*e3a de *na enCermedad" de *na c(ndicin ina*di/a del &en!amien/( (" &ara Aa3lar mF! claramen/e" de 7erdadera l(c*ra;;; E! el ca!( de &a/(l(g2a mi/(lgica; ;; El leng*aBe arcaic( e! *n in!/r*men/( diC2cil de maneBar" e!&ecialmen/e &(r l( @*e !e reCiere a Cine! religi(!(!; E! im&(!i3le e>&re!ar idea! a3!/rac/a! en el leng*aBe A*man( !i n( e! 7ali nd(!e de me/FC(ra!" 8 n( e>ageram(! al decir @*e /(d( el dicci(nari( de la religin an/ig*a e!/F c(m&*e!/( de me/FC(ra;;; A@*2 /enem(! *na C*en/e c(n!/an/e de mala! in/er&re/aci(ne!" m*cAa! de la! c*ale!
EL LENGUAIE

Aan c(n!er7ad( !* l*gar en la religin 8 en la mi/(l(g2a del m*nd( an/ig*(; 06ontri!utions to the %cience of Mythology/ L(ndre!" L(ngOman!" Green C(;" #1$5" I" -1 s. 8 &ecturas on the %cience of )eligin/ N*e7a 6(r{" CAarle! Scri3nerw! S(n!" #1$." &&; ##1 !!;, N( creem(! @*e &*eda &re/ender la ca/eg(r2a de in/er&re/acin adec*ada el c(n!iderar *na ac/i7idad A*mana C*ndamen/al c(m( *na mera m(n!/r*(!idad" c(m( *na e!&ecie de enCermedad men/al; N( /enem(! nece!idad de /e(r2a! /an e>/ra'a! &ara 7er @*e en la men/e &rimi/i7a el mi/( 8 el leng*aBe c(n!/i/*8en" c(m( !i diB ram(!" d(! Aerman(! gemel(!; Am3(! !e Aallan 3a!ad(! en *na e>&eriencia m*8" general 8 &rimi/i7a de la A*manidad" de na/*raleDa mF! !ien !(cial @*e C2!ica; M*cA( an/e! @*e *n ni'( a&renda a Aa3lar Aa de!c* 3ier/( medi(! mF! !im&le! &ara c(m*nicar!e c(n (/ra! &er!(na!M l(! gri/(! de de!agrad(" de d(l(r 8 de Aam3re" de /em(r" @*e enc(n/ram(! a /ra7 ! de /(d( el m*nd( (rgFnic(" c(mienDan a ad(&/ar *na C(rma n*e7a" 8a n( !(n !im&le! reacci(ne! in!/in/i7a!" &*e!/( @*e !e em&lean en *na C(rma mF! c(n!cien/e 8 deli3erada; C*and( !e le deBa !(l(" el ni'( reclama" &(r !(nid(! mF! ( men(! ar/ic*lad(!" la &re!encia de !* n(driDa ( de !* madre" 8 !e da c*en/a de @*e e!/a! demanda! (3/ienen el re!*l/ad( a&e/ecid(M el A(m3re &rimi/i7( /ran!Ciere e!/a &rimera e>&eriencia !(cial elemen/al a la /(/alidad de la na/*raleDa; Para l" la na/*raleDa 8 la !(ciedad n( !l( !e Aallan /ra3ada! &(r l(! 72nc*l(! mF! e!/recA(! !in( @*e c(n!/i/*8en" en realidad" *n /(d( c(Aeren/e e ine>/rica3le" n( Aa8 ning*na l2nea de demarcacin @*e !e&are n2/idamen/e l(! d(! cam&(!; La na/*raleDa mi!ma n( e! !in( *na gran !(ciedad" la !(ciedad de la 7ida; De!de e!/e &*n/( de 7i!/a &(dem(! c(m&render CFcilmen/e el *!( 8 la C*ncin e!&ec2Cica de la &ala3ra mFgica; La creencia en la magia !e 3a!a en *na c(n7iccin &r(C*nda de la !(lidaridad de la 7ida;$- Para la men/e &rimi/i7a el &(der !(cial de la &aO la3ra e>&erimen/ad( en inn*mera3le! ca!(! !e c(n7ier/e en *na C*erDa na/*ral 8 Aa!/a !(3rena/*ral; El A(m3re &rimi/i7( !e !ien/e a !2 mi!m( r(dead( &(r /(da !*er/e de &eligr(! 7i!i3le! e in7i!i3le!" @*e n( e!&era 7encer &(r mer(! medi(! C2!ic(!; Para l" el m*nd( n( e! *na c(!a m*er/a ( m*daM &*ede (2r 8 c(m&render; P(r l( /an/(" !i l(! &(dere! de la na/*raleDa !(n in7(cad(! de m(d( de3id(" n( &(drFn reA*!ar !* a8*da; Nada re!i!/e a la &ala3ra mFgica" carmina -el coelo possunt deducere lunam. C*and( el A(m3re em&eD a dar!e c*en/a de @*e e!/a c(nCianDa era 7ana 8 @*e la na/*raleDa era ine>(ra3le" n( a ca*!a de @*e !e negara a c*m&lir c(n !*! demanda! !in( &(r@*e n( en/end2a !* leng*aBe" el de!c*3rimien/( de3i de &r(d*cirle el eCec/( de *n cA(@*e /ra*mF/ic(; En /al m(men/( /*7( @*e enCren/ar!e c(n *n &r(3lema @*e !igniCica3a *n 7iraBe 8 *na cri!i! en !* 7ida in/elec/*al 8 m(ral; A &ar/ir de e!/e m(men/( el A(m3re de3i de enc(n/rar!e en *n ai!lamien/( &r(C*nd(" !*Be/( a !en/imien/(! de e>/rema !(ledad 8 de de!e!&eracin a3!(l*/a; DiC2cilmen/e l(! A*3iera !*&erad( de n( Aa3er de!arr(llad( *na n*e7a C*erDa e!&iri/*al @*e 3l(@*e el camin( de la magia &er( @*e" al mi!m( /iem&(" a3ri (/r( mF! &r(me/ed(r;
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_ a!e supra/ ca&; _II" &&; #?1O.%;

Se Cr*!/rar(n la! e!&eranDa! de !(me/er a la na/*raleDa c(n la &ala3ra mFgica" &er( el re!*l/ad( C*e @*e el A(m3re c(menD a 7er la relacin en/re el leng*aBe 8 la realidad a *na l*D diCeren/e; La funcin m7gica de la &ala3ra !e ecli&! 8 C*e reem&laDada &(r !* funcin sem7ntica. 6a n( e!/F d(/ada de &(dere! mi!/eri(!(!M 8a n( eBerce *na inCl*encia C2!ica ( !(3rena/*ral inme dia/a; N( &*ede cam3iar la na/*raleDa de la! c(!a! ni c(m&eler la 7(l*n/ad de l(! di(!e! ( de l(! dem(ni(!M !in em3arg(" n( deBa de /ener !en/id( ni carece de &(der; N( e! !im&lemen/e *n ftatus -ocis/ *n mer( AFli/(M &er( !* ra!g( deci!i7( n( radica en !* carFc/er C2!ic( !in( en el lgic(; Se &*ede decir @*e C2!icamen/e la &ala3ra e! im&(/en/e &er( lgicamen/e !e ele7a a *n ni7el mF! al/(" al !*&eri(rM el logos !e c(n7ier/e en el &rinci&i( del *ni7er!( 8 en el &rimer &rinci&i( del c(n(cimien/( A*man(; E!/a /ran!icin /*7( l*gar en la &rimi/i7a Cil(!(C2a griega; :erFcli/( C(rma &ar/e /(da72a de e!a cla!e de &en!ad(re! grieg(! @*e en la Metafsica de Ari!//ele! !(n menci(nad(! c(m( l(! an/ig*(! Ci!il(g(! +S cgcfS dVS]ofifS,; T(d( !* in/er ! !e Aalla c(ncen/rad( en el m*nd( de l(! Cenmen(!M n( admi/e @*e &(r encima del m*nd( Cen(m nic(" el m*nd( del de7enir" e>i!/a *na e!Cera !*&eri(r" *n (rden ideal ( e/ern( de &*r( !er; Sin em3arg(" n( !e c(n/en/a c(n el mer( AecA( del cam3i(" &*e!/( @*e 3*!ca l(! &rinci&i(! del m*nd(; SegEn :erFcli/(" n( Aa8 @*e 3*!carl( en *na c(!a ma/erialM n( e! el m*nd( ma/erial !in( el A*man( la cla7e &ara *na in/er&re/acin c(rrec/a del (rden c!mic(; En e!/e m*nd( A*man( la Cac*l/ad de la &ala3ra (c*&a *n l*gar cen/ralM &(r l( /an/(" /enem(! @*e c(m&render l( @*e !igniCica el Aa3la &ara c(m&render el !en/id( del *ni7er!(; Si n( a3(rdam(! a!2 el &r(3lema" e! decir" &(r medi( del leng*aBe meB(r @*e &(r l(! Cenmen(! C2!ic(!" erram(! el camin( de la Cil(!(C2a; En el &en!amien/( de :erFcli/( la &ala3ra" el logos/ n( e! Enicamen/e *n Cenmen( an/r(&(lgic(" n( !e Aalla c(nCinad( den/r( de l(! e!/recA(! l2mi/e! del m*nd( A*man( &*e!/( @*e &(!ee *na 7erdad c!mica *ni7er!alM &er( en l*gar de !er *n &(der mFgic(" la &ala3ra e! en/endida en !* C*ncin !emFn/ica 8 sim!lica. GN( me e!c*cA i! a m2 He!cri3e :erFcli/(H" !in( a la &ala3ra" 8 c(nCe!ad @*e /(da! la! c(!a! !(n *na;G El &rimi/i7( &en!amien/( grieg( &a! a!2 de *na Cil(!(C2a de la na/*raleDa a *na Cil(!(C2a del leng*aBe" &er( /r(&eD c(n n*e7a! 8 gra7e! diCic*l/ade!; Aca!( n( e>i!/e &r(3lema /an c(nC*!( 8 c(n/r(7er/id( c(m( el G!en/id( del !en/id(G; $5 En n*e!/r(! mi!m(! d2a! l(! lingJi!/a!" l(! &!icl(g(! 8 l(! Cil!(C(! !(!/ienen &*n/(! de 7i!/a m*8 di!&are! !(3re la ma/eria; La Cil(!(C2a an/ig*a n( &(d2a acer/ar direc/amen/e c(n e!/e in/rincad( &r(3lema en /(d(! !*! a!&ec/(! !in( (Crecer *n in/en/( de !(l*cin" 3a!ada en *n &rinci&i( @*e el &rimi/i7( &en!amien/( grieg( ace&/ generalmen/e 8 @*e &arec2a Cirmemen/e e!/a3lecid(; La! di7er!a! e!c*ela!" /an/( la de la! Ci!il(g(! c(m( la de l(! dial c/ic(!" &ar/2an del !*&*e!/( de @*e !in *na iden/idad en/re el !*Be/( c(gn(!cen/e 8 la realidad c(n(cida n( !e &(dr2a e>&licar el AecA( del c(n(cimien/(; El ideali!m( 8 el reali!m(" a*n@*e diCer2an en la a&licacin de e!/e &rinci&i(" c(nc(rda3an al rec(n(cerl( c(m( 7erdader(; Declara Parm nide! @*e n( &(dem(! !e&arar el !er 8 el &en!ar &(r@*e !(n *na mi!ma
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_ a!e C; ^; Ogden e I; A; RicAard!" >he Meaning of Meaning +#$?." )a ed;" N*e7a 6(r{" #$.1,;

c(!a; L(! Cil!(C(! de la na/*raleDa in/er&re/a3an e!/a iden/idad en *n !en/id( e!/ric/amen/e ma/erial; Si analiDam(! la na/*raleDa del A(m3re enc(n/ram(! la mi!ma c(m3inacin de elemen/(! @*e /iene l*gar en c*al@*ier &ar/e del m*nd( C2!ic(; Siend( el micr(c(!m( *na r &lica e>ac/a del macr(c(!m(" &ermi/e el c(n(cimien/( de e!/e El/im(; GP(r@*e e! c(n la /ierra Hdice Em& d(cle!H" c(m( 7eO m(! la /ierra" 8 ag*a c(n ag*aM c(n el aire 7em(! el 3rillan/e aire 8 c(n C*eg( el C*eg( de!/r*c/(r; C(n el am(r 7em(! el am(r 8 el (di( c(n el da'in( (di(;G $1 Una 7eD ace&/ada e!/a /e(r2a general `c*Fl e! el G!en/id( del !en/id(Ga Primera 8 &rinci&almen/e de3e !er e>&licad( en / rmin(! de !er" &(r@*e el !er ( la !*!/ancia e! la ca/eg(r2a mF! *ni7er!al @*e a/a 8 7inc*la en/re !2 7erdad 8 realidad; Una &ala3ra n( &(dr2a !igniCicar *na c(!a !i n( A*3iera" &(r l( men(!" *na iden/idad &arcial en/re la! d(!M la c(ne>in en/re el !2m3(l( 8 !* (3Be/( de3e !er na/*ral 8 n( meramen/e c(n7enci(nal; Sin !emeBan/e ne>( *na &ala3ra del A*man( leng*aBe n( &(dr2a c*m&lir !* mi!in" re!*l/ar2a inin/eligi3le; Si admi/im(! e!/e !*&*e!/(" @*e /iene !* (rigen en *na /e(r2a general del c(n(cimien/( mF! 3ien @*e en *na /e(r2a del leng*aBe" n(! enCren/am(! inmedia/amen/e c(n la /e(r2a (n(ma/(& 8ica @*e !er2a la Enica ca&aD de c*3rir el Aia/( en/re l(! n(m3re! 8 la! c(!a!; P(r (/ra &ar/e" e!/e &*en/e &arece @*e3ran/ar!e al &rimer in/en/( de Aacer *!( de l; Para Pla/n" 3a!/a3a c(n de!arr(llar e!/a /e!i! de la (n(ma/(&e8a en /(da! !*! c(n!ec*encia! &ara reC*/arla; En el diFl(g( &la/nic( 6ratilo/ Scra/e! ace&/a la /e!i! a !* manera irnica" &er( !* a&r(3acin /iende a de!/r*irla &(r el a3!*rd( @*e le e! inAeren/e; La e>&(!icin @*e Aace de la /e(r2a de @*e /(d( leng*aBe !e (rigina &(r la imi/acin de l(! !(nid(! de!em3(ca en *na 7erdadera carica/*ra; Sin em3arg(" la /e!i! &re7aleci d*ran/e 7aria! cen/*ria!; Ni !i@*iera Aa de!a&arecid( &(r c(m&le/( en la 3i3li(graC2a ac/*al !(3re la ma/eria" a*n@*e 8a n( !e &re!en/a en la C(rma ingen*a c(n @*e a&arece en el 6ratilo. La (3Becin (37ia a e!/a /e!i! e! el AecA( de @*e !i analiDam(! la! &ala3ra! del leng*aBe c(mEn n(! e! a3!(l*/amen/e im&(!i3le de!c*3rir" en la ma8(r2a de l(! ca!(!" la &re/endida !emeBanDa en/re l(! !(nid(! 8 l(! (3Be/(!; E!/a diCic*l/ad &(dr2a 7encer!e &en!and( @*e el leng*aBe A*man( !e Aa 7i!/( !(me/id( de!de *n &rinci&i( al cam3i( 8 a la degeneracinM n( &(dem(! c(n/en/arn(!" &(r l( /an/(" c(n !* e!/ad( ac/*al; De3em(! rec(nd*cir l(! / rmin(! a !*! (r2gene! !i @*erem(! de/ec/ar el 72nc*l( @*e l(! *ne a !*! (3Be/(! 8 &a!ar de la! &ala3ra! deri7ada! a la! &rimaria!M de!c*3rir el etymon/ la C(rma 7erdadera 8 (riginal de cada / rmin(; A /en(r de e!e &rinci&i( la e/im(l(g2a !e c(n7ir/i" n( 8a en el cen/r( de la lingJ2!/ica" !in( /am3i n en *na de la! cla7e! de la Cil(!(C2a del leng*aBe; La! &rimera! e/im(l(g2a! e!/a3lecida! &(r l(! gramF/ic(! 8 Cil!(C(! grieg(! n( C*er(n men(!ca3ada! &(r e!crE&*l(! /eric(! ( Ai!/ric(!; An/e! de la &rimera mi/ad del !igl( XIX n( e>i!/e *na e/im(l(g2a 3a!ada en &rinci&i(! cien/2Cic(!M$$ Aa!/a e!a CecAa" /(d( era &(!i3le" 8 !e admi/2an de 7erdad la! e>&licaci(ne! mF! Can/F!/ica! 8 e>/ra7agan/e!; I*n/( a la! e/im(l(g2a! &(!i/i7a! /enem(! la! Cam(!a! e/im(l(g2a!
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Em& d(cle!" Fragmen/( ..); _ a!e I(An L*rne/" Early Gree3 5hilosophy +L(ndre! 8 Edim3*rg(" A; C; Llac{" #1$?," 7(l; II" &; ?.?; +:a8 /rad*ccin e!&a'(la" M >ic(" #$%%;, $$ CC; A; F; P(//" Etymologische orschungen aus dem Ge!iete der indogermanischen %prachen +#1.. ss.?.

nega/i7a! del /i&( lucus a non lucendo. Mien/ra! !e man/*7( e!/e e!@*ema" la /e(r2a de *na relacin na/*ral en/re l(! n(m3re! 8 la! c(!a! &arec2a deCendi3le 8 B*!/iCica3le Cil(!Cicamen/e; Tam3i n (/ra! c(n!ideraci(ne! generale! mili/a3an de!de *n &rinci&i( en !* c(n/ra; L(! !(Ci!/a! grieg(! eran" en cier/( !en/id(" di!c2&*l(! de :erFcli/(; En el >eetetes Pla/n llega a decir @*e la /e(r2a del c(n(cimien/( man/enida &(r l(! !(Ci!/a! n( /en2a ning*na (riginalidad" n( era mF! @*e &r(d*c/( 8 c(r(lari( de la d(c/rina de :erFcli/( !(3re el Cl*ir de /(da! la! c(!a!M !in em3arg(" e>i!/2a *na diCerencia radical en/re :erFcli/( 8 l(! !(Ci!/a!; Para el &rimer( el 7er3(" el logos/ c(n!/i/*2a *n &rinci&i( me/aC2!ic( *ni7er!al" &(!e2a 7erdad general" 7alideD (3Be/i7a; Per( l(! !(Ci!/a! n( admi/2an 8a e!a &ala3ra di7ina @*e" !egEn :erFcli/(" !er2a el (rigen 8 &rinci&i( &rimer( de /(da! la! c(!a!" del (rden c!mic( 8 m(ral; La an/r(&(l(g2a 8 n( la me/aC2!ica de!em&e'a aA(ra el &a&el &rinci&al en la /e(r2a del leng*aBe; El A(m3re !e Aa c(n7er/id( en el cen/r( del *ni7er!(; SegEn el dicA( de Pr(/Fg(ra!" el A(m3re e! la medida de /(da! la! c(!a!" de la! @*e !(n en c*an/( @*e !(n 8 de la! @*e n( !(n en c*an/( @*e n( !(n; Re!*l/a" &(r l( /an/(" 7an( 8 (ci(!( 3*!car *na e>&licacin del leng*aBe en el m*nd( de la! c(!a! C2!ica!; L(! !(Ci!/a! Aan enc(n/rad( *na manera m*cA( mF! !im&le 8 n*e7a de a3(rdar el leng*aBe A*man(; F*er(n l(! &rimer(! en /ra/ar l(! &r(3lema! lingJ2!/i c(! 8 grama/icale! de *n m(d( !i!/emF/ic(M !in em3arg(" n( !e Aalla3an in/ere!ad(! en e!/(! &r(3lema! en *n !en/id( &*ramen/e /eric(; Una /e(r2a del leng*aBe /iene @*e c*m&lir c(n (/ra! /area! mF! *rgen/e!" en!e'ar cm( de3em(! Aa3lar 8 (3rar en n*e!/r( m*n O d( !(cial 8 &(l2/ic( &re!en/e; En la 7ida a/enien!e del !igl( _ el leng*aBe !e Aa c(n7er/id( en *n in!/r*men/( &ara &r(&!i/(! deCinid(!" c(ncre/(!" &rFc/ic(!M c(n!/i/*2a el arma mF! &(der(!a en la! grande! &*gna! &(l2 /ica!; Nadie &(d2a e!&erar de!em&e'ar *n &a&el ca&i/al !in &(!eer e!/e in!/r*men/(; Re7e!/2a *na im&(r/ancia 7i/al em&learl( de manera adec*ada 8 meB(rarl( 8 ag* Darl( c(n!/an/emen/e; A e!/e Cin l(! !(Ci!/a! crear(n *na n*e7a rama del c(n(cimien/(" la retrica/ @*e C*e !* (c*&acin &rinci&al 8 n( la gramF/ica ( la e/im(l(g2a; En !* deCinicin de la !a3id*r2a 0sophia? la re/rica (c*&a *na &(!icin cen/ral; T(da! la! di!&*/a! acerca de la G7erdadG ( Gc(rreccinG ]ge]\UV, de l(! / rmin(! 8 de l(! n(m3re! re!*l/ar(n CE/ile! 8 !*&erCl*a!; &os A(m3re! n( /ra/an de e>&re!ar la na/*raleDa de la! c(!a!" n( &(!een c(rrela/(! (3Be/i7(!" !* mi!in real n( c(n!i!/e en de!cri3ir c(!a! !in( en de!&er/ar em(ci(ne! A*mana!M n( e!/Fn de!/inada! a lle7ar mera! idea! ( &en!amien/(! !in( a ind*cir a l(! A(m3re! a cier/a! acci(ne!; De e!/e m(d( Aem(! llegad( a *na c(nce&cin /ri&le de la C*ncin 8 del 7al(r del leng*aBe4 la m2/ica" la me/aC2!ica 8 la &ragmF/ica; Per( /(da! e!/a! e>&licaO ci(ne! &arecen marrar el g(l&e" &*e! n( !e dan c*en/a de *n( de l(! ra!g(! mF! c(n!&ic*(! del leng*aBe; La! e>&re!i(ne! A*mana! elemen/ale! n( !e reCieren a c(!a! C2!ica! ni /am&(c( !(n !ign(! &*ramen/e ar3i/rari(!; La al/erna/i7a TUVWX oY f oY n( !e a&lica a ella!; S(n na/*rale! 8 n( ar/iCiciale!" &er( n( g*ardan

relacin c(n la na/*raleDa de l(! (3Be/(! e>/ern(!; N( de&enden de la mera c(n7encin" de la c(!/*m3re ( del AF3i/(" &*e! !e Aallan arraigada! c(n m*cAa ma8(r &r(C*ndidadM !(n e>&re!i(ne! in7(l*n/aria! de !en/imien/(! A*man(!" in/erBecci(ne! 8 gri/(!; N( e! *n acciden/e @*e e!/a /e(r2a in/erBec/i7a la in/r(d*Bera *n cien/2Cic( de la na/*raleDa" el ma8(r en/re l(! &en!ad(re! grieg(!; Demcri/( C*e el &rimer( en &r(&(ner la /e!i! de @*e el leng*aBe A*man( !e (rigina en cier/(! !(nid(! de *n carFc/er meramen/e em(/i7(; La mi!ma /e!i! C*e !(!/enida &(r E&ic*r( 8 L*creci(" @*e !e a&(8ar(n en la a*/(ridad de Demcri/(" 8 Aa eBercid( *na inCl*encia &ermanen/e en la /e(r2a del leng*aBeM /(da72a en el !igl( X_III a&arece ca!i c(n la mi!ma C(rma en &en!ad(re! c(m( _ic( 8 R(*!!ea*; E! CFcil c(m&render" de!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a cien/2Cic(" la! grande! 7en/aBa! de e!/a /e!i! in/erBec/i7aM 8a n( nece!i/am(! a&(8arn(! en la &*ra e!&ec*lacin" Aem(! de!c*3ier/( cier/(! AecA(! c(m&r(3a3le! @*e n( e!/Fn limi/ad(! al Fm3i/( A*man(; El leng*aBe A*man( !e &*ede red*cir a *n in!/in/( C*ndamen/al im&lan/ad( &(r la na/*raleDa en /(d(! l(! !ere! 7i7(!M gri/(! 7i(len/(!" de /em(r" de ra3ia" de d(l(r ( de alegr2a" n( !(n &r(&iedad e!&ec2Cica del A(m3re" l(! enc(n/ram(! &(r d(@*ier en el m*nd( animal; Nada" &*e!" &arec2a mF! &la*!i3le @*e el red*cir el AecA( !(cial del leng*aBe a ca*!a! 3i(lgica! generale!; Si ace&/am(! la /e!i! de Demcri/( 8 de !*! di!c2&*l(! 8 c(n/in*ad(re!" la !emFn/ica deBa de !er *na &r(7incia !e&arada 8 !e c(n7ier/e en *na rama de la 3i(l(g2a 8 de la Ci!i(l(g2a; Sin em3arg(" la /e(r2a in/erBec/i7a n( &*d( alcanDar mad*reD Aa!/a @*e la 3i(l(g2a mi!ma n( enc(n/r *na n*e7a 3a!e cien/2Cica; N( 3a!/a3a c(nec/ar el leng*aBe A*man( c(n cier/(! AecA(! 3i(lgic(!" Aa32a @*e C*ndar la c(ne>in en *n &rinci&i( *ni7er!al; E!/e &rinci&i( era !*mini!/rad( &(r la /e(r2a de la e7(l*cin; C*and( a&areci el li3r( de Dar9in C*e !al*dad( c(n el ma8(r en/*!ia!m( n( !l( &(r l(! cien/2Cic(! 8 l(! Cil!(C(! !in( /am3i n &(r l(! lingJi!/a!" A*g*!/ ScAleiO cAer" c*8a! &rimera! (3ra! n(! l( m*e!/ran c(m( *n ade&/( de :egel" !e c(n7ir/i al dar9ini!m(;#NN Dar9in mi!m( Aa /ra/ad( e!/a ma/eria e!/ric/amen/e de!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a de *n na/*rali!/a" &er( !* m /(d( general era CFcilmen/e a&lica3le a l(! Cenmen(! lingJ2!/ic(! 8 &reci!amen/e en e!/e cam&( &arec2a a3rir *na 72a ine>&l(rada; En &a expresin de las emociones en el hom!re y los animales Aa m(!/rad( @*e l(! !(nid(! ( l(! ac/(! e>&re!i7(! !e Aallan dic/ad(! &(r cier/a! nece!idade! 3i(lgica! 8 @*e !e em&lean de ac*erd( c(n le8e! 3i(lgica! deCinida!; A3(rdad( de!de e!/e Fng*l(" el 7ieB( enigma del (rigen del leng*aBe &*ede !er /ra/ad( de *n m(d( e!/ric/amen/e em&2ric( 8 cien/2Cic(; El leng*aBe A*man( ce! de !er *n GE!/ad( den/r( del E!/ad(G 8 !e c(n7ir/i en *n d(n na/*ral general; 0*eda3a" !in em3arg(" *na diCic*l/ad C*ndamen/al; L(! cread(re! de la! /e(r2a! 3i(lgica! acerca del (rigen del leng*aBe n( 7ier(n el 3(!@*e a ca*!a de l(! Fr3(le!; Par/ier(n del !*&*e!/( de @*e *na l2nea direc/a n(! c(nd*ce de!de la in/erBeccin al leng*aBe" &er( e!/( e! *na &e/icin de &rinci&i(" n( *na !(l*cin" &(r@*e l( @*e Aa32a @*e e>&licar n( era el mer( AecA( del leng*aBe A*man( !in( !* e!/r*c/*ra; Un anFli!i! de e!/a e!/r*c/*ra re7ela *na diCerencia radical en/re el
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_ a!e A*g*!/ ScAleicAer" 1ie 1arBin+sche >heorie und die %prachBissenschaft +Keimar" #15.,;

lengua=e emoti-o y el proposicionalI n( !e Aallan al mi!m( ni7el; A*n@*e C*era &(!i3le c(nec/arl(! gen /icamen/e" el &a!( de *n /i&( al /i&( (&*e!/( !erF !iem&re" lgicamen/e" *na meta!asis eis allo genos/ *n &a!ar de *n g ner( a (/r(; Me &arece @*e ning*na /e(r2a 3i(lgica l(gr cancelar BamF! e!/a di!/incin lgica e!/r*c/*ralM n( &(!eem(! ning*na &r*e3a &!2@*ica de @*e ningEn animal /ra!&a!ara BamF! la Cr(n/era @*e !e&ara el leng*aBe &r(&(!ici(nal del em(/i7(; El llamad( leng*aBe animal e! !iem&re en/eramen/e !*3Be/i7(M e>&re!a di7er!(! e!/ad(! del !en/imien/(" &er( n( de!igna ( de!cri3e o!=etos. #Z8 P(r (/ra &ar/e" n( e>i!/e &r*e3a Ai!/rica de @*e el A(m3re" ni en la! e/a&a! mF! 3aBa! de !* c*l/*ra" e!/*7iera n*nca red*cid( a *n leng*aBe meramen/e em(/i7( ( a *n leng*aBe m2mic(; Si &re/endem(! !eg*ir *n m /(d( e!/ric/amen/e em&2ric(" Aa3rem(! de e>cl*ir *na &re!*ncin !emeBan/e" @*e" !i n( e! /(/almen/e im&r(3a3le" re!*l/a" &(r l( men(!" d*d(!a e Ai&(/ /ica; En realidad" *n e>amen mF! a/en/( de e!/a! /e(r2a! n(! c(nd*ce !iem&re a *n &*n/( en el c*al re!*l/a di!c*/i3le el &rinci&i( real en @*e de!can!an; De!&* ! de caminar *n &(c( c(n !* arg*men/(" l(! deCen!(re! !e 7en (3ligad(! a rec(n(cer 8 !*3ra8ar la mi!ma diCerencia @*e" a &rimera 7i!/a" &arec2an negar (" &(r l( men(!" red*cir al m2nim(; Para il*!/rar e!/e AecA( 7(8 a e!c(ger d(! eBem&l(! c(ncre/(!" el &rimer( rec(gid( de la 3i3li(graC2a lingJ2!/ica" el !eg*nd( de la &!ic(lgica 8 Cil(!Cica; O//( Ie!&er!en C*e" aca!(" el El/im( lingJi!/a m(dern( @*e c(n!er7 *n 7i7( in/er ! &(r el 7ieB( &r(3lema del (rigen del leng*aBe; N( nega3a @*e /(da! la! !(l*ci(ne! an/eri(re! C*eran inadec*ada! 8 e!/a3a c(n7encid( de @*e Aa32a de!c*3ier/( *n n*e7( m /(d( @*e &r(me/2a ma8(re! >i/(!; El m /(d( @*e 8( rec(miend( Hn(! dice Ie!&er!enH 8 @*e !(8 el &rimer( en em&lear de m(d( c(n!ec*en/e" c(n!i!/e en rec(nd*cir n*e!/r(! leng*aBe! m(dern(! /an a/rF! en el /iem&( c(m( n(! l( &ermi/an la Ai!/(ria 8 l(! ma/eriale! a n*e!/ra di!&(!icin;;; Si c(n e!/e &r(cedimien/( llegam(!" Cinalmen/e" a !(nid(! e>&re!i7(! de /ale! carac/er2!/ica! @*e n( &*edan den(minar!e 8a leng*aBe !in( alg( &re7i(" en/(nce! el &r(3lema e!/arF re!*el/(" &*e! la /ran!C(rmacin e! alg( @*e &(dem(! c(m&render" mien/ra! @*e el en/endimien/( A*man( BamF! &*ede c(m&render *na creacin de la nada; SegEn e!/a /e(r2a" la /ran!C(rmacin /*7( l*gar c*and( la! e>&re!i(ne! A*mana!" @*e al &rinci&i( n( C*er(n mF! @*e gri/(! em(/i7(! ( aca!( Cra!e! m*!icale!" !e em&lear(n c(m( n(m3re!; L( @*e (riginalmen/e n( era !in( *n ca(! de !(nid(! de!&r(7i!/( de !en/id( !e c(n7ir/i de e!/e m(d(" !E3i/amen/e" en el in!/r*men/( del &en!amien/(; P(r eBem&l(" *na c(m3inacin de !(nid(! en/(nad(! c(n cier/a mel(d2a 8 em&lead(! en *n can/( de /ri*nC( c(n/ra el enemig( derri3ad(" &*d( cam3iar!e en *n n(m3re &r(&i( &ara e!/e ac(n/ecimien/( &ec*liar ( &ara el A(m3re @*e derri3 al enemig(" 8 el de!en7(l7imien/( &*d( &r(!eg*ir median/e *na /ran!Cerencia me/aCrica de la e>&re!in a !i/*aci(ne! !imilare!; #N? E!/a /ran!Cerencia me/aCrica e! la @*e" &reci!amen/e" c(n/iene /(d( n*e!/r( &r(3lema
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_ an!e l(! c(nce&/(! de K; ^(eAler 8 G; R 7 !D e>&*e!/(! supra/ ca&; III" &&; )? s. E!/a /e(r2a C*e &re!en/ada &(r &rimera 7eD &(r Ie!&er!en en !* (3ra 5rogress in &anguage +L(ndre!" #1$%,; _ a!e /am3i n !* &anguage/ Its Fature/ 1e-elopment and 'rigin +L(ndre! 8 N*e7a 6(r{" #$??," &&; %#1 8 %.5 ss.

c(m( en *na a7ellanaM @*iere decir @*e la! e>&re!i(ne! !(n(ra!" @*e Aa!/a en/(nce! Aa32an !id( mera! e>clamaci(ne!" de!carga! in7(l*n/aria! de em(ci(ne! C*er/e!" e!/a3an c*m&liend( *na mi!in c(m&le/amen/e n*e7a; Se em&lea3an aA(ra c(m( sm!olos c(n *n !en/id( deCinid(; El mi!m( Ie!&er!en ci/a *na (3!er7acin de LenCe8 acerca de @*e en/re la in/erBeccin 8 la &ala3ra e>i!/e *n Aia/( l( 3a!/an/e am&li( c(m( &ara @*e &(dam(! decir @*e la &rimera e! la negacin del leng*aBe" &*e! !e la em&lea Enicamen/e c*and( *n( n( &*ede Aa3lar ( n( @*iere; SegEn Ie!&er!en" Gel leng*aBe !*rgi c*an d( la c(m*nicacin &re7aleci !(3re la e>clamacinG; E!/e &a!(" !in em3arg(" n( !e Aalla e>&licad( &(r l !in( @*e e!/F &re!*&*e!/( &(r !* /e(r2a; La mi!ma cr2/ica &(dem(! Aacer a la /e!i! de!arr(llada en el li3r( %peech. Its unction and 1e-elopment/ de Grace de Lag*na" &*e! c(n/iene *na e>&(!icin m*cA( mF! de/allada 8 ela3(rada del &r(3lema; E!/Fn eliminad(! l(! c(nce&/(!" mF! 3ien Can/F!/ic(!" @*e enc(n/ram(! a 7ece! en el li3r( de Ie!&er!en; La /ran!iO cin del gri/( al Aa3la !e de!cri3e c(m( *n &r(ce!( de (3Be/i7acin grad*al; La! c*alidade! aCec/i7a! &rimi/i7a! @*e !e adAieren c(m( *n /(d( a la !i/*acin !e di7er!iCican 8" al mi!m( /iem&(" !e di!/ing*en de l(! ra!g(! &erci3id(! de la !i/*acin" G;;;emergen (3Be/(! @*e !(n c(n(cid(! mF! 3ien @*e !en/id(!;;; Al mi!m( /iem&(" e!/a c(ndici(nalidad en a*men/( c(3ra C(rma !i!/emF/ica;;; Finalmen/e;;; a&arece el (rden (3Be/i7( de la realidad 8 el m*nd( e! 7erdaderamen/e c(n(cid(G +&&; ?-N !!;,; E!/a (3Be/i7acin 8 !i!/ema/iDacin re&re!en/a la /area &rinci&al 8 mF! !igniCica/i7a del leng*aBe A*man(" &er( n( alcanD( a 7er cm( *na /e(r2a e>cl*!i7amen/e in/erBec/i7a &*ede (Crecer *na e>O &licacin de e!/e &a!( deci!i7(; En la e>&licacin @*e n(! (Crece el &r(Ce!(r De Lag*na n( !e Aa llenad( el Aia/( en/re in/erBecci(ne! 8 n(m3re! !in( @*e" &(r el c(n/rari(" !e man/iene c(n ma8(r 7ig(r; E! *n AecA( n(/a3le @*e a@*ell(! a*/(re! @*e" Aa3land( de *n m(d( general" &r(&end2an a creer @*e el leng*aBe !e Aa de!arr(llad( a &ar/ir de *na e/a&a de mera! in/er Becci(ne!" !e Aan 7i!/( c(nd*cid(! a la c(ncl*!in de @*e" de!&* ! de /(d(" la diCerencia en/re in/erBecci(ne! 8 n(m3re! e! m*cA( ma8(r 8 m*cA( mF! &a/en/e @*e !* !*&*e!/a iden/idad; A!2" &(r eBem&l(" Gardiner c(mienDa diciend( @*e en/re el leng*aBe del A(m3re 8 el de l(! animale! e>i!/e *na A(m(geneidad e!encial" &er(" al de!arr(llar !* /e(r2a" /iene @*e rec(n(cer @*e en/re la e>&re!in de l(! animale! 8 el Aa3la A*mana e>i!/e *na diCerencia /an 7i/al @*e &*ede ecli&!ar ca!i en a3O !(l*/( la A(m(geneidad; #N. La a&aren/e !emeBanDa n( e!" de AecA(" mF! @*e *na c(ne>in ma/erial @*e" leB(! de e>cl*ir la Ae/er(geneidad C*nci(nal ( C(rmal" la acen/Ea; ? La c*e!/in !(3re el (rigen del leng*aBe Aa eBercid( en /(d(! l(! /iem&(! *na Ca!cinacin e>/ra'a en la men/e A*mana; A l(! &rimer(! cAi!&aD(! de !* in/elec/( el A(m3re c(menD a a!(m3rar!e de e!/e &r(3lema; Di7er!(! rela/(! m2/ic(! n(! in!/r*8en acerca de cm( a&rendi a Aa3lar de Di(! mi!m( ( c(n la a8*da de *n &edag(g( di7in(; Si ace&/am(! la! &rimera! &remi!a! del &en!amien/( m2/ic(" e!
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Alan :; Gardiner" >he >heory of %peech and &anguage +O>C(rd" #$.?," &&; ##1 s.

CFcil c(m&render e!/e in/er ! &(r el (rigen del leng*aBe; El mi/( n( c(n(ce (/r( m(d( de e>&licacin @*e el de rem(n/ar!e al &a!ad( rem(/( 8 deri7ar el e!/ad( ac/*al del m*nd( C2!ic( 8 A*man( de la e/a&a &rimigenia de la! c(!a!; Re!*l/a alg( &aradBic( 8 !(r&renden/e enc(n/rar @*e la mi!ma /endencia &re7alece en el &en!amien/( Cil(!Cic(4 d*ran/e 7ari(! !igl(! la c*e!/in !i!/emF/ica C*e ecli&!ada &(r la gen /ica; Se &en!a3a c(m( c(!a (37ia @*e" de re!(l7er!e la c*e!/in gen /ica" /(d(! l(! demF! &r(3lema! enc(n/rar2an /am3i n !(l*cin; De!de *n &*n/( de 7i!/a e&i!/em(lgic( general" !e /ra/a3a de *na !*&(!icin gra/*i/a; La /e(r2a del c(n(cimien/( n(! Aa en!e'ad( a /raDar *na l2nea ne/a de !e&aracin en/re l(! &r(3lema! gen /ic(! 8 l(! !i!/emF/ic(!M la c(nC*!in de am3a! cla!e! e! de!&i!/ad(ra 8 &eligr(!a; `Cm( e! &(!i3le @*e e!/a mF>ima me/(d(lgica" @*e en (/ra! rama! del c(n(cimien/( a&arec2a c(m( Cirmemen/e e!/a3lecida" !e (l7idara al /ra/ar l(! &r(3lema! del leng*aBea E! cier/( @*e Aa3r2a de re7e!/ir *n in/er ! e im&(r/ancia c(n!idera3le! la &(!e!in de la &r*e3a Ai!/rica reCeren/e al leng*aBe" el @*e C* ram(! ca&ace! de re!(l7er la c*e!/in de !i /(da! la! leng*a! el m*nd( deri7an de *n /r(nc( c(mEn ( de ra2ce! diCeren/e! e inde&endien/e!" 8 el @*e n(! C*era &(!i3le /raDar &a!( a &a!( el de!arr(ll( de l(! di7er!(! idi(ma! 8 /i&(! lingJ2!/ic(!; Ma! e!/( n( !er2a !*Cicien/e &ara re!(l7er l(! &r(3lema! C*ndamen/ale! de *na Cil(!(C2a del lenO g*aBe; En Cil(!(C2a n( &(dem(! darn(! &(r !a/i!CecA(! c(n el mer( Cl*ir de la! c(!a! 8 c(n la cr(n(l(g2a de l(! AecA(!; Tenem(! @*e ace&/ar" en cier/( !en/id(" la deCinicin &la/nica !egEn la c*al el c(n(cimien/( Cil(!Cic( e! *n c(n(cimien/( del !er 8 n( del &*r( de7enir; Cier/( @*e el leng*aBe n( &(!ee *n !er C*era 8 mF! allF del /iem&(M n( &er/enece al rein( de la! idea! e/erna!; El cam3i( Hcam3i( C(n /ic(" analgic(" !emFn/ic(H c(n!/i/*8e *n elemen/( e!encial del leng*aBe; Sin em3arg(" n( 3a!/a el e!/*di( de /(d(! e!/(! Cenmen(! &ara @*e &(dam(! c(m&render la funcin general del leng*aBe; En l( @*e re!&ec/a al anFli!i! de c*al@*ier C(rma !im3lica de&endem(! de l(! da/(! Ai!/ric(!; La c*e!/in acerca de @* !ean el mi/(" la religin" el ar/e ( el leng*aBe n( &*ede !er re!*el/a de *n m(d( &*ramen/e a3!/rac/(" &(r *na deCinicin lgica; Per( &(r (/ra &ar/e" al e!/*diar la religin" el ar/e ( el leng*aBe /r(&eDam(! !iem&re c(n &r(3lema! e!/r*cO /*rale! generale! @*e c(rre!&(nden a *n /i&( diCeren/e de c(n(cimien/(; E!/(! &r(3lema! de3en !er /ra/ad(! &(r !e&arad(M n( &*eden c(n!iderar!e ni re!(l7er!e meO dian/e in7e!/igaci(ne! &*ramen/e Ai!/rica!; En el !igl( XIX era *na (&inin c(rrien/e 8 generalmen/e admi/ida @*e la Ai!/(ria re&re!en/a la Enica cla7e &ara el e!/*di( cien/2Cic( del Aa3la A*mana; La! grande! a&(r/aci(ne! de la lingJ2!/ica &r(ced2an de er*di/(! c*8( in/er ! Ai!/ric( &re7alec2a de /al !*er/e @*e &arec2a !(C(car c*al@*ier (/ra /endencia del &enO !amien/(; Iac(3 Grimm e!/a3leci la! &rimera! 3a!e! &ara *na gramF/ica c(m&arada de l(! idi(ma! germFnic(!; La gramF/ica c(m&arada de la! leng*a! ind(e*r(&ea! C*e ina*g*rada &(r L(&& 8 P(// 8 &erCecci(nada &(r A; ScAleicAer" CAarle! Lr*gman 8 L; Del3r*c{; El &rimer( en &r(m(7er la c*e!/in de l(! &rinci&i(! de la Ai!/(ria lingJ2!/ica C*e :ermann Pa*l" @*ien !e da3a &erCec/a c*en/a del AecA( de @*e la mera indagacin Ai!/rica n( &(d2a re!(l7er /(d(! l(!

&r(3lema! del leng*aBe A*man(; In!i!/2a en @*e el c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric( nece!i/a3a !iem&re *n c(m&lemen/( !i!/emF/ic(; A cada rama del c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric(" dec2a" c(rre!&(nde *na ciencia @*e /ra/a de la! c(ndici(ne! generale! 3aB( la! c*ale! !e de!arr(llan l(! (3Be/(! Ai!/ric(! 8 @*e in7e!/iga a@*ell(! Cac/(re! @*e &ermanecen in7aria3le! a /ra7 ! de /(d(! l(! cam3i(! de l(! Cenmen(! A*man(!;#N% El !igl( XIX n( C*e !l( *n !igl( Ai!/ric( !in( /am3i n &!ic(lgic(; Era" &(r l( /an/(" na/*ral" 8 Aa!/a &arec2a e7iden/e" !*&(ner @*e Aa32a @*e 3*!car l(! &rinci&i(! de la Ai!/(ria de la! leng*a! en el cam&( de la &!ic(l(g2a; C(n!/i/*2an l(! d(! &ilare! de l(! e!/*di(! lingJ2!/ic(!; Pa*l 8 la ma8(r2a de !*! c(e/Fne(! Hdice Le(nard Ll((mCieldH /ra/an Enicamen/e de la! leng*a! ind(e*r(&ea! 8" B*n/( a !* de!c*id( de l(! &r(3lema! de!cri&/i7(!" reA*!a3an /ra3aBar c(n leng*aBe! c*8a Ai!/(ria le! era de!c(n(cida; E!/a limi/acin le! &ri7 del c(n(cimien/( de /i&(! e>/ra'(! de e!/r*c/*ra grama/ical @*e &*d( Aa3erle! a3ier/( l(! (B(! al AecA( de @*e l(! ra!g(! C*nO damen/ale! de la gramF/ica ind(e*r(&ea;;; en m(d( alg*n( !(n *ni7er!ale! en el Aa3la A*mana;;; Sin em3arg(" &aralelamen/e c(n la gran c(rrien/e de e!/*di(! Ai!/ric(! !e de!liD (/ra mF! m(de!/a" &er( crecien/e" de e!/*di(! lingJ2!/ic(! generale!;;; Alg*n(! e!/*di(!(! C*er(n 7iend( cada 7eD c(n ma8(r claridad la relacin na/*ral @*e e>i!/e en/re l(! e!/*di(! de!cri&/i7(! 8 l(! Ai!/ric(!; La C*!in de e!/a! d(! c(rrien/e!" la Ai!/rica c(m&arada 8 la Cil(!Cic(Ode!cri&/i7a" Aa &*e!/( en clar( alg*n(! &rinci&i(! @*e n( C*er(n &a/en/e! a l(! grande! ind(e*r(&e2!/a! del !igl( XIX;;; T(d( e!/*di( lgic( del leng*aBe !e 3a!a en la c(m&aracin de d(! ( mF! Aace! de da/(! de!cri&/i7(!; E!/a c(m&aracin &*ede !er /an e>ac/a 8 c(m&le/a c(m( l( &ermi/an e!(! da/(!; A l(! eCec/(! de de!cri3ir *n leng*aBe n( !e re@*iere ningEn c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric(M de AecA(" el (3!er7ad(r @*e &ermi/e @*e !emeBan/e c(n(cimien/( aCec/e a !* de!cri&cin e!/F en &eligr( de deC(rmar !*! da/(!; N*e!/ra de!cri&cin de3e !er li3re de &reB*ici(! !i @*erem(! @*e (CreDca *na 3a!e !ana &ara la /area c(m&ara/i7a; +Ll((mCield" &anguage/ N*e7a 6(r{" :(l/ C(;" #$.." &&; #5 ss.? E!/e &rinci&i( me/(d(lgic( Aa enc(n/rad( !* &rimera e>&re!in" en cier/( !en/id( clF!ica" en la (3ra de *n gran lingJi!/a 8 Cil!(C(" G*illerm( de :*m3(ld/" @*ien realiD l(! &rimer(! &a!(! en la cla!iCicacin de la! leng*a! red*ci nd(la! a cier/(! /i&(! C*ndamen/ale!; A e!/e eCec/( n( &*d( em&lear Enicamen/e m /(d(! Ai!/ric(!" &*e! la! leng*a! @*e e!/*di n( c(rre!&(n den e>cl*!i7amen/e a l(! /i&(! ind(e*r(&e(!; S* in/er ! era" eCec/i7amen/e" am&li(" &*e! incl*2a /(d( el cam&( de l(! Cenmen(! lingJ2!/ic(!; OCreci la &rimera de!cri&cin anal2/ica de la! leng*a! a3(r2gene! americana! */iliDand( &ara ell( el a3*ndan/e ma/erial @*e !* Aerman( AleBandr( de :*m3(ld/ &*d( rec(ger en !*! 7iaBe! de e>&l(rad(r &(r el c(n/inen/e; En el !eg*n d( 7(l*men de !* gran (3ra !(3re la! 7ariedade! del leng*aBe A*man( #N) G*illerm( de :*m3(ld/ /raD la &rimera gramF/ica c(m&arada de la! leng*a! a*!/r(ne!ia!" la! ind(ne!ia! 8 la! melane!ia!; AA(ra 3ien" n( !e di!&(n2a de da/(! Ai!/ric(! &ara e!/a gramF/ica
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:ermann Pa*l" 5rinDipien der %prachgeschichte +:alle" #11N," ca&; I;; _ a!e :*m3(ld/" Gesammelte %chriften +Academia de Lerl2n," 7(l; _II" &ar/e #; Lerl2n +#1.-O.$,;

&*e!/( @*e !e de!c(n(c2a &(r c(m&le/( la Ai!/(ria de e!/a! leng*a! 8 :*m3(ld/ /*7( @*e a3(rdar el &r(3lema de!de *n Fng*l( c(m&le/amen/e n*e7( 8 a3rir!e !* &r(&i( camin(; Sin em3arg(" !* m /(d( !eg*2a !iend( rig*r(!amen/e em&2ric(" 3a!ad( en (3!er7aci(ne! 8 n( en e!&ec*laci(ne!" &er( n( !e c(n/en/a3a c(n la de!cri&cin de AecA(! &ar/ic*lare! e inmedia/amen/e !ac inCerencia! generale! de gran alcance; E! im&(!i3le" !(!/en2a" c(n!eg*ir *na 7erdadera idea del carFc/er 8 C*ncin del Aa3la A*mana mien/ra! &en!em(! @*e !e /ra/a de *na mera c(leccin de &ala3ra!; La diCerencia real en/re la! leng*a! n( e! de !(nid(! ( de !ign(! !in( de &er!&ec/i7a! c!mica! ( 7i!i(ne! del m*nd( 0Weltansichten?I *n leng*aBe n( e!" !encillamen/e" *n agregad( mecFnic( de / rmin(!; Di!gregarl( en &ala3ra! ( / rmin(! !igniCica /an/( c(m( de!(rganiDarl( 8 de!in/e grarl(; SemeBan/e c(nce&cin n( !l( e! &erB*dicial !in( de!a!/r(!a &ara c*al@*ier e!/*di( de Cenmen(! lingJ2!/ic(!; GLa! &ala3ra! 8 regla! @*e" !egEn n*e!/ra! idea! c(rrien/e!" c(m&(nen *n leng*aBe Hdice :*m3(ld/H" e>i!/en realmen/e /an !l( en el ac/( del leng*aBe c(ne>(M /ra/arla! c(m( en/idade! !e&arada! n( e! mF! @*e el &r(d*c/( m*er/( de n*e!/r(! cAa&*cer(! anFli!i! cien/2Cic(!; El leng*aBe /iene @*e !er c(n!iderad( c(m( *na energeia 8 n( c(m( *n ergon. N( e! *na c(!a aca3ada !in( *n &r(ce!( c(n/in*(M la la3(r" ince!an/emen/e re&e/ida" del e!&2ri/* A*man( &ara */iliDar !(nid(! ar/ic*lad(! en la e>&re!in del &en!amien/(;G #NLa (3ra de :*m3(ld/ re&re!en/ alg( mF! @*e *n &r(gre!( n(/a3le en el &en!amien/( lingJ2!/ic(M !igniCic /am3i n *na n*e7a &(ca en la Ai!/(ria de la Cil(!(C2a del leng*aBe; N( era *n acad mic( e!&ecialiDad( en Cenmen(! lingJ2!/ic(! &ar/ic*lare! ni *n me/aC2!ic( c(m( ScAelling ( :egel; Sig*i el m /(d( cr2/ic( de ^an/ !in caer en e!&ec*laci(ne! acerca de la e!encia ( el (rigen del leng*aBeM el El/im( &r(3lema ni !i@*iera e!/F menci(nad( en !* (3raM l( @*e (c*&a el &rimer &lan( !(n l(! &r(3lema! e!/r*c/*rale!; :(8 !e admi/e" generalmen/e" @*e e!/(! &r(3lema! n( &*eden !er re!*el/(! &(r m /(d(! Ai!/ric(! e>cl*!i7amen/e; C(n(ced(re! de diCeren/e! e!c*ela! 8 @*e /ra3aBan en cam&(! di7er!(! c(nc*erdan en !*3ra8ar el AecA( de @*e n( &*ede Aacer!e !*&erCl*a la lingJ2!/ica de!cri&/i7a en gracia de la lingJ2!/ica Ai!/rica" &*e! e!/a El/ima /iene @*e 3a!ar!e !iem&re en la de!cri&cin de a@*ella! e/a&a! del de!en7(l7imien/( del leng*aBe @*e n(! !(n direc/amen/e acce!i3le!; #N5 De!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a de la Ai!/(ria general de la! idea!" e! m*8 n(/a3le el AecA( de @*e la lingJ2!/ica" en e!/e a!&ec/(" !e Aalla !*Be/a al mi!m( cam3i( @*e &erci3im(! en (/ra! rama! del c(O n(cimien/(; El &(!i/i7i!m( 7a !iend( reem&laDad( &(r *n n*e7( &rinci&i( @*e &(dem(! den(minar estructuralismo. La C2!ica clF!ica e!/a3a c(n7encida de @*e" &ara de!c*3rir la! le8e! generale! del m(7imien/(" /enem(! @*e c(menDar !iem&re c(n el e!/*di( de l(! m(7imien/(! de G&*n/(! ma/eriale!GM la Mec7nica analtica de Lagrange !e 3a!a3a en e!/e &rinci&i(; MF! /arde" la! le8e! del cam&(
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:*m3(ld/" op. cit./ &&; de/allada de la /e(r2a sophie der sym!olischen ormen/ I" &&; #N5 _ a!e" &(r eBem&l(" mar +N*e7a 6(r{" :(l/ C(;" #$?%," &&;

%) s. Para *na e>&(!icin mF! de :*m3(ld/" 7 a!e mi (3ra 5hilo $1 ss. Ie!&er!en" >he 5hilosophy of GramC .N s.

elec/r(magn /ic(" de!c*3ier/a! &(r Farada8 8 Ma>9ell" /end2an a la c(ncl*!in c(n/raria 8 re!*l/a3a clar( @*e n( !e &(d2a di!(ciar el cam&( elec/r(magn /ic( en &*n/a! indi7id*ale!; N( !e c(n!idera3a 8a al elec/rn c(m( *na en/idad inde&endien/e 8 c(n e>i!/encia &r(&ia !in( @*e !e l( deCin2a c(m( *n &*n/( l2mi/e en el cam&( c(n!iderad( en /(/al; A!2 !*rgi *n n*e7( /i&( de fsica campal @*e" en 7ari(! a!&ec/(!" di7erg2a de la c(nce&cin an/eri(r de la mecFnica clF!ica; Enc(n/ram(! *n de!arr(ll( &areB( en la 3i(l(g2a; La! n*e7a! /e(r2a! A(l2!/ica!" @*e !e 7an im&(niend( de!de l(! c(mienD(! del !igl( >>" Aan rec*rrid( a la 7ieBa deCinicin ari!/(/ lica del (rgani!m(" Aan in!i!/id( en el AecA( de @*e" en el m*nd( (rgFnic(" el /(d( e! an/eri(r a la! &ar/e!; E!/a! /e(r2a! n( niegan l(! AecA(! de la e7(l*cin &er( 8a n( &*eden in/er&re/arl(! en el mi!m( !en/id( @*e l( Aicier(n Dar9in 8 l(! dar9ini!/a! (r/(d(>(!;#N1 P(r l( @*e re!&ec/a a la &!ic(l(g2a" d*ran/e el !igl( XIX &r(!ig*i" c(n &(ca! e>ce&ci(ne!" la! 72a! marcada! &(r :*meM el Enic( m /(d( @*e &(d2a e>&licar l(! Cenmen(! &!2@*ic(! c(n!i!/2a en red*cirl(! a !*! &rimer(! elemen/(!; Se &en!a3a @*e l(! AecA(! c(m&leB(! n( eran mF! @*e *na ac*m*lacin" *n agregad( de !im&le! da/(! !en!i3le!; La m(derna &!ic(l(g2a de la Gestalt Aa cri/icad( 8 de!/r*id( e!/a c(nce&cin 8 Aa a3ier/( a!2 el camin( a *n n*e7( /i&( de &!ic(l(g2a e!/r*c/*ral; Si la lingJ2!/ica ad(&/a aA(ra el mi!m( m /(d( 8 !e c(ncen/ra cada 7eD mF! en &r(3lema! e!/r*c/*rale!" n( @*iere ell( decir @*e l(! &*n/(! de 7i!/a an/eri(re! Aa8an &adecid( en !* im&(r/ancia e in/er !M &er( en l*gar de m(7er!e en l2nea rec/a" en l*gar de (c*&ar!e e>cl*!i7amen/e del (rden cr(n(lgic( de l(! Cenmen(! del leng*aBe" la in7e!/igacin lingJ2!/ica e!/F /raDand( *na l2nea el2&/ica @*e /iene d(! C(c(! diCeren/e!; Alg*n(! llegan a decir @*e la c(m3inacin del &*n/( de 7i!/a de!cri&/i7( 8 del Ai!/ric(" @*e carac/eriD a la lingJ2!/ica d*ran/e el !igl( XIX" re&re!en/a" de!de *n &*n/( de 7i!/a me/(d(lgic(" *na e@*i7(cacin; Ferdinand de Sa*!!*re dec2a en !*! lecci(ne! @*e Aa32a @*e ren*nciar a /(da la idea de *na gram7tica histrica/ &*e! !egEn l" !/e e! *n c(nce&/( A23rid(; C(n/iene d(! elemen/(! di!&are!" @*e n( &*eden !er red*cid(! a *n c(mEn den(minad(r 8 C*ndid(! en *n /(d( (rgFnic(; SegEn De Sa*!!*re" el e!/*di( del leng*aBe A*man( n( c(m&(ne la ma/eria de *na !(la ciencia !in( de d(!" /enem(! @*e di!/ing*ir" !iem&re" en/re d(! eBe! diCeren/e!" el de la !im*l/aneidad 8 el de la !*ce!in; La gramF/ica c(rre!&(nde" &(r !* e!encia 8 na/*raleDa" al &rimer /i&(; De Sa*!!*re /raDa *na l2nea ne/a en/re la langue 8 la parole. La langue e! *ni7er!al mien/ra! @*e la parole e! *n &r(ce!( /em&(ral" indi7id*alM cada indi7id*( /iene !* &r(&ia manera de Aa3lar; Per( en *n anFli!i! cien/2Cic( del leng*aBe n( n(! (c*&am(! de e!/a! diCerencia! indi7id*ale! !in( @*e e!/*diam(! *n AecA( !(cial @*e !ig*e regla! generale!" inde&endien/e! del indi7id*( @*e Aa3la; Sin ella! el leng*aBe n( &(dr2a c*m&lir c(n !* c(me/id( &rinci&al" n( &(dr2a !er em&lead( c(m( *n medi( de c(m*nicacin en/re l(! miem3r(! de *na c(m*nidad lingJ2!/ica; L(! lingJi!/a! !incrnic(! /ra/an de relaci(ne! e!/r*c/*rale! c(n!/an/e!" l(! diacrnic(! de Cenmen(! @*e 7ar2an 8 !e de!arr(llan
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_ a!e I; L; S; :aldane" >he 6auses (C E7(l*/i(n +N*e7a 6(r{ 8 L(ndre!" #$.?,;

en el /iem&(M #N$ la *nidad e!/r*c/*ral C*ndamen/al del leng*aBe &*ede !er e!/*diada 8 e>aminada de d(! manera! 8 a&arece en el a!&ec/( material y en el formal/ maniCe!/Fnd(!e n( !l( en el !i!/ema de la! C(rma! grama/icale! !in( /am3i n en !* !i!/ema C(n /ic(; El carFc/er de *na leng*a de&ende de am3(! Cac/(re!" &er( l(! &r(3lema! e!/r*c/*rale! de la C(n(l(g2a C*er(n de!c*3ier/(! m*cA( mF! /arde @*e l(! de la !in/a>i! ( la m(rC(l(g2a; E! (37i( e innega3le @*e e>i!/e *n (rden 8 c(n!i!/encia en la! C(rma! del leng*aBe; La cla!iCica cin de e!/a! C(rma! 8 !* red*ccin a regla! deCinida! !e c(n7ir/i en *na de la! /area! &rimera! de la gramF/ica cien/2CicaM 8a en *na e/a&a m*8 &rimi/i7a l(! m /(d(! &ara e!/e e!/*di( C*er(n ele7ad(! a *n al/( grad( de &erCeccin; L(! lingJi!/a! m(dern(! !ig*en c(n/and( c(n la gramF/ica !Fn!cri/a de Panini" @*e c(rre!&(nde a la &(ca en/re .)N 8 ?)N an/e! de Cri!/(" c(n!iderFnd(la c(m( *n( de l(! ma8(re! m(n*men/(! de la in/eligencia A*mana" e in!i!/en en @*e ningEn (/r( leng*aBe Aa !id( /an &erCec/amen/e de!cri/( Aa!/a el d2a; L(! gramF/ic(! grieg(! lle7ar(n a ca3( *n c*idad(!( anFli!i! de la! &ar/e! de la (racin @*e enc(n/rar(n en el idi(ma grieg(" 8 !e Aalla3an in/ere!ad(! en /(da cla!e de a!*n/(! !in/Fc/ic(! 8 e!/il2!/ic(!; Sin em3arg(" !e de!c(n(c2a el a!&ec/( ma/erial del &r(3lema 8 !e ign(r !* im&(r/ancia Aa!/a l(! c(mienD(! del !igl( XIX; En e!/e m(men/( e! c*and( enc(n/ram(! l(! &rimer(! in/en/(! &ara a3(rdar l(! Cenmen(! de l(! cam3i(! C(n /ic(! de *n m(d( cien/2Cic(; La lingJ2!/ica Ai!/rica m(derna c(menD c(n *na in7e!/igacin de c(rre!&(ndencia! C(n /ica! *niC(rme!; En #1#1 R; ^; Ra!{ m(!/r @*e la! &ala3ra! de la! leng*a! germFnica! g*ardan *na relacin C(rmal reg*lar" en c*e!/in de C(n /ica" c(n la! &ala3ra! de (/ra! leng*a! ind(e*r(&ea!; En !* gramF/ica germFnica Iac(3 Grimm (Creci *na e>&(!icin !i!/emF/ica de la c(rre!&(ndencia en/re la! c(n!(nan/e! de la! leng*a! germFnica! 8 (/ra! leng*a! ind(e*r(&ea!; E!/a! &rimera! (3!er7aci(ne! !e c(n7ir/ier(n en la 3a!e de la lingJ2!/ica m(derna 8 de la gramF/ica c(m&arada" &er( C*er(n en/endida! e in/er&re/ada! en *n !en/id( e>cl*!i7amen/e Ai!/ric(; Iac(3 Grimm reci3i !* &rimera 8 mF! &r(C*nda in! O &iracin de *n am(r r(mFn/ic( al &a!ad(; El mi!m( e!&2ri/* del r(mFn/ic( g*i a FriedricA ScAlegel en !* de!c*3rimien/( del leng*aBe 8 !a3id*r2a de la India; ##NEn la !eg*nda mi/ad del !igl( XIX" !in em3arg(" el in/er ! &(r l(! e!/*di(! lingJ2!/ic(! e!/a3a dic/ad( &(r (/r(! im&*l!(! in/elec/*ale! 8 em&eD a &red(minar *na in/er&re/acin ma/eriali!/a; La gran am3icin de l(! llamad(! Gne(gramF/ic(!G !e ciCra3a en &r(3ar @*e l(! m /(d(! de la lingJ2!/ica !e Aalla3an al mi!m( ni7el @*e l(! de la! ciencia! de la na/*raleDa; Si la lingJ2!/ica &re/end2a !er c(n!iderada c(m( *na ciencia e>ac/a n( !e &(d2a c(n/en/ar c(n 7aga! regla! em&2rica! @*e de!cri32an ac(n/ecimien/(! Ai!/ric(! &ar/ic*lare!M /en2a @*e de!c*3rir le8e! @*e" &(r !* C(rma lgica" C*eran c(m&ara3le! c(n la! le8e! generale! de la na/*raleDa; L(! Cenmen(! de l(! cam3i(! C(n /ic(! &arec2an &r(3ar la e>i!/encia de /ale! le8e!; L(! ne(OgramF/ic(! nega3an @*e e>i!/iera alg( !emeBan/e a *n cam3i( e!&(rFdic( de !(nid(; SegEn ell(!" /(d( cam3i( C(n /ic(
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_ a!e Ferdinand de Sa*!!*re" c(nCerencia! &*3licada! &(!/*mamen/e 3aB( el /2/*l(4 6ours de linguisti;ue gnrale +#$#)M ?a ed; Par2!" #$??,; ##N !er die %prache und Weisheit der Inder +#1N1,;

!ig*e le8e! in7i(la3le!; De a@*2 !e !ig*e @*e la /area de la lingJ2!/ica c(n!i!/e en red*cir /(d(! l(! Cenmen(! del leng*aBe A*man( a e!/a ca&a C*ndamen/al 4 la! le8e! C(n /ica!" @*e !(n nece!aria! 8 n( admi/en e>ce&ci(ne!;### El Ge!/r*c/*rali!m(G m(dern(" /al c(m( Aa !id( de!arr(llad( en la! (3ra! de Tr*3e/D{(8 8 en l(! >ra-aux du 6ercle &inguisti;ue de 5rague/ a3(rda el &r(3lema de!de *n Fng*l( m*8 diCeren/eM n( ren*ncia a la e!&eranDa de enc(n/rar *na nece!idad en l(! Cenmen(! del Aa3la A*manaM &(r el c(n/rari(" !*3ra8a e!/a nece!idad; Per(" !egEn el e!/r*c/*rali!m(" e! mene!/er *na redeCinicin del 7erdader( c(nce&/( de Gnece!idadG 8 Aa8 @*e en/enderl(" mF! 3ien" en *n !en/id( /ele(lgic( @*e n( en el meramen/e ca*!al; El leng*aBe n( e!" !im&lemen/e" *n agregad( de !(nid(! 8 &ala3ra! !in( *n !i!/ema; P(r (/ra &ar/e" !* (rden !i!/emF/ic( n( &*ede !er de!cri/( en / rmin(! de ca*!alidad C2!ica ( Ai!/rica; Cada leng*aBe &(!ee *na e!/r*c/*ra &r(&ia" /an/( en *n !en/id( C(rmal c(m( ma/erial; Si e>aminam(! l(! Cenmen(! de di7er!a! Aa3la! enc(n/rarem(! /i&(! di7ergen/e! @*e n( &*eden !er !*3!*mid(! 3aB( *n e!@*ema *niC(rme 8 r2gid(; L(! di7er!(! leng*aBe! m*e!/ran !*! &r(&ia! carac/er2!/ica! en la eleccin de e!/(! Cenmen(!" &er( !e &*ede m(!/rar @*e e>i!/e *na c(ne>in e!/ric/a en/re l(! Cenmen(! de *na leng*a de/erminada; E!/a c(ne>in e! rela/i7a" n( a3!(l*/aM Ai&(/ /ica" n( a&(d2c/ica; N( &(dem(! ded*cirla de " regla! lgica! generale! !in( @*e /enem(! @*e a&(8arO n(! en n*e!/r(! da/(! em&2ric(! @*e m*e!/ran *na c(Aerencia in/erna; Una 7eD @*e Aem(! enc(n/rad( cier/(! da/(! C*ndamen/ale! n(! Aallam(! en !i/*acin de deri7ar (/r(! da/(! in7aria3lemen/e c(nec/ad(! c(n ell(!; GIl Ca*drai/ /*dier He!cri3e _; Lr(ndal" C(rm*land( el &r(grama de e!/e n*e7( e!/r*c/*rali!m(H" le! c(ndi/i(n! de la !/r*c/*re ling*i!/i@*e" di!/ing*er dan! le! !8!/yme! &A(n(l(gi@*e! e/ m(r&A(l(gi@*e! ce @*i/ e!/ &(!!i3le" de ce @*i e!/ im&(!!i3le" le c(n/ingen/ d* n ce!!aireG;##? Si ace&/am(! e!/e &*n/( de 7i!/a" Aa!/a la 3a!e ma/erial del leng*aBe A*man(" l(! Cenmen(! C(n /ic(! mi!m(!" /endrFn @*e !er e!/*diad(! de *n m(d( n*e7( 8 en *n a!&ec/( diCeren/e; En realidad" n( &(dem(! admi/ir 8a @*e e>i!/a a@*2 *na 3a!e e>cl*!i7amen/e ma/erial; La di!/incin en/re C(rma 8 ma/eria re!*l/a ar/iCicial e inadec*adaM el leng*aBe e! *na *nidad indi!(l*3le @*e n( &*ede !er di7idida en d(! Cac/(re! inde&endien/e! 8 ai!lad(!" en C(rma 8 ma/eria; En e!/e &rinci&i( radica la diCerencia en/re la n*e7a C(n(l(g2a 8 l(! /i&(! an/eri(re! de C(n /ica; En la C(n(l(g2a e!/*diam(!" n( !(nid(! C2!ic(! !in( !igniCica/i7(!; La lingJ2!/ica n( !e Aalla in/ere!ada en la na/*raleDa de l(! !(nid(! !in( en !* C*ncin !emFn/ica; La! e!c*ela! &(!i/i7i!/a! del !igl( XIX e!/a3an c(n7encida! de @*e la C(n /ica 8 la !emFn/ica re@*er2an e!/*di(! !e&arad(!" de ac*erd( c(n m /(d(! diCeren/e!; L(!
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E!/e &r(grama C*e de!arr(llad(" &(r eBem&l(" &(r :; O!/A(CC 8 ^; Lr*gmann en !*! Morphologische $ntersuchungen +Lei&Dig" #151,; Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e Ll((mCield" op. ci/;" ca&!" I" XX" XXI . ##? Lrndal" GS/r*c/*re e/ 7aria3ili/ de! !8!/ me! m(r&A(l(gi@*e!G" %cientia +ag(!/(" #$.)," &; ##$; Para *na e>&(!icin de/allada de l(! &r(3lema! 8 m /(d(! de la e!/r*c /*racin lingJ2!/ica m(derna" 7 an!e l(! ar/2c*l(! &*3licad(! en >ra-aux du 6ercle &inguisti;ue de 5rague +#$?$ 8 !!;,M e!&ecialmen/e" :; F; P(!" GPer!&ec/i7e! d* !/r*c/*rali!meG" >ra-aux +#$?$," &&; 5# ss. Una 7i!in general de la Ai!/(ria del e!/r*c/*rali!m( en R(man Ia{(3!(n" GLa Sc*(la LingJi!/ica di PragaG" &a cultura +a'( XII," &&; -.. !!;

C(nema! del leng*aBe !e c(n!idera3an c(m( mer(! Cenmen(! C2!ic(! @*e &(d2an !er 8 /en2an @*e !er de!cri/(! en / rmin(! de C2!ica ( de Ci!i(l(g2a; De!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a me/(d(lgic( general de l(! ne(gramF/ic(!" !emeBan/e c(nce&cin n( !l( era in/eligi3le !in( nece!aria" &*e! !* /e!i! C*ndamen/al H@*e la! le8e! C(n /ica! n( c(n(cen e>ce&cinH !e 3a!a3a en el !*&*e!/( de @*e el cam3i( C(n /ic( e! inde&endien/e de Cac/(re! n( C(n /ic(!; C(m( !e &en!a3a @*e el cam3i( C(n /ic( n( e! mF! @*e *n cam3i( en el AF3i/( de la ar/ic*lacin" /iene @*e aCec/ar a *n Cenmen( en c*al@*ier m(men/(" c(n inde&endencia de la na/*raleDa de la C(rma lingJ2!/ica &ar/ic*lar den/r( de la c*al (c*rre el Cenmen(; E!/e d*ali!m( Aa de!a&arecid( en la lingJ2!/ica mF! recien/eM n( !e c(n!idera 8a a la C(n /ica c(m( *n cam&( !e&arad( !in( @*e !e Aa c(n7er/id( en *na &ar/e de la !emFn/ica" &*e! el C(nema n( e! *na *nidad C2!ica !in( *na *nidad de !en/id(; :a !id( deCinid( c(m( Gla *nidad m2nima de *n ra!g( C(n /ic( di!/in/i7(G; En/re l(! grande! ra!g(! acE!/ic(! de c*al@*ier e>&re!in e>i!/en alg*n(! @*e !(n !igniCica/i7(!" &*e! !(n em&lead(! &ara e>&re!ar diCerencia! de !en/id(" mien/ra! @*e (/r(! n( /ienen e!/e carFc/er di!/in/i7(; Cada leng*aBe &(!ee !* !i!/ema de C(nema!" de !(nid(! di!/in/i7(!; En el idi(ma cAin( el cam3i( en la al/*ra de *n !(nid( c(n!/i/*8e *n( de l(! medi(! mF! im&(r/an/e! &ara m*dar el !en/id( de la! &ala3ra!" mien/ra! @*e en (/r(! leng*aBe! n( /iene im&(r/ancia; ##. En/re la m*l/i/*d inCini/a de &(!i3le! !(nid(! C2!ic(! cada leng*aBe !elecci(na *n limi/ad( nEmer( de ell(! c(m( C(nema! !*8(!; La !eleccin n( !e Aace al aDar" &*e! l(! C(nema! c(m&(nen *n /(d( c(Aeren/eM &*eden !er red*cid(! a /i&(! generale!" a de/erminada! &a*/a! C(n /ica!;##% E!/a! &a*/a! C(n /ica! re&re!en/an" a l( @*e &arece" l(! ra!g(! mF! &er!i!/en/e! 8 carac/er2!/ic(! del leng*aBe; Sa&ir !*3ra8a el AecA( de @*e cada leng*aBe /iene *na C*er/e /endencia a man/ener in/ac/a !* &a*/a C(n /ica4 En / rmin(! generale! direm(!" &*e!" @*e la! &rinci&ale! c(incidencia! 8 di7ergencia! de la! C(rma! lingJ2!/ica! H!i!/ema C(n /ic( 8 m(rC(l(g2aH !(n &r(d*c/( de la c(rrien/e a*/n(ma de /ran!C(rmacin del leng*aBe" n( de ra!g(! ai!lad(! 8 di!eminad(! @*e !e agr*&an al aca!( en *n l*gar ( en (/r(; El leng*aBe e! @*iDF el Cenmen( !(cial @*e mF! !e re!i!/e a inCl*encia! e>/ra'a!" el @*e mF! !e 3a!/a a !2 mi!m(; E! mF! CFcil !*&rimir del /(d( *na leng*a @*e de!in/egrar !* C(rma inOdi7id*al;##) De /(d(! m(d(! re!*l/a m*8 diC2cil re!&(nder a la c*e!/in de @* !igniCi@*e"
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En/re la! leng*a! de la Camilia ind(e*r(&ea" la !*eca e!" !egEn !e me alcanDa" la Enica en la @*e la al/*ra de *n !(nid( /iene *na C*ncin !emFn/ica deCini/i7a; En alg*na! &ala3ra! !*eca! el !en/id( &*ede cam3iar &(r c(m&le/(" !egEn el m(d( en @*e !e en/(nen; ##% Para de/alle! 7 a!e Ll((mCield" op. cit./ e!&ecialmen/e ca&!" _ 8 _I; ##) Sa&ir" El lengua=e/ &; ?.%; S(3re la diCerencia en/re GC(n /icaG 8 GC(n(l(g2aG 7 a!e Tr*3e/D{(8" GLa &A(n(l(gie ac/*elleG en [ournal de 5sychologie +Par2!" #$..,M 7(l; xxx. SegEn Tr*3e/D{(8" la /area de la C(n /ica c(n!i!/e en e!/*diar l(! Cac/(re! ma/eriale! del !(nid( del Aa3la A*mana" la! 7i3raci(ne! del aire" /(d( l( c(rre!&(ndien/e a l(! !(nid(! @*e &r(d*cen l(! m(7imien/(! del @*e Aa3la; La C(n(l(g2a" en 7eD de e!/*diar el !(nid( C2!ic(" e!/*dia l(! GC(nema!G" e! decir" l(! elemen/(! c(n!/i/*/i7(! del !en/id( lingJ2!/ic(; De!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a de la C(n(l(g2a" el !(nid( e! Enicamen/e el G!2m3(l( ma/erial del C(nemaG; El C(nema mi!m( e! Ginma/erialG" @*iere decir!e" @*e n( e! de!cri&/i3le en / rmin(! C2!ic(! ( Ci!i(lgic(!;

realmen/e" e!/a C(rma indi7id*al de *n leng*aBe; Al enCren/arn(! c(n e!/a c*e!O /in n(! Aallam(! !iem&re an/e *n dilema; Tenem(! @*e e7i/ar d(! e>/rem(!" d(! !(l*ci(ne! radicale! @*e !(n inadec*ada! cada *na en *n !en/id(; Si la /e!i! de @*e /(d( leng*aBe &(!ee !* C(rma !ing*lar im&lica ra @*e e! inE/il 3*!car ra!g(! c(m*ne! en el leng*aBe A*man(" /endr2am(! @*e rec(n(cer @*e la mera idea de *na Cil(!(C2a del leng*aBe e! *n ca!/ill( en el aire; Per( l( @*e de!de *n &*n/( de 7i!/a em&2ric( !e e>&(ne a (3Beci(ne! n( e! /an/( la e>i!/encia c*an/( la de/erO minacin clara de e!/(! ra!g(! c(m*ne!; En la Cil(!(C2a griega el / rmin( logos !*giere !iem&re 8 c(nlle7a la idea de *na iden/idad C*ndamen/al en/re el ac/( de Aa3lar 8 el de &en!ar; La gramF/ica 8 la lgica !e c(nce32an c(m( d(! rama! diCeren/e! del c(n(cimien/( &er( @*e /en2an el mi!m( (3Be/(M Aa!/a lgic(! m(dern(! c*8( !i!/ema !e Aa de!7iad( grandemen/e de la lgica clF!ica ari!/(/ lica Aan man/enid( la mi!ma (&inin; I(An S/*ar/ Mill" el C*ndad(r de *na lgica ind*c/i7a" !(!/en2a @*e la gramF/ica c(n!/i/*8e la &ar/e mF! elemen/al de la lgica" &(r@*e re&re!en/a el c(mienD( del anFli!i! del &r(ce!( men/al; SegEn Mill" l(! &rinci&i(! 8 regla! de la gramF/ica c(n!/i/*8en l(! medi(! c(n l(! @*e !e Aacen c(rre!&(nder la! C(rma! del leng*aBe c(n la! C(rma! *ni7er!ale! del &en!amien/(" &er( n( !e c(n/en/ c(n e!/a aCirmacin; S*&*!( /am3i n @*e *n !i!/ema &ar/ic*lar de &ar/e! de la (racin H@*e Aa !id( deri7ad( de la gramF/ica la/ina 8 griegaH &(!ee *na 7alideD *ni7er!al 8 (3Be/i7a; La! di!/inci(ne! en/re la! 7aria! &ar/e! de la (racin" en/re l(! ca!(! de l(! n(m3re!" l(! m(d(! 8 /iem&(! del 7er3( 8 la! C*nci(ne! de la! &ar/2c*la! !e c(n!idera3an &(r Mill c(m( di!/inci(ne! men/ale! 8 n( !l( 7er3ale!; GLa e!/r*c/*ra de cada Cra!e Hn(! dice H" e! *na leccin de lgica;G ##- L(! &r(gre!(! de la in7e!/igacin lingJ2!/ica AicieO r(n cada 7eD mF! in!(!/eni3le e!/a &(!icin" &*e! !e C*e rec(n(ciend( generalmen/e @*e el !i!/ema de la! &ar/e! de la (racin n( &re!en/a *n carFc/er CiB( 8 *niC(rme !in( @*e 7ar2a de *n idi(ma a (/r(; Se (3!er7" ademF!" @*e e>i!/en di7er!(! ra!g(! de la! leng*a! deri7ada! del la/2n @*e n( &*eden e>&re!ar!e adec*adamen/e c(n l(! / rmin(! 8 ca/eg(r2a! *!*ale! en la gramF/ica la/ina; L(! c(n(ced(re! del Cranc ! !*3ra8ar(n a men*d( el AecA( de @*e la gramF/ica Crance!a A*3iera c(3rad( *na C(rma 3ien diCeren/e de n( Aa3er !id( e!O cri/a &(r l(! di!c2&*l(! de Ari!//ele!; S(!/ienen @*e la a&licacin de la! di!/inci(ne! de la gramF/ica la/ina al ingl ! ( al Cranc ! Aa /ra2d( c(m( c(n!ec*encia 7ari(! err(re! gra7e! 8 !e Aa c(n7er/id( en *n (3!/Fc*l( !eri( para la de!cri&cin" !in &reB*ici(!" de l(! Cenmen(! lingJ2!/ic(!;##5 M*cAa! di!/inci(ne! grama/icale! @*e n(!(/r(! &en!am(! @*e !(n C*ndamen/ale! 8 nece!aria! &ierden !* 7al(r ( re!*l/an 7erdaderamen/e incier/a! /an &r(n/( c(m( e>aminam(! leng*aBe! @*e n( &er/enecen a la Camilia ind(e*r(&ea; Parece" &*e!" *na il*!in la e>i!/encia de *n !i!/ema deCinid( 8 Enic( de &ar/e! de la (racin @*e /endr2a @*e !er c(n!iderad( c(m( *n c(m&(nen/e nece!ari( del leng*aBe 8 del &en!amien/( raci(nal;##1
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El &FrraC( !ig*ien/e e!/F 3a!ad( en mi ar/2c*l(" GTAe InCl*ence (C Lang*age *&(n /Ae De7el(&men/ (C Scien/iCic TA(*gA/G" [ournal of 5hilosophy/ \\\I\ " N~ #? +B*ni(" #$%?," .N$O?5; ##5 7 a!e F; Lr*n(/" &a pense et la langue +Par2!" #$??,; ##1 Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e Ll((mCield" op. cit./ &&; - s./ y Sa&ir; op. cit./ &&; #.1 ss.

N( @*iere e!/( decir" nece!ariamen/e" @*e de3am(! ren*nciar al 7ieB( c(nce&/( de *na Ggrammaire gen rale e/ rai!(nn eG" *na gramF/ica general 3a!ada en &rinci&i(! raci(nale!" &er( /enem(! @*e deCinir de n*e7( e!/e c(nce&/( 8 C(rm*larl( en *n !en/id( n*e7(; Ser2a *n in/en/( 7an( &re/ender c(l(car /(da! la! leng*a! en el lecA( de Pr(c*!/( de *n !(l( !i!/ema de la! &ar/e! de la (racin; _ari(! lingJi!/a! m(dern(! Aan llegad( al &*n/( de &(nern(! en g*ardia c(n/ra la e>&re!in GgraO mF/ica generalG" &en!and( @*e re&re!en/a mF! 3ien *n 2d(l( @*e *n ideal cien/2Cic(;##$ SemeBan/e ac/i/*d radical n( Aa !id( c(m&ar/ida &(r /(d(! l(! e!&eciali!/a!M !e Aan AecA( e!C*erD(! !eri(! &(r man/ener 8 deCender la c(nce&cin de *na gramF/ica Cil(!Cica; O//( Ie!&er!en e!cri3i *n li3r( dedicad( e!&ecialmen/e a la Cil(!(C2a de la gramF/ica 8 en l /ra/ de dem(!/rar @*e" C*era ( &(r encima de la! ca/eg(r2a! !in/Fc/ica!" @*e de&enden de la e!/r*c/*ra de cada leng*aBe /al c(m( !e enc*en/ra en la ac/*alidad" e>i!/en (/ra! ca/eg(r2a! @*e !(n inde&endien/e! de l(! AecA(! mF! ( men(! acciden/ale! de la! leng*a! e>i!/en/e!; S(n *ni7er!ale! &(r l( mi!m( @*e !e &*eden a&licar a /(da! la! leng*a!; Ie!&er!en &r(&(n2a @*e !e la! den(minara ca/eg(r2a! Gn(ci(nale!G 8 c(n!idera3a c(m( *na /area grama/ical la in7e!/igacin en cada ca!( de la relacin en/re la! ca/eg(r2a! n(ci(nale! 8 la! !in/Fc/ica!; El mi!m( &*n/( de 7i!/a Aa !id( e>&re!ad( &(r (/r(! e!&eciali!/a! c(m(" &(r eBem&l(" :Belm!le7 8 Lr(ndal;#?N SegEn Sa&ir" cada leng*a c(n/iene cier/a! ca/eg(r2a! nece!aria! e indi!&en!a3le! B*n/( a (/ra! @*e (Crecen *n carFc/er mF! acciden/al;#?# La idea de *na gramF/ica general ( Cil(!Cica n( Aa !id(" c(m( 7em(!" in7alidada &(r el &r(gre!( de la in7e!/igacin lingJ2!/ica" !i 3ien 8a n( &(dem(! e!&erar /raDar !emeBan/e gramF/ica c(n l(! medi(! !im&le! @*e C*er(n */iliDad(! en in/en/(! an/eri(re!; El Aa3la A*mana n( !l( /iene @*e c*m&lir *na /area lgica *ni7er!al !in( /am3i n *na /area !(cial" @*e de&ende de la! c(ndici(ne! !(ciale! e!&ec2Cica! de la c(m*nidad lingJ2!/ica" &(r l( /an/(" n( &(dem(! e!&erar *na iden/idad real" *na c(rre!&(ndencia *n27(ca en/re la! C(rO ma! grama/icale! 8 la! lgica!; Un anFli!i! em&2ric( 8 de!cri&/i7( de la! C(rma! grama/icale! !e &r(&(ne *na /area diCeren/e 8 c(nd*ce a re!*l/ad(! di!/in/(! @*e el anFli!i! e!/r*c/*ral @*e !e n(! (Crece" &(r eBem&l(" en la (3ra de Carna& %intaxis lgica del lengua=e. . Para enc(n/rar el Ail( de Ariadna @*e n(! g*2e &(r e!/e c(m&licad( la3erin/( del leng*aBe A*man( &(dem(! !eg*ir *n &r(cedimien/( d(3le4 /ra/ar de 3*!car *n (rden lgic( 8 !i!/emF/ic( ( *n (rden cr(n(lgic( 8 gen /ic(; En el !eg*nd( ca!( &r(c*ram(! red*cir l(! di7er!(! leng*aBe! 8 l(! 7ari(! /i&(! lingJ2!/ic(! a *na e/a&a an/eri(r rela/i7amen/e !im&le 8 am(rCa; In/en/(! !emeBan/e! C*er(n lle7ad(! a ca3( a men*d( &(r lingJi!/a! del !igl( XIX" al e>/ender!e la (&inin de @*e el leng*aBe A*man(" an/e! de @*e &*diera alcanDar !* C(rma ac/*al" /*7( @*e &a!ar &(r *na e/a&a en la @*e n( e>i!/2a C(rma !in/Fc/ica ( m(rC(lgica deCinida!; Al &rinci&i( !e c(m&(n2a de elemen/(! !im&le!" de ra2ce! m(n(!ilF3ica!; El
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_ a!e" &(r eBem&l(" _endr8e!" &e langage +Par2!" #$??," &; #$.; _ a!e :Belm!le7" 5rncipes de grammaire genrale/ C(&enAag*e" #$?1; Lr(ndal" 'rd3lasserne. Re!*me4 Le! &arO/ie! d* di!c(*r!" &ar/e! (ra/i(ni!" C(&enAag*e" #$?1; #?# Sa&ir" op. cit./ &&; #?% ss.
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r(man/ici!m( Ca7(reci e!/a (&inin; G*illerm( ScAlegel &r(&*!( *na /e(r2a !egEn la c*al el leng*aBe !e de!en7(l72a a &ar/ir de *n e!/ad( an/eri(r am(rC( e in(rganiDad(M de e!/e e!/ad( &a!a3a" en *n (rden CiB(" a (/ra! e/a&a! mF! a7anDada!" de ai!lamien/(" de agl*/inacin 8 de Cle>in; L(! leng*aBe! Cle>i7(! re&re!en/an" !egEn ScAlegel" la El/ima e/a&a en e!/a e7(l*cin 8 !(n l(! realmen/e (rgFnic(!; Un anFli!i! de!cri&/i7( c(m&le/( Aa de!/r*id( en la ma8(r2a de l(! ca!(! la! &r*e3a! en @*e !e 3a!a3an e!/a! /e(r2a!; En el ca!( del idi(ma cAin(" @*e era ci/ad( c(rrien/emen/e c(m( eBem&l( del leng*aBe c(m&*e!/( de ra2ce! m(n(!ilF3ica!" !e AiD( 7er c(m( &r(3a3le @*e !* e/a&a ac/*al m(n(!ilF3ica C*e &recedida &(r (/ra e/a&a Cle>i7a;#?#3i! N( c(n(cem(! ning*n( de!&r(7i!/( de elemen/(! C(rmale! ( e!/r*c/*rale!" a*n@*e la e>&re!in de la! relaci(ne! C(rmale!" /ale! c(m( la diCerencia en/re !*Be/( 8 (3Be/(" en/re a/ri3*/( 8 &redicad(" 7ar2e am&liamen/e de leng*a a leng*a; Un leng*aBe !in C(rma n( !l( &arece !er *na c(n!/r*ccin Ai!/rica al/amen/e d*d(!a !in( *na c(n/radiccin en l(! / rmin(!; L(! leng*aBe! de l(! &*e3l(! men(! ci7iliDad(!" en m(d( alg*n( carecen de C(rmaM &(r el c(n/rari(" m*e!/ran ca!i !iem&re *na e!/r*c/*ra m*8 c(m&licada; A; Meille/" *n lingJi!/a m(dern( c(n *n c(n(cimien/( am&l2!im( de la! leng*a! del m*nd(" aCirma @*e ningEn idi(ma c(n(cid( n(! &r(&(rci(na la mF! &e@*e'a idea de l( @*e &*d( !er el leng*aBe &rimi/i7(; T(da! la! C(rma! del leng*aBe A*man( !(n &erCec/a! en el !en/id( en @*e l(gran e>&re!ar !en/imien/(! 8 &en!amien/(! A*man(! en *na C(rma clara 8 a&r(&iada; L(! llamad(! leng*aBe! &rimi/i7(! c(nc*erdan /an/( c(n la! c(ndici(ne! de la ci7iliDacin &rimi/i7a 8 c(n la /endencia general de la men/e &rimi/i7a c(m( n*e!/r(! &r(&i(! leng*aBe! c(n l(! Cine! de n*e!/ra c*l/*ra reCinada 8 ela3(rada; En la! leng*a! de la Camilia 3an/E" &(r eBem&l(" cada !*!/an/i7( &er/enece a *na cla!e deCinida 8 cada *na de e!/a! cla!e! !e Aalla carac/eriDada &(r *n &reCiB( e!&ecial @*e n( a&arece !l( en l(! n(m3re! !in( @*e /iene @*e !er re&e/id(" de ac*erd( c(n *n !i!/ema m*8 c(m&licad( de c(nc(rdancia! 8 c(ngr*encia!" en /(da! la! (/ra! &ar/e! de la (racin @*e !e reCieren al n(m3re;#?? La 7ariedad de l(! di7er!(! idi(ma! 8 la Ae/er(geneidad de l(! /i&(! lingJ2!/ic(! !e (Crece en *na l*D m*8 diCeren/e !egEn !e l(! c(n!idere de!de *n &*n/( de 7i!/a Cil(!Cic( ( cien/2Cic(; El lingJi!/a g(Da c(n e!/a 7ariedadM !e !*merge en el (c an( del Aa3la A*mana !in e!&eranDa! de /(car el C(nd(; En /(da! la! &(ca!" la Cil(!(C2a !e Aa m(7id( en la direccin (&*e! /aM Lei3niD in!i!/2a en @*e" !in *na characteristica generalis n*nca enc(n/rar2am(! *na scientia generalis. La m(derna lgica !im3lica !ig*e la mi!ma /endencia" &er( a*n@*e !e realiDara e!/e &r(&!i/(" *na Cil(!(C2a de la c*l/*ra /endr2a @*e enCren/ar!e /(da72a c(n el mi!m( &r(3lema; En *n anFli!i! de la c*l/*ra /enem(! @*e ace&/ar l(! AecA(! de !* C(rma c(ncre/a" en /(da !* di7er!idad 8 di7ergencia" La Cil(!(C2a del leng*aBe !e enCren/a en e!/e ca!( c(n el mi!m( dilema @*e a!(ma en el e!/*di( de /(da C(rma !im3lica; La mi!in mF! al/a" 8 Aa!/a la Enica" de e!/a! C(rma! radica en *nir a l(! A(m3re!M &er( ning*na de ella! &*ede &r(m(7er e!/a
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_ a!e L; ^arlgren" GLe Pr(/(OCAin(i!" lang*e Cle>i( nelleG" [ournal asiati;ue +#$N?,; Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e C; MainA(C" GrundDKge einer -ergleichenden Grammati3 der (antu %prachen +Lerl2n" #$N-,;

*nidad !in" al mi!m( /iem&(" di7idir 8 !e&arar a l(! A(m3re!; De e!/e m(d(" l( @*e e!/a3a de!/inad( a a!eg*rar la arm(n2a 8 la c*l/*ra !e c(n7ier/e en la C*en/e de la! di!c(rdia! 8 di!en!i(ne! mF! &r(C*nda!; E! la gran an/in(mia" la dial c/ica de la 7ida religi(!a; #?. La mi!ma dial c/ica a!(ma en el leng*aBe A*man(; Sin l" n( Aa3r2a c(m*nidad de A(m3re! 8" !in em3arg(" ningEn (3!/Fc*l( mF! !eri( !e (&(ne a /al c(m*nidad @*e la di7er!idad de la! leng*a!; El mi/( 8 la religin !e niegan a c(n!iderar e!/a di7er!idad c(m( *n AecA( nece!ari( e inel*di3leM l( a/ri3*8en" mF! 3ien" a la Cal/a ( c*l&a del A(m3re @*e n( a !* c(n!/i/*cin (riginal 8 a la na/*raleDa de la! c(!a!; En 7aria! mi/(l(g2a! enc(n/ram(! cA(can/e! anal(g2a! c(n el rela/( 323lic( de la T(rre de La3el; Tam3i n en l(! /iem&(! m(dern(! el A(m3re Aa !en/id( *na gran n(!/algia &(r e!a edad d(rada en la @*e la A*manidad &(!e2a *n Enic( leng*aBeM !e 7*el7e la mirada a e!/a e/a&a &rimigenia c(m( a *n &ara2!( &erdid(; El 7ieB( !*e'( de *na lingua ad7mica H del leng*aBe real de l(! &rimer(! an/e&a!ad(! del A(m3re" *na leng*a @*e n( !e c(m&(ndr2a e>cl*!i7amen/e de !ign(! c(n7enci(nale! !in( @*e e>&re!ar2a" mF! 3ien" la 7erdadera na/*raleDa 8 e!encia de la! c( !a!H /am&(c( !e di!i& &(r c(m&le/( en el cam&( de la Cil(!(C2a; El &r(3lema de la lingua adamica !ig*i !iend( di!c*/id( !eriamen/e &(r l(! Cil!(C(! 8 &(r l(! m2!/ic(! del !igl( X_II; #?% Sin em3arg(" la *nidad 7erdadera del leng*aBe" ca!( de @*e e>i!/a /al *nidad" n( &*ede !er de /i&( !*!/ancial" !in( @*e de3e !er deCinida c(m( *nidad C*nci(na} @*e n( &re!*&(ne *na iden/idad ma/erialOC(rmal; D(! leng*aBe! diCeren/e! &*eden re&re!en/ar e>/rem(! (&*e!/(! /an/( en l( @*e !e reCiere a !* !i!/ema C(n /ic( c(m( a !* !i!/ema de &ar/e! de la (racin" &er( e!/( n( im &ide @*e c*m&lan c(n la mi!ma Cinalidad en la 7ida de la c(m*nidad lingJ2!/ica; L( deci!i7( n( e! la 7ariedad de l(! medi(! !in( !* adec*acin 8 c(ngr*encia c(n el Cin; P(dem(! &en!ar @*e e!/e Cin c(mEn !e alcanDa c(n ma8(r &erCeccin en *n /i&( lingJ2!/ic( @*e en (/r(; El mi!m( :*m3(ld/ @*e" de *n m(d( general" !e re!i!/2a a B*Dgar el 7al(r de *n idi(ma &ar/ic*lar" c(n!idera3a" !in em3arg(" la! leng*a! de Cle>in c(m( *na e!&ecie de m(del(! de e>celencia; Para l la C(rma Cle>i7a c(n!/i/*2a Gla Enica C(rma legal" la Enica C(rma c(m&le/amen/e c(n!ec*en/e 8 @*e !ig*e regla! e!/ric/a!G 0op. cit./ _II" Par/e II" &; #-?,; L(! lingJi!/a! m(dern(! n(! &(nen en g*ardia c(n/ra !emeBan/e! B*ici(!" n(! dicen @*e n( &(!eem(! *n &a/rn c(mEn 8 Enic( &ara a&reciar el 7al(r de l(! /i&(! lingJ2!/ic(!; Al c(m&ararl(!" &(drF &arecer @*e *n( &re!en/a 7en/aBa! deCinida! !(3re (/r(!" &er( *n anFli!i! mF! de/enid( n(! AarF 7er @*e a@*ell( @*e c(n!iderF3am(! c(m( deCec/( de *n /i&( de/erminad( &*ede !er c(m&en!ad( 8 e@*ili3rad( &(r (/ra! 7en/aBa!; GSi @*erem(! c(m&render el alma 7erdadera del leng*aBe Hn(! dice Sa&irH" de3em(! li3erar n*e!/r( e!&2ri/* de l(! w7al(re!w &redilec/(! 8 ac(!/*m3rarn(! a c(n/em&lar el ingl ! 8 el A(/en/(/e c(n el mi!m( de!&rendimien/( im&arcial 8 c(n el mi!m( in/er !G +(&; cit./ &; #%),; Si la Cinalidad del leng*aBe A*man( c(n!i!/iera en c(&iar ( imi/ar el (rden dad( ( aca3ad( de la! c(!a! n(! !er2a m*8 diC2cil man/ener e!/a de!&re(c*&acin; N( &( O
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_ a!e ca&; _II" &&; ##N s. _ a!e" &(r eBem&l(" Lei3niD" Fou-eaux essais sur 8+ entendement humain/ li3; III" ca&; II;

dr2am(! e7i/ar la c(ncl*!in de @*e" de!&* ! de /(d(" *na de la! c(&ia! era la meB(rM @*e *na de ella! e!/a3a mF! cerca del (riginal @*e la (/ra; Per( !i a/ri3*im(! al leng*aBe *na C*ncin &r(d*c/i7a 8 c(n!/r*c/i7a meB(r @*e *na C*ncin meramen/e re&r(d*c/(ra" n*e!/r( B*ici( !erF 3ien diCeren/e; En /al ca!(" l( @*e /iene im&(r/ancia ca&i/al n( e! la G(3raG del leng*aBe !in( !* Generg2aG; Para medirla Aa3rF @*e e!/*diar el &r(ce!( lingJ2!/ic( mi!m(" en l*gar de limi/ar!e a analiDar !* re!*l/ad(" !* &r(d*c/(; L(! &!icl(g(! c(inciden en !*3ra8ar @*e" !in *na 7i!in de la 7erdadera na/*raleDa del leng*aBe A*man(" n*e!/r( c(n(cimien/( del de!arr(ll( de la &!i@*e A*mana !erF Cragmen/ari( e inadec*ad(; S*3!i!/e /(da72a *na c(n!idera3le incer/id*m3re re!&ec/( a l(! m /(d(! de *na &!ic(l(g2a del leng*aBe; 6a e!/*diem(! l(! Cenmen(! en *n la3(ra/(ri( &!ic(lgic( ( C(n /ic( ( n(! a&(8em(! en m /(d(! e>cl*!i7amen/e in/r(!&ec/i7(!" !acam(! !iem&re la mi!ma im&re!in de @*e e!/(! Cenmen(! !(n /an e7ane!cen/e! 8 A*idiD(! @*e de!aC2an /(d(! l(! e!C*erD(! de e!/a3iliDacin; `En @* c(n!i!/e en/(nce! e!a diCerencia C*ndamen/al en/re la ac/i/*d men/al @*e a/ri3*im(! a *na cria/*ra !in Aa3la H*n !er A*man( an/e! de la ad@*i!icin del leng*aBe ( *n animalH 8 e!a (/ra c(n/e>/*ra de la men/e @*e carac/eriDa a *n ad*l/( @*e Aa d(minad( &(r c(m&le/( !* leng*a ma/ernaa C(!a c*ri(!a4 e! mF! CFcil c(n/e!/ar a e!/a &reg*n/a !ir7i nd(!e de eBem&l(! an(rmale! del de!arr(ll( del leng*aBe; La! c(n!ideraci(ne! @*e Aicim(! de l(! ca!(! de :elen ^eller 8 La*ra Lridgman #?) il*!/rar(n el AecA( de @*e c(n la &rimera c(m&ren!in del !im3(li!m( del leng*aBe /iene l*gar *na re7(l*cin real en la 7ida del ni'(; De!de e!/e m(men/( /(da !* 7ida &er!(nal e in/elec/*al a!*me *na C(rma c(m&le/amen/e n*e7a; De *na manera general &(dem(! de!cri3ir el cam3i( diciend( @*e el ni'( &a!a de *n e!/ad( mF! !*3Be/i7( a (/r( e!/ad( mF! (3Be/i7(" de *na ac/i/*d &*ramen/e em(/i7a a *na ac/i/*d /erica; L( mi!m( &(dem(! (3!er7ar en la 7ida de c*al@*ier ni'( n(rmal" a*n@*e en *n grad( m*cA( men(! e!&ec/ac*larM el ni'( mi!m( &(!ee *n clar( !en/id( de la !igniCicacin del n*e7( in!/r*men/( &ara !* de!arr(ll( men/al; N( !e c(n/en/a c(n @*e le en!e'en en C(rma &*ramen/e rece&/i7a !in( @*e /(ma *na &ar/e ac/i7a en el &r(ce!( del leng*aBe" @*e e!" al mi!m( /iem&(" *n &r(ce!( de (3Be/i7acin &r(gre!i7a; L(! mae!/r(! de :elen ^eller 8 La*ra Lridgman n(! Aan c(n/ad( c(n @* !eriedad e im&aciencia la! d(! cria/*ra!" *na 7eD @*e c(m&rendier(n el *!( de l(! n(m3re!" c(n/in*a3an &reg*n/and( &(r el n(m3re &ar/ic*lar de cada (3Be/( en !* c(n/(rn(; #?-Tam3i n e! !/e *n ra!g( general en el de!arr(ll( n(rmal del leng*aBe; GC(n el c(mienD( del me! 7ein/i/r ! Hdice D; R; MaB(rH" el ni'( Aa de!arr(llad( *na man2a de n(m3rar c(!a!" de c(m*nicar a (/r(! !*! n(m3re! ( de llamar n*e!/ra a/encin !(3re la! c(!a! @*e e!/F e>aminand(; MirarF" !e'alarF ( &(ndrF !* man( !(3re *na c(!aM dirF !* n(m3re 8 mirarF a !*! c(m&a'er(!;G 0 irst %teps in Mental GroBth/ N*e7a 6(r{" Macmillan" #$N-" &&; .?# !;, SemeBan/e ac/i/*d n( !er2a c(m&ren!i3le !i n( C*era &(r el AecA( de @*e el n(m3re /iene @*e realiDar *na C*ncin de im&(r/ancia ca&i/al en el
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_ a!e ca&; m" &&; ]SCE]. _ a!e ca&; m" &&; -N ss.

de!arr(ll( men/al del ni'(; Si" c*and( e!/F a&rendiend( a Aa3lar" *n ni'( n( /*7iera mF! @*e a&render *n cier/( 7(ca3*lari(" im&rimir en !* men/e 8 en !* meO m(r2a *na gran ma!a de !(nid(! ar/iCiciale! 8 ar3i/rari(!" n(! Aallar2am(! en &re!encia de *n &r(ce!( &*ramen/e mecFnic(; Ser2a 7erdaderamen/e la3(ri(!( 8 can!ad(" 8 re@*erir2a *n e!C*erD( dema!iad( c(n!cien/e &ara @*e l( Aiciera !in cier/a re!i!/encia" &*e! l( @*e !e le &ed2a e!/ar2a /(/almen/e de!c(nec/ad( de !*! neceO !idade! 3i(lgica! reale!; El Aam3re de n(m3re! @*e a&arece a cier/a edad en /(d( ni'( n(rmal 8 @*e Aa !id( de!cri/a &(r /(d(! l(! @*e e!/*dian la &!ic(l(g2a inCan/il"#?5 &r*e3a l( c(n/rari(; N(! ad7ier/e @*e n(! Aallam(! Cren/e a *n &r(3lema 3ien diCeren/e; C*and( a&rende a n(m3rar c(!a!" n( a'ade *na li!/a de !ign(! ar/iCiciale! a !* c(n(cimien/( &re7i( de (3Be/(! em&2ric(! aca3ad(!" mF! 3ien" a&rende a C(rmar el c(nce&/( de e!/(! (3Be/(!" a en/end r!ela! c(n el m*nd( (3Be/i7(; De e!/e m(d( el ni'( !e Aalla en *n /erren( mF! CirmeM !*! &erce&ci(ne! 7aga!" incier/a! 8 (!cilan/e!" 8 !*! /en*e! !en/imien/(! em&ieDan a c(3rar *na C(rma n*e7a; P(dem(! decir @*e cri!/aliDan en /(rn( al n(m3re c(m( *n cen/r( CiB(" c(m( *n C(c( del &en!amien/(; Sin !* a8*da cada a7ance realiDad( en el &r(ce!( de la (3Be/i7acin c(rrer2a el rie!g( de &erder!e de n*e7( en el &r>im( m(men/(; L(! &rimer(! n(m3re! de @*e Aace *n *!( c(n!cien/e &*eden !er c(m&arad(! c(n *n 3a!/n c(n c*8a a8*da *n cieg( !e 7a a3riend( camin(; Un leng*aBe" /(mad( en c(nB*n/(" !e c(n7ier/e en la &*er/a de en/rada a *n n*e7( m*nd(; T(d(! l(! &r(gre!(! en e!/e /erren( a3ren *na n*e7a &er!&ec/i7a 8 en!ancAan 8 enri@*ecen n*e!/ra e>&eriencia c(ncre/a; La !erie dad 8 en/*!ia!m( &(r Aa3lar n( !e (rigina en *n mer( de!e( &(r a&render ( *!ar n(m3re!M marcan el de!e( de de/ec/ar 8 c(n@*i!/ar *n m*nd( (3Be/i7(;#?1 C*and( a&rendem(! *n idi(ma e>/ranBer( &(dem(! !(me/ern(! a n(!(/r(! mi!m(! a *na e>&eriencia !emeBan/e a la del ni'(M n( 3a!/a c(n ad@*irir n*e7( 7(ca3*lari( ( c(n CamiliariDarn(! c(n *n !i!/ema de regla! grama/icale! a3!/rac/a!; T(d( e!/( e! nece!ari(" &er( n( mF! @*e el &rimer( 8 men(! im&(r/an/e de l(! &a!(! a realiDar; Si n( a&rendem(! a &en!ar en el n*e7( leng*aBe" /(d(! n*e!/r(! e!C*erD(! !erFn e!/ rile!M en la ma8(r2a de l(! ca!(! n(! re!*l/a m*8 diC2cil c(n!eg*ir e!/e &r(&!i/(; LingJi!/a! 8 &!icl(g(! Aan &lan/ead( a men*d( la c*e!/in de cm( e! &(!i3le @*e *n ni'( realice &(r !* &r(&i( e!C*erD( *na /area @*e ningEn ad*l/( eCec/Ea del mi!m( m(d( ( /an 3ien; Aca!( &(dam(! c(n/e!/ar a e!/a c*e!/in e!ca3r(!a c(n!iderand( de n*e7( n*e!/r( anFli!i! an/eri(r; En *n e!/ad( *l/eri(r 8 mF! a7anDad( de n*e!/ra 7ida c(n!cien/e n*nca &(dem(! re&e/ir el &r(ce!( @*e n(! c(nd*B( a la &rimera en/rada en el m*nd( del Aa3la A*mana; En la Cre!c*ra" en la agilidad 8 ela!/icidad de la &rimera inCancia e!/e &r(ce!( /iene *n !en/id( 3ien diCeren/e; Re!*l/a 3a!/an/e &aradBic( @*e la diCic*l/ad real c(n!i!/e m*cA( men(! en a&render el n*e7( idi(ma @*e en (l7idar el idi(ma an/eri(r; N( n(! Aallam(! 8a en la !i/*acin men/al del ni'( @*e" &(r &rimera 7eD" !e acerca a la ca&/acin del m*nd( (3Be/i7(; Para el ad*l/( el m*nd( (3Be/i7( &(!ee *na C(rma deCinida" c(m( re!*l/ad( de la ac/i7idad del leng*aBe @*e" en cier/( !en/id(" Aa m(delad( /(da!
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_ a!e" &(r eBem&l(" Clara 8 Killiam S/ern" 1ie <indersprache +Lei&Dig" #$N5," &&; #5) !!; Para *n e>amen mF! de/allad( de e!/e &r(3lema 7 a!e Ca!!irer" GLe langage e/ la c(n!/r*c/i(n d* m(nde de! (3Be/!G" [ournal de psycholofie/ XXXe ann e +#$..," &&; 1%O$%;

n*e!/ra! (/ra! ac/i7idade!; N*e!/ra! &erce&ci(ne!" in/*ici(ne! 8 c(nce&/(! !e Aan C*ndid( c(n l(! / rmin(! 8 C(rma! lingJ2!/ica! de n*e!/ra leng*a ma/erna; S(n mene!/er grande! e!C*erD(! &ara r(m&er el 72nc*l( en/re la! &ala3ra! 8 la! c(!a!M al a&render *n n*e7( idi(ma /enem(! @*e realiDar !emeBan/e! e!C*erD(! 8 !e&arar l(! d(! elemen/(!; La !*&eracin de e!/a diCic*l/ad !e'ala !iem&re im&(r/an/e &a!( en el a&rendiDaBe de *na leng*aM c*and( &ene/ram(! en el e!&2ri/* de *n idi(ma e>/ranBer( /enem(! !iem&re la im&re!in de irn(! acercand( a *n m*nd( n*e7(" *n m*nd( @*e &(!ee *na e!/r*c/*ra in/elec/*al &r(&ia; E! c(m( *n 7iaBe de e>&l(racin en *n &a2! e>/ra'(" 8 la ma8(r ganancia de !emeBan/e 7iaBe la re&re!en/a @*e Aa8am(! a&rendid( a mirar a n*e!/ra leng*a ma/erna a *na n*e7a l*D; G0*ien n( c(n(ce idi(ma! e>/ranBer(! /am&(c( c(n(ce el !*8( &r(&i(G" dec2a G(e/Ae;#?$ Mien/ra! n( c(n(cern(! idi(ma! e>/ranBer(! ign(ram(!" en cier/( !en/id(" el n*e!/r(" &(r@*e n( alcanDam(! a 7er !* e!/r*c/*ra e!&ec2Cica 8 !*! ra!g(! di!/in/i7(!; Una c(m&aracin en/re diCeren/e! idi(ma! n(! indica @*e n( e>i!/en !innim(! e>ac/(!M l(! / rmin(! c(rre!&(ndien/e! de d(! idi(ma! rara 7eD !e reCieren a l(! mi!m(! (3Be/(! ( acci(ne!" c*3ren diCeren/e! cam&(! @*e !e cr*Dan 8 n(! &r(&(rci(nan 7i!i(ne! m*l/ic(l(re! 8 &er!&ec/i7a! 7aria! de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia; E!/( !e 7e c(n e!&ecial claridad al c(n!iderar l(! m /(d(! de cla!iCicacin em&lead(! en leng*aBe! diCeren/e!" e!&ecialmen/e !i c(rre!&(nden a /i&(! lingJ2!/ic(! di7er!(!; La cla!iCicacin e! *n( de l(! ra!g(! C*ndamen/ale! del leng*aBe A*man(; El ac/( de de!ignacin de&ende de *n &r(ce!( de cla!iCicacin; Dar n(m3re a *n (3Be/( ( a *na accin !igniCica !*3!*mirla 3aB( *n cier/( c(nce&/( de cla!eM !i e!/a !*3!*ncin e!/*7iera 8a &re!cri/a &(r la na/*raleDa de la! c(!a!" !er2a Enica 8 *niC(rme; L(! n(m3re! @*e enc(n/ram(! en el leng*aBe A*man( n( &*eden !er in/er&re/ad(! de e!/a C(rma in7aria3le" n( e!/Fn de!/inad(! a reCerir!e a c(!a! !*!O /anciale!" en/idade! inde&endien/e! @*e e>i!/en &(r !2 mi!ma!; Se Aallan de/erminad(!" mF! 3ien" &(r l(! in/ere!e! 8 l(! &r(&!i/(! A*man(!" @*e n( !(n CiB(! e in7aria3le!; Tam&(c( la! cla!iCicaci(ne! @*e enc(n/ram(! en el leng*aBe A*man( !e Aacen al aDarM !e 3a!an en cier/(! elemen/(! c(n!/an/e! 8 rec*rren/e! de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia !en!i3le; Sin !emeBan/e! rec*rrencia! n( /endr2am(! &*n/( de a&(8( &ara n*e!/r(! c(nce&/(! lingJ2!/ic(!" &er( la c(m3inacin ( !e&aracin de l(! da/(! &erce&/i7(! de&ende de la eleccin li3re de *na /rama de reCerencia; N( e>i!/e *n e!@*ema r2gid( 8 &ree!/a3lecid( c(n arregl( al c*al /endr2an @*e lle7ar!e a ca3(" de *na 7eD &(r /(da!" n*e!/ra! di7i!i(ne! 8 !*3di7i!i(ne!; Ni !i@*iera en leng*a! m*8 aCine! 8 @*e c(nc*erdan en !* e!/r*c/*ra general enc(n/ram(! n(m3re! id n/ic(!; C(m( !e'ala :*m3(ld/" l(! / rmin(! grieg(! 8 la/in(! &ara de!ignar la l*na" n( e>&re!an" a*n@*e !e reCieren al mi!m( (3Be/(" la mi!ma in/encin ( c(nce&/(; El / rmin( grieg( 0men? den(/a la C*ncin de la l*na &ara medir el /iem&(M el / rmin( la/in( 0luna/ lucCna? den(/a la l*min(!idad ( 3rillan/eD de la l*na; De e!/e m(d( Aem(! ai!lad( 8 c(ncen/rad( n*e!/ra a/encin en d(! ra!g(! diCeren/e! del (3Be/(" &er( el ac/( mi!m(" el &r(ce!( de c(ncen/racin" e! id n/ic(; El n(m3re de *n (3Be/( n( encierra &re/en!in !(3re !* na/*raleDaM n( e!/F de!/inad( a !er oY" a (Crecern(! la 7erdad de *na c(!a; La C*ncin de *n n(m3re !e limi/a
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GS&rJcAe in Pr(!aG" Wer3e/ LXII" II" ##1;

!iem&re a !*3ra8ar *n a!&ec/( &ar/ic*lar de *na c(!a 8" &reci!amen/e" de e!/a re!/riccin 8 limi/acin de&ende !* 7al(r; N( e! C*ncin de *n n(m3re reCerir!e e>Aa*!/i7amen/e a *na !i/*acin c(ncre/a !in(" !im&lemen/e" la de de!/acar *n cier/( a!&ec/( 8 m(rar en l; El ai!lamien/( de e!/e a!&ec/( n( e! *n ac/( nega/i7( !in( &(!i/i7(" &(r@*e en el ac/( de!igna/i7( e!c(gem(! de en/re la m*l/i&licidad 8 diC*!in de n*e!/r(! da/(! !en!i3le! cier/(! cen/r(! CiB(! de &erce&cin 8 n( !(n l(! mi!m(! @*e en el &en!amien/( lgic( ( cien/2Cic(; L(! / rmin(! del leng*aBe c(rrien/e n( &*eden !er medid(! c(n el mi!m( ra!er( @*e a@*ell(! c(n l(! @*e e>&re!am(! c(nce&/(! cien/2Cic(!; C(m&arada! c(n la /ermin(l(g2a cien/2Cica" la! &ala3ra! del leng*aBe c(mEn m*e!/ran !iem&re cier/a 7ag*edadM ca!i !in e>ce&cin" !(n /an di!/in/a! 8 mal deCinida! @*e n( re!i!/en la &r*e3a del anFli!i! lgic(; A &e!ar de e!/a deCiciencia ine7i/a3le" inAeren/e a l(! / rmin(! 8 n(m3re! de *!( diari(" !(n la! &iedra! miliare! del camin( @*e c(nd*ce a l(! c(nce&/(! cien/2Cic(!M en e!/(! / rmin(! reci3im(! n*e!/ra &rimera 7i!in (3Be/i7a ( /erica del m*nd(; SemeBan/e 7i!in n( e!/F !im&lemen/e dada !in( @*e e! el re!*l/ad( de *n e!C*erD( in/elec/*al c(n!/r*c/i7( @*e n( &(dr2a c(n!eg*ir !* me/a !in la a!i!/encia c(n!/an/e del leng*aBe; E!/a me/a" !in em3arg(" n( &*ede !er alcanDada en ningEn /iem&(; La a!cen!in a ni7ele! mF! al/(! de a3!/raccin" a n(m3re! e idea! mF! generale! 8 c(m&ren!i7(!" e! *na /area diC2cil 8 la3(ri(!a; El anFli!i! del leng*aBe n(! &r(7ee de *na ri@*eDa de ma/eriale! &ara e!/*diar el carFc/er del &r(ce!( men/al @*e c(nd*ce Cinalmen/e a la realiDacin de e!a /area; El leng*aBe A*man( &r(gre!a de *na e/a&a &rimera" rela/i7amen/e c(ncre/a" a *na e/a&a mF! a3!/rac/aM n*e!/r(! &rimer(! n(m3re! !(n c(ncre/(!" !e adAieren a la a&reAen!in de AecA(! ( acci(ne! &ar/ic*lare!; T(da! la! !(m3ra! ( ma/ice! @*e enc(n/ram(! en n*e!/ra e>&eriencia c(ncre/a !(n de!cri/(! min*ci(!a 8 circ*n!/ancialmen/e" &er( n( !(n !*3!*mid(! 3aB( g ner(! c(m*ne!; :ammerOP*rg!/all Aa en*merad( en *n en!a8( l(! di7er!(! n(m3re! c(n @*e !e de!igna al camell( en Fra3e; Enc(n/ram(! n( men(! @*e cinc( ( !ei! mil / rmin(! 8" !in em3arg(" ning*n( de ell(! n(! &r(&(rci(na *n c(nce&/( 3i(lgic( general; T(d(! ell(! e>&re!an de/alle! c(ncre/(! @*e !e reCieren a la C(rma" el /ama'(" el c(l(r" la edad 8 la manera de andar del animal; #.NE!/a! di7i!i(ne! !e Aallan m*8 leB(! de c*al@*ier cla!iCicacin cien/2Cica ( !i!/emF/ica" &er( !ir7en a &r(&!i/(! 3ien diCeren/e!; En di7er!(! leng*aBe! de /ri3*! a3(r2gene! americana! enc(n/ram(! *na a3*ndancia !(r&renden/e de / rmin(! &ara *na accin &ar/ic*lar c(m(" &(r eBem&l(" &a!ear ( g(l&ear" @*e g*ardan en/re !2 *na relacin de 8*>/a&(!icin mF! @*e de !*3(rdinacin; Un g(l&e dad( c(n el &*'( n( &*ede !er de!cri/( c(n el mi!m( / rmin( @*e el @*e !e da c(n la &alma de la man(" 8 *n g(l&e c(n *n arma re@*iere *n n(m3re di!/in/( @*e el g(l&e c(n *n lF/ig( ( c(n *n &al(; #.# En !* de!cri&cin de la leng*a 3a{airi H@*e !e Aa3la &(r *na /ri3* india del cen/r( del Lra!ilH ^arl 7(n den S/einen n(! c*en/a @*e cada e!&ecie de &a&aga8( 8 de &almera &(!ee !* n(m3re &ar/ic*lar" mien/ra! @*e n( e>i!/e n(m3re @*e e>&re!e el g ner( &a&aga8( ( &almera; GL(! 3a{airi !e a&egan /an/( a la! n*mer(!a! n(ci(ne!
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_ a!e :ammerOP*rg!/all" Wiener A3ademie/ 5hilosaph.Chistor. <l./ 7(l!; _I 8 _II +#11) 8 !;,; Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e PAil(!(&Aie der !8m3(li!cAen F(rmen" I" ?)5 !!;

&ar/ic*lare! @*e n( le! in/ere!an la! carac/er2!/ica! c(m*ne!; E!/Fn !(r&rendid(! &(r la a3*ndancia del ma/erial 8 n( &*eden maneBarl( c(n ec(n(m2a; N( &(!een mF! @*e m(neda Cracci(naria" &er( en ella !(n mF! 3ien e>ce!i7amen/e ric(!;G +$nter den Fatur-Jl3ern QentralC(rasiliens/ &; 1#;, En realidad n( e>i!/e *na medida *niC(rme en l( @*e re!&ec/a a la ri@*eDa ( &(3reDa de *n de/erminad( leng*aBe; T(da cla!iCicacin e! dirigida 8 dic/ada &(r nece!idade! e!&eciale!" 8 e! clar( @*e e!/a! nece!idade! 7ar2an de ac*erd( c(n la! diCeren/e! c(ndici(ne! de la 7ida !(cial 8 c*l/*ral del A(m3re; En la ci7iliDacin &rimi/i7a &re7alece nece!ariamen/e el in/er ! &(r l(! a!&ec/(! c(ncre/(! 8 &ar/ic*lare! de la! c(!a!" el leng*aBe A*man( !e c(nC(rma a e!/( 8 !e ac(m(da a cier/a! C(rma! de la 7ida A*mana; Para *na /ri3* india n( e! &(!i3le ni /am&(c( nece!ari( *n in/er ! &(r l(! *ni7er!ale!M le 3a!/a 8 le e! mF! im&(r/an/e di!/ing*ir l(! (3Be/(! &(r cier/a! carac/er2!/ica! 7i!i3le! 8 &al&a3le!; En alg*n(! idi(ma!" *na c(!a red(nda n( &*ede !er /ra/ada de la mi!ma manera @*e *na c(!a c*adrada * (3l(nga" &(r@*e &er/enecen a g ner(! diCeren/e!" @*e !(n di!/ing*id(! 7ali nd(!e de medi(! lingJ2!/ic(! e!&eciale!" &(r eBem&l(" el *!( de &reCiB(!; En la! leng*a! de la Camilia 3an/E enc(n/ram(! n( men(! de 7ein/e e!&ecie! de n(m3re! gen ric(!; En la! leng*a! de la! /ri3*! a3(r2gene! americana! c(m(" &(r eBem&l(" la de l(! alg(n@*in(!" alg*n(! (3Be/(! &er/enecen al g ner( animal" (/r(! al g ner( inanimad(; Tam3i n en e!/e ca!( e! CFcil de c(m&render cm( 8 &(r @* e!/a di!/incin /iene @*e &arecer" de!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a de la men/e &rimi/i7a" de *n in/er ! &ar/ic*lar 8 de *na im&(r/ancia 7i/al; Se /ra/a de *na diCerencia m*cA( mF! carac/er2!/ica 8 llama/i7a @*e la @*e e! e>&re!ada en n*e!/r(! n(m3re! gen ric(! lgic(Oa3!/rac/(!; E!/e mi!m( &a!( len/( de l(! n(m3re! c(ncre/(! a l(! a3!/rac/(! &(dem(! (3!er7ar en la de!ignacin de la! c*alidade! de la! c(!a!; En alg*n(! leng*aBe! enc(n/ram(! *na a3*ndancia de l(! n(m3re! @*e de!ignan c(l(re!M cada C(rma c(ncre/a de *n c(l(r dad( &(!ee !* n(m3re e!&ecial mien/ra! @*e Cal/an n*e!/r(! / rmin(! generale!" aD*l" 7erde" r(B(" e/c; L(! n(m3re! de l(! c(l(re! 7ar2an !egEn la na/*raleDa de l(! (3Be/(!4 *na &ala3ra &ara gri! !e &*ede *!ar" &(r eBem&l(" al Aa3lar de la lana 8 (/ra &ara l(! ca3all(!" (/ra &ara el ganad( 8 /(da72a (/ra c*and( !e Aa3la del ca3ell( de l(! A(m3re! ( de (/r(! animale!; #.? L( mi!m( !e &*ede decir en c*an/( a la ca/eg(r2a de l(! nEmer(!4 !e re@*ieren n*merale! diCeren/e! !egEn l(! reCiram(! a cla!e! diCeren/e! de (3Be/(!#..; La e>/en!in a c(nce&/(! 8 ca/eg(r2a! *ni7er!ale! &arece" &*e!" realiDar!e len/amen/e en el de!arr(ll( del leng*aBe A*man(M &er( cada n*e7( a7ance en e!/a direccin c(nd*ce a *na 7i!in mF! am&lia" a *na (rganiDacin 8 (rien/acin meB(re! de n*e!/r( m*nd( &erce&/i7(;

IX; EL ARTE

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_ an!e l(! eBem&l(! @*e &re!en/a Ie!&er!en en &anguage/ &; %?$; Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e 5hilosophie der sym!olischen formen/ I" &; #11;

&arece !er *n( de l(! Cenmen(! A*man(! mF! claramen/e c(n(cid(!; N( em&a'ad( &(r ningEn a*ra mi!/eri(!a" !* carFc/er 8 na/*raleDa n( Aan mene!/er de ning*na /e(r2a me/aC2!ica !*/il 8 c(m&leBa &ara !er e>&licad(!; La 3elleDa e! &ar/e de la A*mana e>&eriencia" alg( &al&a3le e inc(nC*ndi3le; Sin em3arg(" en la Ai!/(ria del &en!amien/( Cil(!Cic( el Cenmen( de la 3elleDa !e Aa maniCe!/ad( c(m( *na de la! ma8(re! &arad(Ba!; :a!/a la &(ca de ^an/" la Cil(!(C2a de la 3elleDa !igniCica !iem&re *n in/en/( de red*cir n*e!/ra e>&eriencia e!/ /ica a *n &rinci&i( e>/ra'( 8 a !*Be/ar el ar/e a *na B*ri!diccin e>/ranBera; F*e ^an/" en !* 6ritica del =uicio/ el &rimer( en &r(&(rci(nar *na &r*e3a clara 8 c(n7incen/e de la a*/(n(m2a del ar/e; T(d(! l(! !i!/ema! an/eri(re! 3*!ca3an *n &rinci&i( den/r( de la e!Cera del c(n(cimien/( /eric( ( de la 7ida m(ral; Si !e le c(n!idera3a c(m( *na re!*l/an/e de la ac/i7idad /erica" era nece!ari( analiDar la! regla! lgica! a @*e !e c(nC(rma e!/a ac/i7idad &ar/ic*lar" &er(" en /al ca!(" /am&(c( la lgica mi!ma re&re!en/a3a *n c(nB*n/( A(m(g ne(; :a32a @*e di7idirla en &ar/e! !e&arada! 8 rela/i7amen/e inde&endien/e!M Aa32a @*e di!/ing*ir la lgica de la imaginacin de la lgica del &en!amien/( raci(nal" cien/2Cic(; AleBandr( La*mgar/en Aa lle7ad( a ca3( el &rimer en!a8( !i!/emF/ic( 8 c(m&ren!i7( &ara c(n!/r*ir *na lgica de la imaginacin" &er( /am&(c( e!/e en!a8(" @*e en cier/( !en/id( C*e deci!i7( e ine!/ima3le" &*d( a!eg*rar al ar/e *na 7erdadera a*/(n(m2a; P(r@*e la lgica de la imaginacin n( &(d2a &re/ender la mi!ma dignidad @*e la lgica del in/elec/( &*r(; Si e>i!/2a *na /e(r2a del ar/e /en2a @*e !er" Enicamen/e" c(m( gn(!e(l(g2a inCeri(r" c(m( *n anFli!i! de la &(rcin !en!i3le inCeri(r del c(n(cimien/( A*man(; P(r (/ra &ar/e" !e &(d2a de!cri3ir el ar/e c(m( *n em3lema de la 7erdad m(ral; Era c(nce3id( c(m( *na aleg(r2a" c(m( *na e>&re!in Cig*rada @*e e!c(nd2a" /ra! !* C(rma !en!i3le" *n !en/id( /ic(; Per( en am3(! ca!(!" /an/( en la in/er&re/acin m(ral c(m( en la /erica" el ar/e n( &(!e2a *n 7al(r &r(&i( e inde&endien/e; En la Berar@*2a del c(n(cimien/( 8 de la 7ida A*mana n( era mF! @*e *na e/a&a &re&ara/(ria" *n medi( !*3(rdinad( 8 mini!/erial @*e a&*n/a3a Aacia *n Cin mF! al/(; La Cil(!(C2a del ar/e n(! m*e!/ra el mi!m( c(nClic/( en/re d(! /endencia! an/agnica! @*e enc(n/ram(! en la Cil(!(C2a del leng*aBe; N( e! e!/( *na mera c(incidencia Ai!/rica" &*e! n(! c(nd*ce a la di7i!in 3F!ica en la in/er&re/acin de la realidad; El leng*aBe 8 el ar/e (!cilan" c(n!/an/emen/e" en/re d(! &(l(! (&*e!/(!" *n( (3Be/i7( 8 (/r( !*3Be/i7(; Ning*na /e(r2a del leng*aBe ( del ar/e &*ede (l7idar ( !*&rimir *n( de e!/(! d(! &(l(!" a*n@*e &*ede Aacer Ainca&i en *n( * (/r(; En el &rimer ca!(" el leng*aBe 8 el ar/e !(n !*3!*mid(! 3aB( *n /2/*l( c(mEn" la ca/eg(r2a de imi/acin" 8 !* C*ncin &rinci&al e! mim /icaM el leng*aBe !e (rigina en *n imi/acin de !(nid(! 8 el ar/e en *na imi/acin de c(!a! e>/eri(re!; La imi/acin e! *n in!/in/( C*ndamen/al" *n AecA( irred*c/i3le de la na/*raleDa A*manaM Gla imi/acin Hn(! dice Ari!//ele!H" e! c(nna/*ral al A(m3re de!de la ni'eD" &*e! *na de !*! 7en/aBa! !(3re l(! animale! inCeri(re! c(n!i!/e en @*e e! la cria/*ra mF! mim /ica del m*nd( 8 a&rende al &rinci&i( &(r imi/acinG; E!" /am3i n" *na C*en/e inag(/a3le de g(ce" c(m( !e &r*e3a &(r el AecA( de @*e" n( (3!/an/e @*e l(! (3Be/(! mi!m(! &*edan !er &en(!(! de 7er" !in em3arg(" g(Dam(! en 7er la!
LA LELLE<A

re&re!en/aci(ne! mF! reali!/a! de ell(! en el ar/eM a!2" &(r eBem&l(" la! C(rma! de l(! animale! inCeri(re! ( de c*er&(! m*er/(!; Ari!//ele! de!cri3e e!/e g(ce mF! 3ien c(m( *na e>&eriencia /erica @*e n( e!&ec2Cicamen/e e!/ /ica; GA&render *na c(!a e! el ma8(r de l(! &lacere!" n( !l( del Cil!(C( !in( /am3i n de /(d(! l(! demF!" &(r m*8 &e@*e'a @*e !ea !* ca&acidadM la raDn de n*e!/r( g(D( en 7er la &in/*ra e! @*e" al mi!m( /iem&(" *n( e!/F a&rendiend(" ca&/and( el !en/id( de la! c(!a!" e! decir" @*e el A(m3re e!/e e! a!2 ( de (/r( m(d(G 05otica/ %; #%%13; )O#5,; A &rimera 7i!/a" e!/e &rinci&i( &arece a&licar!e Enicamen/e a la! ar/e! re&re!en/a/i7a!" &er( CFcilmen/e !e &*ede /ran!Cerir a /(da! la! demF! C(rma!; Tam3i n la mE!ica re!*l/a *na re&r(d*ccin de la! c(!a!; El /(car la Cla*/a ( el danDar n( !(n" de!&* ! de /(d(" mF! @*e imi/acinM &(r@*e el Cla*/i!/a ( el 3ailar2n re&re!en/an c(n !*! ri/m(! l(! carac/ere! de l(! A(m3re!" 8 l( @*e Aacen 8 !*Cren 0dem/ #; #%%5a; ?-,; T(da la Ai!/(ria de la &( /ica C*e inCl*ida &(r la di7i!a de :(raci( U/ pictura poesis y/ !egEn el dicA( de Simnide!" la &in/*ra e! &(e!2a m*da 8 la &(e!2a *na &in/*ra @*e Aa3la; La &(e!2a !e diCerencia de la &in/*ra &(r el m(d( 8 l(! medi(!" &er( n( &(r la C*ncin general de la imi/acin; :a8 @*e (3!er7ar @*e en la! /e(r2a! mF! radicale! de la imi/acin n( !e /ra/a3a de re!/ringir la (3ra de ar/e a *na mera re&r(d*ccin mecFnica de la realidadM /(da! ella! /en2an @*e &ermi/ir" en *n cier/( grad(" la crea/i7idad del ar/i!/a; N( era CFcil c(nciliar e!/a! d(! e>igencia!; Si la imi/acin e! el 7erdader( &r(&!i/( del ar/e" re!*l/a clar( @*e la e!&(n/aneidad" el &(der cread(r del ar/i!/a !erF *n Cac/(r an/e! &er/*r3ad(r @*e c(n!/r*c/i7(; En l*gar de de!c*3rir la! c(!a! en !* 7erdadera na/*raleDa" Cal!iCica !* a!&ec/(; N( &(d2a !er negada &(r la! /e(r2a! clF!ica! de la imi/acin e!/a &er/*r3acin in/r(d*cida &(r la !*3Be/i7idad del ar/i!/a" &er( &(d2a !er c(nCinada den/r( de !*! &r(&i(! l2mi/e! 8 !*Be/a a regla! generale!; A!2" el &rinci&i( ars simia naturae n( !e man/iene en *n !en/id( e!/ric/( 8 !in c(m&r(mi!(!" &(r@*e /am&(c( la na/*raleDa mi!ma e! inCali3le ni l(gra !iem&re !*! Cine!; En !emeBan/e! ca!(! el ar/e 7iene en a8*da de la na/*raleDa 8 la c(rrige realmen/e ( la &erCecci(na; Ma la natura la da sempre scema/ %imilemente operando all+artista 6+ha l+a!ito dell+arte e man che trema. #R9 Si G/(da 3elleDa e! 7erdadG n( /(da 7erdad e! nece!ariamen/e 3elleDa; Para alcanDar la 3elleDa !*&rema e! /an e!encial de!7iar!e de la na/*raleDa c(m( re&r(d*cirla; La de/erminacin del grad(" de la raDn &r(&(rci(nal de e!/a de!7iacin" !e c(n7ir/i en *na de la! /area! &rinci&ale! de la /e(r2a del ar/e; Ari!//ele! Aa aCirmad( @*e" a l(! eCec/(! de la &(e!2a" *na im&(!i 3ilidad c(n7incen/e e! &reCeri3le a *na &(!i3ilidad n( c(n7incen/e; A la (3Becin de *n cr2/ic( de @*e <e*>i! Aa &in/ad( A(m3re! @*e n( &*eden e>i!/ir en la realidad" la re!&*e!/a B*!/a e! @*e e! meB(r @*e l(! A(m3re! /engan @*e !er c(m( l(! &in/am(!" &*e! el ar/i!/a de3e meB(rar !* m(del(; #.)
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Dan/e" 5aradiso/ XIII" 7; 5-; Ari!//ele!" op. cit./ ^]. #%-#3;

L(! ne(clF!ic(! Hde!de l(! i/alian(! del !igl( X_I Aa!/a la (3ra del a3a/e La//e*>" &es !eaux arts reduits a un m_me principe +#5%5,H arrancar(n del mi!m( &rinci&i(; El ar/e n( /iene @*e re&r(d*cir la na/*raleDa en *n !en/id( general e indi!criminad(M re&r(d*ce la !elle nature. Per( !i la imi/acin re&re!en/a el &r(&!i/( real del ar/e" el c(nce&/( real de !emeBan/e na/*ra leDa 3ella e! m*8 c*e!/i(na3le; P*e! `cm( &(drem(! meB(rar n*e!/r( m(del( !in de!Cig*rarl(a `Cm( /ra!cender la realidad de la! c(!a! !in 7i(lar la! le8e! de la 7erdada De!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a de e!/a /e(r2a" la &(e!2a 8 el ar/e en general n( alcanDan a !er mF! @*e *na Cal!edad agrada3le; La /e(r2a general de la imi/acin &areci man/ener!e Cirme 8 re!i!/ir /(d(! l(! a/a@*e! Aa!/a la &rimera mi/ad del !igl( X_III" &er(" &reci!amen/e en el /ra/ad( de La//e*>" aca!( el cam&en mF! re!*el/( de la /e(r2a" #.-enc(n/ram(! cier/a in!eg*ridad c(n re!&ec/( a !* 7alideD *ni7er!al; La &iedra de e!cFndal( de e!/a /e(r2a Aa !id( !iem&re el Cenmen( de la &(e!2a l2rica; L(! arg*men/(! c(n l(! c*ale! /ra/a La//e*> de incl*ir la &(e!2a l2rica en el e!@*ema general del ar/e imi/a/i7( !(n d 3ile! 8 &(c( c(ncl*8en/e!; AdemF!" /(d(! e!/(! arg*men/(! !*&erCiciale! C*er(n arr*m3ad(! &(r la a&aricin de *na n*e7a C*erDa; El n(m3re de R(*!!ea* !e'ala en el cam&( de la e!/ /ica *n 7iraBe deci!i7( en la Ai!/(ria general de la! idea!" recAaDa la /radicin clF!ica 8 ne(clF!ica; Para l" el ar/e n( e! *na de!cri&cin ( re&r(d*ccin del m*nd( em&2ric( !in( *na !*&era3*ndancia de em(ci(ne! 8 &a!i(ne!; S* Fue-a Elosa re!*l/ !er *n n*e7( &(der re7(l*ci(nari(M de!de !* a&aricin" A*3( @*e a3and(nar el &rinci&i( mim /ic( @*e Aa32a &re7alecid( d*ran/e 7aria! cen/*ria!" dand( en/rada a *na c(nce&cin 8 a *n ideal" el del ar/e Gcarac/er2!/ic(G; De!de e!/e &*n/( &(dem(! !eg*ir la marcAa 7ic/(ri(!a de *n n*e7( &rinci&i( a /ra7 ! de /(da la li/era/*ra e*r(&ea; En Alemania" :erder 8 G(e/Ae !ig*ier(n el eBem&l( de R(*!!ea*; De e!/e m(d(" /(da la /e(r2a de la 3elleDa /*7( @*e ad(&/ar *na n*e7a C(rma; La 3elleDa" en el !en/id( /radici(nal del / rmin(" n( e! en ningEn m(d( la me/a Enica del ar/eM de AecA(" n( e! mF! @*e *n ra!g( !ec*ndari( 8 deri7ad(; N( ac(Bam(! *na c(nce&cin errnea Had7ier/e G(e/Ae a !*! lec/(re! en !* en!a8( !(3re &a ar;uitectura alemanaH" n( &ermi/am(! @*e la d(c/rina aCeminada de l(! m(dern(! ad(rad(re! de la 3elleDa (! Aaga dema!iad( /iern(! &ara g(Dar de *na r*deDa !igniCica/i7a" &*e!" de l( c(n/rari(" 7*e!/ra !en!i3ilidad de3ili/ada n( &(drF /(lerar mF! @*e *na d*lD*ra in!igniCican/e; Tra/an de Aacern(! creer @*e la! 3ella! ar/e! Aan !*rgid( de 7*e!/ra !*&*e!/a inclinacin Aacia la 3elleDa del m*nd( @*e n(! r(dea; E!/( n( e! 7erdad;;; El ar/e e! C(rmad( m*cA( an/e! de !er 3ell( 8" !in em3arg(" e! en/(nce! 7erdader( 8 grande ar/e" m*8 a men*d(" mF! 7erdader( 8 grande @*e el mi!m( ar/e 3ell(; P(r@*e el A(m3re &(!ee *na na/*raleDa C(rmad(ra @*e !e de!&liega en ac/i7idad /an &r(n/( c(m( !* e>i!/encia !e Aalla a!eg*radaM ;;;6 a!2" el !al7aBe rem(dela c(n ra!g(! e>/ra7agan/e!" C(rma! A(rri3le! 8 c(l(re! cAill(ne! !*! (3Be/(!" !*! &l*ma! 8 !* &r(&i( c*er&(; 6 a*n@*e e!/a imaginer2a !e c(m&(ne de la! C(rma! mF!
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Sin d*da" /am3i n en el !igl( XIX la /e(r2a general de la imi/acin de!em&e'a /(da72a *n &a&el im&(r/an/e; P(r eBem&l(" e! deCendida 8 man/enida en la (3ra de Taine" 5hilosophie de l+art.

ca&ricA(!a!" !in &r(&(rcin de C(rma!" !*! &ar/e! !e c(rre!&(nden" &(r@*e *n !(l( !en/imien/( la! Aa cread( en *n c(nB*n/( carac/er2!/ic(; E!/e ar/e carac/er2!/ic( e! el Enic( 7erdader(; C*and( ac/Ea !(3re l( @*e !e Aalla en /(rn( !*8(" &ar/iend( de *n !en/imien/( in/ern(" Enic(" indi7id*al" (riginal" inde&endien/e" !in &re(c*&ar!e" 8 Aa!/a ign(rand(" de /(d( l( @*e le e! e>/ra'(" en/(nce!" 8a Aa8a nacid( de r*d( !al7aBi!m( ( de *na !en!i3ilidad c*l/i7ada" e! c(m&le/( 8 7i7ien/e; C(n R(*!!ea* 8 G(e/Ae c(menD" &*e!" *n n*e7( &eri(d( de la /e(r2a e!/ /icaM el ar/e Gcarac/er2!/ic(G Aa l(grad( *na deCini/i7a 7ic/(ria !(3re el ar/e imi/a/i7(; Para c(m&renderl( en !* 7erdader( !en/id( /enem(! @*e e7i/ar *na in/er&re/acin *nila/eral; N( 3a!/a c(n &(ner el acen/( en el a!&ec/( em(/i7( de la (3ra de ar/e; E! cier/( @*e /(d( ar/e carac/er2!/ic( ( e>&re !i7( !e &r(d*ce &(r la Gin*ndacin e!&(n/Fnea de !en/imien/(! &(der(!(!G; Per( !i ace&/Fram(! !in re!er7a! e!/a deCinicin de K(rd!9(r/A n(! 7er2am(! c(nd*cid(! a *n cam3i( de !ign( 8 n( a *n cam3i( deci!i7( de !en/id(; En /al ca!( el ar/e !eg*ir2a !iend( re&r(d*c/i7a &er( en l*gar de !erl( de c(!a!" de (3Be/(! C2!ic(!" re!*l/ar2a *na re&r(d*ccin de n*e!/ra 7ida in/eri(r" de n*e!/r(! aCec/(! 8 em(ci(ne!; Em&leand( *na 7eD mF! n*e!/ra anal(g2a c(n la Cil(!(C2a del leng*aBe" &(dr2am(! decir @*e en e!/e ca!( Aem(! !*!/i/*id( *na /e(r2a (n(ma/(& 8ica del ar/e &(r *na /e(r2a in/erBec/i7a; N( e! !/e el !en/id( en @*e G(e/Ae en/end2a la e>&re!in Gar/e carac/er2!/ic(G; El &a!aBe arri3a ci/ad( C*e e!cri/( en #55." en !* B*7enil &eri(d( de %turm und 1rang/ &er( en ning*na e/a&a de !* 7ida &*d( de!c*idar el &(l( (3Be/i7( de !* &(e!2a; El ar/e e! e>&re!i7(" ma! n( &*ede !er e>&re!i7( !in !er C(rma/i7(" 8 e!/e &r(ce!( C(rrna/i7( !e lle7a a ca3( en *n de/erminad( medi( !en!i3le; GTan &r(n/( c(m( !e 7e li3re de c*idad( 8 /em(r He!cri3e G(e/AeH" el !emidi!" cread(r en re&(!(" !e lanDa a la 3*!ca de ma/eria d(nde in!*Clar !* e!&2riO /*;G En alg*na! /e(r2a! e!/ /ica! m(derna! He!&ecialmen/e la de Cr(ce" !*! di!c2&*l(! 8 !eg*id(re!H !e (l7ida ( !e red*ce al m2nim( e!/e Cac/(r ma/erial; Cr(ce !e in/ere!a Enicamen/e &(r el AecA( de la e>&re!in 8 n( &(r el m(d(M c(n!idera @*e el m(d( n( im&(r/a ni &ara el carFc/er ni &ara el 7al(r de la (3ra de ar/e; L( Enic( @*e im&(r/a e! la in/*icin del ar/i!/a 8 n( la encarnacin de e!/a in/*icin en *n ma/erial e!&ecial; El ma/erial /iene *na im&(r/ancia / cnica &er( n( e!/ /ica; La Cil(!(C2a de Cr(ce e! *na Cil(!(C2a del e!&2ri/* @*e !*3ra8a el carFc/er e>cl*!i7amen/e e!&iri/*al de la (3ra de ar/e; En !* /e(r2a" /(da la energ2a e!&iri/*al !e c(n/iene 8 !e ga!/a en la C(rmacin de la in/*icin; C*and( !e Aa /erminad( e!/e &r(ce!(" !e Aa aca3ad( la creacin ar/2!/ica; L( @*e !ig*e n( e! mF! @*e *na re&r(d*ccin e>/erna nece!aria &ara la c(m*nicacin de la in/*icin &er( @*e nada !igniCica c(n re!&ec/( a !* e!encia; Per( e! l( cier/( @*e &ara *n gran &in/(r" &ara *n gran mE!ic( ( *n gran &(e/a" l(! c(l(re!" la! l2nea!" l(! ri/m(! 8 la! &ala3ra! n( !(n Enicamen/e *na &ar/e de !* a&ara/( / cnic( !in( Cac/(re! nece!ari(! del &r(ce!( cread(r mi!m(; E! /an 7erdad /ra/Fnd(!e del ar/e e!&ec2Cicamen/e e>&re!i7( c(m( de la! ar/e! re&re!en/a/i7a!M /am&(c( en la &(e!2a l2rica c(n!/i/*8e la em(cin el Enic( ra!g( deci!i7(; E! cier/( @*e l(! grande! &(e/a! l2ric(! !(n ca&ace! de la! em(ci(ne! mF!

C*er/e! 8 @*e *n ar/i!/a @*e n( !e Aalla d(/ad( de !en/imien/(! &(der(!(! BamF! &r(d*cirF mF! @*e *n ar/e Cri7(l( 8 A*ec(M &er( n( &(dem(! c(ncl*ir de e!/e AecA( el @*e la C*ncin de la &(e!2a l2rica 8 del ar/e en general !e &*eda de!cri3ir adec*adamen/e c(m( la Aa3ilidad del ar/i!/a &ara Aacer G*n &ecA( &e@*e'(G de !*! !en/imien/(!; GL( @*e el ar/i!/a &re/ende Aacer Hdice R; G; C(lling9((dH" e! e>&re!ar *na de/erminada em(cin; E>&re!arla 8 e>&re!arla 3ien !(n la mi!ma c(!a;;; Cada maniCe!/acin 8 cada ge!/( de cada *n( de n(!(/r(! e! *na (3ra de ar/eG 0&os principios del arte?. Se 7*el7e a de!c*idar" !in em3arg(" el &r(ce!( c(n!/r*c/i7(" @*e e! *n re@*i!i/( &re7i(" /an/( de la &r(d*ccin c(m( de la c(n/em&lacin de la (3ra de ar/e; N( e! cier/( @*e cada ge!/( !ea *na (3ra de ar/e" c(m( /am&(c( cada in/erBeccin e! *n ac/( de leng*aBe; Tan/( el ge!/( c(m( la in/erBeccin carecen de *n ra!g( e!encial e indi!&en!a3leM !(n reacci(ne! in7(l*n/aria! e in!/in/i7a!M n( &(!een *na real e!&(n/aneidad; El Cac/(r G&r(&!i/(G e! /an nece!ari( &ara la e>&re!in 7er3al c(m( &ara la ar/2! O /ica; En cada ac/( 7er3al 8 en /(da creacin ar/2!/ica enc(n/ram(! *na e!/r*c/*ra /ele(lgica deCinida; El ac/(r de *n drama GeBec*/aG realmen/e !* &ar/eM cada maniCe!/acin indi7id*al e! *na &ar/e de *n /(d( e!/r*c/*ral c(Aeren/e; El acen/( 8 el ri/m( de !*! &ala3ra!" la m(d*lacin de !* 7(D" la! e>&re!i(ne! de !* r(!/r( 8 l(! ademane! de !* c*er&( /ienden al mi!m( Cin4 encarnar *n carFc/er A*man(; T(d( e!/( e! alg( mF! @*e !im&le e>&re!in" e!" /am3i n" re&re!en/acin e in/er&re/acin; Ni !i@*iera *n &(ema l2ric( !e Aalla de!&r(7i!/( de e!/a /endencia general del ar/e; El &(e/a l2ric( n( e! *n A(m3re @*e !e en/rega al B*eg( de l(! !en/imien/(!M el !im&le !er arra!/rad( &(r la! em(ci(ne! e! !en/imen/ali!m( &er( n( ar/e; Un ar/i!/a @*e n( e!/F a3!(r3id( &(r la c(n/em&lacin 8 creacin de C(rma! !in( &(r !* &r(&i( &lacer" mF! 3ien" ( &(r !* deg*!/ar la alegr2a ( la &ena" !e c(n7ier/e en *n !en/imen/al; P(r l( /an/(" n(! e! diC2cil a/ri3*ir al ar/e l2ric( *n carFc/er mF! !*3Be/i7( @*e a c*al@*ier (/r(" &*e! im&lica la mi!ma cla!e de encarnacin 8 el mi!m( &r(ce!( de (3Be/i7acin; GLa &(e!2a He!cri3i Mallarm H" n( e!/F e!cri/a c(n idea!" e!/F e!cri/a c(n &ala3ra!;G E!/F e!cri/a c(n imFgene!" !(nid(! 8 ri/m(! @*e" c(m( en el ca!( de la &(e!2a dramF/ica 8 de la re&re!en/acin dramF/ica" !e C*nden en *n /(d( indi7i!i3le; En /(d( gran &(ema l2ric( enc(n/ram(! e!/a *nidad c(ncre/a e indi7i!i3le; L( mi!m( @*e la! demF! C(rma! !im3lica!" /am&(c( e! el ar/e mera re&r(d*ccin de *na realidad aca3ada" dada; C(n!/i/*8e *na de la! 72a! @*e n(! c(nd*cen a *na 7i!in (3Be/i7a de la! c(!a! 8 de la 7ida A*mana; N( e! *na imi/acin !in( *n de!c*3rimien/( de la realidad; Clar( @*e n( de!c*3rim(! la na/*raleDa a /ra7 ! del ar/e en el mi!m( !en/id( en @*e el cien/2Cic( *!a el / rmin( Gna/*raleDaG; El leng*aBe 8 la ciencia re&re!en/an l(! d(! &r(ce!(! &rinci&ale! c(n l(! c*ale! a!eg*ram(! 8 de/erminam(! n*e!/r(! c(nce&/(! del m*nd( e>/eri(r; Tenem(! @*e cla!iCicar n*e!/ra! &erce&ci(ne! !en!i3le! 8 !*3!*mirla! 3aB( n(ci(ne! 8 regla! generale! a l(! eCec/(! de &r(&(rci(narle! *n !en/id( (3Be/i7(; SemeBan/e cla!iCicacin e! el re!*l/ad( de *n e!C*erD( &er!i!/en/e Aacia la !im&liCicacin; TamO 3i n la (3ra de ar/e im&lica" de la mi!ma manera" !emeBan/e ac/( de c(nden!acin 8 de c(ncen/racin; C*and( Ari!//ele! /ra/ de de!cri3ir la diCerencia real en/re

&(e!2a e Ai!/(ria in!i!/i !(3re e!/e &r(ce!(; GL( @*e *n drama n(! &r(&(rci(na H aCirmaH" e! *na accin Enica +Xc rgckSn, @*e e! en !2 mi!ma *n /(d( c(m&le/(" c(n /(da la *nidad (rgFnica de *na cria/*ra 7i7aM mien/ra! @*e el Ai!/(riad(r n( /iene @*e /ra/ar de *na accin !in( de *n &eri(d( 8 de /(d( l( @*e (c*rri en l a *na ( 7aria! &er!(na!" &(r m*8 de!c(nec/ad(! @*e Aa8an &(did( !er l(! di7er!(! !*ce!(!G 0op. cit./ ?.; #$%)a; #5O#$,; En e!/e a!&ec/( la 3elleDa" l( mi!m( @*e la 7erdad" &*eden !er de!cri/a! en l(! / rmin(! de la mi!ma Crm*la clF!ica4 c(n!/i/*8e *na *nidad en la m*l/i&licidad; Per( en l(! d(! ca!(! e>i!/e *n acen/( diCeren/e; El leng*aBe 8 la ciencia !(n a3re7ia/*ra! de la realidadM el ar/e" *na in/en!iCicacin de la realidad; El leng*aBe 8 la ciencia de&enden del mi!m( &r(ce!( de Ga3!/raccinG" mien/ra! @*e el ar/e !e &*ede de!cri3ir c(m( *n &r(ce!( c(n/in*( de Gc(ncrecinG; En n*e!/ra de!cri&cin cien/2Cica de *n (3Be/( c(menDam(! c(n *n gran nEmer( de (3!er7aci(ne! @*e" a &rimera 7i!/a" n( !(n mF! @*e *n c(ngl(merad( !*el/( de AecA(! di!&er!(!M &er(" a medida @*e caminam(!" e!/(! Cenmen(! !ing*lare! /ienden a ad(&/ar *na C(rma deCinida 8 a c(n7er/ir!e en *n /(d( !i!/emF/ic(; L( @*e 7a 3*!cand( la ciencia e! cier/( ra!g( cen/ral de *n (3Be/( dad( del c*al &*edan deri7ar!e /(da! la! c*alidade! &ar/ic*lare!; Si *n @*2mic( c(n(ce el nEmer( a/mic( de cier/( elemen/( &(!ee la cla7e &ara *na 7i!in &lena de !* e!/r*c/*ra 8 c(n!/i/*cin; C(n e!/e nEmer( &*ede ded*cir /(da! !*! &r(&iedade! carac/er2!/ica!; El ar/e n( ad mi/e e!/e g ner( de !im&liCicacin c(nce&/*al 8 de generaliDacin ded*c/i7aM n( indaga la! c*alidade! ( ca*!a! de la! c(!a! !in( @*e n(! (Crece la in/*icin de !*! C(rma!; Tam&(c( e! e!/(" en m(d( alg*n(" *na mera re&e/icin de alg( @*e 8a /en2am(! an/e!; E! *n de!c*3rimien/( 7erdader( 8 gen*in(; El ar/i!/a e! *n de! c*3rid(r de la! C(rma! de la na/*raleDa l( mi!m( @*e el cien/2Cic( e! *n de!c*3rid(r de AecA(! ( de le8e! na/*rale!; T(d(! l(! grande! ar/i!/a! de /(d(! l(! /iem&(! !e Aan dad( c*en/a de e!/a mi!in e!&ecial 8 de e!/e d(n e!&ecial del ar/e; Le(nard( de _inci Aa3la3a de la Cinalidad de la e!c*l/*ra 8 de la &in/*ra en / r min(! de saper -edere. SegEn l" el &in/(r 8 el e!c*l/(r !(n l(! grande! mae!/r(! en el rein( del m*nd( 7i!i3le" &(r@*e la &erce&cin de la! C(rma! &*ra! de la! c(!a! en m(d( alg*na e! *n d(n in!/in/i7(" *n d(n de la na/*raleDa; :em(! &(did( /r(&eDar c(n *n (3Be/( de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia !en!i3le (rdinaria mile! de 7e ce! !in Aa3er 7i!/( BamF! !* C(rma; E!/am(! 3a!/an/e &erdid(! !i !e n(! &ide @*e de!cri3am(!" n( c*alidade! de l(! (3Be/(! C2!ic(!" !in( !* &*ra C(rma 8 e!/r*c/*ra 7i!*ale!; El ar/e llena e!/e 7ac2(; En l 7i7im(! en el rein( de la! C(rma! &*ra! 8 n( en el del anFli!i! 8 e!cr*/ini( de l(! (3Be/(! !en!i3le! ( del e!/*di( de !*! eCec/(!; De!de *n &*n/( de 7i!/a 7erdaderamen/e /eric( &(dem(! !*!cri3ir la! &ala3ra! de ^an/ c*and( dice @*e la ma/emF/ica e! el (rg*ll( de la raDn A*manaM &er( /enem(! @*e &agar *n &reci( m*8 ele7ad( &(r e!/e /ri*nC( de la raDn cien/2Cica; La ciencia !igniCica a3!/raccin 8 la a3!/raccin re&re!en/a" !iem&re" *n em&(O 3recimien/( de la realidad; La! C(rma! de la! c(!a!" /ale! c(m( !(n de!cri/a! &(r l(! c(nce&/(! cien/2Cic(!" /ienden a c(n7er/ir!e" cada 7eD mF!" en mera! Crm*la!

de *na !im&licidad !(r&renden/e; Una Crm*la Enica" c(m( la le8 de la gra7i/acin de Ne9/(n" &arece c(m&render 8 e>&licar /(da la e!/r*c/*ra de n*e!/r( *ni7er!( ma/erial" &arece c(m( !i la realidad n( !l( C*era acce!i3le a n*e!/ra! a3!/racci(ne! cien/2Cica! !in( @*e !/a! la &(dr2an ag(/ar; Tan &r(n/( c(m( n(! acercam(! al cam&( del ar/e 7em(! @*e !e /ra/a de *na il*!in" &(r@*e l(! a!&ec/(! de la! c(!a! !(n inn*mera3le! 8 7ar2an de *n m(men/( a (/r(; Ser2a 7an( c*al@*ier in/en/( de a3arcarl(! c(n *na !im&le Crm*la; El dicA( de :erFcli/( de @*e el !(l e! n*e7( cada d2a e! 7erdad &ara el !(l del ar/i!/a !i n( l( e! &ara el !(l del cien/2Cic(; C*and( el cien/2Cic( de!cri3e *n (3Be/( l( carac/eriDa c(n *na !erie de nEmer(!" c(n !*! c(n!/an/e! C2!ica! 8 @*2mica!; El ar/e n( !l( /iene *n &r(&!i/( diCeren/e !in( *n (3Be/( diCeren/e; Si decim(! @*e d(! ar/i!/a! &in/an el mi!m( &ai!aBe de!cri3im(! n*e!/ra e>&eriencia e!/ /ica m*8 inadec*adamen/e; De!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a del ar/e" e!a &re/endida ig*aldad e! il*!(ria" n( &(dem(! Aa3lar de *na mi!ma c(!a c(m( a!*n/( de l(! d(! &in/(re!; El ar/i!/a n( re/ra/a ( c(&ia *n cier/( (3Be/( em&2ric(" *n &ai!aBe c(n !*! c(lina! 8 m(n/a'a!" c(n !*! r2(! 8 e!car&ada!M l( @*e n(! (Crece e! la Ci!(n(m2a indi7id*al 8 m(men/Fnea del &ai!aBeM /ra/a de e>&re!ar la a/m!Cera de la! c(!a!" el B*eg( de l*ce! 8 !(m3ra!; Un &ai!aBe n( e! el mi!m( al amanecer" al medi(d2a" en *n d2a de ll*7ia ( de !(l; N*e!/ra &erce&cin e!/ /ica m*e!/ra *na 7ariedad m*cA( ma8(r 8 &er/enece a *n (rden m*cA( mF! c(m&leB( @*e n*e!/ra &erce&cin !en!i3le (rdinaria; En la &erce&cin !en!i3le n(! dam(! &(r !a/i!CecA(! al ca&/ar l(! ra!g(! c(m*ne! 8 c(n!/an/e! de l(! (3Be/(! @*e n(! r(deanM la e>&eriencia e!/ /ica e! inc(m&ara3lemen/e mF! rica" e!/F &re'ada de inCini/a! &(!i3ilidade! @*e @*edan !in realiDar en la e>&eriencia !en!i3le (rdinaria; En la (3ra del ar/i!/a e!/a! &(!i3ilidade! !e ac/*aliDanM !alen a la l*D 8 /(man *na C(rma deCinida; La circ*n!/ancia del carFc/er ine>Aa*!/i3le del a!&ec/( de la! c(!a! e! *n( de l(! grande! &ri7ilegi(! 8 *n( de l(! encan/(! mF! &r(C*nd(! del ar/e; El &in/(r L*d9ig RicA/er n(! c*en/a en !*! mem(ria! @*e *na 7eD" en T27(li" l 8 /re! amig(! !alier(n a &in/ar el mi!m( &ai!aBe; T(d(! e!/a3an decidid(! a n( de!7iar!e de la na/*raleDa de!eand( re&r(d*cir l( @*e 7e2an c(n la ma8(r Cidelidad &(!i3le; N( (3!/an/e" el re!*l/ad( C*e c*a/r( c*adr(! /(/almen/e diCeren/e!" /an diCeren/e! en/re !2 c(m( la! &er!(nalidade! de l(! ar/i!/a!; De e!/a e>&eriencia ded*c2a el &in/(r @*e n( e>i!/e l( @*e !e llama 7i!in (3Be/i7a 8 @*e la C(rma 8 el c(l(r !(n !iem&re ca&/ad(! a /en(r del /em&eramen/( indi7id*al; #.5 Tam&(c( l(! mF! re!*el/(! cam&e(ne! de *n na/*rali!m( rig*r(!( 8 !in c(m&r(mi!(! &*eden ign(rar ( negar e!/e Cac/(r; Emili( <(la deCine la (3ra de ar/e c(m( G*n rincn de la na/*raleDa 7i!/( a /ra7 ! de *n /em&eramen/(G; C(n la &ala3ra G/em&eramen/(G n( !e al*de a la mera !ing*laridad ( idi(!in cra!ia; C*and( e!/am(! a3!(r/(! en la c(n/em&lacin de *na gran (3ra de ar/e n( !en/im(! *na !e&aracin en/re el m*nd( !*3Be/i7( 8 el (3Be/i7(M n( 7i7im(! en la realidad &lena 8 Aa3i/*al de la! c(!a! C2!ica! ni /am&(c( 7i7im(!" &(r c(m&le/(" en *na e!Cera indi7id*al; MF! allF de e!/a! d(! e!Cera! de/ec/am(! *n n*e7( rein(" el de la! C(rma! &lF!/ica!" m*!icale! ( &( /ica!" 8 e!/a! C(rma! &(!een
#
#.5

:e /(mad( e!/e eBem&l( de la (3ra de :einricA KlCClin" 5rincipios de la historia del arte.

*na 7erdadera *ni7er!alidad; ^an/ di!/ing*e rig*r(!amen/e en/re l( @*e llama G*ni7er!alidad e!/ /icaG 8 la G7alideD (3Be/i7aG @*e c(rre!&(nde a n*e!/r(! B*ici(! lgic(! 8 cien/2Cic(!; #.1 En n*e!/r(! B*ici(! e!/ /ic(!" !(!/iene" n( n(! Aallam(! inO /ere!ad(! c(n el (3Be/( en c*an/( /al !in( c(n la &*ra c(n/em&lacin del mi!m(; La *ni7er!alidad e!/ /ica !igniCica @*e el &redicad( de 3elleDa n( e!/F re!/ringid( a *n !*Be/( e!&ecial !in( @*e !e e>/iende a /(d( el cam&( de l(! !*Be/(! B*Dgad(re!; Si la (3ra de ar/e n( C*era mF! @*e el ca&ricA( 8 la l(c*ra de *n ar/i!/a" n( &(!eer2a c(m*nica3ilidad *ni7er!al; La imaginacin del ar/i!/a n( in7en/a ar3i/rariamen/e la! C(rma! de la! c(!a!; N(! m*e!/ra e!/a! C(rma! en !* 7erdadera Cig*ra" Aaci nd(la! 7i!i3le! 8 rec(gn(!ci3le!; E!c(ge *n de/erminad( a!&ec/( de la realidad" &er( e!/e &r(ce!( de !eleccin e!" al mi!m( /iem&(" de (3Be/i7acin; Una 7eD @*e Aem(! en/rad( en !* &er!&ec/i7a" n(! 7em(! (3ligad(! a mirar el m*nd( c(n !*! (B(!; Parece c(m( !i BamF! A*3i ram(! 7i!/( el m*nd( c(n e!/a l*D &ec*liar 8" !in em3arg(" e!/am(! c(n7encid(! de @*e e!/a l*D e! alg( mF! @*e *na 7i!l*m3re m(men/FneaM &(r 7ir/*d de la (3ra de ar/e !e Aa c(n7er/id( en d*radera 8 &ermanen/e; Una 7eD @*e la realidad n(! Aa !id( re7elada en e!/a C(rma &ar/ic*lar" !eg*im(! 7i nd(la en /al C(rma; E! diC2cil" &(r l( /an/(" man/ener *na di!/incin ne/a en/re la! ar/e! (3Be/i7a! 8 la! !*3Be/i7a!" en/re la! re&re!en/a/i7a! 8 e>&re!i7a!; L(! Cri!(! del Par/enn ( *na mi!a de LacA" la mad(na de la Si>/ina de Mig*el ngel ( *n &(ema de Le(&ardi" *na !(na/a de Lee/A(7en ( *na n(7ela de D(!/(ie7!{i n( !(n ni &*ramen/e re&re!en/a/i7(! ni meramen/e e>&re!i7(!; S(n !im3lic(!" en *n !en/id( n*e7( 8 mF! &r(C*nd(; La! (3ra! de l(! grande! &(e/a! l2ric(! H*n G(e/Ae" *n :lderlin" *n K(rd!9(r/A" *n SAelle8H n( n(! (Crecen dis=ecta mem!ra poetae/ Cragmen/(! di!&er!(! e inc(Aeren/e! de la 7ida del &(e/a; N( !(n" !encillamen/e" *n 3r(/e m(men/Fne( de *n !en/imien/( a&a!i(nad( !in( @*e re7elan *na *nidad 8 c(n/in*idad &r(C*nda!; P(r (/ra &ar/e" l(! grande! e!cri/(re! /rFgic(! 8 cmic(! HE*r2&ide! 8 SAa{e!&eare" Cer7an/e! 8 M(liyreH n( n(! en/re/ienen c(n e!cena! de!gaBada! del e!&ec/Fc*l( de la 7idaM en !2 mi!ma! e!/a! e!cena! n( !(n mF! @*e !(m3ra! C*gi/i7a!; Per( Ae a@*2 @*e" de &r(n/(" c(menDam(! a 7er /ra! e!a! !(m3ra! 8 a encararn(! c(n *na n*e7a realidad; A /ra7 ! de !*! carac/ere! 8 de !*! acci(ne! el &(e/a cmic( 8 el /rFgic( n(! re7elan !* 7i!in de la 7ida A*mana en c(nB*n/(" !* grandeDa 8 Cla@*eDa" !* !*3limidad 8 l( @*e /iene de gr(/e!c(; El ar/e He!cri3e G(e/AeH n( de3e /ra/ar de em*lar a la na/*raleDa en !* am&li/*d 8 &r(C*ndidad; Se ci'e a la !*&erCicie de l(! Cenmen(! na/*rale! &er( &(!ee !* &r(&ia A(nd*ra" !* &r(&i( &(derM cri!/aliDa l(! m(men/(! mF! al/(! de e!/(! Cenmen(! !*&erCiciale! rec(n(ciend( en ell(! el carFc/er de legalidad" la &erCeccin de la &r(&(rcin armnica" el F&ice de la 3elleDa" la dignidad de l( !igniCica/i7(" la al/*ra de la &a!in; +GN(/a! &ara *na /rad*ccin de Dider(/G" Essai sur la peinture/ en Wer3e/ XL_" ?-N;,
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En la /ermin(l(g2a {an/iana la &rimera e! llamada GemeingKltig3eit/ mien/ra! @*e la !eg*nda AllgemeingKltig3eitI *na di!/incin @*e e! diC2cil de ada&/ar a l(! / rmin(! e!&a'(le! c(rre!&(ndien/e!; |Aca!( -alideD com4n/ 7alideD &ara /(d(!" 8 -alideD uni-ersal/ a3!(l*/a;} Para *na in/er&re/acin !i!/emF/ica de l(! d(! / rmin(! 7 a!e :; K; Ca!!irer" A 6ommentary on <ant+s 6riti;ue of [udgment +L(ndre!" #$.1," &&; #$N !!;

E!/a CiBacin de l(! m(men/(! mF! al/(! de l(! Cenmen(! n( e! *na imi/acin de c(!a! C2!ica! 8 /am&(c( *n reD*mar de !en/imien/(! &(der(!(!" !in( *na in/erO &re/acin de la realidad" &er( n( a /ra7 ! de c(nce&/(! !in( de in/*ici(ne!M n( a /ra7 ! del medi( del &en!amien/( !in( de la! C(rma! !en!i3le!; De!de Pla/n Aa!/a T(l!/(i !e Aa ac*!ad( al ar/e de e>ci/ar n*e!/ra! em(ci(ne! 8 de &er/*r3ar a!2 el (rden 8 la arm(n2a de n*e!/ra 7ida m(ral; La imaginacin &( /ica" !egEn Pla/n" riega n*e!/ra e>&eriencia de &lacer 8 de clera" de de!e( 8 de &ena 8 l(! Aace &r(!&erarM c*and( l( @*e c(n7en2a era @*e !e marcAi/aran en !e@*edad; #.$ T(l!/(i 7e en el ar/e *n C(c( de inCeccin; GLa inCeccin n( !l( e! *n !ign( del ar/e !in( @*e el grad( de inCeccin e!" /am3i n" la Enica medida de e>celencia en el ar/eG; La Calla de e!/a /e(r2a e! &a/en/eM T(l!/(i !*&rime *n Cac/(r C*ndamen/al del ar/e" el Cac/(r de la C(rma; La e>&eriencia e!/ /ica H la e>&eriencia de la c(n/em&lacinH e! *n e!/ad( &!2@*ic( diCeren/e de la Crialdad de n*e!/r( B*ici( /eric( 8 del &r(!a2!m( de n*e!/r( B*ici( m(ral; Se Aalla c(lmada de la! mF! 7i7a! energ2a! de la &a!in" &er( la &a!in !e enc*en/ra /ran!C(rmada en c*an/( a !* na/*raleDa 8 a !* !en/id(; K(rd!9(r/A deCine la &(e!2a c(m( Gem(cin remem(rada en re&(!(G; Per( el re&(!( ( !(!ieg( @*e !en/im(! c(n la &(e!2a grande n( e! el del rec*erd(; La! em(ci(ne! de!&er/ada! &(r el &(e/a n( &er/enecen a *n rem(/( &a!ad(" e!/Fn a@*2" 7i7a! e inmedia/a!; N(! dam(! c*en/a de /(da !* C*erDa" &er( e!/a C*erDa /iende Aacia *na n*e7a direccin; E!" mF! 3ien" 7i!/a @*e inmedia/amen/e !en/ida; N*e!/ra! &a!i(ne! 8a n( !(n &(dere! (!c*r(! e im&ene/ra3le!" !e Aacen" c(m( !i diB ram(!" /ran!&aren/e!; SAa{e!&eare n*nca n(! (Crece *na /e(r2a e!/ /icaM n( e!&ec*la acerca de la na/*raleDa del ar/e; Sin em3arg(" en el Enic( &a!aBe en el @*e Aa3la del carFc/er 8 la C*ncin del ar/e dramF/ic( /(d( el acen/( !e &(ne en e!/e &*n/(; GLa Cinalidad de la c(media H e>&lica :amle/H" l( mi!m( en *n &rinci&i( @*e aA(ra" C*e 8 e!" c(m( !i diB ram(!" &(ner el e!&eB( an/e la na/*raleDaM m(!/rar a la 7ir/*d !* &r(&i( carFc/er" al e!carni( !* &r(&ia imagen 8 a la &(ca 8 al c*er&( del /iem&( !* C(rma 8 c(n!i!/encia;G Per( la imagen de *na &a!in n( e! la &a!in mi!ma; El &(e/a @*e re&re!en/a *na &a!in n( n(! inCec/a c(n ella; En l(! drama! de SAa{e!&eare n( !(m(! inCec/ad(! &(r la am3icin de Mac3e/A" &(r la cr*eldad de Ricard( III ( &(r l(! cel(! de O/el(M n( e!/am(! a la merced de e!/a! em(ci(ne!M miram(! a /ra7 ! de ella! 8 /ra/am(! de &ene/rar en !* 7erdadera na/*raleDa 8 e!encia; En e!/e !en/id( la /e(r2a de SAa{e!&eare !(3re el ar/e dramF/ic(" !i e! @*e /iene *na /e(r2a" !e Aalla de c(m&le/( ac*erd( c(n la c(nce&cin de la! 3ella! ar/e! de l(! grande! &in/(re! 8 e!c*l/(re! del Renacimien/(; :*3iera !*!cri/( la! &ala3ra! de Le(nard( de _inci c*and( dice @*e el saper -edere e! el d(n !*&rem( del ar/i!/a; L(! grande! &in/(re! n(! m*e!/ran la! C(rma! de la! c(!a! e>/eri(re!M l(! grande! drama/*rg(! la! de n*e!/ra 7ida in/eri(r; El ar/e dramF/ic( de!c*3re *na n*e7a ancA*ra 8 &r(C*ndidad de la 7ida; N(! !*mini!/ra *na &erca/acin de c(!a! 8 de!/in(! A*man(!" de grandeDa 8 mi!eria en c(m&aracin c(n la! c*ale! n*e!/ra e>i!/encia c(rrien/e &arece &(3re 8 /ri7ial; T(d(! !en/im(!" de *na manera 7aga 8 /en*e" la! inCini/a! &(/encialidade! de la 7ida @*e ag*ardan !ilenci(!a! el m(men/( en @*e Aan de !er
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Pla/n" )ep4!lica/ -NND;

de!&er/ada! de !* !(mn(lencia a la l*D clara e in/en!a de la c(nciencia; N( e! el grad( de inCeccin !in( el de in/en!idad e il*minacin l( @*e mide la e>celencia del ar/e; Si ace&/am(! e!/a idea &(drem(! c(m&render meB(r *n &r(3lema c(n @*e /r(&eDam(! en la /e(r2a ari!/(/ lica de la ca/ar!i!; N( e! nece!ari( a3(rdar /(da! la! diCic*l/ade! del / rmin( ari!/(/ lic( ni l(! inn*mera3le! e!C*erD(! de l(! c(men/ari!/a! &ara aclararla!; #%N L( @*e &arece diFCan( 8 admi/id( generalmen/e en la ac/*alidad e! @*e el &r(ce!( ca/Fr/ic( de!cri/( &(r Ari!//ele! n( !igniCica *na &*riCicacin ( cam3i( en el carFc/er 8 c*alidad de la! &a!i(ne! mi!ma! !in( en el alma A*mana; C(n la &(e!2a /rFgica el alma ad@*iere *na n*e7a ac/i/*d Cren/e a !*! em(ci(ne!" e>&erimen/a c(m&a!in 8 /em(r &er(" en l*gar de !er &er/*r3ada 8 de!aD(nada" e! c(nd*cida a *n e!/ad( de !(!ieg( 8 de &aD; A &rimera 7i!/a" &arece c(n/radic/(ri(" &(r@*e l( @*e Ari!//ele! c(n!idera c(m( eCec/( de la /ragedia e! *na !2n/e!i! de d(! Cac/(re! @*e" en la 7ida real" en n*e!/ra e>i!/encia &rFc/ica" !e e>cl*8en en/re !2; Se &ien!a @*e la mF>ima in/en!iCicacin de n*e!/ra 7ida em(/i7a n(! &r(&(rci(na" al mi!m( /iem&(" *n !en/id( de !(!ieg(; _i7im(! a /ra7 ! de n*e!/ra! &a!i(ne! !in/iend( /(d( !* rang( 8 !* mF>ima /en!in" &er( en c*an/( &a!am(! el *m3ral del ar/e deBam(! de/rF! de n(!(/r(! la F!&era *rgencia" la c(m&*l!in de n*e!/ra! em(ci(ne!; El &(e/a /rFgic( n( e! el e!cla7( !in( el d*e'( de !*! em(ci(ne! 8 e! ca&aD de c(m*nicar e!/a mae!/r2a a l(! e!&ec/ad(re!; En !* (3ra n( !(m(! arre3a/ad(! &(r n*e!/ra! em(ci(ne!; La li3er/ad e!/ /ica n( e! la a*!encia de la! &a!i(ne!" n( e! la a&a/2a e!/(ica !in( /(d( l( c(n/rari(; SigniCica @*e n*e!/ra 7ida em(/i7a ad@*iere !* 7ig(r mF>im( 8 @*e en e!/e 7ig(r cam3ia de C(rma" ( @*e 8a n( 7i7im(! en la realidad inmedia/a de la! c(!a! !in( en *n m*nd( de &*ra! C(rma! !en!i3le!; En e!/e m*nd( /(d(! n*e!/r(! !en/imien/(! e>&erimen/an *na e!&ecie de /ran!*!/anciacin c(n re!&ec/( a !* e!encia 8 a !* carFc/er; La! &a!i(ne! !(n li3erada! de !* carga ma/erial" !en/im(! !* C(rma 8 !* 7ida &er( n( !* &e!ad*m3re; La calma de la (3ra de ar/e e!" &aradBicamen/e" *na calma dinFmica 8 n( e!/F/icaM el ar/e n(! (Crece l(! m(7imien/(! del alma A*mana en /(da !* &r(C*ndidad 8 7ariedad; La C(rma" la medida 8 el ri/m( de e!/a! em(ci(ne! n( !e &*eden c(m&arar c(n ningEn e!/ad( em(/i7( en &ar/ic*lar; N( !en/im(! en el ar/e *na c*alidad em(/i7a !im&le ( !ing*lar; E! el &r(ce!( dinFmic( de la 7ida mi!ma" la (!cilacin c(n!/an/e en/re &(l(! (&*e!/(!" en/re &ena 8 alegr2a" e!&eranDa 8 /em(r" e>al/acin 8 de!e!&eracin; D(/ar de C(rma e!/ /ica a n*e!/ra! &a!i(ne! !igniCica /ran!C(rmarla! en *n e!/ad( li3re 8 ac/i7(; En la (3ra del ar/i!/a el &(der mi!m( de la &a!in !e Aa c(n7er/id( en &la!mad(r; P*ede (3Be/ar!e @*e /(d( e!/( !e a&lica al ar/i!/a &er( n( a n(!(/r(!" l(! e!&ec/ad(re! 8 (8en/e!" &er( /al re&ar( !igniCicar2a *na inc(m&ren!in del &r(ce!( ar/2!/ic(; L( mi!m( @*e el &r(ce!( del leng*aBe" el &r(ce!( ar/2!/ic( e! dialgic( 8 dial c/ic(; N( !e a3and(na al e!&ec/ad(r a *n &a&el &*ramen/e &a!i7(; N( &(dem(! c(m&render *na (3ra de ar/e !in" en cier/( grad(" re&e/ir 8 rec(n!/r*ir el &r(ce!(
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Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e Ia{(3 Lerna8!" QBei A!handCtungen K!er die aristotelische >heorie des 1ramas +Lerl2n" #11N, e Ingram L89a/er" Aristotle on the Art of 5oetry +O>C(rd" #$N$," &&; #)? ss.

cread(r @*e le Aa dad( 7ida; P(r la na/*raleDa de e!/e &r(ce!( la! &a!i(ne! !e /ran!C(rman en acci(ne!; Si en la 7ida real /*7i ram(! @*e !(&(r/ar /(da! la! em(ci(ne! @*e 7i7im(! en el Edipo de SC(cle! ( en el )ey &ear de SAa{e!&eare" diC2cilmen/e &(dr2am(! !(3re7i7ir al cA(@*e 8 a la /en!in; El ar/e /ran!C(rma e!/(! d(l(re! 8 da'(!" e!/a! cr*eldade! 8 a/r(cidade! en medi(! de a*/(li3eracin" &r(&(rci(nFnd(n(! a!2 *na li3er/ad in/eri(r @*e n( &*ede !er alcanDada &(r ning*na (/ra 72a; P(r c(n!ig*ien/e" el in/en/( de carac/eriDar *na (3ra de ar/e &(r algEn ra!g( em(/i7( &ar/ic*lar Aa de !er ine7i/a3lemen/e inB*!/( c(n ella; Si el ar/e /ra/a de e>&re!ar" n( *n e!/ad( e!&ecial !in( el 7erdader( &r(ce!( dinFmic( de n*e!/ra 7ida in/eri(r" !emeBan/e c*aliCicacin diC2cilmen/e deBarF de !er Cragmen/aria 8 !*&erCicial; El ar/e n(! de3e &r(&(rci(nar !iem&re Gm(cinG meB(r @*e Gem(cinG; :a!/a e!a di!/incin en/re ar/e /rFgic( 8 cmic( /iene mF! de c(n7enci(nal @*e de nece!aria; Se reCiere al c(n/enid( 8 a l(! m( /i7(! &er( n( a la C(rma 8 a la e!encia; Pla/n neg la e>i!/encia de e!/a! Cr(n/era! ar/iCiciale! 8 /radici(nale!; Al Cinal del (an;uete n(! &re!en/a a Scra/e! c(n7er!and( c(n Aga/n" el &(e/a /rFgic( 8 c(n Ari!/Cane!" el &(e/a cmic(; Scra/e! (3liga a l(! d(! &(e/a! a rec(n(cer @*e el /rFgic( 7erdader( e! el 7erdader( ar/i!/a en la c(media 8 7ice7er!a; #%# Un c(men/ari( de e!/e &a!aBe /enem(! en el ile!oI en la c(media" l( mi!m( @*e en la /ragedia H!(!/iene Pla/n en e!/e diFl(g(H" e>&eO rimen/am(! !iem&re *n !en/imien/( mi>/( de agrad( 8 de &ena; El &(e/a !ig*e la! le8e! de la na/*raleDa mi!ma" &*e!/( @*e re/ra/a la c(media 8 /ragedia de la 7ida;#%? En /(d( gran &(ema Hen l(! drama! de SAa{e!&eare" en la 1i-ina comedia y en el austoH" &a!am(! a /ra7 ! de /(d( el B*eg( de em(ci(ne! A*mana!; Si C* ram(! inca&ace! de ca&/ar l(! ma/ice! mF! delicad(! de la! di7er!a! 7ariedade! del !en/imien/(" inca&ace! de !eg*ir la! 7ariaci(ne! c(n/in*a! de ri/m( 8 de /(n(" !i n( C* ram(! c(nm(7id(! &(r cam3i(! dinFmic(! re&en/in(!" n( &(dr2am(! c(m&render ni !en/ir *na creacin &( /ica; E! &(!i3le Aa3lar del /em&eramen/( indi7id*al del ar/i!/a" &er( la (3ra de ar/e" c(m( /al" n( /iene ningEn /em&eramen/(M n( &(dem(! !*3!*mirla 3aB( ningEn c(nce&/( &!ic(lgic( gen ric( /radici(nal; :a3lar de la mE!ica de M(Dar/ c(m( alegre" de la de Lee/A(7en c(m( gra7e" !(m3r2a ( !*3lime re7elar2a *n g*!/( &(c( &ene/ran/e; Tam3i n en e!/e ca!( la di!/incin en/re /ragedia 8 c(media re!*l/a in!igniCican/e; La c*e!/in de !i el 1on [uan de M(Dar/ e! *na /ragedia ( *na &era 3*Ca a&ena! !i merece re!&*e!/a; La c(m&(!icin de Lee/A(7en 3a!ada en el Himno a la alegra de ScAiller e>&re!a el grad( ma8(r de B(c*ndia" &er( c*and( la e!/am(! e!c*cAand( n( (l7idam(! &(r *n m(men/( l(! /rFgic(! acen/(! de la Fo-ena %infona. E!/(! c(n/ra!/e! de3en e!/ar &re!en/e! 8 !er !en/id(! c(n /(da !* C*erDa; N*e!/ra e>&eriencia e!/ /ica !e C*nde en *n /(d( indi7i!i3le; L( @*e e!c*cAam(! e! la e!cala de la! em(ci(ne! A*mana! de!de la n(/a mF! 3aBa Aa!/a la mF! al/aM e! la m(cin 8 c(nm(cin de /(d( n*e!/r( !er; Tam&(c( l(! grande! c(medigraC(! n(! &*eden (Crecer *na 3elleDa ligera; S* (3ra !e Aalla" a men*d("
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Pla/n" %ymposium. 5hile!us.

im&regnada de *na gran amarg*ra; Ari!/Cane! e! *n( de l(! cr2/ic(! mF! ag*d(! 8 d*r(! de la na/*raleDa A*manaM M(liere n*nca e! mF! grande @*e en el Mis7ntropo ( en >artufo. Sin em3arg(" la amarg*ra de l(! grande! e!cri/(re! cmic(! n( e! la alacridad del !a/2ric( ( la !e7eridad del m(rali!/a; N( n(! c(nd*ce a *n 7eredic/( m(ral !(3re la na/*raleDa A*mana; El ar/e cmic( &(!ee en el mF! al/( grad( la Cac*l/ad" c(mEn a /(d( el ar/e" de la 7i!in !im&F/ica; En 7ir/*d de e!/a Cac*l/ad &*ede ace&/ar la 7ida A*mana c(n !*! deCec/(! 8 de3ilidade!" c(n !*! l(c*ra! 8 7ici(!; El gran ar/e cmic( Aa !id( !iem&re *na e!&ecie de encomium moriae/ *n el(gi( de la l(c*ra; En la &er!&ec/i7a cmica /(da! la! c(!a! c(mienDan a (Crecer *na CaD n*e7a; Aca!( n*nca e!/em(! /an cerca de n*e!/r( m*nd( A*man( c(m( en la! (3ra! de l(! grande! e!cri/(re! cmic(! Hen el 1on #ui=ote de Cer7an/e!" en el >ristram %handy de S/erne ( en l(! 5apeles de Mister 5ic3Bic3 de Dic{en!; N(! &erca/am(! de l(! de/alle! mF! min*ci(!(!M 7em(! e!/e m*nd( en /(da !* e!/recAeD" en /(da !* meD@*indad 8 en /(da !* necedad; _i7im(! en e!/e m*nd( ang(!/( &er( 8a n( e!/am(! a&ri!i(nad(! &(r l; Tal e! el carFc/er &ec*liar de la ca/ar!i! cmica; La! c(!a! 8 l(! !*ce!(! em&ieDan a &erder !* &e!( na/*ralM el de!d n !e di!*el7e en ri!a 8 la ri!a e! *na li3eracin; E!/a 3elleDa n( e! *na &r(&iedad inmedia/a de la! c(!a! 8 el AecA( de @*e im&lica nece!ariamen/e *na relacin c(n el e!&2ri/* A*man( e! &*n/( en el @*e &areO cen c(incidir ca!i /(da! la! /e(r2a! e!/ /ica!; En !* en!a8( !(3re el standard of taste H&a/rn del g*!/(H n(! dice :*me4 GLa 3elleDa n( e! *na c*alidad de la! c(!a! mi!ma!M e>i!/e Enicamen/e en el e!&2ri/* @*e la! c(n/em&laG; E!/a aCirmacin e! am3ig*a; Si en/endem(! e!&2ri/* en el !en/id( &r(&i( de :*me 8 n(! Cig*ram(! el 8( c(m( *n mer( AaD de im&re!i(ne!" !erF diC2cil enc(n/rar en !emeBan/e AaD el &redicad( @*e de!ignam(! c(m( 3elleDa; b!/a n( &*ede !er deCinida &(r !* mer( percipi/ c(m( G!er &erci3id(GM /iene @*e deCinir!e en / rmin(! de *na ac/i7idad del e!&2ri/*" de la C*ncin de &erci3ir 8 &(r *na direccin carac/er2!/ica de e!/a C*ncin; N( c(n!i!/e en &erce&/(! &a!i7(!M e! *n m(d(" *n &r(ce!( de &erce&/*aliDacin; Per( e!/e &r(ce!( n( e! meramen/e de carFc/er !*3Be/i7(M &(r el c(n/rari(" c(n!/i/*8e *na de la! c(ndici(ne! de n*e!/ra 7i!in de *n m*nd( (3Be/i7(; El (B( ar/2!/ic( n( e! *n (B( &a!i7( @*e reci3e 8 regi!/ra la im&re!in de la! c(!a!M e! c(n!/r*c/i7(" 8 Enicamen/e median/e ac/(! c(n!/r*c/i7(! &(dem(! de!c*3rir la 3elleDa de la! c(!a! na/*rale!; El G!en/id( de la 3elleDaG e! la !*!ce&/i3ilidad &ara la 7ida dinFmica de la! C(rma! 8 e!/a 7ida n( &*ede !er a&reAendida !in( &(r el c(rre!&(ndien/e &r(ce!( dinFmic( en n(!(/r(!; En realidad" e!/a &(laridad @*e" c(m( Aem(! 7i!/(" e! *na c(ndicin inAeren/e a la 3elleDa" Aa c(nd*cid( en la! di7er!a! /e(r2a! e!/ /ica! a in/er&re/aci(ne! diaO me/ralmen/e (&*e!/a!; SegEn Al3er/( D*rer( el 7erdader( d(n del ar/i!/a c(n!i!/e en Ge>/raerG 3elleDa de la na/*raleDa; GP*e! 7erdaderamen/e el ar/e e!/F en la naO /*raleDa 8 @*ien l( &*ede e>/raer" !e l( /ieneG; #%. P(r (/ra &ar/e" enc(n/ram(! /e(r2a! e!&iri/*ali!/a! @*e niegan /(da c(ne>in en/re la 3elleDa del ar/e 8 la llamada 3elleDa de la na/*raleDa; La G3elleDa de la na/*raleDaG !e en/iende
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or art standeth firmly fixed in Fature`and Bho can rend her fr(m thence/ he only possesseth her. _ a!e Killiam M; C(n9a8" &iterary )emains of Al!recht 1Krer +#11$," &; #1?;

Enicamen/e c(m( *na me/FC(ra; Cr(ce n(! dice @*e n( e! mF! @*e re/rica e!( de Aa3lar de *na ri3era ( de *n Fr3(l 3ell(!; Para l" la na/*raleDa e! e!/E&ida !i !e la c(m&ara c(n el ar/eM e! m*da !i el A(m3re n( la Aace Aa3lar; Se &*ede re!(l7er aca!( la c(n/radiccin en/re e!/a! c(nce&ci(ne! di!/ing*iend( ag*damen/e en/re G3elleDa (rgFnicaG 8 G3elleDa e!/ /icaG; E>i!/en di7er!a! 3elleDa! na/*rale! @*e n( /ienen *n carFc/er e!&ec2Cicamen/e e!/ /ic(; La 3elleDa (rgFnica de *n &ai!aBe n( e! la mi!ma @*e la 3elleDa e!/ /ica @*e !en/im(! an/e la! (3ra! de *n gran &ai!aBi!/a" 8 &reci!amen/e n(!(/r(!" l(! e!&ec/ad(re!" n(! dam(! &erCec/a c*en/a de e!a diCerencia; P*ed( &a!earme &(r *na c(marca 8 !en/ir !*! encan/(!M &*ed( g(Dar de la d*lD*ra de !*! aire!" de la Cre!c*ra de !*! ag*a!" de la 7ariedad 8 alegr2a de !*! c(l(re! 8 de la! Cragancia! de !*! Cl(re!; Per( &*ed( e>&erimen/ar *n !E3i/( cam3i( en mi e!/ad( de e!&2ri/*; C(mienD( a 7er el &ai!aBe c(n (B(! de ar/i!/a" c(mienD( a C(rmar *na &in/*ra; :e en/rad( en *n n*e7( rein(" en el rein( de la! GC(rma!G 7i7a!" n( de la! Gc(!a!G 7i7a!; 6a n( 7i7( en la realiO dad inmedia/a de la! c(!a! !in( en el ri/m( de la! C(rma! e!&aciale!" en la arm(n2a 8 c(n/ra!/e de l(! c(l(re!" en el e@*ili3ri( de l*D 8 de !(m3ra!; La e>&eriencia e!/ /ica c(n!i!/e en e!/a a3!(rcin &(r el a!&ec/( dinF mic( de la! C(rma!; ? La! c(n/r(7er!ia! en/re la! di7er!a! e!c*ela! e!/ /ica! !e &*eden red*cir" en cier/( !en/id(" a *n !(l( &*n/(; L( @*e /(da! n( &*eden men(! de rec(n(cer e! @*e el ar/e c(n!/i/*8e *n G*ni7er!( de di!c*r!(G inde&endien/e; :a!/a l(! mF! radicale! deCen!(re! de *n reali!m( e!/ric/(" @*e &re/enden limi/ar el ar/e a *na C*ncin mim /ica" admi/en el &(der e!&ec2Cic( de la imaginacin ar/2!/icaM &er( la! di7er!a! e!c*ela! diCieren en c*an/( a 7al(racin; La! /e(r2a! clF!ica! 8 ne(clF!ica! n( e!/im*lan el B*eg( li3re de la imaginacin; SegEn !* &*n/( de 7i!/a" la imaginacin del ar/i!/a e! *n gran d(n" &er( mF! 3ien e@*27(c(; El mi!m( L(ilea* n( nega3a @*e" &!ic(lgicamen/e Aa3land(" el d(n de la imaginacin C*era indi!&en!a3le &ara /(d( 7erdader( &(e/a" &er( !i el &(e/a !e a3and(na al mer( B*eg( de e!/e im&*l!( general" de e!/e &(der in!/in/i7(" n*nca l(grarF la &erCeccin; La imaginacin del &(e/a de3e !er g*iada 8 7igilada &(r la raDn 8 !(me/ida a !*! regla!; C*and( el &(e/a !e de!72a de l( na/*ral" /am O 3i n de3e re!&e/ar la! le8e! de la raDn 8 !/a! le c(n Cinan al cam&( de l( &r(3a3le; El cla!ici!m( Cranc ! deCine e!/e cam&( en / rmin(! &*ramen/e (3Be/i7(!; La! *nidade! grama/icale! de e!&aci( 8 /iem&( !e c(n7ier/en en AecA(! C2!ic(! men!*ra3le! &(r *n &a/rn lineal ( &(r *n rel(B; La /e(r2a r(mFn/ica del ar/e in/r(d*B( *na c(nce&cin c(m&le/amen/e diCeren/e del carFc/er 8 C*ncin de la imaginacin &( /ica; E!/a /e(r2a n( e! la (3ra de la llamada e!c*ela r(mFn/ica alemana; :a !id( de!arr(llada m*cA( an/e! 8 c(menD a de!em&e'ar *n &a&el deci!i7( d*ran/e el !igl( X_III en la li/era/*ra Crance!a 8 en la ingle!a; Una de !*! e>&re!i(ne! meB(re! 8 mF! c(nci!a! la enc(n/ram(! en la! 6on=eturas so!re la composicin original de Ed*ard( 6(*ng +#5)$,; GLa &l*ma de *n e!cri/(r (riginal Hdice 6(*ngH" ig*al @*e la 7ari/a de Armida" !aca de *n 8erm( e!/ ril *na Cl(rida &rima7era;G De!de e!/e m(men/(" la idea clF!ica de l( &r(3a3le

C*e !*!/i/*ida" cada 7eD mF!" &(r !* c(n/raria; Se cree @*e l( mara7ill(!( 8 &r(digi(!( !(n l(! Enic(! /ema! @*e &ermi/en *n 7erdader( /ra/amien/( &( /ic(; P(dem(! rec(rrer &a!( a &a!( el de!arr(ll( de e!/e n*e7( ideal en la e!/ /ica del !igl( X_III; L(! cr2/ic(! !*iD(! L(dmer 8 Lrei/inger a&elan a Mil/(n &ara B*!/iCicar l( G&r(digi(!( en la &(e!2aG;#%% L( mara7ill(!( &red(mina &(c( a &(c( 8 ecli&!a a l( &r(3a3le c(m( /ema li/erari(; La n*e7a /e(r2a &arec2a c(m( encarnada en la! (3ra! de l(! ma8(re! &(e/a!; El mi!m( SAa{e!&eare 0%ueao de una noche de -erano/ ac/( _" e!c; #, la Aa il*!/rad( c(n !* de!cri&cin de la imaginacin del &(e/a4 El lun7tico/ el amante y el poeta est7n hechos de fantasaA uno -e m7s demonios ;ue puede contener el ancho Pinfierno/ ste es el locoI el amante/ frentico/ -e las !elleDas de Elena en una frente egipciaI la mirada del poeta/ ;ue se mue-e con una fina Plocura/ -a del cielo a la tierra/ de la tierra al cieloI y como la imaginacin encarna las formas de desconocidas cosas/ la pluma del poeta las con-ierte en figuras y a naderas de aire da morada y nom!re. Sin em3arg(" la c(nce&cin r(mFn/ica de la &(e!2a n( enc*en/ra *na 3a!e !lida en SAa{e!&eare; Si /enern(! nece!idad de *na &r*e3a de @*e el m*nd( del ar/i!/a n( e! *n *ni7er!( meramen/e Can/F!/ic( n( enc(n/rarem(! /e!/im(ni( meB(r ni mF! clF!ic( @*e el de SAa{e!&eare; La l*D c(n la @*e 7e la na/*raleDa 8 la 7ida A*mana n( e! *na &*ra l*D Can/F!/ica encendida en la Can/a!2a; Per( e>i!/e /am3i n (/ra C(rma de imaginacin c(n la @*e la &(e!2a &arece e!/ar en c(ne>in indi!(l*3le; C*and( _ic( e!3(D !* &rimer en!a8( !i!/emF/ic( &ara crear *na lgica de la imaginacin !e 7(l7i al m*nd( del mi/(; N(! Aa3la de /re! edade! diCeren/e!4 la edad de l(! di(!e!" la edad de l(! A r(e! 8 la edad del A(m3re; Tenem(! @*e 3*!car el (rigen 7erdader( de la &(e!2a en la! d(! &rimera! edade!; La A*manidad n( &*d( c(menDar c(n el &en!amien/( a3!/rac/( ( c(n *n leng*aBe raci(nalM /*7( @*e &a!ar &(r la edad del leng*aBe !im3lic(" del mi/( 8 de la &(e!2a; L(! &*e3l(! &rimi/i7(! n( &en!a3an en c(nce&/(! !in( en imFgene! &( /ica!M Aa3la3an Ca3*land( 8 e!cri32an Ber(gl2Cic(!; El &(e/a 8 el mi/(&(e/a &arecen 7i7ir en el mi!m( *ni7er!(" !e Aallan d(/ad(! del mi!m( &(der C*ndamen/al" el &(der de la &er!(niCicacin" n( &*eden c(n/em&lar ningEn (3Be/( !in &re!/arle *na 7ida in/eri(r 8 *na C(rma &er!(nal; El &(e/a m(dern( 7*el7e a men*d( !* mirada a la! edade! m2/ica!" a la edad di7ina ( la Aer(ica" c(m( a *n &ara2!( &erdid(; En !* &(ema &os dioses de Grecia e>&re!a ScAiller e!/e !en/imien/(M &re/ende e7(car l(! /iem&(! de l(! &(e/a! grieg(! &ara l(! @*e el mi/( n( era *na aleg(r2a 7ac2a !in( *n &(der 7i7(; L(! &(e/a! anAelan e!/a edad d(rada de la &(e!2a en la c*al /(da! la! c(!a! e!/a3an llena! de di(!e!" /(da c(lina era la m(rada de *na ninCa 8 cada Fr3(l la Aa3i/acin de *na dr2ade;
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CC; L(dmer 8 Lrei/inger" 1is3urse der Maler +#5?#O?.,;

E!/a lamen/acin del &(e/a m(dern( &arece inC*ndada" &*e! *n( de l(! ma8(re! &ri7ilegi(! del ar/e e! @*e n*nca &*ede &erder e!/a edad di7ina; N*nca !e !ecan la! C*en/e! de la creacin Can/F!/ica" &(r@*e en ella !(n inde!/r*c/i3le! e inag(/a3le!; En cada edad 8 en cada gran ar/i!/a la (&eracin de la imaginacin rea&arece en C(rma! n*e7a! 8 c(n n*e7a C*erDa; En l(! &(e/a! l2ric(!" !(3re /(d(" !en/im(! e!/e renacimien/( 8 regeneracin c(n/in*(!; N( &*eden /(car *na c(!a !in in!*Clarle !* &r(&ia 7ida in/eri(r; K(rd!9(r/A 05reludio? Aa de!cri/( e!/e d(n c(m( el &(der &ec*liar de !* &(e!2a4 a toda forma natural/ rocas/ frutos o flores/ a las mismas piedras ;ue cu!ren el camino/ insufl una -ida moralA -i ;ue sentan/ o las inclin a alg4n sentimientoA la gran masa ;ueda !aaada en un alma -i-a y todo lo ;ue yo -eo respira con un sentido interior. Per( c(n /(d(! e!/(! &(dere! de in7encin 8 de animacin *ni7er!al n( n(! Aallam(! !in( en la an/e!ala del ar/e; El ar/i!/a n( !l( de3e !en/ir el !en/id( in/eri(r de la! c(!a! 8 !* 7ida m(ral !in( e>/eri(riDar !*! !en/imien/(!; La C*erDa ma8(r 8 mF! carac/er2!/ica de la imaginacin ar/2!/ica !e maniCie!/a en e!/e El/im( ac/(; La e>/eri(riDacin !igniCica *na encarnacin 7i!i3le ( /angi3le n( !l( en *n medi( ma/erial e!&ecial Hen 8e!(" 3r(nce ( mFrm(lH !in( en C(rma! !en!i3le!" en ri/m(!" en &a*/a! di3*Bada!" en l2nea! 8 Cig*ra!" en C(rma! &lF!/ica!; E!/a e!/r*c/*ra" el e@*ili3ri( 8 el (rden de e!/a! C(rma! e! l( @*e n(! aCec/a en la (3ra de ar/e; T(da (3ra /iene !* &r(&i( leng*aBe carac/er2!/ic(" @*e e! inc(nC*ndi3le e incam3ia3le; L(! leng*aBe! de la! di7er!a! ar/e! &*eden !er c(l(cad(! en c(ne>in c(m(" &(r eBem&l(" c*and( *n &(ema l2ric( e! &*e!/( en mE!ica ( c*and( !e il*!/ra *n &(emaM &er( n( &*eden !er /rad*cid(! *n( en (/r(; Cada leng*aBe /iene @*e c*m&lir *na mi!in e!&ecial en la ar@*i/ec/nica del ar/e; L(! &r(3lema! de la C(rma @*e !*rgen de e!/a e!/r*c/*ra ar@*i/ec/nica Hn(! dice Ad(lC :ilde3randH" a*n@*e n( n(! !(n dad(! de *n m(d( inmedia/( 8 e7iden/e &(r la na/*raleDa" c(n!/i/*8en" !in em3arg(" l(! 7erdader(! &r(3lema! del ar/e; El ma/erial ad@*irid( median/e *n e!/*di( direc/( de la na/*raleDa !e /ran!C(rma" &(r el &r(ce!( ar@*i/ec/nic(" en *na *nidad ar/2!/ica; C*and( Aa3lam(! del a!&ec/( imi/a/i7( del ar/e n(! e!/am(! reCiriend( al ma/erial @*e n( Aa !id( de!arr(llad( /(da72a de e!/a manera; Median/e el de!arr(ll( ar@*i/ec/nic( la e!c*l/*ra 8 la &in/*ra &a!an de la e!Cera del mer( na/*rali!m( al rein( del ar/e 7erdader(; +Da! 5ro!lem der orm in der !ildenden <unst/ &; #? de la /rad; ingle!a;, Tam3i n en la &(e!2a enc(n/ram(! e!/e de!arr(ll( ar@*i/ec/nic(M !in l" la imi/acin ( la in7encin &( /ica &erder2a !* C*erDa; L(! A(rr(re! del inCiern( de Dan/e !er2an A(rr(re! (&rimen/e!" l(! >/a!i! de !* &ara2!( !*e'(! 7i!i(nari(!" !i n( e!/*7ieran m(delad(! en *na n*e7a C(rma &(r la magia de la diccin 8 el 7er!( de Dan/e; En !* /e(r2a de la /ragedia !*3ra8a3a Ari!//ele! la in7encin de la /rama /rFgica; Pen!a3a @*e" en/re /(d(! l(! ingredien/e! nece!ari(! de la /ragedia He!&ec/Fc*l("

carac/ere!" CF3*la" diccin" mel(d2a 8 &en!amien/(!H la c(m3inacin de la! &eri&ecia! de la CF3*la h \[Y rgciXW\[Y VY\ckSn era l( mF! im&(r/an/e" &(r@*e la /ragedia e!" e!encialmen/e" n( *na imi/acin de &er!(na! !in( de la accin 8 de la 7ida; En *n drama l(! &er!(naBe! n( ac/Ean &ara re/ra/ar carac/ere! !in( @*e l(! carac/ere! !e re&re!en/an a l(! Cine! de la accin; E! im&(!i3le *na /ragedia !in accin" &er( &*ede Aa3er /ragedia !in carFc/er; #%) El cla!ici!m( Cranc ! ad(&/ 8 !*3ra8 e!/a /e(r2a ari!/(/ lica; C(rneille in!i!/e c(n!/an/emen/e !(3re e!/e &*n/( en l(! &reCaci(! de !*! (3ra!M Aa3la c(n (rg*ll( de !* /ragedia Heraclius &(r@*e en ella la /rama era /an c(m&licada @*e Aa32a mene!/er de *n e!C*erD( in/elec/*al e!&ecial &ara c(m&renderla 8 de!c*3rirla; E! clar(" !in em3arg(" @*e e!/e g ner( de ac/i7idad 8 de &lacer in/elec/*ale! n( c(n!/i/*8e *n elemen/( nece!ari( del &r(ce!( ar/2!/ic(; El g(ce de l(! arg*men/(! de SAa{e!&eare" el !eg*ir c(n el mF! 7i7( in/er ! la! di7er!a! &eri&ecia! de O/el(" Mac3e/A ( Lear" n( @*iere decir" nece!ariamen/e" @*e *n( c(m&renda 8 !ien/a el ar/e /rFgic( de SAa{e!&eare; Sin el leng*aBe de SAa{e!&eare" !in el &(der de !* diccin dramF/ica" /(d( e!/( deBar2a de im&re!i(narn(!; N( e! &(!i3le !e&arar el c(n/e>/( de *n &(ema de !* C(rma" del 7er!(" de la mel(d2a" del ri/m(; E!/(! elemen/(! C(rmale! n( !(n mer(! rec*r!(! e>/ern(! ( / cnic(! &ara re&r(d*cir *na in/*icin de/erminada !in( &ar/e in/egran/e de la in/*icin ar/2!/ica mi!ma; La /e(r2a de la imaginacin &( /ica alcanDa !* &*n/( c*lminan/e en el &en!amien/( r(mFn/ic(; N( e! 8a e!a e!&ecial ac/i7idad A*mana @*e c(n!/r*8e el m*nd( A*man( del ar/eM &(!ee aA(ra *n 7al(r me/aC2!ic( *ni7er!al; La imaginacin &( /ica e! la Enica cla7e de la realidad; El ideali!m( de FicA/e !e 3a!a en e!/a c(nce&cin de la imaginacin &r(d*c/(ra; ScAelling n(! dice en !* %istema de idealismo trascendental @*e el ar/e e! la c(n!*macin de la Cil(!(C2a; En la na/*raleDa" en la m(ral" en la Ai!/(ria !eg*im(! 7i7iend( en l(! &r(&ile(! de la !a3id*r2a Cil(!Cica mien/ra! @*e" c(n el ar/e" en/ram(! en el !an/*ari( mi!m(; L(! e!cri/(re! r(mFn/ic(!" /an/( en 7er!( c(m( en &r(!a" !e e>&re!ar(n en el mi!m( !en/id(M !e !in/i @*e la di!/incin en/re &(e!2a 8 Cil(!(C2a era 7ana 8 !*&erCicial; SegEn FriedricA ScAlegel" la mi!in !*&rema de *n &(e/a m(dern( c(n!i!/e en /ender Aacia *na n*e7a C(rma de &(e!2a @*e l de!cri3e c(m( G&(e!2a /ra!cenden/alG; NingEn (/r( g ner( &*ede &r(&(rci(narn(! la e!encia del e!&2ri/* &( /ic(" la G&(e!2a de la &(e!2aG; #%P(e/iDar la Cil(!(C2a 8 Cil(!(CiDar la &(e!2a" Ae a@*2 la me/a !*&rema de /(d(! le! &en!ad(re! r(mFn/ic(!; El 7erdader( &(ema n( e! la (3ra del ar/i!/a indi7id*al4 e! el *ni7er!( mi!m(" la (3ra Enica del ar/e @*e !e e!/F &erCecci(nand( c(n!/an/emen/e a !2 mi!ma; P(r e!/(" l(! mF! &r(C*nd(! mi!/eri(! de la! ar/e! 8 cien cia! &er/enecen a la &(e!2a; #%5 GP(e!2a Hdice N(7ali!H e! l( @*e e! a3!(l*/a 8 gen*inamen/e real; Tal e! el nEcle( de mi Cil(!(C2a; C*an/( mF! &( /ic(" /an/( mF! 7erdader(;G
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Ari!//ele!" op. cit./ #%)Na" 5O?); CC; ScAlegel" GA/Aen*m!Cragmen/eG" ?.1" en 5rosaische [ugendschriften/ ed; &(r I; Min(r +?a ed;" _iena" #$N-," II" ?%?; #%5 ScAlegel" GGe!&rcA J3er die P(e!ieG +#11N," op. cit./ II" .-%;

C(n e!/a c(nce&cin" la &(e!2a 8 el ar/e &arecen le7an/ar!e a *n rang( de dignidad @*e BamF! Aa32an g(Dad( an/e!M !e c(n7ir/ier(n en *n no-um organum &ara de!c*3rir la ri@*eDa 8 &r(C*ndidad del *ni7er!(; Sin em3arg(" e!/e enc(mi( e>*3eran/e 8 e>/F/ic( de la imaginacin &( /ica c*en/a c(n !*! limi/aci(ne! e!/ric/a!; A l(! Cine! de l(grar !* &r(&!i/( me/aC2!ic(" l(! r(mFn/ic(! /*7ier(n @*e Aacer *n !acriCici( !eri(" !e declar @*e l( inCini/( era el 7erdader(" digam(!" el Enic( /ema del ar/e; Unicamen/e &*ede !er ar/i!/a" !egEn Federic( ScAlegel" @*ien &(!ee *na religin &r(&ia" *na c(nce&cin (riginal de l( inCini/(; #%1 Per( en /al ca!( `@* (c*rre c(n el m*nd( Cini/(" el m*nd( de la e>&eriencia !en!i3lea E! (37i( @*e n( &*ede &re/ender a la 3elleDa; Fren/e al *ni7er!( 7erdader(" el *ni7er!( del &(e/a 8 del ar/i!/a" enc(n/ram(! n*e!/r( m*nd( c(mEn 8 c(rrien/e" de!&r(7i!/( de /(da 3elleDa &( /ica; Un d*ali!m( de e!/e g ner( e! ra!g( e!encial de la! /e(r2a! r(mFn/ica! del ar/e; C*and( G(e/Ae c(menD a &*3licar l(! A'(! de aprendiDa=e de Guillermo Meister l(! &rimer(! cr2/ic(! r(mFn/ic(! !al*dar(n la a&aricin de la (3ra c(n la! maniCe!/aci(ne! mF! e>/ra7agan/e! de en/*!ia!m(; N(7ali! 7e2a en G(e/Ae la encarnacin del e!&2ri/* &( /ic( de la /ierra; Per( al c(n/in*ar!e la (3ra" c*and( la! Cig*ra! r(mFn/ica! de Mign(n 8 el ar&i!/a C*er(n (!c*recida! &(r carac/ere! mF! reali!/a! 8 &(r !*ce!(! mF! &r(!aic(!" N(7ali! !e !in/i &r(C*n O damen/e dece&ci(nad(; N( !l( rec/iCic !* &rimer B*ici( !in( @*e lleg a llamar a G(e/Ae /raid(r a la ca*!a de la &(e!2a; Se c(n!ider a Wilhelm Meister c(m( *na !F/ira" c(m( *n 7erdader( 6andide en c(n/ra de la &(e!2a; C*and( la &(e!2a &ierde de 7i!/a l( mara7ill(!( &ierde !* !en/id( 8 !* B*!/iCicacin; La &(e!2a n( &*ede Aa3i/ar en n*e!/r( m*nd( /ri7ial 8 c(mEn; L( mara7ill(!(" l( &r(digi(!( 8 l( mi!/eri(!( !(n l(! Enic(! /ema! @*e &ermi/en *n 7erdader( /ra/amien/( &( /ic(; E!/a c(nce&cin de la &(e!2a" !in em3arg(" re&re!en/a mF! 3ien *na c*aliCicacin 8 *na limi/acin @*e *na e>&licacin gen*ina del &r(ce!( cread(r del ar/e; C(!a c*ri(!a" l(! grande! reali!/a! del !igl( XIX Aan /enid( a e!/e re!&ec/( *na 7i!in mF! ag*da del &r(ce!( ar/2!/ic( @*e !*! ad7er!ari(! r(mFn/ic(!M !(!/en2an *n na/*rali!m( radical !in c(m&r(mi!(! 8 &reci!amen/e e!/e na/*rali!m( le! c(nd*B( a *na c(nce&cin mF! &r(C*nda de la C(rma ar/2!/ica; Negand( la! C(rma! &*ra! de la! e!c*ela! ideali!/a!" c(ncen/rar(n !* a/encin en el a!&ec/( ma/erial de la! c(!a!; En 7ir/*d de e!/a ag*da c(ncen/racin C*er(n ca&ace! de !*&erar el d*ali!m( c(n7enci(nal en/re la e!Cera &( /ica 8 la &r(!aica; SegEn l(! reali!/a!" la na/*raleDa de *na (3ra de ar/e n( de&ende de la grandeDa ( meD@*indad de !* /emaM ning*n( e! im&ermea3le a la energ2a C(rmad(ra del ar/e; Un( de l(! /ri*nC(! ma8(re! del ar/e c(n!i!/e en Aacer *!( de la! c(!a! c(rrien/e! en !* C(rma real 8 a !* 7erdadera l*D; LalDac !e !*mi en l(! ra!g(! mF! /ri7iale! de la Gc(media A*manaGM Fla*3er/ lle7 a ca3( anFli!i! &r(C*nd(! de l(! carac/ere! mF! (rdinari(!M en alg*na! de la! n(7ela! de Emili( <(la /r(&eO Dam(! c(n de!cri&ci(ne! min*ci(!a! de la e!/r*c/*ra de *na l(c(m(/(ra" de *na ca!a Aa3i/acin" de *na mina de car3n; NingEn de/alle / cnic(" &(r m*8 inO
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GIdeenG" #." en 5rosaische [ugendschriften/ II" ?$N;

!igniCican/e @*e C*era" era (mi/id(; Sin em3arg(" !e &*ede (3!er7ar @*e *n gran &(der imagina/i7( rec(rre la! (3ra! de /(d(! e!/(! reali!/a!" @*e n( e! inCeri(r en m(d( alg*n( al de l(! e!cri/(re! r(mFn/ic(!; El AecA( de @*e e!/e &(der n( &*diera !er rec(n(cid( a3ier/amen/e !igniCic *na !eria deCiciencia de la! /e(r2a! na/*rali!/a! del ar/e; En !*! in/en/(! &(r reC*/ar la! c(nce&ci(ne! r(mFn/ica! de *na &(e!2a /ra!cenden/al re/(rnar(n a la 7ieBa deCinicin c(m( Gimi/acin de la na/*raleDaG; Al Aacerl( a!2" de!c*idar(n el &*n/( &rinci&al" &*e! n( rec(n(cier(n el carFc/er !im3lic( del ar/e; Si admi/i ram(! !emeBan/e carac/eriDacin" n( Aa3r2a e!ca&e a la! /e(r2a! me/aC2!ica! del r(man/ici!m(M &er( !i el ar/e e! !im3(li!m(" el !im3(li!m( del ar/e /iene @*e !er en/endid( en *n !en/id( inmanen/e 8 n( /ra!cenden/e; La 3elleDa e! l( inCini/( &re!en/ad( Cini/amen/e" !egEn ScAelling; Per( el /ema real del ar/e n( e! el InCini/( me/aC2!ic( de ScAelling ni /am&(c( l( A3!(l*/( de :egel; :a8 @*e 3*!carl( en cier/(! elemen/(! e!/r*c/*rale! C*ndamen/ale! de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia !en!i3le" en la! l2nea!" en la! Cig*ra!" en la! C(rma! ar@*i/ec/nica! 8 m*!icale!; E!/(! elemen/(! e!/Fn" &(r decirl( a!2" (mni&re!en/e!; Li3re! de /(d( mi!/eri(" !e Aallan &a/en/e! 8 al de!c*3ier/(M !(n 7i!i3le!" a*di3le!" /angi3le!; En e!/e !en/id(" n( d*d G(e/Ae en decir @*e el ar/e n( &re/ende m(!/rar la &r(C*ndidad me/aC2!ica de la! c(!a! !in( @*e r(Da la !*&erCicie de l(! Cenmen(! na/*rale!; E!/a !*&erCicie n( !e da de m(d( inmedia/(" la c(n(cem(! an/e! de de!c*3rirla en la! (3ra! de l(! grande! ar/i!/a!; Ma! e!/e de!c*3rimien/( n( !e Aalla c(nCinad( a *n cam&( e!&ecial; En el mi!m( grad( @*e el leng*aBe A*man( &*ede e>&re!ar /(da c(!a" l( mi!m( la mF! al/a @*e la mF! 3aBa" el ar/e &*ede a3arcar e im&regnar la e!Cera en/era de la e>&eriencia A*mana; Nada del m*nd( C2!ic( ( m(ral" ning*na c(!a na/*ral ni ning*na accin A*mana !e Aalla e>cl*ida" &(r na/*raleDa 8 e!encia" del rein( del ar/e" &(r@*e nada re!i!/e a !* &r(ce!( C(rmad(r 8 cread(r; #uic;uid essentia dignum est/ dice Lac(n en !* Fo-um 'rganum/ id etiam scientia dignum est +Li3er I" A&A(r; CXX,; E!/a !en/encia 7ale /an/( &ara el ar/e c(m( &ara la ciencia; . La! /e(r2a! &!ic(lgica! del ar/e g(Dan de *na 7en/aBa clara 8 &al&a3le !(3re la! me/aC2!ica!; N( e!/Fn (3ligada! a (Crecer *na /e(r2a general de la 3elleDa; Se limi/an a *n /ema mF! e!/recA(" !e in/ere!an Enicamen/e &(r el AecA( de la 3elleDa 8 &(r !* anFli!i! de!cri&/i7(; La /area &rimera del anFli!i! &!ic(lgic( c(n!i!/e en de/erminar la cla!e de Cenmen(! a @*e &er/enece n*e!/ra e>&eriencia de la 3elleDa; E!/e &r(3lema n( en/ra'a diCic*l/ade!; Nadie &*ede negar @*e la (3ra de ar/e n(! &r(&(rci(na el &lacer ma8(r" aca!( el mF! in/en!( 8 d*rader( de @*e e! ca&aD la na/*raleDa A*mana; Tan &r(n/( c(m( e!c(gem(! e!/e &lan/eamien/( &!ic(lgic(" &arece &(der de!ciCrar!e el mi!/eri( del ar/e" nada me n(! mi!/eri(!( @*e el &lacer 8 el d(l(r; P(ner en d*da e!/(! Cenmen(! /an 3ien c(n(cid(! Hn( e>cl*!i7(! de la 7ida A*mana !in( &r(&i(! de la 7ida en generalO!eria a3!*rd(; A@*2" !i en alg*na &ar/e" enc(n/ram(! *n R]n XfS rfd V\" *n &*n/( CiB( e inc(nm(7i3le d(nde &lan/ar l(! &ie!M !i l(gram(! &(ner en c(ne>in n*e!/ra e>&eriencia e!/ /ica c(n e!/e &*n/(" Aa3rF de!a&arecid( /(da incer/id*m3re en l(

@*e re!&ec/a al carFc/er de la 3elleDa 8 del ar/e; La maniCie!/a !encilleD de la !(l*cin &arece rec(mendarla; P(r (/ra &ar/e" /(da! la! /e(r2a! del Aed(ni!m( e!/ /ic( /ienen l(! deCec/(! de !*! c*alidade!; C(mienDan c(n el e!/a3lecimien/( de *n AecA( !im&le" innega3le" (37i(" &er( a l(! &(c(! &a!(! !e m*e!/ran in!*Cicien/e! 8 !e a/a!can; El &lacer e! *n da/( inme dia/( de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia &er( al !er c(n!iderad( c(m( *n &rinci&i( &!ic(lgic(" !* !en/id( !e Aace 7ag( 8 am3ig*( en e>/rem(; El / rmin( !e e>/iende !(3re *n cam&( /an ancA( @*e c*3re l(! Cenmen(! mF! di7er!(! 8 Ae/er(g ne(!; E! !iem&re /en/ad(r in/r(d*cir *n 7(ca3l( l( 3a!/an/e am&li( &ara @*e incl*8a la! reO Cerencia! mF! di!&are!; Sin em3arg(" !i caem(! en la /en/acin n(! Aallarem(! en &eligr( de &erder de 7i!/a diCerencia! !igniCica/i7a! e im&(r/an/e!; L(! !i!/ema! del Aed(ni!m( /ic( 8 e!/ /ic( Aan &r(&endid( !iem&re a !*&rimir e!/a! diCerencia! e!&ec2Cica!; ^an/ !*3ra8a e!/e &*n/( en *na (3!er7acin carac/er2!/ica de !* 6rtica de la raDn pr7ctica. Si la de/erminacin de n*e!/ra 7(l*n/ad" arg*men/a ^an/" de!can!a en el !en/2mien/( de agrad( 8 de!agrad( @*e e!&eram(! de c*al@*ier ca*!a" en/(nce! !erF &ara n(!(/r(! l( mi!m( el g ner( de idea! @*e 7a8a a aCec/arn(!; La Enica c(!a @*e n(! in/ere!a al Aacer n*e!/ra eleccin e!" Enicamen/e" c*an grande e! e!/e agrad(" c*Fn/( d*ra" c*an CFcilmen/e !e (3/iene 8 c(n c*Fn/a Crec*encia !e re&i/e; L( mi!m( @*e al A(m3re @*e de!ea diner( &ara ga!/Fr!el( le e! ig*al @*e el (r( &r(ceda de la m(n/a'a ( Aa8a !id( cernid( de la arena c(n /al de @*e !ea ace&/ad( en /(da! &ar/e! &(r el mi!m( 7al(r" a!2 /am3i n" el A(m3re @*e !e c*ida Enicamen/e del g(ce de la 7ida n( !e &reg*n/arF !i la! idea! !(n del en/endimien/( ( de l(! !en/id(! !in(" !l(" c*Fn/( &lacer 8 de @* in/en!idad n(! &r(&(rci(narFn d*ran/e el ma8(r /iem&( &(!i3le 06rtica de la raDn pr7ctica?. Si el &lacer e! el den(minad(r c(mEn" l( @*e im&(r/a e! el grad( 8 n( la cla!e" &*e! /(d(! l(! &lacere! !e Aallan al mi!m( ni7el 8 &*eden !er red*cid(! a *n mi!m( (rigen &!ic(lgic( 8 3i(lgic(; En el &en!amien/( c(n/em&(rFne( la /e(r2a del Aed(ni!m( e!/ /ic( Aa enc(n/rad( !* e>&re!in mF! clara en la Cil(!(C2a de San/a8ana; SegEn l" la 3elleDa e! el &lacer c(n!iderad( c(m( *na c*alidad de la! c(!a!M e! &lacer (3Be/i7ad(; E!/( !igniCica e!cam(/ear la c*e!/in; P*e! `cm( e! &(!i3le @*e el &lacer" el e!/ad( mF! !*3Be/i7( de n*e!/ra &!i@*e" !e (3Be/i7ea GLa ciencia" H dice San/a8anaH e! la re!&*e!/a a la demanda de inC(rmacin 8 en ella &reg*n/am(! &(r /(da la 7erdad 8 &(r nada mF! @*e la 7erdad; El ar/e e! la re!O &*e!/a a la demanda de en/re/enimien/(;;; 8 la 7erdad en/ra en l Enicamen/e c*and( !ir7e a e!/(! Cine!;G 0>he %ense of (eauty/ N*e7a 6(r{" CAarle! Scri3nerw! S(n!" #1$-" &; ??;, Si !e C*era el Cin del ar/e /endr2am(! @*e decir en/(nce! @*e el ar/e" en !*! l(gr(! !*&rem(!" Craca!a medid( c(n e!/e ra!er(; La demanda de en/re/enimien/( &*ede !er !a/i!CecAa c(n medi(! m*cA( meB(re! 8 mF! 3ara/(!; E! im&(!i3le &en!ar @*e l(! grande! ar/i!/a! /ra3aBar(n c(n e!/e Cin" @*e Mig*el ngel c(n!/r*8 la 3a!2lica de San Pedr( 8 @*e Dan/e 8 MilO /(n e!cri3ier(n !*! &(ema! &(r Cine! de en/re/enimien/(; Sin d*da" A*3ieran !*!cri/( el dicA( de Ari!//ele!" @*e GeBerci/ar!e *n( mi!m( 8 /ra3aBar c(n Cine! de di7er!in &arece

neci( 8 maniCie!/amen/e inCan/ilG 0btica nicoma;uea/ #55-3" ..,; Si el ar/e e! g(ce n( e! g(ce de la! c(!a! !in( de la! C(rma!; La delicia &(r la! C(rma! e! diCeren/e de la! delicia! &(r la! c(!a! ( de la! im&re!i(ne! !en!i3le!; La! C(rma! n( &*eden !er !encillamen/e im&re!a! en n*e!/ra men/e !in( @*e /enem(! @*e &r(d*cirla! &ara !en/ir !* 3elleDa; Una Calla c(mEn a /(d(! l(! !i!/ema! an/ig*(! 8 m(dern(! del Aed(ni!m( e!/ /ic( c(n!i!/e en @*e n(! (Crecen *na /e(r2a &!ic(lgica del &lacer e!/ /ic( inca&aD &(r c(m&le/( de e>&licar el AecA( C*ndamen/al de la creacin; En la 7ida e!/ /ica e>&erimen/am(! *na /ran!C(rma O cin radical; El &lacer mi!m( 8a n( e! *na mera aCeccin !in( @*e !e c(n7ier/e en *na C*ncin; P(r@*e el (B( del ar/i!/a n( e! !encillamen/e *n (B( @*e reac ci(na an/e la! im&re!i(ne! !en!i3le! ( @*e la! re&r(d*ceM !* ac/i7idad n( !e Aalla limi/ada a reci3ir ( regi!/rar la! im&re!i(ne! de la! c(!a! e>/eri(re! ( a c(m3inar e!/a! im&re!i(ne! en C(rma! n*e7a! 8 ar3i/raria!; Un gran &in/(r ( *n gran mE!ic( n( !e carac/eriDa &(r !* !en!i3ilidad a l(! c(l(re! ( a l(! !(nid(! !in( &(r !* &(der &ara e>/raer de e!/e ma/erial e!/F/ic( *na 7ida dinFmica de C(rma!; Sl( en e!/e ca!( &*ede (3Be/i7ar!e el &lacer @*e enc(n/ram(! en el ar/e; DeCinir" &(r l( /an/(" la 3elleDa c(m( &lacer (3Be/i7ad( c(n/iene /(d( el &r(3lema en C(rma c(ncen/rada; La (3Be/i7acin c(n!/i/*8e !iem&re *n &r(ce!( c(n!/r*c/i7(; El m*nd( C2!ic(" el m*nd( de c(!a! 8 c*alidade! c(n!/an /e!" n( e! *n mer( AaD de da/(! !en!i3le! ni /am&(c( el del ar/e e! *n AaD de !en/imien/(! 8 em(ci(ne!; El &rimer( de&ende de ac/(! de (3Be/i7acin /erica" median/e c(nce&/(! 8 c(n!/r*cci(ne! cien/2Cica!M el !eg*nd(" de ac/(! C(rma/i7(! de *n /i&( diCeren/e" ac/(! de c(n/em&lacin; O/ra! /e(r2a! m(derna!" @*e &r(/e!/an c(n/ra l(! in/en/(! de iden/iCicar el ar/e 8 el &lacer" !e Aallan e>&*e!/a! a la! mi!ma! (3Beci(ne! @*e la! del Aed(ni!m( e!/ /ic(; Tra/an de enc(n/rar la e>&licacin de la (3ra de ar/e c(nec/Fnd(la c(n (/r(! Cenmen(! 3ien c(n(cid(!; Sin em3arg(" e!/(! Cenmen(! !e Aallan a *n ni7el c(m&le/amen/e diCeren/eM !(n e!/ad(! &a!i7(! del e!&2ri/* &er( n( ac/i7(!; P(dem(! !(r&render alg*na anal(g2a en/re am3a! cla!e!" &er( n( red*cirla! a *n mi!m( (rigen me/aC2!ic( ( &!ic(lgic(; El ra!g( c(mEn 8 el m(/i7( C*ndamen/al de e!/a! /e(r2a! e! !* l*cAa c(n/ra la! /e(r2a! raci(nali!/a! e in/elec/*ali!/a! del ar/e; El cla!ici!m( Cranc ! Aa c(n7er/id(" en cier/( !en/id(" la (3ra de ar/e en *n &r(3lema ari/m /ic(" @*e /iene @*e !er re!*el/( &(r *na e!&ecie de regla de /re!; La reaccin c(n/ra e!/a c(nce&cin era nece!aria 8 3en Cica; Per( l(! &rimer(! cr2/ic(! r(mFn/ic(!" e!&ecialmen/e l(! r(mFn/ic(! alemane!" !e &a!ar(n inmedia/amen/e al e>/rem( (&*e!/(" declarar(n @*e el in/elec/*ali!m( a3!/rac/( de la Il*!/racin n( era mF! @*e *n di!CraD del ar/e; N( &(dem(! c(m&render la (3ra de ar/e !*Be/Fnd(la a regla! lgica!; Un /e>/( de &( /ica n( n(! en!e'a a e!cri3ir *n 3*en &(ema; El ar/e !*rge de (/ra! 8 mF! &r(C*nda! C*en/e!; Para de!c*3rirla! /enem(! @*e c(menDar &(r (l7idar n*e!/ra! &a*/a! Aa3i/*ale! 8 !*mergirn(! en l(! mi!/eri(! de n*e!/ra 7ida inc(n!cien/e; El ar/i!/a e! *na e!&ecie de !(nFm3*l( @*e de3e &r(!eg*ir !* 72a !in la in/erCerencia ( el c(n/r(l de ning*na ac/i7idad c(n!cien/e; De!&er/arl( !igniCicar2a de!/r*ir !* &(der; GEl c(mienD( de /(da &(e!2a Hdice FriedricA ScAlegelH" c(n!i!/e en a3(lir la le8 8 el m /(d( de la raDn" @*e &r(cede

raci(nalmen/e" 8 en !*mergirn(!" *na 7eD mF!" en la arre3a/ad(ra c(nC*!in de la Can/a!2a" en el ca(! (riginal de la na/*raleDa A*mana;G #%$ El ar/e e! *n !('ar de!&ier/( al @*e n(! en/regam(! 7(l*n/ariamen/e; E!/a mi!ma c(nce&cin r(mFn/ica Aa deBad( A*ella en !i!/ema! me/aC2!ic(! c(n/em&(rFne(!; Lerg!(n (Creci *na /e(r2a de la 3elleDa @*e !e &re!en/a3a c(m( la &r*e3a El/ima 8 mF! c(ncl*8en/e de !*! &rinci&i(! me/aC2!ic(! generale!; SegEn l" n( Aa8 meB(r il*!/racin del d*ali!m( C*ndamen/al de la inc(m&a/i3ilidad en/re in/*icin 8 raDn @*e la (3ra de ar/e; L( @*e den(minam(! 7erdad raci(nal ( cien/2Cica e! !*&erCicial 8 c(n7enci(nal; El ar/e !igniCica la e7a!in de e!/e m*nd( c(n7enci(nal A*ec( 8 e!/recA(M n(! c(nd*ce de n*e7( a la! C*en/e! 7erdadera! de la realidad; Si la realidad e! e7(l*cin cread(ra" en el &(der cread(r del ar/e Aa3rem(! de enc(n/rar la e7idencia de e!/( 8 la maniCe!O /acin C*ndamen/al del &(der cread(r de la 7ida; A &rimera 7i!/a" n(! Aallam(! an/e *na Cil(!(C2a 7erdaderamen/e dinFmica ( energ /ica de la 3elleDaM &er( la in/*icin de Lerg!(n n( e! *n &rinci&i( realmen/e ac/i7(; E! *n m(d( de rece&/i7idad" n( de e!&(n/aneidad" 8 la in/*icin e!/ /ica e! de!cri/a !iem&re &(r Lerg!(n c(m( *na Cac*l/ad &a!i7a 8 n( c(m( *na C(rma ac/i7a; ;;;el (3Be/( del ar/e He!cri3e Lerg!(nH c(n!i!/e en ad(rmecer l(! &(dere! ac/i7(! (" mF! 3ien" re!i!/en/e! de n*e!/ra &er!(nalidad 8 c(l(carla" a!2" en *n e!/ad( de &erCec/a irre!&(n!a3ilidad en el c*al realiDam(! la idea @*e n(! e! !*gerida 8 !im&a/iDam(! c(n el !en/imien/( @*e e! e>&re!ad(; En l(! &r(ce!(! de ar/e enc(n/rarem(!" en *na C(rma de3ili/ada" *na 7er!in reCinada 8 e!&iri/*aliDada" en cier/( grad( de l(! &r(ce!(! em&lead(! c(mEnmen/e &ara &r(d*cir el e!/ad( de Ai&O n(!i!;;; El !en/imien/( de l( 3ell( n( e! *n !en/imien/( e!&ec2Cic(;;; /(d( !en/imien/( e>&erimen/ad( &(r n(!(/r(! a!*mirF *n carFc/er e!/ /ic( !iem&re @*e Aa8 !id( !*gerid( 8 n( ca*!ad(;;; A!2 &*e!" /enem(! di!/in/a! Ca!e! en el &r(gre!( de *n !en/imien/( e!/ /ic( c(m( en el e!/ad( de Ai&n(/i!m(;;; 0Essai sur les donns immdiates de la conscience.? N*e!/ra e>&eriencia de la 3elleDa n( (Crece !emeBan/e carFc/er Ai&n/ic(; Median/e la Ai&n(!i! &(dem(! C(rDar a *n A(m3re a realiDar cier/a! acci(ne! ( im&(nerle algEn !en/imien/(" &er( la 3elleDa" en !* !en/id( gen*in( 8 e!&ec2Cic(" n( &*ede !er im&re!a en n*e!/r( e!&2ri/* de e!/e m(d(" &*e! &ara !en/irla /enem(! @*e c((&erar c(n el ar/i!/a; N( 3a!/a c(n !im&a/iDar c(n !*! !en/imien/(! !in( @*e Aa8 @*e en/rar en !* ac/i7idad cread(ra; Si el ar/i!/a l(grara ad(rmecer l(! &(dere! ac/i7(! de n*e!/ra &er!(nalidad &araliDar2a n*e!/r( !en/id( de la 3elleDa; N( e! &(!i3le c(m*nicar de e!/e m(d( la a&reAen!in de la 3elleDa" la &erca/acin del dinami!m( de la! C(rma!" &(r@*e de&ende" a la 7eD" de !en/imien/(! de *n g ner( e!&ec2Cic( 8 de *n ac/( de B*ici( 8 c(n/em&lacin; Una de la! ma8(re! c(n/ri3*ci(ne! de SAaC/e!3*r8 a la /e(r2a del ar/e C*e !* in!i!/encia en e!/e &*n/(; En !*! Moralistas n(! (Crece *na e>&licacin im&re!i(O nan/e de la e>&eriencia de la 3elleDa" @*e l c(n!idera3a c(m( *n &ri7ilegi( de la na/*raleDa A*mana; Tam&(c( negar i! 3elleDa He!cri3e SAaC/e!3*r8H al cam&( !il7e!/re ( a e!/a!
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Para *na d(c*men/acin mF! c(m&le/a 8 &ara *na cri/ica de e!/a! /e(r2a! del r(man/ici!m( /em&ran( !(3re el ar/e" 7 a!e Ir7ing La33i/" TAe Ne9 &ao3oon/ ca&; I_;

Cl(re! @*e crecen en /(rn( n*e!/r(" en e!/a 7erde l(ma; Sin em3arg(" &(r m*8 ama3le! @*e !ean e!/a! C(rma! na/*rale!" la d(rada 8er3a" el m*!g( argen/ad(" el /(mill( Cl(rid(" la r(!a !il7e!/re" el d*lce r(mer(" n( !(n !*! 3elleDa! la! @*e a/raen a l(! &acien/e! re3a'(!" encan/an al cer7a/ill( 8 e!&arcen la alegr2a en/re la! manada!; N( e! la forma l( @*e le! reg(ciBa" !in( a@*ell( @*e Aa8 de3aB( de la C(rma4 le! a/rae l( !a3r(!(" le! im&ele el Aam3re;;; &*e! n*nca la forma &(!ee C*erDa eCec/i7a c*and( n( e! c(n/em&lada" ni B*Dgada 8 e>aminada" 8 n( C*nci(na mF! @*e c(m( n(/a ( !e'al acciden/al de l( @*e a&laca al !en/id( e>ci/ad(;;; Si l(! 3r*/(!" &(r l( /an/(" !(n inca&ace! de c(n(cer 8 g(Dar la 3elleDa" &(r !er 3r*/(! 8 n( /ener mF! @*e !en/id(!;;; !e !ig*e @*e /am&(c( el A(m3re &*ede c(nce3ir ( g(Dar la 3elleDa c(n e!(! mi!m(! sentidosI /(da la !elleDa de @*e g(Da l( e! &(r 72a mF! n(3le" 8 c(n la a8*da de l( @*e en l e! mF! n(3le" !* e!&2ri/* 8 raDn; +GTAe M(rali!/!G; Sec; ?" Par/e III; _ a!e 6haracteristics/ #5#%" II" %?% !;, El el(gi( @*e Aace SAaC/e!3*r8 de la men/e 8 de la raDn !e Aalla m*8 leB(! del in/elec/*ali!m( de la Il*!/racin; S* ra&!(dia !(3re la 3elleDa 8 el inCini/( &(der cread(r de la na/*raleDa re&re!en/a *n ra!g( c(m&le/amen/e n*e7( en la Ai!/(ria in/elec/*al del !igl( X_III; En e!/e a!&ec/( C*e *n( de l(! &rimer(! cam&e(ne! del r(man/ici!m(" &er( el r(man/ici!m( de SAaC/e!3*r8 era de /i&( &la/nic(; S* /e(r2a de la C(rma e!/ /ica era *na c(nce&cin &la/nica &(r c*8a 7ir/*d C*e c(nd*cid( a reacci(nar 8 &r(/e!/ar c(n/ra el !en!*ali!m( de l(! em&iri!/a! ingle!e!;#)N La (3Becin AecAa a la me/aC2!ica de Lerg!(n !ir7e /am3i n &ara la /e(r2a &!ic(lgica de Nie/D!cAe; En *n( de !*! &rimer(! en!a8(!" El espritu de la m4sica/ origen de la tragedia/ Nie/D!cAe c(m3a/e la! c(nce&ci(ne! de l(! grande! cla!ici!/a! del !igl( X_III; En el ar/e grieg(" n(! dice" n( enc(n/ram(! el ideal de Kinc{elmann; L*!carem(! en 7an( en E!@*il(" en SC(cle! ( en E*r2&ide! n(3le !im&licidad 8 !erena grandeDa; La grandeDa de la /ragedia griega c(n!i!/e en la &r(C*nda 8 e>/rema /en!in de em(ci(ne! 7i(len/a!; La /ragedia griega naci del c*l/( di(ni!iac(M !* &(der era *n &(der (rgiF!/ic(; Per( la (rg2a !(la n( &*d( &r(d*cir el drama grieg(" la C*erDa de Di(ni!i(! e!/a3a e@*ili3rada &(r la C*erDa de A&(l(; E!/a &(laridad C*ndamen/al c(n!/i/*8e la e!encia de /(da (3ra de ar/e 7erdaderamen/e grande; El gran ar/e de /(d(! l(! /iem&(! Aa !*rgid( del en/relaDamien/( de d(! C*erDa! an/agnica!" *n im&*l!( (rgiF!/ic( 8 *n e!/ad( 7i!i(nari(; E! el mi!m( c(n/ra!/e @*e e>i!/e en/re el e!/ad( de !*e'( 8 el e!/ad( de in/(>icacin ( em3riag*eD; E!(! d(! e!/ad(! dan rienda !*el/a a /(da cla!e de &(dere! ar/2!/ic(! de!de den/r( de n(!(/r(!" &er( cada *n( a &(dere! de /i&( diCeren/e; El !*e'( n(! d(/a del &(der de 7i!in" de &(e!2aM la em3riag*eD del &(der de la! grande! ac/i/*de!" de &a!in" del cFn/ic( 8 de la danDa; #)# Tam3i n en e!/a /e(r2a del (rigen &!ic(lgic( Aa de!a&arecid( *n( de l(! ra!g(! e!enciale! del ar/e" &*e! la in!&iracin ar/2!/ica n( e! in/(>icacin ni la imaginacin ar/2!/ica e! !*e'( ( al*cinacin; T(da gran (3ra de ar/e !e carac/eriDa &(r *na &r(C*nda *nidad
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Para *na e>&(!icin de/allada del l*gar de SAaC/e!3*r8 en la Cil(!(C2a del !igl( X_III" 7 a!e Ca!!irer" 1ie platonische )enaissance in England und die %chule -on 6am!ridge +Lei&Dig" #$.?," ca&; _I; #)# CC; Nie/D!cAe" &a -oluntad de poder/ &; ?%N de la /rad; ingl; de A; M; L*d(7ici +L(ndre!" #$#N,;

e!/r*c/*ral; N( &(dem(! e>&licarla red*ciend( el ar/e a d(! e!/ad(! diCeren/e! @*e" c(m( el e!/ad( de !*e'( 8 el e!/ad( de in/(>icacin ( em3riag*eD" !(n c(m&le/amen/e diC*!(! 8 de!(rganiDad(!" ni in/egrar *n /(d( e!/r*c/*ral 7ali nd(n(! de elemen/(! am(rC(!; La! /e(r2a! @*e e!&eran e!clarecer la na/*raleDa del ar/e red*ci nd(la a la C*ncin del B*eg( !(n de *n /i&( diCeren/e; N( !e le! &*ede acAacar @*e de!c*idan ( men(!&recian la ac/i7idad li3re del A(m3re; El B*eg( e! *na C*ncin ac/i7a" n( !e Aalla c(nCinad( den/r( de l(! l2mi/e! de l( em&2ricamen/e dad(M el &lacer @*e enc(n/ram(! en l e! a3!(l*/amen/e de!in/ere!ad(; N( &arece" &*e!" @*e en la ac/i7idad lEdica Cal/e ning*na de la! c*alidade! e!&ec2Cica! de la (3ra de ar/e; La ma8(r2a de l(! @*e &r(&*gnan la /e(r2a lEdica del ar/e n(! dicen @*e !e !ien/en inca&ace! de enc(n/rar ning*na diCerencia en/re la! d(! C*nci(ne!; #)? S(!/ienen @*e n( e>i!/e ning*na carac/er2!/ica del ar/e @*e n( &*eda a&licar!e a l(! B*eg(! de il*!in ni /am&(c( carac/er2!/ica de e!/(! B*eg(! @*e n( !e enc*en/re /am3i n en el ar/e" &er( /(d(! l(! arg*men/(! @*e !e &*edan alegar en Ca7(r de e!/a /e!i! !(n &*ramen/e nega/i7(!; P!ic(lgicamen/e Aa3land(" el B*eg( 8 el ar/e g*ardan *na e!/recAa !emeBanDaM n( !(n */ili/ari(! ni man/ienen relacin alg*na c(n ningEn Cin &rFc/ic(; En el B*eg(" l( mi!m( @*e en el ar/e" a3and(nam(! n*e!/ra! nece!idade! &rFc/ica! e inmedia/a! al eCec/( de &r(&(rci(nar a n*e!/r( m*nd( *na n*e7a C(rma; E!/a anal(g2a n( 3a!/a &ara &r(3ar *na iden/idad real; La imaginacin ar/2!/ica !e di!/ing*e !iem&re" ag*damen/e" del g ner( de imaginacin @*e carac/eriDa a n*e!/ra ac/i7idad lEdica; En el B*eg( n(! la! Aa3ern(! c(n imFgene! !im*lada!" @*e &*eden !er /an 7i7a! e im&re!i(nan/e! @*e la! /(mem(! &(r realidade!; DeCinir el ar/e c(m( *na mera !*ma de /ale! imFgene! !im*lada! re&re!en/ar2a *na c(nce&cin 3ien meD@*ina de !* carFc/er 8 Cinalidad; L( @*e den(minam(! G!imili/*d e!/ /icaG n( e! el mi!m( Cenmen( @*e e>&erimen/am(! en l(! B*eg(! de il*!in; El B*eg( n(! &r(&(rci(na imFgene! il*!(ria! mien/ra! @*e el ar/e n(! (Crece *n n*e7( g ner( de 7erdad" n( de c(!a! em&2rica! !in( de &*ra! C(rma!; En el anFli!i! e!/ /ic( @*e /raDam(! an/e!" di!/ing*im(! /re! cla!e! de imaginacin4 el &(der in7en/i7(" el &(der &er!(niCicad(r 8 el &(der de &r(d*cir &*ra! C(rma! !en!i3le!; En el B*eg( del ni'( enc(n/ram(! l(! d(! &rimer(! &(dere! &er( n( el /ercer(; El ni'( B*ega c(n c(!a!" el ar/i!/a B*ega c(n C(rma!" c(n l2nea! 8 Cig*ra!" c(n ri/m(! 8 mel(d2a!; En el ni'( @*e B*ega admiram(! la Cacilidad 8 ra&ideD de la /ran!C(rmacinM !e lle7an a ca3( la! /area! mF! grande! c(n l(! medi(! mF! &(3re!; Un /r(D( de madera !e &*ede c(n7er/ir en *n !er 7i7(; Sin em3arg(" e!/a /ran!C(rmacin n( !igniCica mF! @*e la me/am(rC(!i! de l(! (3Be/(! mi!m(! 8 n( de (3Be/(! en C(rma!; En el B*eg( n( Aacem(! mF! @*e reac(m(dar 8 reagr*&ar l(! ma/eriale! (Crecid(! a la &erce&cin !en!i3le; El ar/e e! c(n!/r*c/i7( 8 cread(r en *n !en/id( diCeren/e 8 mF! A(nd(; El ni'( @*e B*ega n( 7i7e en el mi!m( m*nd( de r2gid(! AecA(! em&2ric(! @*e el ad*l/(M !* m*nd( &(!ee *na m(7ilidad 8 /ra!m*/a3ilidad m*cA( ma8(re!; Sin em3arg(" al B*gar n( Aace mF! @*e cam3iar la! c(!a! reale! de !* c(n/(rn( &(r (/ra! c(!a! &(!i3le!; La gen*ina ac/i7idad ar/2!/ica n(
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_ a!e" &(r eBem&l(" ^(nrad Lange" 1as Wesen der <unst +Lerl2n" #$N#," ? 7(l!;

!e carac/eriDa &(r *n cam3i( !emeBan/eM la e>igencia e! m*cA( mF! gra7e; El ar/i!/a di!*el7e la ma/eria F!&era de la! c(!a! en el cri!(l de !* imaginacin 8 el re!*l/ad( del &r(ce!( e! el de!c*3rimien/( de *n m*nd( n*e7( de C(rma! &( /ica!" m*!icale! ( &lF!/ica!; En realidad" m*cAa! &re/endida! (3ra! de ar/e e!/Fn m*8 leB(! de !a/i!Cacer e!/a e>igencia; La /area del B*ici( e!/ /ic( ( del g*!/( ar/2!/ic( c(n!i!/e en di!/ing*ir en/re *na (3ra gen*ina de ar/e 8 e!(! (/r(! &r(d*c/(! 3a!/ard(! @*e n( !(n mF! @*e c(!a! de B*eg( (" a l( !*m(" *na re!&*e!/a a la demanda de en/re/enimien/(; Un anFli!i! mF! ce'id( del (rigen &!ic(lgic( 8 de l(! eCec/(! &!ic(lgic(! del B*eg( 8 del ar/e n(! lle7a a la mi!ma c(ncl*!in; El B*eg( n(! &r(&(rci(na di7er!in 8 recre( &er( /am3i n !ir7e a *n &r(&!i/( diCeren/e" /iene *na im&(r/ancia 3i(lgica general en la medida en @*e an/ici&a ac/i7idade! C*/*ra!; Se Aa !*3ra8ad( a men*d( @*e el B*eg( del ni'( &re!en/a *n &(der &r(&ed */ic(; El m*cAacA( @*e B*ega a la g*erra 8 la ni'a @*e a/a72a !* m*'eca e!/Fn realiDand( *na e!&ecie de &re&aracin 8 ed*cacin &ara (/ra! /area! mF! !eria!; La C*ncin de la! 3ella! ar/e! n( &*ede !er e>&licada de e!/a manera" n( Aa8 en ella! ni di7er!in ni &re&aracin; Alg*n(! e!/ /ic(! m(dern(! Aan cre2d( nece!ari( di!/ing*ir ne/amen/e en/re d(! cla!e! de 3elleDaM *na e! la del gran ar/e" la (/ra !e de!igna c(m( G3elleDa CFcilG; #). Per(" Aa3land( c(n rig(r" la 3elleDa de *na (3ra de ar/e n*nca e! CFcil; El g(ce ar/2!/ic( n( !e (rigina en *n &r(ce!( meng*ad( ( la>( !in( en *na in/en!iCicacin de /(da! n*e!/ra! energ2a!; La di7er!in @*e n(! &r(&(rci(na el B*eg( e! /(d( l( c(n/rari( de la ac/i/*d @*e e! el re@*i!i/( &re7i( nece!ari( de la c(n/em&lacin en el B*ici( e!/ /ic(; El ar/e e>ige &lena c(ncen/racin; Tan &r(n/( c(m( la a3and(nam(! 8 deBam(! &a!( al mer( B*eg( de !en/imien/(! 8 a!(ciaci(ne! agrada3le! Aem(! &erdid( de 7i!/a la (3ra de ar/e c(m( /al; La /e(r2a lEdica del ar/e !e Aa de!arr(llad( en d(! direcci(ne! c(m&le/amen/e diCeren/e!; En la Ai!/(ria de la e!/ /ica !e !*ele c(n!iderar a ScAiller" Dar9in 8 S&encer c(m( l(! re&re!en/an/e! mF! !igniCicad(! de e!/a /e(r2a; Sin em3arg(" e! diC2cil enc(n/rar *n &*n/( de c(n/ac/( en/re la! idea! de ScAiller 8 la! m(derna! /e(r2a! 3i(lgica! del ar/e; En !* /endencia C*ndamen/al n( !(n !l( di7ergen/e! !in(" en cier/( !en/id(" inc(m&a/i3le!; El / rmin( GB*eg(G e! en/endid( 8 e>&liO cad( en la /e(r2a de ScAiller en *n !en/id( m*8 diCeren/e @*e &(r /(da! la! /e(r2a! *l/eri(re!; La /e(r2a de ScAiller e! /ra!cenden/al e ideali!/a 8 la! de Dar9in 8 S&encer !(n 3i(lgica! 8 na/*rali!/a!; Dar9in 8 S&encer c(n!ideran el B*eg( 8 la 3elleDa c(m( Cenmen(! na/*rale! generale!" mien/ra! @*e ScAiller l(! c(nec/a c(n el m*nd( de la li3er/ad; A /en(r de !* d*ali!m( {an/ian(" la li3er/ad n( !igniCica la mi!ma c(!a @*e la na/*raleDa !in( /(d( l( c(n/rari(; Tan/( la li3er/ad c(m( la 3elleDa &er/enecen al m*nd( in/eligi3le 8 n( al m*nd( de l(! Cenmen(!; En /(da! la! 7arian/e! na/*rali!/a! de la /e(r2a lEdica del ar/e !e e!/*dia3a el B*eg( en l(! animale! B*n/( al B*eg( A*man(; ScAiller n( &(d2a admi/ir !emeBan/e ideaM &ara l" el B*eg( n( e! *na ac/i7idad (rgFnica general !in( e!&ec2Cicamen/e A*mana4 GEl A(m3re B*ega Enicamen/e c*and( e! A(m3re en el
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_ a!e Lernard L(!an@*e/" >hree &ectures on Aesthe tics y S; Ale>ander" (eauty and 'ther orms (C 2alue.

&len( !en/id( de la &ala3ra 8 es completamente hom!re 4nicamente cuando =uegaN. 0(riefe K!er die Lsthetische ErDiehung des Menschen/ #5$)" Car/a X_,; :a3lar de *na anal(g2a 8 n( digam(! iden/idad en/re el B*eg( A*man( 8 el animal (" en la e!Cera A*mana" en/re el B*eg( del ar/e 8 l(! llamad(! B*eg(! de il*!in e! c(m&le/amen/e aBen( a la /e(r2a de ScAiller; Para l" e!/a anal(g2a A*3iera re&re!en/ad( *na in/er&re/acin C*ndamen/almen/e Cal!a; Si /(mam(! en c(n!ideracin el /ra!C(nd( Ai!/ric( de la /e(r2a de ScAiller c(m&renderem(! CFcilmen/e !* &*n/( de 7i!/a; N( d*d en relaci(nar el m*nd( ideal del ar/e c(n el B*eg( del ni'( &(r@*e" !egEn l" el m*nd( del ni'( Aa !*Crid( *n &r(ce!( de idealiDacin 8 !*3limacin; ScAiller Aa3la3a c(m( *n di!c2&*l( 8 adO mirad(r de R(*!!ea*" 8 7e2a la 7ida del ni'( a la n*e7a l*D en @*e la Aa32a c(l(cad( el Cil!(C( Cranc !; E>i!/e *n &r(C*nd( !en/id( en el B*eg( de *n ni'(" aCirma ScAiller; A*n@*e admi/am(! e!/a /e!i! /enem(! @*e a'adir @*e el !en/id( del B*eg( e! diCeren/e del de la 3elleDa; El mi!m( ScAiller deCine la 3elleDa c(m( C(r ma 7i7ien/e; C(n!ider @*e la &erca/acin de la! C(rma! 7i7ien/e! e! el &rimer &a!( indi!&en!a3le @*e c(nd*ce a la e>&eriencia de la li3er/ad; La c(n/em&lacin ( reO Cle>in e!/ /ica c(n!/i/*8e" !egEn ScAiller" la &rimera ac/i/*d li3eral del A(m3re Cren/e al *ni7er!(; GMien/ra! @*e el de!e( !e &(!e!i(na de !* (3Be/(" la reCle>in l( c(l(ca a di!/ancia 8 l( c(n7ier/e en ideal" !al7Fnd(l( de la garra de la &a!inG 0'p. cit./ Car/a XX_,; Preci!amen/e e!/a ac/i/*d li3eral" c(n!cien/e 8 reCle>i7a e!/F a*!en/e en el B*eg( del ni'( 8 marca la Cr(n/era en/re el B*eg( 8 el ar/e; E!/e c(l(car a di!/ancia @*e !e n(! de!cri3e c(m( *n( de l(! ra!g(! nece!ari(! 8 mF! carac/er2!/ic(! de la (3ra de ar/e Aa !id( !iem&re el (3!/Fc*l( d(nde Aa /r(&eDad( la /e(r2a e!/ /ica; Si e!/( e! cier/(" !e Aa (3 Be/ad(" el ar/e n( e! alg( realmen/e A*man(" &*e!/( @*e Aa &erdid( /(da c(ne>in c(n la 7ida A*mana; L(! deCen!(re! del &rinci&i( del ar/e &(r el ar/e n( /em2an a la (3Becin !in( @*e la admi/2an a3ier/amen/e; C(n!idera3an @*e el m ri/( 8 &ri7ilegi( ma8(r del ar/e c(n!i!/e en @*e @*ema /(d(! l(! &*en/e! @*e n(! ligan a la realidad /ri7ial; Tiene @*e !er *n mi!/eri( inacce!i3le al 7*lg( &r(Can(; GUn &(ema Hn(! dice S/ &Aane Mallarm H" de3e !er *n enigma &ara el A(m3re 7*lgar" mE!ica de cFmara &ara el iniciad(G; #)% Or/ega 8 Ga!!e/ Aa e!cri/( *n li3r( en @*e de!arr(lla 8 deCiende la de!A*maniDacin del ar/e; Pien!a @*e en e!/e &r(ce!( !e 7a a alcanDar" &(r Cin" el &*n/( en @*e el elemen/( A* man( 7a a de!a&arecer ca!i en a3!(l*/( del ar/e; O/r(! cr2/ic(! Aan !(!/enid( *na /e!i! diame/ralmen/e (&*e!/a; C*and( miram(! *n c*adr(" leem(! *n &(ema ( e!c*cAam(! la mE!ica Hn(! dice I; A; RicAard!H" n( e!/am(! Aaciend( alg( di!/in/( de l( @*e Aacem(! c*and( marcAam(! Aacia la galer2a ( c*and( n(! 7e!/im(! &(r la ma'ana; El m(d( en @*e e! ca*!ada la e>&eriencia e! diCeren/e 8" en general" la e>&eriencia e! mF! c(m&leBa 8" !i /enem(! >i/(" mF! *niCicada; Per( n*e!/ra ac/i7idad n( e! de *n g ner( C*ndamen/almen/e diCeren/e; 05rinciples (C &iterary 6riticism/ N*e7a 6(r{" :arc(*r/" Lrace" #$?)" &&; #-O#5;, E!/e an/ag(ni!m( /eric( n( re&re!en/a *na an/in(mia real; Si la 3elleDa e!"
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Ci/ad( &(r ^a/Aerine Gil3er/" %tudies in )ecent AesM thetic +CAa&el :ill" #$?5," &; #1;

!egEn la deCinicin de ScAiller" C(rma 7i7a" B*n/a en !* na/*raleDa 8 en !* e!encia l(! d(! elemen/(! @*e a@*2 !e le (&(nen; En realidad" n( e! l( mi!m( 7i7ir en el rein( de la C(rma @*e en el de la! c(!a!" el de l(! (3Be/(! em&2ric(! de n*e!/r( c(n/(rn(M &er( la! C(rma! del ar/e n( !(n C(rma! 7a c2a!; RealiDan *na /area deCinida en la c(n!/r*ccin 8 (rganiDacin de la e>&eriencia A*mana; _i7ir en el rein( de la! C(rma! n( !igniCica *na e7a!in de l(! a!*n/(! de la 7ida !in( @*e re&re!en/a" &(r el c(n/rari(" la realiDacin de *na de la! energ2a! mF! al/a! de la 7ida mi!ma; N( &(dem(! Aa3lar del ar/e c(m( alg( e>/raA*man( ( !(3reA*man( !in &erder de 7i!/a *n( de !*! ra!g(! C*ndamen/ale!" a !a3er" !* &(der c(n!/r*cO /i7( en la e!/r*c/*racin de n*e!/r( *ni7er!( A*man(; La! /e(r2a! e!/ /ica! @*e /ra/an de e>&licar el ar/e !ir7i nd(!e de anal(g2a! rec(gida! de e!Cera! de!(rdenada! 8 de!in/egrada! de la e>&eriencia A*mana H de la Ai&n(!i!" del !*e'(" de la in/(>icacinH Callan en l( &rinci&al; Un gran &(e/a l2ric( &(!ee el &(der de &re!/ar *na C(rma deCinida a n*e!/r(! !en/imien/(! mF! (!c*r(!; E!/( e! &(!i3le gracia! a @*e !* (3ra" a*n@*e /ra/a de *n /ema @*e" a l( @*e &arece" e! irraci(nal e ineCa3le" &(!ee *na (rganiDacin 8 *na ar/ic*lacin clara!; Ni !i@*iera en la! creaci(ne! mF! e>/ra7agan/e! del ar/e enc(n/rarem(! BamF! la arre3a/ad(ra c(nC*!in de la Can/a!2a" el ca(! (riginal de la na/*raleDa A*mana; La deCinicin del ar/e" (Crecida &(r l(! e!cri/(re! r(mFn/ic(!"#)) e! *na c(n/radiccin en l(! / rmin(!; T(da (3ra de ar/e &(!ee *na e!/r*c/*ra in/*i/i7a 8 e!/( @*iere decir *n carFc/er de raci(nalidad; Cada elemen/( !ing*lar de3e !er !en/id( c(m( &ar/e de *n /(d( c(m&ren!i7(M !i en *n &(ema l2ric( cam3iam(! *na de la! &ala3ra!" *n acen/( ( *n ri/m(" n(! 7erem(! en &eligr( de de!/r*ir el /(n( 8 el encan/( e!&ec2Cic(! del &(ema; El ar/e n( e!/F 7inc*lad( a la raci(nalidad de la! c(!a! ( de l(! ac(n/ecimien/(!; P*ede inCringir e!a! le8e! de &r(3a3ilidad @*e" !egEn l(! e!/ /ic(! clF!ic(!" !er2an le8e! c(n!/i/*/i7a! del ar/eM &*ede &r(&(rci(narn(! la 7i!in mF! e>/ra7agan/e 8 gr(/e!ca 8 &(!eer" !in em3arg(" !* raci(nalidad &ec*liar" la de la C(rma; E! &(!i3le in/er&re/ar en e!/e !en/id( *n a&(/egma de G(e/Ae @*e" a &rimera 7i!/a" &arece &aradBic(4 GEl ar/e e! *na !eg*nda na/*raleDaM /am3i n mi!/eri(!(" &er( mF! in/eligi3le" &(r@*e !e (rigina en el en/endimien/(G; #)-La ciencia n(! (Crece el (rden en l(! &en!amien/(!M la m(ral el (rden en la! acci(ne!M el ar/e n(! &r(&(rci(na el (rden en la a&reAen!in de la! a&ariencia! 7i!i3le!" /angi3le! 8 a*di3le!; La /e(r2a e!/ /ica Aa /ardad( m*cA( en rec(n(cer 8 dar!e c*en/a de e!/a! diCerencia! C*ndamen/ale!; Si en l*gar de 3*!car *na /e(r2a me/aC2!ica de la 3elleDa analiDam(! !im&lemen/e n*e!/ra e>&eriencia inmedia/a de la (3ra de ar/e" diC2cilmen/e &(drem(! de!c*idar e!/a carac/er2!/ica; El ar/e &*ede !er deCinid( c(m( *n leng*aBe !im3lic(" &er( e!/( n(! &r(&(rci(na el g ner( c(mEn &er( n( la diCerencia e!&ec2Cica; En la e!/ /ica m(derna el in/er ! &(r el g ner( c(mEn &arece &re7alecer a /al grad( @*e (!c*rece 8 !*&rime la diCerencia e!&ec2Cica; Cr(ce in!i!/e en @*e n( !l( e>i!/e *na e!/recAa relacin en/re el leng*aBe 8 el ar/e !in( *na iden/idad c(m&le/a; SegEn !* manera de &en!ar"
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_ a!e supra/ &&; ?.# s. <unstA eine andere Fatur/ auch geheimnis-oll/ a!er -erstLndlicherI denn sie entspringt aus dem 2erstande/ _ a!e Maximen und )eflexionen/ ed; Ma> :ec{er" en GScAriC/en der G(e/AeOGe!ell!cAaC/G" XXI +#$N5," ??$;

re!*l/a ar3i/rari( di!/ing*ir en/re la! d(! ac/i7idade!; 0*ien e!/*dia lingJ2!/ica geO neral e!/*dia" !egEn l" &r(3lema! e!/ /ic(! 8 7ice7er!a; Sin em3arg(" Aa8 *na diCerencia innega3le en/re l(! !2m3(l(! del ar/e 8 l(! / rmin(! lingJ2!/ic(! del leng*aBe ( la e!cri/*ra c(rrien/e!; E!/a! d(! ac/i7idade! n( c(nc*erdan ni &(r !* carFc/er ni &(r !* CinM n( em&lean l(! mi!m(! medi(! ni /ienden Aacia la mi!ma me/a; Ni el leng*aBe ni el ar/e n(! &r(&(rci(nan *na mera imi/acin de c(!a! ( de acci(ne!M am3(! !(n re&re!en/aci(ne!; Per( *na re&re!en/acin en el medi( de la! C(rma! !en!i3le! diCiere am&liamen/e de *na re&re!en/acin 7er3al ( c(nce&/*al; La de!cri&cin de *n &ai!aBe &(r *n &in/(r ( *n &(e/a 8 la de *n gegraC( ( gel(g( a&ena! !i /ienen alg( de c(mEn; Tan/( el m(d( de de!cri&cin c(m( el m(/i7( !(n diCeren/e! en la (3ra del cien/2Cic( 8 en la del ar/i!/a; Un gegraC( &*ede de!cri3ir *n &ai!aBe en C(rma &lF!/ica 8 Aa!/a &in/arl( c(n ric(! 8 7i7(! c(l(re!" &er( l( @*e /ra/a de &r(d*cir n( e! la 7i!in del &ai!aBe !in( !* c(nce&/( em&2ric(; A e!/e Cin /iene @*e c(m&arar !* C(rma c(n (/ra!" 8 enc(n/rar" &(r (3!er7acin e ind*ccin" !*! ra!g(! carac/er2!/ic(!; El gel(g( a7anDa *n &a!( mF! en e!/a delineacin em&2rica" n( !e &*ede c(n/en/ar c(n *n regi!/r( de AecA(! C2!ic(!" &*e! /ra/a de di7*lgar el (rigen de e!/(! AecA(!; Di!/ing*e la! ca&a! @*e Aan c(nCig*rad( el !*el(" !e'aland( diCerencia! cr(n(O lgica!" 8 &a!a a la! le8e! ca*!ale! generale! !egEn la! c*ale! la /ierra Aa alcanDad( !* C(rma ac/*al; Para el ar/i!/a n( e>i!/en e!/a! relaci(ne! em&2rica!" e!/a! c(m&araci(ne! c(n (/r(! AecA(! 8 e!a! in7e!/igaci(ne! de la! relaci(ne! ca*!ale!; N*e!/r(! c(nce&/(! em&2ric(! c(rrien/e! !e &*eden di7idir" Aa3land( de *n m(d( general" en d(! cla!e!" !egEn /engan @*e 7er c(n l(! in/ere!e! &rFc/ic(! ( l(! /eric(!; Una de la! cla!e! aCec/a al *!( de la! c(!a! 8 a la c*e!/in `&ara @* !ir7e e!/(a La (/ra aCec/a a la! ca*!a! de la! c(!a! 8 a la c*e!/in `de dndea C*and( en/ram(! en el cam&( del ar/e /enem(! @*e (l7idar /(da! e!/a! c*e!/i(ne!; De/rF! de la e>i!/encia" de la na/*raleDa" de la! &r(&iedade! em&2rica! de la! c(!a! de!c*3rim(! !E3i/amen/e !*! C(rma!" @*e n( !(n elemen/(! e!/F/ic(!; N(! m*e!/ran *n (rden m7il @*e n(! re7ela *n n*e7( A(riD(n/e de la na/*raleDa; :a!/a l(! ma8(re! admirad(re! del ar/e Aan Aa3lad( a men*d( de l c(m( !i C*era *n mer( acce!(ri(" *n em3ellecimien/( ( ad(rn( de la 7ida" &er( e!/( !igniCica de!e!/imar !* !igniCicad( real 8 el &a&el eCec/i7( @*e de!em&e'a en la c*l/*ra A*mana; Un !im&le d*&licad( de la realidad Aa3r2a de !er !iem&re de *n 7al(r 3a!/an/e d*d(!(; Sl( !i c(nce3im(! el ar/e c(m( *na direccin e!&ecial" c(m( *na n*e7a (rien/acin de n*e!/r(! &en!amien/(!" de n*e!/ra imaginacin 8 de n*e!/r(! !en/imien/(!" &(drem(! c(m&render !* 7erdader( !en/id( 8 C*ncin; La! ar/e! &lF!/ica! n(! Aacen 7er el m*nd( !en!i3le en /(da !* ri@*eDa 8 di7er!idad; `0* Aa3r2am(! de c(n(cer de l(! inCini/(! ma/ice! en el a!&ec/( de la! c(!a! !i n( C*era &(r la! (3ra! de l(! grande! &in/(re! 8 e!c*l/(re!a A!2 /am3i n" la &(e!2a e! la re7elacin de n*e!/ra 7ida &er!(nal; La! inCini/a! &(/encialidade! !(n !acada! a l*D &(r el &(e/a l2ric(" &(r el n(7eli!/a 8 &(r el drama/*rg(; SemeBan/e ar/e en ningEn ca!( e! mera r &lica ( Cac!2mil !in( *na maniCe!/acin gen*ina de n*e!/ra 7ida in/eri(r; Mien/ra! n( 7i7im(! mF! @*e en el m*nd( de la! im&re!i(ne! !en!i3le! n( Aacem(! !in( /(car la !*&erCicie de la realidadM la &erca/acin de la &r(C*ndidad

de la! c(!a! e>ige !iem&re *n e!C*erD( &(r &ar/e de n*e!/ra! energ2a! ac/i7a! 8 c(n!/r*c/i7a!; C(m( e!/a! energ2a! n( !e m*e7en en la mi!ma direccin 8 n( /ienden Aacia el mi!m( Cin" /am&(c( &*eden &r(&(rci(narn(! el mi!m( a!&ec/( de la realidad; E>i!/e *na &r(C*ndidad c(nce&/*al c(m( e>i!/e *na A(nd*ra &*ramen/e 7i!*al; La &rimera e! de!c*3ier/a &(r la ciencia" la !eg*nda re7elada &(r el ar/eM la &rimera n(! a8*da a c(m&render la! raD(ne! de la! c(!a!" la !eg*nda a 7er !*! C(rma!; En la ciencia /ra/am(! de red*cir l(! Cenmen(! a !*! &rimera! ca*!a! 8 a le8e! 8 &rinci&i(! generale!; En el ar/e n(! Aallam(! a3!(r/(! en !* a&ariencia inmedia/a 8 g(Dam(! de e!/a a&ariencia &lenamen/e en /(da !* ri@*eDa 8 7ariedad; N( /enem(! @*e 7er c(n la *niC(rmidad de la! le8e! !in( c(n la m*l/iC(rmidad 8 di7er!idad de la! in/*ici(ne!; Tam3i n el ar/e &*ede !er de!cri/( c(m( *n c(n(cimien/(" &er( !e /ra/a de *n c(n(cimien/( de *n /i&( &ec*liar 8 e!&ec2Cic(; P(dem(! !*!cri3ir &erCec/amen/e la (3!er7acin de SAaC/e!3*r8 de @*e /(da 3elleDa e! 7erdad" &er( la 7erdad de la 3elleDa n( c(n!i!/e en *na de!cri&cin ( e>&licacin /erica de la! c(!a!M c(n!i!/e" mF! 3ien" en la G7i!in !im&F/icaG de la! c(!a!; #)5 E!/a! d(! idea! de la 7erdad !e Aallan en c(n/ra!/e &er( n( en c(n Clic/( ( c(n/radiccin; C(m( el ar/e 8 la ciencia !e m*e7en en &lan(! c(m&le/amen/e diCeren/e!" n( &*eden c(n/radecir!e ( en/(r&ecer!e; La in/er&re/acin c(nce&/*al de la ciencia n( (cl*8e la in/er&re/acin in/*i/i7a del ar/e; Cada *na &(!ee !* &er!&ec/i7a &r(&ia 8" c(m( !i deBFram(!" !* &r(&i( Fng*l( de reCraccin; La &!ic(l(g2a de la &erce&cin !en!i3le n(! Aa en!e'ad( @*e" !in el *!( de l(! d(! (B(!" !in *na 7i!in 3i(c*lar" n( n(! &erca/ar2am(! de la /ercera dimen!in del e!&aO ci(; La &r(C*ndidad de la e>&eriencia A*mana de&ende" en el mi!m( !en/id(" del AecA( de @*e !(m(! ca&ace! de 7ariar n*e!/r(! m(d(! de 7i!in" de @*e &(dem(! al/ernar n*e!/ra! 7i!i(ne! de la realidad; )erum -idere formas !e'ala *na /area n( men(! im&(r/an/e e indi!&en!a3le @*e rerum cognoscere causas. En la e>&eriencia (rdinaria c(nec/am(! l(! Cenmen(! de ac*erd( c(n la ca/eg(r2a de ca*!alidad ( de Cinalidad; SegEn n(! Aallem(! in/ere!ad(! en la! raD(ne! /erica! ( en l(! eCec/(! &rFc/ic(! de la! c(!a!" la! &en!am(! c(m( ca*!a! ( c(m( medi(!; De e!/e m(d( &erdem(! Aa3i/*alOmen/e de 7i!/a !* a&ariencia inmedia/a" Aa!/a @*e 8a n( la! &(dem(! 7er cara a cara; P(r (/ra &ar/e" el ar/e n(! en!e'a a 7i!*aliDar 8 n( !im&lemen/e a c(nce&/*aliDar ( */iliDar la! c(!a!; El ar/e n(! &r(&(rci(na *na imagen mF! rica" mF! 7i7ida 8 c(l(reada de la realidad 8 *na 7i!in mF! &r(C*nda en !* e!/r*c/*ra C(rmal; Carac/eriDa a la na/*raleDa del A(m3re @*e n( !e Aalla limi/ad( a *na !(la manera e!&ec2Cica de a3(rdar la realidad !in( @*e &*ede e!c(ger !* &*n/( de 7i!/a 8 &a!ar a!2 de *n a!&ec/( de la! c(!a! a (/r(;

#)5

_ a!e De Ki// :; Par{er" >he 5rincipies of Aesthetics/ &; .$4 %cientific truth is sympathetic -isin` the (rganiDa/i(n into clearness of experience itself. La diCerencia en/re la e>&eriencia cien/2Cica 8 e!/ /ica Aa !id( e>&*e!/a recien/emen/e en *n ar/2c*l( m*8 in!/r*c/i7( &(r el &r(Ce!(r F; S; C; N(r/Ar(&" en la re7i!/a urioso/ I/ N~ %" &&; 5# ss

X; LA :ISTORIA de /(da! la! 7aria! 8 di7ergen/e! deCinici(ne! de la na/*raleDa del A(m3re @*e !e Aan &re!en/ad( en la Ai!/(ria de la Cil(!(C2a" l(! Cil!(C(! m(dern(! !e 7ier(n c(nd*cid(! a men*d( a la c(ncl*!in de @*e e!/a c*e!/in e!" en cier/( !en/id(" de!&i!/ad(ra 8 c(n/radic/(ria; En n*e!/r( m*nd( m(dern(" dice Or/ega 8 Ga!!e/" e!/am(! e>&erimen/and( *n derr*m3amien/( de la /e(r2a clF!ica" griega" del !er 8" en c(n!ec*encia" de la /e(r2a clF!ica del A(m3re; La na/*raleDa e! *na c(!a" *na gran c(!a" @*e !e c(m&(ne de m*cAa! c(!a! men(re!; AA(ra 3ien4 c*ale!@*iera @*e !ean la! diCerencia! en/re la! c(!a!" /ienen /(da! ella! *n carFc/er radical c(mEn" el c*al c(n!i!/e !im&lemen/e en @*e la! c(!a! son/ /ienen *n !er; 6 e!/( !igniCica n( !l( @*e e>i!/en" @*e la! Aa8" @*e e!/Fn aA2" !in( @*e &(!een *na e!/r*c/*ra ( c(n!i!/encia CiBa 8 dada;;; O/r( n(m3re &ara e>&re!ar l( mi!m( e! la &ala3ra na/*raleDa; 6 la Caena de la ciencia na/*ral c(n!i!/e en de!c*3rir 3aB( la! n*3lada! a&ariencia! e!a na/*raleDa ( /e>/*ra &ermanen/e;;; Per( A(8 !a3em(! @*e /(d(! l(! &(r/en/(!" en &rinci&i( inag(/a3le!" de la! ciencia! na/*rale! !e de/endrFn !iem&re an/e la e>/ra'a realidad @*e e! la 7ida A*mana; `P(r @* a Si /(da! la! c(!a! Aan rendid( grande! &(rci(ne! de !* !ecre/( a la raDn C2!ica `&(r @* !e re!i!/e e!/a !(la /an den(dadamen/ea La ca*!a /iene @*e !er &r(C*nda 8 radicau H/al 7eD" nada men(! @*e e!/(4 @*e el A(m3re n( e! *na c(!a" @*e e! Cal!( Aa3lar de la na/*raleDa A*manaH" @*e el A(m3re n( /iene na/*raleDa;;; La 7ida A*mana;;; n( e! *na c(!a" n( /iene *na na/*raleDa" 8" en c(n!ec*encia" e! &reci!( re!(l7er!e a &en!arla c(n ca/eg(r2a!" c(n c(nce&/(! radicalmente di!/in/(! de l(! @*e n(! aclaran l(! Cenmen(! de la ma/eria;;; :a!/a aA(ra n*e!/ra lgica Aa !id( *na lgica del !er" 3a!ada en l(! c(nce&/(! C*ndamen/ale! del &en!amien/( eleF/ic(" &er( n( e!&erem(! c(m&render c(n e!/(! c(nce&/(! el carFc/er di!/in/i7( del A(m3re; El elea/ici!m( !igniCic la in/elec/*aliDacin radical de la 7ida A*mana; E! A(ra 8a de !alir de e!/e c2rc*l( mFgic(; GPara &(der Aa3lar del !er del A(m3re /enem(! @*e ela3(rar *n c(nce&/( n( eleF/ic( del !er" a!2 c(m( (/r(! Aan ela3(rad( *na ge(me/r2a n( e*clidiana; :a llegad( el /iem&( &ara @*e la !emilla &lan/ada &(r :erFcli/( &r(d*Dca !* gran c(!ecAa;G :a3iend( a&rendid( a inm*niDarn(! c(n/ra el in/elec/*ali!m( !(m(! c(n!cien/e! aA(ra de *na li3eracin del na/*rali!m(; NEl hom!re no tiene naturaleDa/ l( @*e /iene e!;;; historiaN.#]c El c(nClic/( en/re el !er 8 el de7enir" de!cri/( en el >eetetes de Pla/n c(m( el /ema C*ndamen/al del &en!amien/( Cil(!Cic( grieg(" n( !e re!*el7e" !in em3arg(" !i &a!am(! del m*nd( de la na/*raleDa al de la Ai!/(ria; De!de la 6rtica de la raDn pura de ^an/ c(nce3im(! el d*ali!m( en/re !er 8 de7enir mF! 3ien c(m( lgic( @*e c(m( me/aC2!ic(; 6a n( Aa3lam(! de *n m*nd( de cam3i( a3!(l*/( c(m( (&*e!/( a (/r( m*nd( de re&(!( a3!(l*/(; 6a n( c(n!ideram(! la !*!/ancia 8
DESPUbS

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Or/ega 8 Ga!!e/" Historia como sistema/ &&; .. s./ Madrid" #$%# +&*3licad( an/e! en 5hilosophy and History/ Essays 5resented to Ernst 6assirer/ O>C(rd Uni7er!i/8 Pre!!" #$.),;

el cam3i( c(m( rein(! diCeren/e! del !er !in( c(m( ca/eg( r2a!" c(m( c(ndici(ne! 8 !*&*e!/(! de n*e!/r( c(n(cimien/( em&2ric(; E!/a! ca/eg(r2a! !(n &rinci&i(! *ni7er!ale!M n( !e Aallan c(nCinada! a (3Be/(! e!&eciale! del c(n(cimien/(; :a3rem(!" &*e!" de enc(n/rarl(! en /(da! la! C(rma! de la e>&eriencia A*mana; De AecA( /am&(c( el m*nd( de la Ai!/(ria &*ede !er c(m&rendid( e in/er&re/ad( en / rmin(! de &*r( cam3i(; E!/e m*nd( incl*8e *n elemen/( !*!/ancial" *n elemen/( de !er; a*n@*e n( de3e !er deCinid( en el mi!m( !en/id( @*e en el m*nd( C2!ic(; Sin e!/e elemen/( diC2cilmen/e &(dr2am(! Aa3lar" c(m( Aace Or/ega 8 Ga!!e/" de la Ai!/(ria c(m( !i!/ema; Un !i!/ema &re!*&(ne !iem&re" !i n( *na na/*raleDa id n/ica" &(r l( men(! *na e!/r*c/*ra id n/ica; De AecA( e!/a iden/idad e!/r*c/*ral H*na iden/idad de C(rma 8 n( de ma/eriaH Aa !id( !iem&re !*3ra8ada &(r l(! grande! Ai!/(riad(re!; N(! Aan dicA( @*e el A(m3re /iene *na Ai!/(ria &(r@*e &(!ee *na na/*raleDa; Tal era el B*ici( de l(! Ai!/(riad(re! del Renacimien/(" &(r eBem&l(" de Ma@*ia7el(" 8 m*cA(! Ai!/(riad(re! m(dern(! Aan man/enid( e!/a idea; I*n/( a la Cl*encia /em&(ral" Aan e!&erad( enc(n/rar l(! ra! O g(! c(n!/an/e! de la na/*raleDa A*mana /ra! el &(lim(rCi!m( de la 7ida A*mana; En !*! )eflexiones so!re la historia uni-ersal Ia{(3 L*rc{Aard/ deCine la /area del Ai!/(riad(r c(m( *n in/en/( de e!/a3lecer l(! elemen/(! c(n!/an/e!" rec*rren/e!" /2&ic(!" &(r@*e /ale! elemen/(! &*eden e7(car *n ec( re!(nan/e en n*e!/r( in/elec/( 8 en n*e!/r( !en/imien/(; #)$ L( @*e den(minam(! Gc(nciencia Ai!/ricaG e! *n &r(d*c/( 7erdaderamen/e /ard2( de la ci7iliDacin A*mana; N( la enc(n/ram(! an/e! de la &(ca de l(! grande! Ai!/(riad(re! grieg(!; L(! mi!m(! &en!ad(re! grieg(! C*er(n inca&ace! de (Crecer *n anFli!i! Cil(!Cic( de la C(rma e!&ec2Cica del &en!amien/( Ai!/ric(; SemeBan/e anFli!i! n( a&areci Aa!/a el !igl( X_III;; El c(nce&/( de la Ai!/(ria alcanD !* mad*reD en la (3ra de _ic( 8 de :erder; C*and( el A(m3re em&eD a dar!e c*en/a del &r(3lema del /iem&(" c*and( 8a n( !e Aalla3a c(nCinad( en el e!/recA( c2rc*l( de !*! de!e(! 8 nece!idade! inmedia/a!" c*and( c(menD a in@*irir el (rigen de la! c(!a!" n( &*d( enc(n/rar mF! @*e *n (rigen m2/ic( 8 n( Ai!/ric(; Para c(m&render el m*nd(" /an/( el C2!ic( c(m( el !(cial" /*7( @*e &r(8ec/arl( !(3re el &a!ad( m2/ic(; En el mi/( e! d(nde enc(n/ram(! l(! &rimer(! en!a8(! &ara e!/a3lecer *n (rden cr(n(lgic( de la! c(!a! 8 l(! ac(n/ecimien/(!" &ara (Crecer *na c(!m(l(g2a 8 *na geneal(g2a de di(!e! 8 A(m3re!; E!/a c(!m(l(g2a 8 geneal(g2a n( !igniCica *na di!/incin Ai!/rica en !en/id( &r(&i(; El &a!ad(" el &re!en/e 8 el C*/*r( !e Aallan /(da72a C*ndid(!M C(rman *na *nidad indiCerenciada 8 *n /(d( indi!criminad(; El /iem&( m2/ic( n( &(!ee *na e!/r*c/*ra deCinidaM !ig*e !iend( *n G/iem&( e/ern(G; De!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a de la c(nciencia m2/ica" el &a!ad( n*nca e! &a!ad(M !e Aalla !iem&re Ga@*2G 8 GaA(raG; C*and( el A(m3re c(mienDa a le7an/ar el in/rincad( 7el( de la imaginacin m2/ica !e !ien/e /ran!&(r/ad( a *n m*nd( n*e7(M c(mienDa a C(rmar (/r( c(nce&/( de la 7erdad; P(dem(! !eg*ir la! di7er!a! e/a&a! de e!/e &r(ce!( al e!/*diar el de!arr(ll( del &en!amien/( Ai!/ric( grieg( de!de :er(d(/( a T*c2dide!; T*c2dide! e! el &rimer &en!ad(r @*e 7e 8 de!cri3e la
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Ia{(3 L*rc{Aard/" Welgeschichtliche (etrachtungen/ ed" &(r Ia{(3 Oeri +Lerl2n 8 S/*//gar/" #$N)," &; %; Trad; e!&a'(la de Kence!la( R(ce!" )eflexiones so!re la historia uni-ersal/ F(nd( de C*l/*ra Ec(nmica" #$%%M ^a ed;" C(leccin P(&*lar" #$-#;

Ai!/(ria de !* &r(&i( /iem&( 8 @*e mira Aacia el &a!ad( c(n *na men/e clara 8 cr2/ica 8 !e da &erCec/a c*en/a del AecA( de @*e e!/( !igniCica *n &a!( n*e7( 8 deci!i7(; Se Aa c(n7encid( de @*e el di!cernimien/( en/re el &en!amien/( m2/ic( 8 el Ai!/ric(" en/re la le8enda 8 la 7erdad" c(n!/i/*8e el ra!g( carac/er2!/ic( @*e c(n7er/irF !* (3ra en *n Gl(gr( &erd*ra3leG;#-N O/r(! grande! Ai!/(riad(re! Aan !en/id( de ig*al maneraM en *n e!3(D( a*/(3i(grFCic( n(! c*en/a Ran{e cm( !e di( c*en/a &(r &rimera 7eD de !* mi!in de Ai!/(riad(r; Siend( B(7en le a/ra2an m*cA( la! (3ra! Ai!/ric(On(7ele!ca! de Kal/er Sc(//; La! le2a c(n *na 7i7a !im&a/2a" &er( le di!g*!/a3an en alg*n(! &*n/(!; N( le agrad /r(&eDar c(n @*e la de!O cri&cin del c(nClic/( en/re L*i! XI 8 Carl(! el Temerari( !e Aalla3a en Clagran/e c(n/radiccin c(n l(! AecA(! Ai!/ric(!; E!/*di a C(mmine! 8 l(! rela/(! c(n/em&(rFne(! @*e ac(m&a'an a la! edici(ne! de e!/e a*/(r 8 me c(n7enc2 de @*e el L*i! XI 8 el Carl(! el Temerari( de!cri/(! en el #uintn 1urBard de Sc(// n( Aan e>i!/id( BamF!; En e!/e c(/eB( enc(n/r @*e la 7erdad Ai!/rica era mF! 3ella 8" en /(d( ca!(" mF! in/ere!an/e @*e /(da Ciccin n(7ele!ca; Me de!7i de !/a 8 re!(l72 e7i/ar /(da in7encin 8 Ca3ricacin en mi! (3ra! 8 a&egarme a l(! AecA(!; +Ran{e" GA*C!/De D*r eigenen Le3en!ge!OcAicA/eG" n(7iem3re" #11)" en %Lmtliche Wer3e/ ed; A; D(7e" LIII" -#; DeCinir la 7erdad Ai!/rica c(m( c(nc(rdancia c(n l(! AecA(! Hadae;uatio res et intellectusH n( re&re!en/a *na !(l*cin !a/i!Cac/(ria del &r(3lema; LeB(! de e!(" 8a l( da &(r re!*el/(; E! innega3le @*e la Ai!/(ria /iene @*e c(menDar c(n AecA(! 8 @*e" en cier/( !en/id(" e!/(! AecA(! n( c(n!/i/*8en !l( el c(mienD( !in( el / rmin(" el alCa 8 (mega de n*e!/r( c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric(; Per( `@* e! *n AecA( Ai!/ric(a T(da 7erdad de AecA( im&lica 7erdad /erica; #-# C*and( Aa3lam(! de AecA(! n( n(! reCerim(! !encillamen/e a n*e!/r(! da/(! !en!i3le! inmedia/(!; E!/am(! &en!and( en AecA(! em&2ric(!" e! decir" (3Be/i7(!; E!/a (3Be/i7idad n( e! dadaM im&lica" !iem&re" *n ac/( 8 *n &r(ce!( c(m&li cad( de B*ici(; Si de!eam(! c(n(cer la diCerencia en/re AecA(! cien/2Cic(! Hen/re l(! AecA(! de la C2!ica" de la 3i(l(g2a" de la Ai!/(riaH /endrem(! @*e c(menDar" &(r l( /an/(" c(n *n anFli!i! de l(! B*ici(!" e!/*diar l(! m(d(! de c(n(cimien/( &(r l(! c*ale! e!/(! AecA(! n(! !(n acce!i3le!; `0* e! l( @*e c(n!/i/*8e la diCerencia en/re *n AecA( C2!ic( 8 *n AecA( Ai!/ric(a Am3(! !e c(n!ideran c(m( &ar/e! de *na realidad em&2ricaM a am3(! le! a/ri3*im(! 7erdad (3Be/i7a; Per( !i /ra/am(! de e!/a3lecer la na/*raleDa de e!/a 7erdad &r(cederem(! en C(rma! diCeren/e!; Un AecA( C2!ic( !e Aalla de/erminad( &(r la (3!er7acin 8 el e>&erimen/(; E!/e &r(ce!( de (3Be/i7acin c(n!ig*e !* Cin !i l(gram(! de!cri3ir el Cenmen( dad( en leng*aBe ma/emF/ic(" en el leng*aBe de l(! nEmer(!; Un Cenmen( @*e n( &*ede !er de!cri/( de e!/e m(d(" @*e n( &*ede !er red*cid( a *n &r(ce!( de medida" n( C(rma &ar/e de n*e!/r( m*nd( C2!ic(; Tra/and( de deCinir la /area de la C2!ica dice Ma> Planc{ @*e el C2!ic( /iene @*e medir /(da! la! c(!a! men!*ra3le! 8 red*cir /(da! la! c(!a! inmen!*ra3le! a men!*ra3le!; N( /(da! la! c(!a! ( &r(ce!(! C2!ic(! !(n
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inmedia/amen/e men!*ra3le!M en m*cA(!" !i n( en la ma8(r2a de l(! ca!(!" de&endem(! de m /(d(! indirec/(! de 7eriCicacin 8 medida" &er( l(! AecA(! C2!ic(! !e Aallan relaci(nad(! &(r le8e! ca*!ale! c(n (/r(! Cenmen(! @*e !(n direc/amen/e (3!er7a3le! ( men!*ra3le!; Si *n C2!ic( d*da de l(! re!*l/ad(! de *n e>&erimen/( &*ede re&e/irl( 8 rec/iCicarl(!M !* (3Be/( le e!/F &re!en/e en /(d( m(men/(" di!&*e!/( a c(n/e!/ar a !*! &reg*n/a!; Per( c(n el Ai!/(riad(r el ca!( e! diCeren/e" !*! AecA(! &er/enecen al &a!ad( 8 el &a!ad( marcA &ara !iem&re; N( &(dem(! rec(n!/r*irl(" ni re!*ci/arl( a n*e7a 7ida en *n !en/id( &*ramen/e C2!ic(" (3Be/i7(; T(d( l( @*e &(dem(! Aacer e! Gremem(rarl(G" &re!/arle *na n*e7a e>i!/encia ideal; El &rimer &a!( del c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric( e! la rec(n!/r*ccin ideal" n( la (3!er7acin em&2rica; L( @*e den(minam(! *n AecA( cien/2Cic( e!" !iem&re" *na re!&*e!/a a *na &reg*n/a ( c*e!/in cien/2Cica @*e Aem(! C(rm*lad( de an/eman(; Per( `a @*i n &*ede dirigirla el Ai!/(riad(ra N( le e! &(!i3le c(nCr(n/ar l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! mi!m(!" en/rar en la! C(rma! de *na 7ida an/eri(rM n( di!&(ne mF! @*e de *n acce!( indirec/( a !* ma/eria; Tiene @*e c(n!*l/ar !*! C*en/e!" @*e n( !(n c(!a! C2!ica! en el !en/id( *!*al del / rmin(; T(da! ella! im&lican *n Cac/(r n*e7( 8 e!&ec2Cic(; El Ai!/(riad(r" l( mi!m( @*e el C2!ic(" 7i7e en *n m*nd( ma/erial" &er(" en l(! ini ci(! mi!m(! de !* in7e!/igacin" n( enc*en/ra *n m*nd( de (3Be/(! C2!ic(! !in( *n *ni7er!( !im3lic(" *n m*nd( de !2m3(l(!; De3e a&render" an/e! @*e nada" a leerl(!" &*e! /(d( AecA( Ai!/ric(" &(r m*8 !im&le @*e &areDca" n( !e de/ermina 8 c(m&rende mF! @*e median/e *n anFli!i! &re7i( de !2m3(l(!; N( !(n c(!a! ( ac(n/ecimien/(! !in( d(c*men/(! ( m(n*men/(! l(! @*e c(n!/i/*8en l(! (3Be/(! &rimer(! e inmedia/(! de n*e!/r( c(n(cimien/( (3Be/i7(; Sl( &(r la mediacin e in/er7encin de e!/(! da/(! !en!i3le! &(dem(! ca&/ar l(! da/(! Ai!/ric(! reale!" l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! 8 l(! A(m3re! del &a!ad(; An/e! de en/rar en *na di!c*!in general del &r(3lema /ra/ar de e!clarecer e!/e &*n/( Aaciend( reCerencia a *n eBem&l( c(ncre/( 8 e!&ec2Cic(; :ace *n(! /rein/a 8 cinc( a'(! !e enc(n/r *n 7ieB( &a&ir( egi&ci( en/re l(! e!c(m3r(! de *na ca!aM c(n/en2a 7aria! in!cri&ci(ne! @*e &arec2an !er la! n(/a! de *n a3(gad( ( de *n n(/ari( &E3lic( reCeren/e! a !* neg(ci(" 3(rrad(re! de /e!/amen/(!" de c(n/ra/(! legale! 8 c(!a! &(r el e!/il(; :a!/a a@*2 el &a&ir( &er/enec2a" !encillamen/e" al m*nd( ma/erialM n( /en2a im&(r/ancia Ai!/rica ni" &(r decirl( a!2" e>i!/encia Ai!/rica; Per( !e de!c*3ri la e>i!/encia de *n !eg*nd( /e>/( de3aB( del &rimer( 8" l*eg( de *n e>amen a/en/(" !e rec(n(ci @*e !e /ra /a3a de l(! re!/(! de c*a/r( c(media! de Menandr(" de!c(n(cida! Aa!/a en/(nce!; En e!/e in!/an/e cam3i &(r c(m&le/( !* na/*raleDa 8 !igniCicacin; N( n(! AallF3am(! 8a an/e *n mer( /r(D( de ma/eriaM el &a&ir( !e Aa32a c(n7er/id( en *n d(c*men/( Ai!/ric( del mF>im( 7al(r e in/er !; Ser72a de /e!/im(ni( de *na e/a&a im&(r/an/e en el de!arr(ll( de la li/era/*ra griega; Sin em3arg(" e!/a !igniCicacin n( era inmedia/amen/e &a/en/e; :*3( de !(me/er!e el d(c*men/( a /(da cla!e de &r*e3a! cr2/ica!" a c*idad(!(! anFli!i! lingJ2!/ic(!" Cil(lgic(!" li/erari(! 8 e!/ /ic(!; De!&* ! de e!/e c(m&licad( &r(ce!(" 8a n( era *na mera c(!a4 !e Aalla3a cargad( de !en/id(M !e Aa32a c(n7er/id( en *n !2m3(l( 8 e!/e

!2m3(l( n(! &r(&(rci(na3a *na n*e7a 7i!in de la c*l/*ra" de la 7ida 8 de la &(e!2a griega!; #-? T(d( e!/( &arece (37i( e innega3le; Per(" c(!a c* ri(!a" &reci!amen/e e!/a carac/er2!/ica C*ndamen/al del c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric( e! la @*e Aa !id( en/eramen/e de!c*idada en la ma8(r2a de la! di!c*!i(ne! m(derna! !(3re el m /(d( 8 la 7erdad Ai!/ric(!; La ma8(r2a de l(! a*/(re! 3*!ca3an la diCerencia en/re la Ai!/(ria 8 la ciencia en la lgica y n( en el o!=eto de la Ai!/(ria; Derr(cAar(n el ma8(r e!C*erD( en c(n!/r*ir *na n*e7a lgica de la Ai!/(ria" &er( /(d(! e!/(! in/en/(! e!/a3an a3(cad(! al Craca!(" La lgica" de!&* ! de /(d(" e! *na c(!a 7erdaderamen/e !im&le 8 *niC(rmeM e! Enica" &(r l( mi!m( @*e la 7erdad e! Enica; En !* 3E!@*eda de la 7erdad el Ai!/(riad(r !e Aalla 7inc*lad( a la! mi!ma! regla! C(rmale! @*e el cien/2Cic(; En !*! m(d(! de ra D(nar 8 argJir" en !*! inCerencia! ind*c/i7a!" en !* in7e!/igacin de la! ca*!a!" (3edece a la! mi!ma! le8e! generale! del &en!amien/( @*e el C2!ic( ( el 3il(g(; P(r l( @*e !e reCiere a e!/a! ac/i7idade! /erica! C*ndamen/ale! de la men/e A*mana" n( n(! e! &(!i3le Aacer di!/incin alg*na en/re l(! diCeren/e! cam&(! del c(n(cimien/(; P(dem(! !*!cri3ir" a e!/e re!&ec/(" la! &ala3ra! de De!car/e!4 T(mada! la! ciencia! en c(nB*n/( !e iden/iCican c(n la !a3id*r2a A*mana" la c*al e! !iem&re *na 8 la mi!ma" a*n@*e !e a&li@*e a ma/eria! diCeren/e!" 8 n( !*Cre ma8(r diCerenciacin &(r !/a! @*e la l*D del !(l &(r la 7ariedad de la! c(O !a! @*e il*mina; 0)egulae ad directionem ingenii/ I/ GOe*7re!G" ed; CAarle! Adam 8 Pa*l Tanner8" Par2!" #1$5" X" .-N;, P(r m*8 Ae/er(g ne(! @*e &*edan !er l(! (3Be/(! del c(n(cimien/( A*man(" la! C(rma! de e!/e c(n(cimien/( m*e!/ran !iem&re *na *nidad in/erna 8 *na A(m(ge O neidad lgica; El &en!amien/( Ai!/ric( 8 el cien/2Cic( n( !e &*eden di!/ing*ir &(r !* C(rma lgica !in( &(r !*! (3Be/i7(! 8 &(r !* ma/eria; Si de!eam(! CiBar e!/a di!/incin n( n(! 3a!/arF c(n decir @*e el cien/2Cic( /iene @*e 7er c(n (3Be/(! &re!en/e! mien/ra! @*e el Ai!/(riad(r c(n (3Be/(! &a!ad(!; SemeBan/e di!/incin &(dr2a ind*cir a err(r; El cien/2Cic(" l( mi!m( @*e el Ai!/(riad(r" &*ede indagar m*8 3ien el (rigen rem(/( de la! c(!a!; Un in/en/( !emeBan/e C*e AecA(" &(r eBem&l(" &(r ^an/" @*ien en #5)) de!arr(ll *na /e(r2a a!/r(nmica @*e re!*l/" /am3i n" *na Ai!/(ria *ni7er!al del m*nd( ma/erialM a&lic el n*e7( m /(d( de la C2!ica" el m /(d( ne9/(nian(" a la !(l*cin de *n &r(3lema Ai!/ric(; Al Aacer e!/( de!arr(ll la Ai&/e!i! de la ne3*l(!a" c(n la c*al /ra/ de de!cri3ir la e7(l* O cin del (rden c!mic( ac/*al &ar/iend( de *n e!/ad( an/eri(r de la ma/eria indiCerenciad( e in(rganiDad(; Se /ra/a3a de *n &r(3lema de Ai!/(ria na/*ral" &er( n( era historia en el !en/id( e!&ec2Cic( de e!/e / rmin(; La Ai!/(ria n( &re/ende de!c*3rir *n e!/ad( an/eri(r del m*nd( C2!ic( !in( *n e!/ad( an/eri(r de la 7ida 8 de la c*l/*ra A*mana!; En la !(l*cin de e!/e &r(3lema &*ede Aacer *!( de l(! m /(d(! cien/2Cic(! &er( n( &*ede limi/ar!e a l(! da/(! acce!i3le! &(r e!/(! m /(d(!; NingEn (3Be/( !e Aalla e>en/( de la! le8e! de la na/*raleDa; L(! (3Be/(! Ai!/ric(! n( &(!een *na realidad !e&arada 8 a*/(!*Cicien/eM !e Aallan
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Para de/alle! !(3re e!/e de!c*3rimien/( 7 a!e G*!/a7e LeCe37re" ragments d+un manuscrit de Mnandre/ dcou-erts et pu!lis +El Cair(" Im&re!!i(n de lwIn!/i/*/ Franai! dwArOcA (l(gie" #$N5,;

inc(r&(rad(! a (3Be/(! C2!ic(! &er(" a &e!ar de e!/a encarnacin" &er/enecen" &(r decirl( a!2" a *na dimen!in mF! al/a; L( @*e den(minam(! !en/id( Ai!/ric( n( cam3ia la C(rma de la! c(!a! ni /am&(c( de/ec/a en ella! *na c*alidad n*e7aM (/(rga a la! c(!a! 8 a l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! *na n*e7a &r(C*ndidad; C*and( el cien/2Cic( /ra/a de ac*dir al &a!ad( n( em&lea (/r(! c(nce&/(! ( ca/eg( r2a! @*e l(! de !*! (3!er7aci(ne! del &re!en/e; C(nec/a el &re!en/e c(n el &a!ad( !ig*iend(" re/r(!&ec/i7amen/e" la cadena de ca*!a! 8 eCec/(!; E!/*dia en el &re!en/e la! A*ella! ma/eriale! @*e Aa deBad( el &a!ad( @*e e!" &(r eBem&l(" el m /(d( de la ge(l(g2a ( de la &ale(n/(l(g2a; Tam3i n la Ai!/(ria /iene @*e c(menDar c(n e!/a! A*ella!" &*e! !in ella! n( le !er2a &(!i3le dar *n !(l( &a!(M &er( !e /ra/a de *na /area /an !l( &reliminar; A e!/a rec(n!/r*ccin real" em&2rica" la Ai!/(ria a'ade (/ra !im3lica; El Ai!/(riad(r /iene @*e a&render a leer e in/er&re/ar !*! d(c*men/(! 8 m(n*men/(!" n( !l( c(m( 7e!/igi(! m*er/(! del &a!ad(" !in( c(m( !*! men!aBe! 7i7(! @*e !e dirigen a n(!(/r(! en !* &r(&i( leng*aBe; AA(ra 3ien" el c(n/enid( !im3lic( de e!/(! men!aBe! n( e! inmedia/amen/e (3!er7a3le; La /area del lingJi!/a" del Cill(g( 8 del Ai!/(riad(r c(n!i!/e en GAacerl(! Aa3larG 8 en Aacern(! in/eligi3le !* leng*aBe; La di!/incin C*ndamen/al en/re la! (3ra! del Ai!/(riad(r 8 la! del gel(g( ( &ale(n/l(g( n( !e de3e a la e!/r*c/*ra lgica del &en!amien/( Ai!/ric( !in( a e!/a !* /area e!&ecial" a e!/a mi!in e!&ec2Cica; Si el Ai!/(riad(r Craca!a al de!ciCrar el leng*aBe !im3lic( de !*! m(n*men/(!" la Ai!/(ria re!*l/a &ara l *n li3r( Aerm /ic(M en cier/( !en/id(" e! lingJi!/a en m*cA( ma8(r grad( @*e cien/2Cic(; Per( n( !l( e!/*dia la! leng*a! Aa3lada! 8 e!cri/a! de la A*manidad !in( @*e /ra/a de &ene/rar en el !en/id( de l(! di7er!(! leng*aBe! !im3lic(!M n( enc*en/ra /(d(! !*! /e>/(! en li3r(!" anale! ( mem(ria!" /iene @*e leer Ber(gl2Cic(! ( in!cri&ci(ne! c*neiC(rme!" @*e mirar l(! c(l(re! de *na &ared" e!/a/*a! de mFrm(l ( 3r(nce" ca/edrale! ( /em&l(!" m(neda! ( gema!; N( Aa de c(n!iderar e!/a! c(!a! c(n el e!&2ri/* de *n an/ic*ari(" @*e /ra/a de c(lecci(nar 8 &re!er7ar l(! /e!(r(! de l(! 7ieB(! /iem&(!; L( @*e el Ai!/(riad(r anda 3*!cand( e! la ma/erialiDacin del e!&2ri/* de *na edad &a!ada; De/ec/a el mi!m( e!&2ri/* en la! le8e! 8 en l(! e!/a/*/(!" en la! declaraci(ne! de derecA(" en in!/i/*ci(ne! !(ciale! 8 en c(n!/i/*ci(ne! &(l2/ica!" en ri/(! 8 cerem(nia! religi(!(!; Para el 7erdader( Ai!/(riad(r" !emeBan/e ma/erial n( e! *n AecA( &e/riCicad( !in( C(rma 7i7a; La Ai!/(ria e! el in/en/( de c((rdinar /(d(! e!/(! dis=ecta mem!ra del &a!ad( !in/e/iDFnd(l(! 8 am(ldFnd(l(! en *na n*e7a C(rma; En/re l(! C*ndad(re! m(dern(! de *na Cil(!(C2a de la Ai!/(ria" :erder C*e @*ien /*7( la 7i!in mF! clara de e!/e a!&ec/( del &r(ce!( Ai!/ric(; S*! (3ra! n( n(! (Crecen Enicamen/e *na rec(leccin !in( *na re!*rreccin del &a!ad(M n( era *n Ai!/(riad(r en !en/id( &r(&i(M n( n(! Aa deBad( ning*na gran (3ra Ai!/ricaM ni !* a&(r/acin Cil(!Cica !e &*ede c(m&arar c(n la (3ra de :egel; Sin em3arg(" C*e el e>&l(rad(r de *n n*e7( ideal de la 7erdad Ai!/rica; Sin l" n( A*3iera !id( &(!i3le la (3ra de Ran{e ( de :egel; P(!e2a el gran &(der &er!(nal de reanimar el &a!ad(" de c(m*nicar el(c*encia a l(! Cragmen/(! 8 7e!/igi(! de la 7ida m(ral" religi(!a 8 c*l/*ral del A(m3re; E!/e ra!g( de la (3ra de :erder C*e el @*e &r(7(c el en/*!ia!m( de G(e/Ae; C(m( e!cri32a en *na de

!*! car/a!" n( enc(n/ra3a en la! de!cri&ci(ne! Ai!/rica! de :erder la mera GcF!cara del !er A*man(G; L( @*e &r(7(ca3a !* &r(C*nda admiracin era G!* manera de 3arrer 8 n( cier/amen/e de cernir (r( de la! 3arred*ra! !in( de /ran!C(rmar la! 3arred*ra! en *na &lan/a 7i7aG; #-. E!/a /ran!C(rmacin ( &alingene!ia" e!/e renacimien/( del &a!ad( e! l( @*e !e'ala 8 de!/aca al gran Ai!/(riad(r; Federic( ScAlegel llama al Ai!/(riad(r *n G&r(Ce/a al re7 !G #-% E>i!/e /am3i n *na &r(Cec2a del &a!ad(" *na re7elacin de !* 7ida (c*l/a; La Ai!/(ria n( &*ede &redecir l(! ac(n/ecimien/(!M Enicamen/e &*ede in/er&re/ar el &a!ad(; Per( la 7ida A*mana e! *n (rgani! m( en el c*al /(d(! l(! elemen/(! !e im&lican 8 e>&lican m*/*amen/e; P(r c(n!ig*ien/e" *na n*e7a c(m&ren!in del &a!ad( n(! &r(&(rci(na" al mi!m( /iem&(" *na n*e 7a &r(!&eccin del C*/*r( @*e" a !* 7eD" !e c(n7ier/e en *n im&*l!( de la 7ida in/elec/*al 8 !(cial; Para e!/a d(3le 7i!in del m*nd(" &r(!&ec/i7a 8 re/r(!&ec/i7a" el Ai!/(riad(r /iene @*e e!c(ger !* &*n/( de &ar/ida; N( &*ede enc(n/rarl( mF! @*e en !* &r(&i( /iem&( ni ir mF! allF de la! c(ndici(ne! de !* e>&eriencia ac/*al; El c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric( e! la re!&*e!/a a &reg*n/a! deCinida!" @*e /iene @*e !er &r(&(rci(nada &(r el &a!ad(M &er( la! &reg*n/a! mi!ma! !e Aallan &lan/eada! 8 dic/ada! &(r el &re!en/e" &(r n*e!/r(! in/ere!e! in/elec/*ale! 8 &(r n*e!/ra! nece!idade! m(rale! 8 !(ciale! &re!en/e!; E! innega3le la c(ne>in en/re el &re!en/e 8 el &a!ad( &er(" 3a!Fnd(n(! en e!/(" &(dem(! e>/raer c(ncl*!i(ne! m*8 diCeren/e! en l( @*e c(ncierne a la cer/eDa 8 al 7al(r del c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric(; En la Cil(!(C2a c(n/em&(rFnea Cr(ce e! el cam&en del Ai!/(rici!m( mF! radicalM &ara l" la Ai!/(ria n( c(n!/i/*8e *n de&ar/amen/( e!&ecial !in( la realidad 2n/egra; S* /e!i! de @*e /(da Ai!/(ria e! Ai!/(ria c(n/em&(rFnea c(nd*ce" &(r l( /an/(" a *na c(m&le/a iden/iCicacin de la Cil(!(C2a 8 de la Ai!/(ria; Ni &(r encima ni &(r de3aB( del rein( A*man( de la Ai!/(ria e>i!/e ningEn (/r( rein( del !er" ningEn (/r( (3Be/( &ara el &en!amien/( Cil(!Cic(;#-) Nie/D!cAe !ac la c(ncl*!in (&*e!/a; Tam3i n in!i!/2a l en @*e GEnicamen/e &(dem(! e>&licar el &a!ad( &(r l( mF! ele7ad( del &re!en/eG; Per( e!/a aCirmacin le !er72a Enicamen/e c(m( /ram&(l2n &ara *n a/a@*e 7i(len/( al 7al(r de la Ai!/(ria; En !*! 6onsideraciones extempor7neas/ c(n @*e c(menD !* (3ra de Cil!(C( 8 de cr2/ic( de la c*l/*ra m(derna" arreme /2a c(n el llamad( G!en/id( Ai!/ric(G de n*e!/r( /iem&( 8 &re/end2a dem(!/rar @*e" leB(! de !er m ri/( 8 &ri7ilegi( de n*e!/ra 7ida c*l/*ral" re&re!en/a3a !* &eligr( in/r2n!ec(; Era la enCermedad @*e &adec2am(!; La Ai!/(ria n( /iene !en/id( mF! @*e c(m( !er7id(ra de la 7ida 8 de la accin; Si el criad( !e alDa c(n el &( der" !i de!&laDa al am(" (3!/r*8e la! energ2a! de la 7ida; P(r e>ce!( de Ai!/(ria" n*e!/ra 7ida !e Aa m*/ilad( 8 degenerad(M im&ide la! AaDa'a! n*e7a! del im&*l!( &(der(!( 8 &araliDa al ac/(rM &(r@*e la ma8(r2a de n(!(/r(! !l( &(dem(! (3rar !i
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1eine Art Du fegen `una nicht etBa aus dem <ehricht le!endigen 5flanDe umDupalingenesieren/ legt mich immer :erder" ma8( #55)" (riefe +ed; Keimar," II" ?-?; #-% GA/Aen*m!Cragmen/eG" 1N" op. cit./ II" ?#); #-) S(3re e!/e &r(3lema 7 a!e G*id( Cal(ger(; GOn PAil(!(&A8G en 5hilosophy and History/ Essays 5resented

Gold Du sie!en/ sondern den <ehricht Dur auf die <nie meines HerDens. G(e/Ae a /Ae S( Called Iden/i/8 (C :i!/(r8 and to Ernst 6assirer/ &&; .)O)?;

(l7idam(!; El !en/id( Ai!/ric( ilimi/ad(" lle7ad( a !* e>/rem( lgic(" de!arraiga el C*/*r(; #-- Per( e!/e B*ici( de&ende de la ar/iCicial di!/incin @*e Aace Nie/D!cAe en/re la 7ida de accin 8 la 7ida de &en!amien/(; C*and( realiD e!e a/a@*e !eg*2a !iend(" /(da72a" *n di!c2&*l( de ScA(&enAa*er; C(n(c2a la 7ida c(m( la maniCe!/acin de *na 7(l*n/ad ciega; La ceg*era era" &ara Nie/D!cAe" la 7erdadera c(ndicin de *na 7ida realmen/e ac/i7a" mien/ra! @*e el &en!amien/( 8 la c(nciencia !e (&(n2an a la 7i/alidad; Si recAaDam(! e!/e !*&*e!/(" la! c(n!eO c*encia! @*e !aca Nie/D!cAe !erFn in!(!/eni3le!; En realidad" n*e!/ra c(nciencia del &a!ad( n( de3ili/a ( enc(ge n*e!/r(! &(dere! ac/i7(!; Em&leada en C(rma adec*ada" n(! &r(&(rci(na *na 7i!in mF! li3re del &re!en/e 8 reC*erDa n*e!/ra re!&(n!a3ilidad re!&ec/( al C*/*r(; El A(m3re n( &*ede m(ldear la C(rma del C* O /*r( !in dar!e c*en/a de !*! c(ndici(ne! ac/*ale! 8 de la! limi/aci(ne! de !* &a!ad(; C(m( !(l2a decir Lei3niD" on recede pour mieux sauter/ !e /(ma carrerilla &ara !al/ar mF! al/(; :erFcli/( ac*' &ara el m*nd( C2!ic( la mF>ima fR]n Y[ jW\[ XlU" el camin( Aacia arri3a 8 el camin( Aacia a3aB( !(n *na mi!ma c(!a; #-5 En cier/( !en/id(" &(dem(! a&licar e!a Cra!e al m*nd( Ai!/ric(M /am3i n n*e!/ra c(nciencia Ai!/rica e! *na *nidad de c(n/rari(!" c(nec/a l(! &(l(! (&*e!/(! del /iem&( 8 n(! &r(&(rci(na a!2 n*e!/r( !en/imien/( &ara la c(n/in*idad de la c*l/*ra; E!/a *nidad 8 e!/a c(n/in*idad re!*l/an e!&ecialmen/e clara! en el cam&( de n*e!/ra c*l/*ra win/elec/*al" en la Ai!/(ria de la ma/emF/ica" de la ciencia ( de la Cil(!(C2a; Nadie in/en/arF e!cri3ir *na Ai!/(ria de la ma/emF/ica ( de la Cil(!(C2a !in /ener *na 7i!in clara de l(! &r(3lema! !i!/emF/ic(! de la! d(! ciencia!; L(! AecA(! del &a!ad( Cil(!Cic(" la! d(c/rina! 8 !i!/ema! de l(! grande! &en!ad(re! carecen de !en/id( !in *na in/er&re/acin" 8 e!/e &r(ce!( de in/er&re/acin n*nca llega a *n re&(!( c(m&le/(; Tan &r(n/( c(m( Aem(! alcanDad( *n n*e7( cen/r( 8 *na n*e7a l2nea de 7i!in en n*e!/r( &en!amien/(" n(! 7em(! (3ligad(! a re7i!ar n*e!/r(! B*ici(!; Aca!( n( Aa8a eBem&l( mF! carac/er2!/ic( e in!/r*c/i7( a e!/e re!&ec/( @*e el @*e n(! (Crecen l(! cam3i(! e>&erimen/ad(! en la !em3lanDa de Scra/e!; Tenem(! el Scra/e! de Ien(C(n/e 8 el de Pla/(nM *n Scra/e! e!/(ic(" e!c &/ic(" m2!/ic(" raci(nali!/a" 8 *n Scra/e! r(mFn/ic(; S(n a3!(l*/amen/e di!O &are!; Sin em3arg(" n( !(n Cal!(!M cada *n( de ell(! n(! &r(&(rci(na *n a!&ec/( n*e7(" *na &er!&ec/i7a carac/er2!/ica del Scra/e! Ai!/ric( 8 de !* Ci!(n(m2a in/elec/*al 8 m(ral; Pla/n 7i( en Scra/e! al gran dial c/ic( 8 al gran mae!/r( de m(ralM M(n/aigne 7i( en l al Cil!(C( an/id(gmF/ic(" @*e c(nCe!a3a !* ign(ranO ciaM FriedricA ScAlegel 8 l(! &en!ad(re! r(mFn/ic(! !e CiBar(n" !(3re /(d(" en la ir(n2a !(crF/ica; En el ca!( de Pla/n &(dr2am(! /raDar el mi!m( de!arr(ll(; Tenem(! *n Pla/n m2!/ic(" el Pla/n de l(! ne(&la/nic(!M *n Pla/n cri!/ian(" el de Ag*!/2n 8 Mar!ili( Ficin(M *n Pla/n raci(nali!/a" el de M(!e! Mendel!!(AnM 8" Aace /(da72a *na! c*an/a! d cada!" /*7im(! *n Pla/n {an/ian(; P(dem(! !(nre2r an/e /(da! e!/a! in/er&re/aci(ne! diCeren/e!" &er( ademF! del a!&ec/( nega/i7(
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Nie/D!cAe" G_(m N*/Den *nd NacA/eil der :i!/(rie CJr da! Le3enG en $nDeitgemLsse (etrachtungen/ #15%" Par/e III;:a8 /rad; e!&a'(la +ed; Ag*ilar,; #-5 Fragmen/( -N de la (3ra de Diel!" 1ie ragmente der 2orso3rati3er/ I" #-%; _ a!e la edicin de El C(legi( de M >ic(" #$%.;

Aa8 *n( &(!i/i7(; T(da! ella! Aan c(n/ri3*id(" en !* &r(&ia medida" a la c(m&ren!in 8 a la 7al(racin !i!/emF/ica de la (3ra de Pla/nM cada *na Aa in!i!/id( en *n cier/( a!&ec/( @*e (Crece !* (3ra &er( @*e !l( &(d2a &(ner!e de maniCie!/( a /ra7 ! de *n c(m&licad( &r(ce!( de &en!amien/(; Al Aa3lar ^an/" en !* 6rtica de la raDn pura/ de Pla/n" !e'ala e!/e AecA(4 G;;; n( e! nada rar( @*e al c(m&arar l(! &en!amien/(! e>&*e!/(! &(r *n a*/(r re!&ec/( a !* /ema;;; enc(n/rem(! @*e l( Aem(! en/endid( meB(r @*e l mi!m( !e en/endi; C(m( n( Aa32a de/erminad( !*Cicien/emen/e !* c(nce&/(" a 7ece! Aa3l ( Aa!/a &en! en c(n/ra de !* &r(&ia in/encinG; La Ai!/(ria de la Cil(!(C2a n(! m*e!/ra" c(n gran claridad" @*e raramen/e la de/erminacin &lena de *n c(nce&/( e! la (3ra del &en!ad(r @*e l( in/r(d*B(; P(r@*e *n c(nce&/( Cil(!Cic(" Aa3land( en general" e! mF! 3ien *n &r(3lema @*e la !(l*cin del mi!m(" 8 n( !e &*ede c(m&render la !igniCicacin &lena de e!/e &r(3lema mien/ra! !e Aalle en !* &rimer e!/ad( im&l2ci/(; E! mene!/er @*e !e Aaga e>&l2ci/( &ara @*e l( a&reAendam(! en !* 7erdader( !en/id( 8 e!/a /ran!icin de *n e!/ad( im&l2ci/( a (/r( e>&l2ci/( e! (3ra del C*/*r(; Se &(dr2a (3Be/ar @*e !emeBan/e &r(ce!( c(n/in*( de in/er&re/acin 8 rein/er&re/acin e! nece!ari( en la Ai!/(ria de la! idea!" &er( @*e 8a n( (c*rre l( mi!m( c*and( &a!am(! a la Ai!/(ria real" a la Ai!/(ria del A(m3re 8 de la! acci(ne! A*mana!; Parece c(m( !i en e!/e cam&( /*7i ram(! @*e Aa3 rn(!la! c(n AecA(! 3r*/(!" &a/en/e! 8 &al&a3le!" @*e Enicamen/e /ienen @*e !er rela/ad(! &ara !er c(n(cid(!" &er( /am&(c( la Ai!/(ria &(l2/ica c(n!/i/*8e *na e>ce&cin a la regla me/(d(lgica general; L( @*e !e a&lica a la in/er&re/acin de *n gran &en!ad(r 8 de !*! (3ra! Cil(!Cica! 7ale /am3i n &ara n*e!/r(! B*ici(! c(ncernien/e! a *n gran carFc/er &(l2/ic(; FriedricA G*nd(lC Aa e!cri/( *n li3r( en/er(" n( !(3re C !ar" !in( !(3re la Ai!/(ria de la GCamaG de C !ar 8 de la! in/er&re/aci(ne! cam3ian/e! de !* carFc/er 8 de !* mi!in &(l2/ica de!de la An/igJedad Aa!/a n*e!/r(! d2a!; #-1 En n*e!/ra 7ida !(cial 8 &(l2/ica" &reci!amen/e" e! d(nde m*cAa! /endencia! C*ndamen/ale! !l( m*e!/ran !* C*erDa 8 !en/id( &len(! en *na e/a&a rela/i7amen/e /ard2a; Un ideal &(l2/ic( 8 *n &r(grama !(cial" c(nce3id(! Aace larg( /iem&( en *n !en/id( im&l2ci/(" !e Aacen e>&l2ci/(! gracia! a *n de!arr(ll( *l/eri(r; ;; ;!e &*ede !eg*ir el ra!/r( He!cri3e S; E; M(rri!(n en !* Historia de Estados $nidos H de m*cAa! idea! del n(r/eamerican( germinal Aa!/a la madre &a/ria; En Ingla/erra e!/a! idea! &er!i!/en a /ra7 ! de l(! !igl(!" a &e!ar de cier/a! deC(rmaci(ne! 8 Cr*!/raci(ne! a man(! de l(! re8e! T*d(r 8 de l(! ari!/cra/a! Bhig. En Am rica enc(n/rar(n (&(r/*nidad &ara !* li3re de!arr(ll(; A!2;;; 7ieB(! 8 !lid(! &reB*ici(! ingle!e! !e Aallan inc(r&(rad(! a la! declaraci(ne! n(r/eO americana! de derecA(!" e in!/i/*ci(ne! /(/almen/e an/ic*ada! en Ingla/erra &er!i!/en c(n &e@*e'a! m(diCicaci(ne! en l(! e!/ad(! n(r/eamerican(! Aa!/a mediad(! del !igl( XIX; F*e mi!in inc(n!cien/e de E!/ad(! Unid(! Aacer e>&l2ci/( l( @*e d*ran/e m*cA( /iem&( e!/*7( im&l2ci/( en la c(n!/i/*cin ingle!a 8 el &r(3ar el 7al(r de &rinci&i(! @*e Aac2a /iem&( !e Aa32an (l7idad( en la Ingla/erra
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FriedricA G*nd(lC" 6aesar/ Geschichte seines )uhms +Lerl2n" #$?%,;

de I(rge III;#-$ En la Ai!/(ria &(l2/ica" en m(d( alg*n( n(! in/ere!an l(! AecA(! cr*d(!M @*erem(! c(m&render n( !l( la! acci(ne! !in( l(! ac/(re!; N*e!/r( B*ici( !(3re el c*r!( de l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! &(l2/ic(! de&ende de n*e!/ra idea de l(! A(m3re! c(m&r(me/id(! en ell(!; Tan &r(n/( c(m( 7em(! a e!/(! &er!(naBe! a *na n*e7a l*D" cam3iam(! /am3i n n*e!/ra! idea! !(3re l(! ac(n/ecimien/(!; Tam&(c( e! &(!i3le l(grar *na 7i!in Ai!/rica /an 7erdadera !in *n c(n!/an/e &r(ce!( de re7i!in; La GrandeDa y decadencia de )oma de Ferrer( diCiere en m*cA(! &*n/(! im&(r/an/e! de la de!cri&cin @*e Aace M(mm!en de la mi!ma &(ca; E!/a di!cre&ancia !e de3e" en gran &ar/e" a @*e l(! d(! a*/(re! /ienen *na c(nce&cin c(m&le/amen/e diCeren/e de Cicern; Para C(rmar *n B*ici( adec*ad( de Cicern n( 3a!/a" !in em3arg(" c(n c(n(cer /(d(! l(! !*ce!(! de !* c(n!*lad(" la &ar/e @*e de!em&e' en el de!c*3rimien/( de la c(n!&iracin de Ca/ilina ( en la! g*erra! ci7ile! en/re P(mO &e8( 8 C !ar; E!/a! c*e!/i(ne! &ermanecen d*d(!a! 8 am3ig*a! mien/ra! n( c(n(Dcam(! al A(m3re" ni c(m&rendam(! !* &er!(nalidad 8 !* carFc/er; Para e!/( !e re@*iere algEn g ner( de in/er&re/acin !im3lica; N( me 3a!/a c(n e!/*diar !*! di!c*r!(! ( !*! en!a8(! Cil(!Cic(!M de3( leer la! car/a! a !* AiBa T*lia 8 a !*! amig(! 2n/im(!" /ener !en!i3ilidad &ara l(! encan/(! 8 l(! deCec/(! de !* e!/il( &er!(nal; Unicamen/e B*n/and( /(da! e!/a! &r*e3a! circ*n!/anciale! &*ed( llegar a /raDar *n re/ra/( 7erdader( de Cicern 8 del &a&el @*e de!em&e' en la 7ida &(l2/ica de R(ma; A n( !er @*e el Ai!/(riad(r !e @*ede en mer( anali!/a" @*e !e c(n/en/e c(n *na narracin cr(n(lgica de l(! ac(n/ecimien/(!" /endrF @*e realiDar !iem&re e!/a diC2cil /areaM Aa3rF de de/ec/ar la *nidad @*e !e enc*en/ra de/rF! de la! inn*mera3le! 8" a men*d(" c(n/radic/(ria! maniCe!/aci(ne! de *n carFc/er Ai!/ric(; Para il*!/rar e!/e &*n/(" 7(8 a rec(ger de la (3ra de Ferrer( (/r( eBem&l( carac/er2!/ic(; Un( de l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! mF! im&(r/an/e! de la Ai!/(ria de R(ma" @*e decidi !* C*/*r( 8" en c(n!ec*encia" el del m*nd(" C*e la 3a/alla de Ac/i*m; La 7er!in c(rrien/e e! @*e An/(ni( la &erdi &(r@*e Cle(&a/ra" @*e e!/a3a a/em(riDada 8 de!e!&erada &(r el re!*l/ad(" /(rn !*! 3arc(! 8 A*8; An/(ni( decidi !eg*irla" a3and(nand( a !*! !(ldad(! 8 amig(! &(r ca*!a de Cle(&a/ra; Si e!/a 7er!in /radici(nal e! c(rrec/a" /endrem(! @*e !*!cri3ir en/(nce! el dicA( de Pa!cal" 8 admi/ir @*e de Aa3er !id( mF! c(r/a la nariD de Cle(&a/ra A*3ie!e cam3iad( /(da la CaD del m*nd(;#5N Ferrer( lee el /e>/( Ai!/ric( de *na manera diCeren/eM re!*el7e @*e la Ai!/(ria de am(r de An/(ni( 8 Cle(&a/ra e! *na le8enda; An/(ni( n( !e ca! c(n Cle(&a/ra &(r@*e e!/*7iera a&a!i(nadamen/e enam(rad( de ellaM &(r el c(n/rari(" &er!eg*2a *n gran &lan &(l2/ic(; An/(ni( de!ea3a Egi&/( 8 n( la 3ella &er!(na de !* reinaM c(n e!/e ma/rim(ni( dinF!/ic( !e &r(&(n2a e!/a3lecer el &r(/ec/(rad( de R(ma en el 7alle del Nil( 8 di!&(ner del /e!(r( del rein( de l(! P/(l(me(! &ara la cam&a'a de Per!ia;;; C(n *n ma/rim(ni( dinF!/ic( &(d2a a!eg*rar!e /(da! la! 7en/aBa! de la &(!e!in eCec/i7a
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S; E; M(rri!(n" >he 'xford History of the $nited %tates +O>C(rd Clarend(n Pre!!" #$?5," I" &&; .$ s. +Trad; al e!&;" F; C; E;" #$)#;, #5N Pa!cal" 5enses/ ed; L(*andre" &; #$-;

!in c(rrer l(! rie!g(! de la ane>inM a!2" !e decidi &(r e!/e ardid;;; &r(3a3lemen/e imaginad( &(r C !ar;;; La n(7ela de An/(ni( 8 Cle(&a/ra enc*3re" &(r l( men(! en !*! c(mienD(!" *n /ra/ad( &(l2/ic(; C(n el ma/rim(ni( /ra/a Cle(&a/ra de e!/a3iliDar !* &(der 7acilan/eM An/(ni( /ra/a de c(l(car el 7alle del Nil( 3aB( el &r(/ec/(rad( r(man(;;; La Ai!/(ria real de An/(ni( 8 Cle(&a/ra c(n!/i/*8e *n( de l(! e&i!(di(! mF! /rFgic(! de *na l*cAa @*e lacer al Im&eri( r(man( d*ran/e c*a/r( cen/*ria!" Aa!/a @*e aca3 &(r de!/r*irl(4 la l*cAa en/re Orien/e 8 Occiden/e; A la l*D de e!/a! c(n!ideraci(ne! !e Aace clara la c(nd*c/a de An/(ni(; El ma/rim(ni( de An/i(@*2a" c(n el c*al c(l(ca a Egi&/( 3aB( el &r(/ec/(rad( de R(ma" c(n!/i/*8e el ac/( deci!i7( de *na &(l2/ica @*e /ra/a de /ra!ladar el cen/r( de !* g(3iern( Aacia Orien/e;;; "#5# Si ace&/am(! e!/a in/er&re/acin de l(! carac/ere! de An/(ni( 8 Cle(&a/ra" l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! !ing*lare!" la mi!ma 3a/alla de Ac/i*m" a&arecen a *na n*e7a l*D 3ien diCeren/e; La A*ida de An/(ni( de la 3a/alla" n(! dice Ferrer(" n( C*e &r(d*c/( del mied( ni /am&(c( *n ac/( de am(r cieg( 8 a&a!i(nad(; Se /ra/a de *n ac/( &(l2/ic( c*idad(!amen/e &en!ad( de an/eman(; C(n la (3!/inacin" la !eg*ridad 8 la 7eAemencia de *na m*Ber am3ici(!a" de *na reina c(nCiada 8 7(l*n/ari(!a" Cle(&a/ra /ra/a de &er!*adir al /ri*n7ir(;;; @*e 7*el7a a Egi&/( &(r el mar;;; Parece @*e" a c(mienD(! de B*ni(" An/(ni( c(n!ider el a3and(n( del mar 8 el re/(rn( a Egi&/(; Era im&(!i3le" !in em3arg(" &r(clamar la in/encin de a3and(nar I/alia a Oc/a7ian(" de de!er/ar la ca*!a re&*3licana 8 /raici(nar a l(! !enad(re! r(man(! @*e Aa32an a3and(nad( I/alia &(r l; La !agacidad de Cle(&a/ra c(nci3i" &(r c(n!ig*ien/e" (/r( de!igni(4 Aa32a @*e c(m3a/ir en *na 3a/alla na7al &ara enc*3rir la re/irada; Par/e del eB rci/( !er2a en7iad( a 3(rd( de la Cl(/a" !e de!&acAar2an (/ra! /r(&a! &ara g*ardar l(! &*n/(! mF! im&(r/an/e! de GreciaM la Cl(/a !aldr2a en (rden de 3a/alla 8 a/acar2a !i el enemig( a7anDa3aM en e!e m(men/( Aa32a @*e re/(rnar a Egi&/(; 0GrandeDDa e decadenDa di )oma/ MilFn" #$N5" II" )N?O.$;, N( /ra/( de e>&(ner *na (&inin !(3re la B*!/eDa de e!/a e>&licacin !in( @*e" c(n e!/e eBem&l(" &re/end( il*!/rar el m /(d( general de la in/er&re/acin Ai!/rica de l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! &(l2/ic(!; En la C2!ica l(! AecA(! @*edan e>&licad(! c*and( l(gram(! ac(m(darl(! en *n (rden !erial /ri&le4 en el (rden e!&acial" en el (rden del /iem&( 8 en el de ca*!a! 8 eCec/(!M de e!/e m(d( re!*l/an &lenamen/e de/erminad(!M 8 a e!/e /i&( de de/erminacin al*dim(! c*and( Aa3lam(! de la 7erdad ( realidad de l(! AecA(! C2!ic(!; La (3Be/i7idad de l(! AecA(! Ai!/ric(! &er/enece a *n (rden diCeren/e 8 mF! al/(; Tam3i n en e!/e ca!( Aa8 @*e de/erminar el l*gar 8 el /iem&( de l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! &er(" al a3(rdar la in7e!/igacin de !*! ca*!a!" n(! enCren/am(! c(n *n &r(3lema n*e7(; Si c(n(cem(! /(d(! l(! AecA(! en !* (rden cr(n(lgic( /endrem(! *n e!@*ema general 8 *n e!@*ele/( de Ai!/(ria &er( n( &(!eerem(! !* 7ida real; AA(ra 3ien" el /ema general 8 la me/a El/ima del c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric( e! *na c(m&ren!in
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#5#

G*glielm( Ferrer(" GTAe :i!/(r8 and Legend (C AnO/(n8 and Cle(&a/raG" en 6haracters and E-ents of )oman History/ from 6aesar to Fero +N*e7a 6(r{M G; P; P*/namw! S(n!" #$N$," &&; .$O-1;

de la 7ida A*mana; En la Ai!/(ria c(n!ideram(! /(da! la! (3ra! del A(m3re 8 /(da! !*! acci(ne! c(m( &reci&i/ad(! de !* 7ida 8 /ra/am(! de rec(nd*cirla! a e!/e e!/ad( (riginalM de c(m&render 8 !en/ir la 7ida de d(nde 3r(/ar(n; En e!/e a!&ec/( el &en!amien/( Ai!/ric( n( e! la Gre&r(d*ccinG !in( la Gre7er!inG del &r(ce!( Ai!/ric( real; En n*e!/r(! d(c*men/(! 8 m(n*men/(! enO c(n/ram(! *na 7ida &a!ada @*e Aa ad(&/ad( *na cier/a C(rma; El A(m3re n( &*ede 7i7ir !* 7ida !in e!C*erD(! c(n!/an/e! &ara e>&re!arla; L(! m(d(! de e!/a e>&reO !in !(n 7aria3le! e inn*mera3le!; Per( c(m&(nen (/r(! /an/(! /e!/im(ni(! de *na 8 la mi!ma /endencia C*ndamen/al; La /e(r2a &la/nica del am(r l( deCine c(m( *n de!e( de inm(r/alidad; En el am(r el A(m3re /ra/a de r(m&er la cadena de !* e>i!/encia indi7id*al 8 eC2meraM e!/e in!/in/( C*ndamen/al &*ede !er !a/i!CecA( de d(! m(d(!; L(! @*e lle7an el germen en el c*er&( !e acercan a la! m*Bere! 8 /ienen AiB(!4 !/e e! el carFc/er de !* am(rM !* de!cendencia" !egEn e!&eran" &re!er7arF !* mem(ria 8 le! /raerF 3endicin e inm(r/alidad;;; Per( c*and( el germen e!/F en el alma" !/a c(nci3e l( @*e e! &r(&i( @*e c(nci3a ( c(n/enga el alma; +Pla/n" (an;uete/ ?N1ON$;, Una c*l/*ra &*ede !er de!cri/a c(m( la cria/*ra de e!/e am(r &la/nic(; :a!/a en la e/a&a mF! &rimi/i7a de la ci7iliDacin A*mana" Aa!/a en el &en!amien/( m2O /ic( enc(n/ram(! e!/a &r(/e!/a a&a!i(nada c(n/ra el AecA( de la m*er/e; #5? En la! ca&a! c*l/*rale! !*&eri(re! Hen la religin" en el ar/e" en la Ai!/(ria" en la Cil(!(C2aH e!/a &r(/e!/a ad(&/a *na C(rma diCeren/e; El A(m3re c(mienDa a dar!e c*en/a de @*e &(!ee *n &(der n*e7( c(n el c*al de!aCiar el &(der del /iem&(; Emerge del &*r( Cl*ir de la! c(!a!" l*cAand( &(r e/er niDar e inm(r/aliDar la 7ida A*mana; La! &irFmide! de Egi&/( &arecen c(n!/r*ida! &ara la e/ernidad; L(! grande! ar/i!/a! &ien!an 8 Aa3lan de !*! (3ra! c(m( monumento/ aere perennius. Sien/en c(n !eg*ridad @*e Aan le7an/ad( *n m(n*men/( @*e n( !erF de!/r*id( &(r l(! a'(! inn*mera3le! 8 &(r el 7*el( de la! edade!; E!/a &re/en!in 7a 7inc*lada a *na c(ndicin e!&ecial; Para @*e &*edan &erd*rar" la! (3ra! del A(m3re de3en !er ren(7ada! 8 re!/a*rada! c(n!/an/emen/e; Una c(!a C2!ica &ermanece en !* e!/ad( ac/*al de e>i!/encia gracia! a !* inercia C2!icaM !e man/iene c(n na/*raleDa id n/ica mien/ra! n( !ea al/erada ( de!/r*ida &(r C*er Da! e>/eri(re!; Per( la! (3ra! A*mana! !(n 7*lnera3le! de!de *n Fng*l( m*8 diCeren/e; Se Aallan !*Be/a! al cam3i( 8 a la decadencia" n( !l( en *n !en/id( ma/erial" !in( /am3i n e!&iri/*alM a*n &er!i!/iend(" !* e>i!/encia !e Aalla en c(n!/an/e &eligr( de &erder !* !en/id(; S* realidad e! !im3lica 8 n( C2!ica" 8 e>ige *na in/er&re/acin 8 rein/er&re/acin ince!an/e!; A@*2 e! d(nde c(mienDa la gran /area de la Ai!/(ria; El &en!amien/( del Ai!/(riad(r g*arda c(n !* (3Be/( *na relacin 3ien diCeren/e @*e el C2!ic( ( el na/*rali!/a c(n l(! !*8(!; L(! (3Be/(! ma/eriale! c(n!er7an !* e>i!/encia c(n inde&endencia de la (3ra del cien/2Cic(" mien/ra! @*e l(! (3Be/(! Ai!/ric(! &(!een 7erdader( !er en la medida en @*e !(n remem(rad(!" 8 el ac/( de remem(racin /iene @*e !er c(n/in*( 8 c(n!/an/e; El Ai!/(riad(r" n( !l( de3e (3!er7ar !*! (3Be/(! c(m( el na/*rali!/a !in( @*e /iene
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#5?

_ a!e supra/ &; #.N;

@*e G&re!er7arl(!G; S* e!&eranDa de man/enerl(! en e>i!/encia C2!ica &*ede !er Cr*!/rada a cada m(men/(; C(n el incendi( @*e de!/r*8 la 3i3li(/eca de AleBandr2a !e &erdier(n &ara !iem&re inn*mera3le! e ina&recia3le! d(c*men/(!; Tam3i n l(! m(n*men/(! !*&er7i7ien/e! !e ir2an di!i&and( &(c( a &(c( !i n( C*eran man/enid(! c(n!/an/emen/e en 7ida &(r el ar/e del Ai!/(riad(rM &ara &(!eer el m*nd( de la c*l/*ra /enem(! @*e rec(n@*i!/arl( ince!an/emen/e &(r la rec(rdacin Ai!/rica" @*e n( @*iere decir" !im&lemen/e" *n ac/( de re&r(d*ccin; E! *na n*e7a !2n/e!i! in/elec/*al" *n ac/( c(n!/r*c/i7(; En e!/a rec(n!/r*ccin la men/e A*mana !e m*e7e en la direccin (&*e!/a del &r(ce!( (riginal; T(da! la! (3ra! de c*l/*ra !e (riginar(n en *n ac/( de !(lidiCicacin 8 e!/a3iliDa cin; El A(m3re n( &(dr2a c(m*nicar !*! &en!amien/(! 8 !en/imien/(! ni /am&(c(" &(r c(n!ig*ien/e" &(dr2a 7i7ir en *n m*nd( !(cial !i n( &(!e8era el d(n e!&ecial de (3Be/i7ar !*! &en!amien/(!" de d(/arl(! de *na C(rma !lida 8 &ermanen/e; Tra! de e!/a! C(rma! CiBa! 8 e!/F/ica!" /ra! e!/a! (3ra! &e/riCicada! de la c*l/*ra" la Ai!/(ria de/ec/a l(! im&*l!(! dinFmic(! (riginale!; El d(n de l(! grande! Ai!/(riad(re! n( e! (/r( @*e el de red*cir l(! mer(! AecA(! a !* C ieri/ l(! &r(d*c/(! a &r(ce!(!" la! c(!a! ( in!/i/*ci(ne! e!/F/ica! a !*! energ2a! cread(ra!; L(! Ai!/(riad(re! &(l2/ic(! n(! (Crecen *na 7ida llena de &a!i(ne! 8 em(ci(ne!" l*cAa! 7i(len/a! de l(! &ar/id(! &(l2/ic(!" c(nClic/(! 8 g*erra! en/re diCeren/e! naci(ne!; N( /(d( e!/( e! nece!ari( &ara (/(rgar a *na (3ra Ai!/rica !* carFc/er 8 !* acen/( dinFmic(; C*and( M(mm!en e!cri3i !* Historia de )oma Aa3l c(m( *n gran Ai!/(riad(r &(l2/ic( 8 en *n /(n( n*e7( 8 m(dern(; GPre/end2a Aacer de!cender a l(! an/ig*(! Hdice en *na car/aH" de!de el &ede!/al Can/F!/ic( en @*e a&arecen Aa!/a el m*nd( real; P(r e!/( el cn!*l !e /iene @*e c(n7er/ir en 3*rg(mae!/re; Aca!( Aa8a 8( e>agerad(" &er( mi in/encin era 3a!/an/e !ana;G #5. La! (3ra! &(!/eri(re! de M(mm!en &arecen c(nce3ida! 8 e!cri/a! en *n e!/il( c(m&le/amen/e diCeren/eM !in em3arg(" n( &ierden !* carFc/er dramF/ic(; P(drF &arecer &aradBic( el a/ri3*2r!el( a (3ra! @*e /ra/an de l(! /ema! mF! Frid(! c(m(" &(r eBem&l(" la Ai!/(ria de la m(neda ( del derecA( &E3lic( r(man(; Per( /(d( e!/F AecA( c(n el mi!m( e!&2ri/*; El 1erecho p4!lico romano de M(mm!en n( e! *na mera c(diCicacin de le8e! c(n!/i/*ci(nale!M la! le8e! e!/Fn im&regnada! de 7idaM !en/im(! /ra! ella! l(! grande! &(dere! @*e C*er(n nece!ari(! &ara c(n!/r*ir *n !i!/ema !emeBan/e 8 la! grande! C*erDa! in/elec/*ale! 8 m(rale! @*e &*dier(n &r(d*cir e!/e (rgani!m( del derecA( r(man(M la! a&/i/*de! del e!&2ri/* r(man( &ara (rdenar" (rganiDar 8 mandar; Tam3i n en e!/e ca!( la in/encin de M(mm!en !e ciCra3a en m(!/rarn(! el m*nd( r(man( en el e!&eB( de la le8 r(mana; GMien/ra! la B*ri!&r*dencia ign(ra3a al E!/a d( 8 al &*e3l( HdiceH" 8 mien/ra! la Ai!/(ria 8 la Cil(l(g2a ign(ra3an el derecA(" am3a! llama3an en 7an( a la! &*er/a! del m*nd( r(man(;G Si en/endem(! la 7i!in de la Ai!/(ria de e!/a manera" m*cA(! de l(! &r(3lema! @*e en la! El/ima! d cada! Aan !id( di!c*/id(! c(n /an/( ard(r 8 Aan
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#5.

M(mm!en en *na car/a a :enDenM ci/ad( !egEn G; P; G((cA" History and Historians in the Fineteenth 6entury +L(ndre!" L(ngman!" Green C(;" #$#.M n*e7a ed; #$.)," &; %)5; :a8 /rad; e!&a'(la del F(nd( de C*l/*ra Ec(nmica" M >ic(" #$%.;

enc(n/rad( /an/a! 8 /an di7ergen/e! !(l*ci(ne! &(drFn !er de!ciCrad(! !in diCic*l/ad; Fil!(C(! m(dern(! in/en/ar(n a men*d( c(n!/r*ir *na lgica e!&ecial de la Ai!/(ria; La ciencia na/*ral" n(! dicen" !e 3a!a en *na lgica de l(! *ni7er!ale!M la Ai!/(ria en *na lgica de l( !ing*lar ( indi7id*al; Kindel3and !e'ala @*e l(! B*ici(! de la ciencia na/*ral !(n nomotticos mien/ra! @*e l(! de la Ai!/(ria idiogr7ficosM #d9 La &rimera n(! (Crece le8e! generale!" la !eg*nda de!cri3e AecA(! &ar/ic*lare!; E!/a di!/incin !e c(n7ir/i en la 3a!e de la /e(r2a de Ric{er/ !(3re el c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric(; GLa realidad em&2rica !e c(n7ier/e en na/*raleDa !i la c(n!ideram(! c(n re!&ec/( a l( *ni7er!alM !e c(n7ier/e en Ai!/(ria !i la c(n!ideram(! c(n re!&ec/( a l( &ar/ic*lar;G 01ie GrenDen der naturBissenschaftlichen (egriffs!ildCung/ T*3inga" #$N?" &; ?));, N( e! &(!i3le !e&arar l(! d(! Gm(men/(!G de *ni7er!alidad 8 &ar/ic*laridad en e!/a C(rma a3!/rac/a 8 ar/iCicial; Un B*ici( e!" !iem&re" la *nidad !in/ /ica de amO 3(! m(men/(!M c(n/iene *n elemen/( de *ni7er!alidad 8 (/r( de &ar/ic*laridad; L(! d(! n( !e (&(nen rec2&r(camen/e !in( @*e !e im&lican e in/er&ene/ran; Uni7er!alidad n( e! *n / rmin( @*e de!igne *n de/erminad( cam&( del &en!amien/(M e! *na e>&re!in del 7erdader( carFc/er" de la C*ncin del &en!amien/(; El &en!amien/( e! !iem&re *ni7er!al; P(r (/ra &ar/e" en m(d( alg*n( e! *n &ri7ilegi( de la Ai!/(ria la de!cri&cin de AecA(! &ar/ic*lare!" de *n Ga@*2G 8 GaA(raG; Se Aa &en!ad( a men*d( @*e la *nicidad de l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! Ai!/ric(! c(n!/i/*8e el carFc/er @*e di!/ing*e a la Ai!/(ria de la ciencia; Sin em3arg(" e!/e cri/eri( n( e! !*Cicien/e; Un gel(g( @*e n(! (Crece *na de!cri&cin de la! 7aria! ca&a! de la /ierra en diCeren/e! &eri(d(! ge(lgic(! n(! &r(&(rci(na *n rela/( de ac(n/ecimien/(! c(ncre/(! 8 Enic(!; E!(! ac(n/ecimien/(! n( &*eden re&e/ir!eM ni (c*rrir en el mi!m( (rden &(r !eg*nda 7eD; La de!cri&cin del gel(g( n( diCiere a!2 de la de *n Ai!/(riad(r @*e" c(m( Aace Greg(r(7i*!" n(! c*en/a la Ai!/(ria de la ci*dad de R(ma en la Edad Media; #5) Per( el Ai!/(riad(r n( !e limi/a a (Crecern(! *na !erie de ac(n/ecimien/(! en *n (rden cr(n(lgic( deCinid(M &ara l n( !(n mF! @*e el ca&araDn den/r( del c*al 3*!ca *na 7ida A*mana 8 c*l/*ral" *na 7ida de acci(ne! 8 &a!i(ne!" de &reg*n/a! 8 re!&*e!/a!" de /en!i(ne! 8 !(l*ci(ne!; El Ai!/(riad(r n( &*ede in7en/ar *n n*e7( leng*aBe 8 *na n*e7a lgica &ara /(d( e!/(" n( &*ede &en!ar ( Aa3lar !in em&lear / rmin(! generale!" &er( in!*Cla a !*! c(nce&/(! 8 &ala3ra! !* &r(&i( !en/id( 2n/im( 8" a!2" le! &re!/a *n n*e7( !(nid( 8 *n n*e7( c(l(r" el c(l(r de *na 7ida &er!(nal; El dilema C*ndamen/al del &en!amien/( Ai!/ric( c(mienDa &reci!amen/e en e!/e &*n/(; L( @*e di!/ing*e en 7erdad al gran Ai!/(riad(r e!" !in d*da" la ri@*eDa 8 7ariedad" la A(nd*ra e in/en!idad de !* e>&eriencia &er!(nal; De (/r( m(d( !* (3ra re!*l/ar2a !in 7ida 8 !in c(l(r; Per( `cm( e! &(!i3le @*e en e!/a C(rma !e alcance el (3Be/i7( El/im( del c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric(" cm( &(drem(! enc(n/rar la 7erdad de la! c(!a! 8 l(! ac(n/ecimien/(!a La 7erdad &er!(nal `n( e! *na c(nO /radiccin en l(! / rmin(!a Ran{e e>&re! *na 7eD el de!e( de e>/ing*ir !*
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#5% #5)

Kindel3and" GGe!cAicA/e *nd Na/*r9i!!en!cAaC/G" en 5rLludien +)a ed; T*3inga" #$#)," 7(l; II; )oma y Atenas en la Edad Media/ M >ic(" F;C;E;" #$%-;

&r(&i( 8( &ara c(n7er/ir!e en el &*r( e!&eB( de la! c(!a!" &ara &(der 7er l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! G/al 8 c(m( !*cedier(nG; E! clar( @*e e!/a aCirmacin &aradBica !e &lan/ea3a c(m( *n &r(3lema 8 n( c(m( *na !(l*cin; Si el Ai!/(riad(r c(n!ig*iera 3(rrar !* 7ida &er!(nal" n( &(r e!/( l(grar2a *na (3Be/i7idad !*&eri(rM &(r el c(n/rari(" !e &ri7ar2a a s mi!m( del 7erdader( in!/r*men/( de /(d( &en!amien/( Ai!/ric(; Si 8( a&ag( la l*D de mi &r(&ia e>&eriencia &er!(nal" n( &(dr 7er ni B*Dgar la e>&eriencia de l(! demF!; Sin *na rica e>&eriencia &r(&ia en el cam&( del ar/e" nadie &*ede e!cri3ir *na Ai!/(ria del ar/eM nadie @*e n( !ea *n &en!ad(r !i!/emF/ic( &*ede (Crecern(! *na Ai!/(ria de la Cil(!(C2a; La a&aren/e an/2/e!i! en/re la (3Be/i7idad de la 7erdad Ai!/rica 8 la !*3Be/i7idad del Ai!/(riad(r /iene @*e !er re!*el/a de *n m(d( diCeren/e; Aca!( la meB(r !(l*cin la enc(n/rem(!" n( en la! &ala3ra! de Ran{e" !in( en !*! (3ra!; En !/a! /enem(! la 7erdadera e>&licacin de l( @*e !igniCica" realmen/e" (3Be/i7idad Ai!/rica 8 @* e! l( @*e n( !igniCica; C*and( Ran{e &*3lic !*! &rimera! (3ra!" !*! c(e/Fne(! n( en/endier(n en general !* idea acerca de la 7erdad Ai!/rica 8 C*e (3Be/( de a/a@*e! 7i(len/(!; Un Ai!/(riad(r 3ien c(n(cid(" :einricA 7(n Le(" re&r(cAa3a a Ran{e !* /im(ra/a al*!in a &*n/(! de 7i!/a &er!(nale!M de!cri32a &e8(ra/i7amen/e el e!/il( de Ran{e c(m( &in/*ra de &(rcelana" 3*ena &ara la! !e'(ra! 8 l(! aCici(nad(!; Ac/*almen/e" !emeBan/e B*ici( n( !l( n(! &arecer2a e>/remadamen/e inB*!/( !in( a3!*rd( 8 gr(/e!c(; Sin em3arg(" C*e re&e/id( &(r cr2/ic(! &(!/eri(re!" e!&ecialmen/e l(! Ai!/(riad(re! de la e!c*ela &r*!iana; :einricA 7(n Trei/!cA{e !e lamen/a3a de la (3Be/i7idad e>angJe de Ran{e" @*e n( n(! Aace !en/ir de @* lad( e!/F el c(raDn del narrad(r; #5- Alg*na! 7ece! l(! ad7er!ari(! de Ran{e c(m&ara3an 3*rle!camen/e !* ac/i/*d 8 e!/il( &er!(nal c(n la ac/i/*d de la! e!Cinge! en la &rimera &ar/e del austo +GLa n(cAe clF!ica de Kal&*rgi!G,4 %entadas ante las pir7mides contemplamos la -ida de los pue!los/ inundaciones/ guerras y paD/ sin pestaaear. E!/e !arca!m( re!*l/a m*8 !*&erCicial; Nadie &*ede e!/*diar la! (3ra! de Ran{e !in dar!e c*en/a de la &r(C*ndidad de !* 7ida &er!(nal 8 de !* !en/imien/( religi(!(" @*e im&regna /(da !* (3ra Ai!/rica; El in/er ! religi(!( de Ran{e era l( 3a!/an/e am&li( &ara c*3rir /(d( el cam&( de la 7ida religi(!a; An/e! de a7en/*rar!e en la de!cri&cin de la ReC(rma Aa32a /erminad( !* gran (3ra Historia de los 5apas #dd Preci!amen/e" el carFc/er &ec*liar de !* !en/id( religi(!( le im&ed2a /ra/ar la! c*e!/i(ne! religi(!a! a la manera de *n CanF/ic( ( de *n mer( a&(l(gi!/a; C(nce32a la Ai!/(ria c(m( *n c(nClic/( &er&e/*( en/re grande! idea! &(l2/ica! 8 religi(!a!; Para 7er e!/e c(nClic/( a !* 7erdadera l*D /en2a @*e e!/*diar /(d(! l(! &ar/id(! 8 /(d(! l(! ac/(re! de e!/a c(media Ai!/rica; La !im&a/2a de Ran{e" !im&a/2a del 7erdader( Ai!/(riad(r" e! de *n /i&( e!&ec2Cic(M n( im&lica ami!/ad ( &ar/idi!m(" a3arca &(r ig*al amig(! 8 enemig(!; C(n l( @*e meB(r !e &*ede c(m&arar e!/a C(rma de !im&a/2a! e! c(n la de l(! grande! &(e/a!; E*r2&ide! n( !im&a/iDa c(n MedeaM SAa{e!&eare n( !im&a/iDa c(n Lad8 Mac3e/A (
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#5#55

Para la cr2/ica de la (3ra de Ran{e" 7 a!e G; P; G((cA" op. cit./ ca&!; _I" _III; _er!in e!&a'(la &*3licada &(r el F;C;E;" M >ic(" #$)#;

c(n Ricard( III; Sin em3arg(" n(! Aacen c(m&render e!/(! carac/ere!M en/ran en !*! &a!i(ne! 8 m(/i7(!; El dicA( tout comprendre c+est tout pardonner n( !e a&lica ni a la! (3ra! de l(! grande! ar/i!/a! ni a l(! grande! Ai!/(riad(re!; S* !im&a/2a n( im&lica B*ici( m(ral" ni la a&r(3acin ( re&r(3acin de l(! ac/(! &ar/ic*lare!; P(r l( demF!" el Ai!/(riad(r !e Aalla en li3er/ad de B*Dgar &er(" an/e! de Aacerl(" /ra/a de c(m&render e in/er&re/ar; ScAiller ac*' la Cra!e Gla Ai!/(ria *ni7er!al e! el B*ici( CinalG" #51 rec(gida &(r :egel 8 c(n7er/ida en *na de la! cla7e! de !* Cil(!(C2a de la Ai!/(ria; L(! de!/in(! 8 AecA(! de l(! e!/ad(! &ar/ic*lare! 8 de l(! e!&2ri/*! &ar/ic*lare! Hdice :egelH c(n!/i/*8en la dial c/ica Cen(m nica de la Cini/*d de e!(! e!&2ri/*! de l(! @*e !*rge el e!&2ri/* *ni7er!al" el e!&2ri/* inCini/( del m*nd(; E!/e e!&2ri/* e!grime !* derecA( H8 !* derecA( e! !*&eri(rH c(n ell(!M en la Ai!/(ria *ni7er!al" enB*iciamien/( del m*nd(; La Ai!/(ria *ni7er!al e! el B*ici( *ni7er!al &(r@*e c(n/iene en !* *ni7er!alidad a*/(!*Cicien/e /(da! la! C(rma! e!&eciale! Hla Camilia" la !(ciedad ci7il 8 la nacinH red*cida! a idealidad" e! decir" miem3r(! !*3(rdinad(! &er( (rgFnic(! de !2 mi!ma; La /area del e!&2ri/* c(n!i!/e en &r(d*cir /(da! e!/a! C(rma! e!&eciale!; 0)echtsphilosoplie/ !ec!; .%N !;, El mi!m( Ran{e" a*n@*e (&*e!/( a l(! &*n/(! de 7i!/a C*ndamen/ale! de :egel" &*d( Aa3er !*!cri/( e!/e c(nce&/(" &er( c(nce3ir" la mi!in del Ai!/(riad(r en *na C(rma men(! &re!*n/*(!a; Pen!a3a @*e en el gran B*ici( Cinal de la Ai!/(ria *ni7er!al al Ai!/(riad(r le inc*m3e &re&arar el B*ici( &er( n( &r(n*nciar la !en/encia; E!/( !e Aalla m*8 leB(! de la indiCerencia m(ral 8" &(r el c(n/rari(" re&re!en/a el !en/imien/( de la mF>ima re!&(n!a3ilidad; SegEn Ran{e" el Ai!/(riad(r n( e! el ac*!ad(r ni el deCen!(r del demandad(; Si Aa3la c(m( *n B*eD" en/(nce! Aa3la c(m( el =ueD de instruccin. Tiene @*e rec(ger /(d(! l(! d(c*men/(! &er/inen/e! &ara !(me/erl(! al /ri3*nal !*&rem(" a la Ai!/(ria *ni7er!al; Si Craca!a en e!/a la3(r" !i &(r Ca7(ri/i!m( * (di( &ar/idi!/a !*&rime ( Cal!ea *na !(la &ieDa de &r*e3a" /raici(na !* de3er !*&rem(; E!/a c(nce&cin /ica de !* la3(r" de la dignidad 8 re!&(n!a3ilidad del Ai!/(riad(r" re&re!en/a *n( de l(! m ri/(! &rinci&ale! de Ran{e 8 a3re a !* (3ra !* A(riD(n/e grande 8 li3re; S* !im&a/2a *ni7er!al &(d2a a3arcar /(da! la! &(ca! 8 naci(ne!;#5$ P(d2a e!cri3ir la Ai!/(ria de l(! &a&a! 8 la Ai!/(ria de la ReC(rma" la Ai!/(ria de Francia 8 la de Ingla/erra" la del im&eri( (/(man( 8 la de la m(nar@*2a e!&a'(la c(n el mi!m( e!&2ri/* im&arcial 8 !in ning*na deC(rmacin naci(nal; Para l" la! naci(ne! la/ina! 8 /e*/nica!" l(! grieg(! 8 l(! r(man(!" la Edad Media 8 l(! e!/ad(! naci(nale! m(dern(! re&re!en/an *n (rgani!m( c(Aeren/e; Cada n*e7a (3ra le &ermi/2a am&liar !* A(riD(n/e Ai!/ric( 8 (Crecer *na &er!&ec/i7a mF! li3re 8 mF! ancAa; M*cA(! de l(! ad7er!ari(! de Ran{e" @*e n( &(!e2an e!/e e!&2ri/* li3re 8 de!&rendid(" /ra/ar(n de Aacer de la nece!idad 7ir/*d; ACirma3an @*e era
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#51

1ie Weltgeschichte ist das WeltgarichtI a la le/ra4 la Ai!/(ria *ni7er!al e! el B*ici( *ni7er!al; |;} #5$ En *na e>celen/e a&reciacin de la &er!(nalidad 8 de la (3ra de Ran{e" AlCred D(7e menci(na !* $ni-ersalitLt des Mitempfindens. _ a!e D(7e" AusgeBLhlte %chriften +#1$1," &&; ##? ss.

im&(!i3le e!cri3ir *na (3ra de Ai!/(ria &(l2/ica !in &a!i(ne! &(l2/ica! 8 !in &ar/idi!m( naci(nal; Trei/!cA{e" *n re&re!en/an/e de la e!c*ela &r*!iana" Aa!/a !e neg a e!/*diar el ma/erial de l(! arcAi7(! n( &r*!ian(!; Tem2a @*e !emeBan/e e!/*di( le &er/*r3ara en !* B*ici( Ca7(ra3le a la &(l2/ica &r*!iana; #1N SemeBan/e ac/i/*d &*ede !er c(m&ren!i3le 8 e>c*!a3le en *n &anCle/i!/a ( &r(&agandi!/a &(l2/ic(" &er( en *n Ai!/(riad(r !im3(liDa el Craca!( 8 la 3ancarr(/a del c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric(; P(dem(! c(m&arar e!/a ac/i/*d c(n la men/alidad de a@*ell(! ad7er!ari(! de Galile( @*e !e re!i!/2an (3!/inadamen/e a mirar &(r el /ele!c(&i( 8 a c(n7encer!e de la 7erdad de !*! de!c*3rimien/(! a!/r(nmic(! &(r@*e n( /en2an gana! de !er &er/*r3ad(! en !* Ce im&l2ci/a en el !i!/ema ari!/(/ lic(; A !emeBan/e c(nce&cin de la Ai!/(ria (&(nem(! la! &ala3ra! de Ia{(3 L*rc{Aard/4 MF! allF de l(! cieg(! enc(mi(! a n*e!/ra &a/ria" n(! inc*m3e c(m( ci*dadan(! *n de3er diCeren/e 8 mF! gra7e" a !a3er" el de ed*carn(! Aa!/a llegar al /i&( de A(m3re c(m&ren!i7( &ara @*ien la 7erdad 8 la aCinidad c(n la! c(!a! del e!&2ri/* e!/Fn &(r encima de /(d( 8 @*e" a /ra7 ! de e!/e c(n(cimien/(" ca&/arF /am3i n !* de3er de ci*dadan( !i 8a !/e n( le C*era c(ng ni/( &(r /em&eramen/(; En el rein( del &en!amien/(" la B*!/icia !*&rema e! @*e !e di!i&en /(da! la! Cr(n/era!; #1# C(m( dice ScAiller en !*! car/a! e!/ /ica!" e>i!/e *n ar/e de la &a!in &er( n( e>i!/e *n Gar/e a&a!i(nad(G; #1?E!/a mi!ma idea de la! &a!i(ne! !e a&lica a la Ai!/(ria; El Ai!/(riad(r @*e ign(rara el m*nd( de la! &a!i(ne! Hde la! am3ici(ne! &(l2/ica!" del Cana/i!m( religi(!( 8 de l(! c(nClic/(! ec(nmic(! 8 !(ciale!H n(! (Crecer2a *na !eca a3!/raccin de ac(n/ecimien/(! Ai!/ric(!" &er( !i &re/ende llegar a la 7erdad Ai!/rica n( &*ede &ermanecer en e!/e m*nd(; Tiene @*e &re!/ar *na C(rma /erica a /(d( e!e ma/erial de la! &a!i(ne!M 8 !* C(rma" l( mi!m( @*e la C(rma del ar/e" n( e! el &r(d*c/( 8 la cria/*ra de la &a!in; La Ai!/(ria e! *na Ai!/(ria de la! &a!i(ne!" &er( !i /ra/a de !er a&a!i(nada deBa de !er Ai!/(ria; El Ai!/(riad(r n( de3e e>Ai3ir la! mi!ma! &a!i(ne!" C*ria! 8 l(c*ra! @*e de!cri3e; S* !im&a/2a e! in/elec/*al e imagina/i7a" n( em(/i7a; El e!/il( &er!(nal @*e !en/im(! en cada l2nea de *n gran Ai!/(riad(r n( e! *n e!/il( em(/i7( ( re/ric(; Un e!/il( re/ric( &*ede /ener m*cA(! m ri/(!" &*ede m(7er 8 delei/ar al lec/(r" &er( Calla en el &*n/( &rinci&al4 n( &*ede c(nd*cirn(! a *na 7i!in 8 a *n B*ici( li3re 8 n( deC(rmad( de c(!a! 8 ac(n/ecimien/(!; Si /enem(! en c*en/a e!/e carFc/er del ac(n/ecimien/( Ai!/ric( n( !erF CFcil di!/ing*ir la (3Be/i7idad Ai!/rica de e!a (/ra C(rma @*e c(n!/i/*8e la me/a de la ciencia na/*ral; Un gran cien/2Cic(" Ma> Planc{" de!cri3e /(d( el &r(ce!( del &en!amien/( cien/2Cic( c(m( *n e!C*erD( c(n!/an/e &ara eliminar l(! elemen/(!
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_ a!e Ed; F*e/er" Geschichte der neueren HistoriograCphie +.a ed; M*nicA 8 Lerl2n" #$.-," &; )%.; E! gi!t a!er ne!en dem !linden &o!preisen der Heimat eine ganD andere und schBerere 5flicht/ nLmlich sich ausCDu!ilden Dum er3ennenden Menschen/ dem die Wahrheit und die 2erBandtschaft mit allem 6eistigen K!er alies geht und der aus dieser Er3enntnis auch seine (Krgerpflicht BKrCde ermitteln 3Jnnen/ Benn sie ihm nicht schon mit seinem >emperament einge!oren ist. 2ollends im )eiche des GedanC3ens gehen alle %chlag!Lume !illig in die HJhe. Ia{(3 L*rc{Aard/" op. cit./ &; ##; #1? Ensayos estticos y filosficos/ Car/a XXII;

Gan/r(&(lgic(!G; Tenem(! @*e (l7idar al A(m3re a l(! eCec/(! de e!/*diar la na/*raleDa 8 de!c*3rir 8 C(rm*lar !*! le8e!; #1. En el de!arr(ll( del &en!amien/( cien/2Cic(" el elemen/( an/r(&(mrCic( !e de!&laDa &r(gre!i7amen/e Aacia el C(nd(" Aa!/a @*e de!a&arece &(r en/er( en la e!/r*c/*ra ideal de la C2!ica; La Ai!/(ria &r(cede de *n m(d( 3ien diCeren/e; N( &*ede 7i7ir ni re!&irar mF! @*e en el m*nd( A*man(; L( mi!m( @*e el leng*aBe ( el ar/e" e!" C*ndamen/almen/e" an/r(&(mrCica; L(rrar !* a!&ec/( A*man( !igniCicar2a de! O /r*ir !* carFc/er 8 na/*raleDa e!&ec2Cic(!; Per( el an/r(&(m(rCi!m( del &en!amien/( Ai!/ric( ni limi/a ni im&ide !* 7erdad (3Be/i7a; La Ai!/(ria n( e! c(n(cimien/( de AecA(! ( ac(n/ecimien/(! e>/ern(!M e! *na C(rma de a*/(c(n(cimien/(; Para c(n(cerme a m2 mi!m( n( &*ed( &re/ender marcAar mF! allF de m2 mi!m(" !al/ar" c(m( !i diB ram(!" &(r encima de mi &r(&ia !(m3raM /eng( @*e e!c(ger el camin( c(n/rari(; En la Ai!/(ria" el A(m3re 7*el7e c(n!/an/emen/e Aacia !2 mi!m(M /ra/a de rec(rdar 8 ac/*aliDar la /(/alidad de !* &a!ada e>&eriencia" &er( el 8( Ai!/ric( n( e! *n mer( 8( indi7id*al; E! Gan/r(&(mrCic(G &er( n( Geg(c n/ric(G; E>&re!Fnd(l( en C(rma &aradBica" &(dr2am(! decir @*e la Ai!/(ria !e em&e'a en *n Gan/r(&(m(rCi!m( (3Be/i7(G; Al darn(! a c(n(cer el &(lim(rCi!m( de la Ai!/(ria A*mana n(! li3era de la &re!in 8 de l(! &reB*ici(! de *n m(men/( e!&ecial 8 !ing*lar; En e!/e enri@*ecimien/( 8 am&liacin del 8( 8 n( en !* e>/incin" en la e>/incin de n*e!/r( 8( c(gn(!cen/e 8 !en!i/i7(" radica el &r(&!i/( del c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric(; La idea de la 7erdad Ai!/rica !e Aa de!arr(llad( m*8 &(c( a &(c(; Ni !i@*iera la men/e griega" c(n /(da !* ri@*eDa 8 &r(C*ndidad" &*d( lle7arla a &lena mad*reD; En el &r(gre!( de la c(nciencia m(derna el de!c*3rimien/( 8 C(rm*lacin de e!/e c(nce&/( de la Ai!/(ria !e Aa c(n7er/id( en *na de n*e!/ra! /area! mF! im&(r/an/e!; En el !igl( X_II" el c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric( e!/F ecli&!ad( /(da72a &(r (/r( ideal de 7erdad; La Ai!/(ria n( Aa enc(n/rad( /(da72a !* &*e!/( al !(l; Se Aalla (!c*recida &(r la ma/emF/ica 8 &(r la C2!ica ma/emF/ica" &er( al al3(rear el !igl( X_III c(mienDa *na n*e7a (rien/acin del &en!amien/( m(dern(; A men*d( !e Aa c(n!iderad( al !igl( X_III c(m( *n !igl( aAi!/ric( ( an/iAi!/ric(; Se /ra/a de *na 7i!in *nila/eral 8 errneaM l(! &en!ad(re! del !igl( X_III !(n l(! 7erdader(! e>&l(rad(re! del &en!amien/( Ai!/ric(; Plan/ear(n n*e7a! c*e!/i(ne! 8 enc(n/rar(n n*e7(! m /(d(! &ara re!&(nder a ella!; La in7e!/igacin Ai!/rica c(n!/i/*2a *n( de l(! in!/r*men/(! nece!ari(! de la Cil(!(C2a de la Il*!/racin" #1% &er( en el !igl( X_III !ig*e &re7aleciend( *na c(nce&cin &ragmF/ica de la Ai!/(ria; An/e! del c(mienD( del !igl( XIX" an/e! de la a&aricin de Nie3*Ar 8 de Ran{e" n( a&arece *n n*e7( c(nce&/( cr2/ic(; A &ar/ir de e!a CecAa" el c(nce&/( m(dern( de la Ai!/(ria !e e!/a3lece Cirmemen/e 8 e>/iende !* inCl*encia !(3re /(d(! l(! cam&(! del c(n(cimien/( 8 la c*l/*ra A*man(!;
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_ a!e Ma> Planc{" 1ie Einheit des physi3alischen Welt!ildes +Lei&Dig" #$N$,; Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e Ca!!irer" %u!stance and unction/ /rad; ingl; &(r K; C; 8 M; C; S9a3e8" #$?." &&; .N- ss. #1% Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e Ca!!irer" 1ie 5hilosophie der Auf3lLrung +T*3inga" #$.?," ca&; 7" &&; ?-.O .#?; Trad*ccin e!&a'(la de E*geni( 2maD" F(nd( de C*l/*ra Ec(nmica" M >ic(" #$%%M !eg*nda ed; re7i!ada" #$)N;

N( era" !in em3arg(" CFcil de/erminar el carFc/er especfico de la 7erdad 8 del m /(d( Ai!/ric(!; Un gran nEmer( de Cil!(C(! &r(&end2a mF! 3ien a negar @*e a e>&licar e!/e carFc/er e!&ec2Cic(; Mien/ra! *n Ai!/(riad(r !iga man/eniend( &*n/(! de 7i!/a &er!(nale! !*8(!" mien/ra! c(n/inEe ala3and( ( denigrand(" a&r(O 3and( ( de!a&r(3and(" n( e!/arF a la al/*ra de !* c(me/id(; C(n!cien/e ( inc(n!cien/emen/e" dec2an e!(! Cil!(C(!" deC(rmarF la 7erdad (3Be/i7a; El Ai!/(riad(r de3e &erder !* in/er ! &(r la! c(!a! 8 l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! &ara @*e l(! &*eda 7er en !* C(rma 7erdadera; E!/e &(!/*lad( me/(d(lgic( c(3r !* e>&re!in mF! clara 8 mF! im&re!i(nan/e en la Ai!/(ria de Taine; El Ai!/(riad(r" n(! dice Taine" /iene @*e (3rar c(m( *n na/*rali!/a" li3rar!e" n( !l( de l(! &reB*ici(! c(n7enci(nale!" !in( de la! &redilecci(ne! &er!(nale! 8 de l(! &a/r(ne! m(rale!; El m /(d( m(dern( @*e 8( !ig( Hn(! dice Taine en !* in/r(d*ccin a la ilosofa del arte H 8 @*e c(mienDa aA(ra a &ene/rar en /(da! la! ciencia! na/*rale!" c(n!i!/e en c(n!iderar la! (3ra! A*mana!;;; c(m( AecA(! 8 &r(d*c/(! c*8a! &r(&iedade! Aa8 @*e m(!/rar 8 c*8a! ca*!a! Aa8 @*e in7e!/igar; C(n!iderada en e!/a C(rma" la ciencia n( /iene @*e B*!/iCicar ni c(ndenar; La! ciencia! m(rale! /ienen @*e &r(ceder del mi!m( m(d( @*e la 3(/Fnica" @*e e!/*dia c(n el mi!m( in/er ! el naranB( 8 el la*rel" el &in( 8 el Aa8a; N( !(n (/ra c(!a @*e *na e!&ecie de 3(/Fnica a&licada" !l( @*e" en l*gar de /ra/ar c(n &lan/a!" /iene @*e /ra/ar c(n la! (3ra! de l(! A(m3re!; b!/e e! el m(7imien/( general c(n el c*al !e 7an a&r(>imand( en la ac/*alidad la! ciencia! m(rale! 8 la! ciencia! na/*rale! 8 &(r el @*e la! &rimera! alcanDarFn la mi!ma cer/eDa 8 realiDarFn el mi!m( &r(gre!( @*e la! !eg*nda!; +#)a ed; Par2!" Li3rairie :acAe//e" #$#5" Par/e I" ca&; I" &; #.;, Si ace&/am(! e!/e &*n/( de 7i!/a" el &r(3lema de la (3Be/i7idad de la Ai!/(ria &arece &(der re!(l7er!e en la C(rma mF! !encilla; Al ig*al del C2!ic( ( del @*2mic(" el Ai!/(riad(r de3e e!/*diar la! ca*!a! de la! c(!a! en l*gar de B*Dgar de !* 7al(r; N( im&(r/a !i l(! AecA(! !(n C2!ic(! ( m(rale! Hdice TaineH" /(d(! /ienen !*! ca*!a!M e>i!/e *na ca*!a de la am3icin" del 7al(r" de la 7erdad" c(m( e>i!/e *na ca*!a de la dige!/in" del m(7imien/( m*!c*lar" del cal(r animal; El 7ici( 8 la 7ir/*d !(n &r(d*c/(! l( mi!m( @*e el 7i/ri(l( 8 el aDEcar" 8 /(d( Cenmen( c(m&leB( /iene !* (rigen en (/r( Cenmen( mF! !im&le" del @*e de&ende; L*!@*em(!" &(r l( /an/(" l(! Cenmen(! !im&le! de la! c*alidade! m(rale! c(m( l( Aacem(! c(n la! c*alidade! C2!ica!; En am3(! ca!(! enc(n/rarem(! la! mi!ma! ca*!a! *ni7er!ale! 8 &ermanen/e! &re!en/e! en /(d( m(men/( 8 en cada ca!(" ac/*and( !iem&re 8 en /(da! &ar/e!" inde!/r*c/i3le! 8" en deCini/i7a" inCali3lemen/e !*&rema!" &*e!/( @*e l(! acciden/e! @*e la! c(n/rar2an" !iend( limi/ad(! 8 &arciale!" aca3an &(r rendir!e al &e!( 8 a la re&e/icin ince!an/e de !*! C*erDa!M de /al manera @*e la e!/r*c/*ra general de la! c(!a! 8 l(! grande! ra!g(! de l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! !(n (3ra !*8aM religi(ne!" Cil(!(C2a!" li/era/*ra!" ind*!/ria!" la e!/r*c/*ra de la !(ciedad 8 de la! Camilia!" n( !(n" de AecA(" mF! @*e la A*ella e!/am&ada &(r !* !ell(; 0Histoire de

la littrature anglaise/ In/r(d*ccin;, N( &re/end( en/rar en *na di!c*!in 8 cr2/ica de e!/e !i!/ema de de/ermini!m( Ai!/ric(;#1) Negar la ca*!alidad Ai!/rica re&re!en/ar2a" &reci!amen/e" la manera e@*i7(cada de c(m3a/irl(" &*e! la ca*!alidad e! *na ca/eg(r2a general @*e !e e>/iende a /(d( el cam&( del c(n(cimien/( A*man(; N( !e Aalla re!/ringida a *n Fm3i/( &ar/ic*lar" al m*nd( de l(! Cenmen(! ma/eriale!; N( Aa8 @*e c(n!iderar la li3er/ad 8 la ca*!alidad c(m( C*erDa! me/aC2!ica! diCeren/e! * (&*e!/a!M !(n" !encillamen/e" m(d(! diCeren/e! del B*ici(; El mi!m( ^an/" el cam&en mF! re!*el/( de la li3er/ad 8 del ideali!m( /ic(" n( neg BamF! @*e /(d( n*e!/r( c(n(O cimien/( em&2ric(" el c(n(cimien/( de l(! A(m3re! l( mi!m( @*e el de la! c(!a! C2!ica!" /iene @*e admi/ir el &rinci&i( de ca*!alidad; Se &*ede admi/ir Hdice ^an/H @*e !i C*era &(!i3le /ener *na 7i!in /an &r(C*nda del carFc/er &!2@*ic( de *n A(m3re" /al c(m( n(! l( m*e!/ran !*! acci(ne! in/erna! l( mi!m( @*e la! e>/erna!" de !*er/e @*e c(n(ci ram(! /(d(! !*! m(/i7(!" Aa!/a l(! mF! &e@*e'(!" 8 de ig*al m(d( /(da! la! (ca!i(ne! e>/erna! @*e &*eden inCl*irl(!" &(dr2am(! calc*lar el c(m&(r/amien/( de *n A(m3re en el C*/*r( c(n *na cer/eDa /an grande c(m( *n ecli&!e l*nar ( !(lar 8" !in em3arg(" &(dem(! !(!/ener @*e el A(m3re e! li3re; 06rtica de la raDn pr7ctica/ &; #$. de la /rad; ingl; de ; ; A33(/" -a ed;" #$?5;, N( n(! c(ncierne aA(ra e!/e a!&ec/( del &r(3lema" el c(nce&/( me/aC2!ic( ( /ic( de la li3er/ad; N(! in/ere!a" Enicamen/e" la re&erc*!in de e!/e c(nce&/( en el m /(d( Ai!/ric(; Al e!/*diar la! (3ra! &rinci&ale! de Taine n(! !(r&rende enc(n/rar @*e" &rFc/icamen/e" e!/a re&erc*!in C*era m*8 &e@*e'a; A &rimera 7i!/a n( &arece @*e &*eda Aa3er *na diCerencia mF! grande 8 radical @*e la @*e e>i!/e en/re la c(nce&cin del m*nd( Ai!/ric( de Taine 8 la de Dil/Ae8; L(! d(! &en!ad(re! a3(rdan el &r(3lema de!de d(! Fng*l(! c(m&le/amen/e diCeren/e!; Dil/Ae8 !*3ra8a la a*/(n(m2a de la Ai!/(ria" !* irred*c/i3ilidad a ciencia de la na/*raleDa" !* carFc/er de ciencia del e!&2ri/*; Taine niega en rgicamen/e e!/a (&inin; La Ai!/(ria BamF! llegarF a !er *na ciencia mien/ra! &re/enda !eg*ir !* &r(&i( camin(M n( Aa8 mF! @*e *n m(d( 8 *n camin( de &en!amien/( cien/2Cic(; Per( e!/a idea !e c(rrige inmedia/amen/e c*and( Taine c(mienDa c(n !*! &r(&ia! in7e!/igaci(ne! 8 de!cri&ci(ne! de Cenmen(! Ai!/ric(!; `C*Fl e! 7*e!/ra &rimera (3!er7acin H&reg*n/aH al /(rnar la gran A(Ba de *n inC(li(" el &lieg( amarillen/( de *n man*!cri/(" *n &(ema" *n cdig(" *na declaracin de derecA(!a E!/(" dec2!" n( !e cre &(r !2 mi!m(; E! c(m( *n m(lde" c(m( la A*ella de *n C!il" *na im&r(n/a" c(m( e!a! C(rma! im&re!a! en la &iedra &(r *n animal @*e 7i7i 8 &ereci; Den/r( del ca&araDn Aa32a *n animal 8 /ra! el d(c*men/( A*3( *n A(m3re; `Para @* Aa3rem(! de e!/*diar el m(lde !i n( e! &ara &re!en/ar al animal mi!m(a 6 e!/*diam(! el d(c*men/( &ara c(n(cer al A(m3re; La! im&r(n/a! del animal !(n re!id*(! !in 7ida" @*e /ienen 7al(r Enicamen/e c(m( cla7e de e>i!/encia! en/era! 8 7i7ien/e!; Tenem(! @*e llegar a e!a
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6( Ae in/er7enid( en e!/a c*e!/in &(r medi( de *na di!er/acin /i/*lada4 Faturalistische und humanistische (eCgrKndung der <ulturphilosophie/ G/e3(rg! ^*ngl; _e/en!O{a&!O (cA _i//erAe/!O SamAlle/! :andlingar +G(/em3*rg(" #$.$,;

e>i!/encia" de3em(! /ra/ar de recrearla; E! *n err(r e!/*diar el d(c*men/( c(m( !i e!/*7iera ai!lad(; E!/( e@*i7aldr2a a /ra/ar la! c(!a! en C(rma &edan/e!ca" inc*rrir en el err(r del 3i3liman(; De/rF! de /(d(" n( /enem(! mi/(l(g2a! ni leng*aBe!" !in(" Enicamen/e" A(m3re! @*e ac(m(dan &ala3ra! e imFgene!;;; Nada e>i!/e !i n( e! en 7ir/*d de algEn indi7id*( 8 /enem(! @*e /ra3ar c(n(cimien/( c(n e!/e indi7id*(; C*and( Aem(! e!/a3lecid( el &aren/e!c( de l(! d(gma! ( la cla!iCicacin de l(! &(ema! ( el &r(gre!( de la! c(n!/i/*ci(ne! ( la m(diCicacin de la! leng*a!" n( Aem(! AecA( mF! @*e allanar el !*el(4 la Ai!/(ria gen*ina !e &r(d*ce Enicamen/e c*and( el Ai!/(riad(r em&ieDa a re7elar" a /ra7 ! del /iem&(" el A(m3re 7i7(" @*e /ra3aBa" @*e !e a&a!i(na" arraigad( en !*! c(!/*m3re!" c(n !* 7(D 8 !*! ra!g(!" !*! ademane! 8 !* 7e!/imen/a" di!/in/( 8 c(m&le/( c(m( el A(m3re del @*e aca3am(! de de!&edirn(! en la calle; Pr(c*rem(! de!/r*ir en la medida de l( &(!i3le e!/e gran in/er7al( de /iem&( @*e n(! im&ide 7er al A(m3re c(n n*e!/r(! &r(&i(! (B(!;;; Una leng*a" *na legi!lacin" *n ca/eci!m( n( !(n n*nca mF! @*e *na c(!a a3!/rac/a4 la c(!a c(m&le/a e! el A(m3re @*e ac/Ea" el A(m3re c(r&(ral 8 7i!i3le" @*e c(me" &a!ea" l*cAa" /ra3aBa;;; :agam(! del &a!ad( &re!en/e4 &ara &(der B*Dgar de *na c(!a /iene @*e e!/ar delan/e de n(!(/r(!M n( Aa8 e>&eriencia de l( @*e e!/F a*!en/e; Sin d*da" e!/a rec(n!/r*ccin e! !iem&re inc(m&le/aM &*ede &r(d*cir Enicamen/e B*ici(! inc(m&le/(!" &er( /enem(! @*e re!ignarn(! a e!/(; E! meB(r &(!eer *n c(n(cimien/( im&erCec/( @*e *n c(n(cimien/( CE/il ( Cal!(" 8 n( Aa8 (/r( medi( &ara /ener *n c(n(cimien/( a&r(>imad( de l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! de (/r(! d2a! @*e el 7er de m(d( a&r(>imad( a l(! A(m3re! de (/r(! d2a!; 0'p. cit./ &&; # ss.? T(d( e!/( !e Aalla en c(m&le/( ac*erd( c(n la idea de la Ai!/(ria 8 del m /(d( Ai!/ric( @*e Aem(! /ra/ad( de e>&(ner 8 de deCender en l( @*e an/ecede; Si e!/a idea e! c(rrec/a" re!*l/a im&(!i3le Gred*cirG el &en!amien/( Ai!/ric( al m /(d( del &en!amien/( cien/2Cic(; A*n@*e c(n(ci ram(! /(da! la! le8e! de la na/*raleDa" a*n@*e &*di ram(! a&licar al A(m3re /(da! n*e!/ra! regla! e!/ad2!/ica!" ec(nmica! 8 !(ci(lgica!" n( n(! !er7ir2a &ara G7erG al A(m3re en e!/e a!&ec/( e!&ecial 8 en !* C(rma indi7id*al; N( n(! m(7em(! en *n *ni7er!( C2!ic( !in( !im3lic(; Para c(m&render e In/er&re/ar !2m3(l(! /enem(! @*e de!arr(llar m /(d(! diCeren/e! a l(! de la in7e!/igacin de la! ca*!a!; La ca/eg(r2a del !en/id( n( &*ede !er red*cida a la ca/eg(r2a del !er; #1- Si 3*!cFram(! *n e&2graCe general al @*e A*3i !em(! de !*3!*mir el c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric(" /endr2am(! @*e !e'alarl(" n( c(m( *na rama de la C2!ica" !in( c(m( *na rama de la !emFn/ica; La! regla! de la !emFn/ica 8 n( la! le8e! de la na/*raleDa c(n!/i/*8en l(! &rinci&i(! generale! del &en!amien/( Ai!/ric(M la Ai!/(ria !e Aalla incl*ida en el cam&( de la Aermen */ica 8 n( en el de la ciencia na/*ral; L( admi/e Taine en la &rFc/ica &er( l( niega en /e(r2a" &*e! rec(n(ce d(! /area! del Ai!/(riad(r4 c(lecci(nar l(! AecA(! e in7e!/igar !*! ca*!a!; Se le e!ca&a &(r c(m&le/( a Taine @*e e!/(! AecA(! n( le !(n dad(! inmedia/amen/e al Ai!/(riad(r" n( !(n (3!er7a3le! l( mi!m( @*e l(! AecA(! C2!ic(! ( @*2mic(!4 /ienen @*e !er rec(n!/r*id(!; 6a &ara e!/a rec(n!/r*ccin el Ai!/(riad(r de3e
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_ a!e supra/ &&; #?$ ss.

d(minar *na / cnica e!&ecial 8 m*8 c(m&licadaM &ara &(der /ener acce!( a *n AecA( !ing*lar 8 !im&le Aa8 @*e a&render a leer l(! d(c*men/(! 8 a c(m&ren der l(! m(n*men/(!; La in/er&re/acin de l(! !2m3(l(! &recede a la rec(leccin de AecA(! 8 !in ella n( Aa8 manera de a&r(>imar!e a la 7erdad Ai!/rica; E!/( n(! lle7a a (/r( &r(3lema m*8 c(n/r(7er/id(; E! clar( @*e la Ai!/(ria n( &*ede de!cri3ir /(d(! l(! AecA(! del &a!ad(; Se reCiere Enicamen/e a l(! mem(O ra3le!" l(! @*e 7alen la &ena ( !(n dign(! de rec(rda cin; Per( `dnde radica la diCerencia en/re e!/(! AecA(! mem(ra3le! 8 /(d(! l(! demF! @*e caen en el (l7id(a Ric{er/ /ra/a de &r(3ar @*e el Ai!/(riad(r" &ara &(der di!/ing*ir en/re AecA(! Ai!/ric(! 8 n( Ai!/ric(!" /iene @*e Aallar!e en &(!e!in de *n cier/( !i!/ema de 7al(re! C(rmale! 8 em&lear e!/e !i!/ema c(m( &a/rn &ara la !eleccin; Per( e!/a /e(r2a e!/F e>&*e!/a a gra7e! (3Beci(ne!; #15 Parecer2a m*cA( mF! na/*ral 8 &la*!i3le decir @*e el cri/eri( 7erdader( n( c(n!i!/e en el 7al(r de l(! AecA(! !in( en !*! c(n!ec*encia! &rFc/ica!; Un AecA( re!*l/a Ai!/ricamen/e !igniCica/i7( !i e!/F &re'ad( de c(n!ec*encia!; _ari(! Ai!/(riad(re! eminen/e! Aan !(!/enid( e!/a /e!i!; Si n(! &reg*n/am(! a n(!(/r(! mi!m(! Hdice Ed*ard Me8erH c*Fle! de l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! @*e c(n(cem(! !(n Ai!/ric(!" /endrem(! @*e c(n/e!/ar4 e! Ai!/ric( /(d( l( @*e e! eCec/i7( ( Aa re!*l/ad( eCec/i7(; En el &re!en/e" en el c*al &erci3im(! inmedia/amen/e el eCec/(" e>&erimen/am(! l( @*e e! eCec/i7(" &er( /am3i n &(dem(! e>&erimen/arl( c(n re!&ec/( al &a!ad(; En am3(! ca!(! /enem(! an/e n*e!/r(! (B(! *na ma!a de !i/*aci(ne! de AecA(" e! decir" de eCec/(!; La c*e!/in Ai!/rica e!4 `cm( !e Aan &r(d*cid( e!/(! eCec/(!a E! *n ac(n/ecimien/( Ai!/ric( l( @*e rec(n(cem(! c(m( ca*!a de *n eCec/( !emeBan/e; 0Qur >heorie und Methodi3 der Geschichte/ :alle a; S;" #$N?" &&; .- );, Tam&(c( e!/e carFc/er di!/in/i7( e! !*Cicien/e; Si e!/*diam(! *na (3ra Ai!/rica" e!&ecialmen/e *na 3i(graC2a" enc(n/rarem(! menci(nada!" en ca!i /(da! la! &Fgina!" c(!a! 8 ac(n/ecimien/(! @*e" de!de *n &*n/( de 7i!/a &*ramen/e &ragmF/ic(" !igniCican 3ien &(c(; Una car/a de G(e/Ae ( *na (3!er7acin !*8a 7er/ida en *na de !*! c(n7er!aci(ne! n( Aa deBad( A*ella en la Ai!/(ria de la li/era/*ra; Sin em3arg(" llegam(! a &en!ar @*e e! digna de rec(rdacin; Sin &(!eer ningEn eCec/( &rFc/ic(" e!/a car/a ( e!/a maniCe!/acin &*ede !er rec(n(cida c(m( *n( de e!(! d(c*men/(! a 3a!e de l(! c*ale! /ra/am(! de c(n!/r*ir n*e!/r( re/ra/( Ai!/ric( de G(e/Ae; T(d( e!/( n( e! im&(r/an/e en c*an/( a !*! c(n!ec*encia!" &er( &*ede !er al/amen/e carac/er2!/ic(; L(! AecA(! Ai!/ric(! !(n AecA(! carac/er2!/ic(! &(r@*e en la Ai!/(ria" l( mi!m( en la naci(O nal @*e en la de l(! indi7id*(!" n*nca c(n!ideram(! la! acci(ne! /an !l(; En ella! 3*!cam(! la e>&re!in del carFc/er; En n*e!/r( c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric(" @*e e! *n c(n(cimien/( !emFn/ic(" n( a&licam(! l(! mi!m(! &a/r(ne! @*e en n*e!/r( c(n(cimien/( &rFc/ic( ( C2!ic(; Una c(!a @*e C2!ica d &rFc/icamen/e carece de im&(r/ancia &*ede &(!eer *n !en/id( !emFn/ic( e>/ra(rdinari(; La le/ra iota del grieg( en l(! / rmin(! grieg(! homo ousios 8 homoiousios nada !igniCica en *n
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#15

Para *na re7i!in cr2/ica de e!/a /e(r2a" 7 a!e Ern!/ Tr(el/!cA" 1er Historismus und seine 5ro!leme/ en GGe!ammel/e ScAriC/enG" 7(l; III" 8 Ca!!irer" Qur &ogi3 der <ulturBissenschaften +G(/em3*rg(" #$%?," &&; %# !!;

!en/id( C2!ic( &er( c(m( !2m3(l( religi(!(" c(m( e>&re!in e in/er&re/acin del d(gma de la Trinidad" !e c(n7ir/i en el &*n/( de &ar/ida de di!c*!i(ne! in/erO mina3le! @*e &r(7(car(n la! &a!i(ne! mF! 7i(len/a! 8 c(nm(7ier(n l(! C*ndamen/(! de la 7ida religi(!a" !(cial 8 &(l2/ica; A Taine le g*!/a3a 3a!ar !*! di!c*!i(ne! Ai!/rica! en l( @*e l llama3a de tous petits faits significatifs. E!/(! AecA(! n( eran !igniCica/i7(! re!&ec/( a !*! eCec/(! &er( !2 m*8 e>&re!i7(!M eran !2m3(l(! c(n l(! c*ale! el Ai!/(riad(r &(d2a leer e in/er &re/ar carac/ere! indi7id*ale! ( l(! carac/ere! de *na &(ca en/era; Maca*la8 n(! c*en/a @*e" al e!cri3ir !* gran (3ra Ai!/rica" !e C(rma3a !* idea del /em&le de l(! &ar/id(! &(l2/ic(! 8 religi(!(! n( in!&irFnd(!e en *na !(la (3ra !in( en *n millar de A(Ba!" !erm(ne! 8 !F/ira! (l7idada!; T(da! e!/a! c(!a! carecen de *n gran &e!( Ai!/ric( 8 Aan &(did( /ener m*8 &(ca inCl*encia !(3re el c*r!( general de l(! ac(n/ecimien/(!; Sin em3arg(" !(n 7ali(!a! 8 Aa!/a indi!&en!a3le! &ara el Ai!O /(riad(r &(r@*e le a8*dan a c(m&render l(! carac/ere! 8 ac(n/ecimien/(!; En la !eg*nda mi/ad del !igl( XIX A*3( 7ari(! Ai!/(riad(re! @*e a3rigar(n e!&eranDa! e>ce!i7a! en la in/r(d*ccin de m /(d(! e!/ad2!/ic(!; A*g*ra3an @*e" c(n el *!( adec*ad( de e!/a n*e7a 8 &(der(!a arma" e!/F3am(! en la &(!i3ilidad de &r(7(car *na n*e7a era del &en!amien/( Ai!/ric(; Si C*era &(!i3le de!cri3ir l(! Cenmen(! Ai!/ric(! en / rmin(! e!/ad2!/ic(!" ell( &r(d*cir2a *n eCec/( re7(l*ci(nari( en el &en!amien/( A*man(M /(d( n*e!/r( c(n(cimien/( del A(m3re c(3rar2a re&en/inamen/e *n n*e7( a!&ec/(; :a3r2am(! l(grad( *n gran (3Be/i7(" *na ma/emF/ica de la na/*raleDa A*mana; L(! &rimer(! Ai!/(riad(re! @*e e>&*!ier(n e!/e &*n/( de 7i!/a e!/a3an c(n7encid(! de @*e" n( !l( el e!/*di( de l(! grande! m(7imien/(! c(lec/i7(!" !in( /am3i n el de la m(ral 8 el de la ci7iliDacin" de&end2an en gran medida de m /(d(! e!/ad2!/ic(!" &*e! e>i!/e *na e!/ad2!/ica m(ral l( mi!m( @*e *na e!/ad2!/ica !(ci(lgica ( ec(nmica; En realidad" ningEn de&ar/amen/( de la 7ida A*mana !e Aalla !*!/ra2d( a e!/ric/a! regla! n*m rica!" @*e !e e>/ienden a /(d(! l(! cam&(! de la accin A*mana; E!/a /e!i! C*e 7ig(r(!amen/e deCendida &(r L*c{le en la in/r(d*ccin general a !* Historia de la ci-iliDacin en Inglaterra +#1)5,; La e!/ad2!/ica" aCirma" re&reO !en/a la reC*/acin meB(r 8 mF! c(ncl*8en/e del 2d(l( de *na 7(l*n/ad li3re; P(!eem(! aA(ra la inC(rmacin mF! am&lia" n( !l( en l( @*e re!&ec/a a l(! in/ere!e! ma/eriale! de l(! A(m3re!" !in( /am3i n a !*! &ec*liaridade! m(rale!; E!/am(! CamiliariDad(! c(n el 2ndice de m(r/alidad 8 de ma/rim(ni(!" 8 /am3i n c(n el 2ndice criminal de la ma8(r2a de l(! &*e3l(! ci7iliDad(!; E!/(! 8 (/r(! AecA(! !imilare! Aan !id( re*nid(!" me/(diDad(! 8 !e Aallan mad*r(! &ara !* a&licacin; La circ*n!/ancia de @*e la creacin de la ciencia Ai!/rica !e re/ardara 8 @*e n*nca C*era ca&aD la Ai!/(ria de c(m&e/ir c(n la C2!ica ( la @*2mica Aa !id( de3id( a @*e !e de!c*idar(n l(! m /(d(! e!/ad2!/ic(!; N( n(! dF3am(! c*en/a de @*e /am3i n en e!/e cam&( cada ac(n/ecimien/( !e Aalla ligad( a !* an/eceden/e &(r *na c(ne>in inel*di3le" @*e cada an/eceden/e !e Aalla c(O nec/ad( c(n *n AecA( @*e le &recede 8 @*e" de e!/e m(d(" el m*nd( en/er(" l( mi!m( el m(ral @*e el C2!ic(" C(rma *na cadena nece!aria en la c*al cada A(m3re &*ede de!em&e'ar !* &a&el; Per( en m(d( alg*n( &*ede de/erminar c*Fl

Aa de !er e!/e &a&el; GRecAaDand(" &(r l( /an/(" el d(gma me/aC2!ic( de la 7(l*n/ad li3re; ;; n(! 7em(! c(nd*cid(! a la c(ncl*!in de @*e la! acci(ne! de l(! A(m3re!" e!/and( de/erminada! Enicamen/e &(r !*! an/eceden/e!" /ienen @*e &(!eer *n carFc/er de *niC(rmidad" e! decir" @*e en circ*n!/ancia! id n/ica!" /ienen @*e de!em3(car en l(! mi!m(! re!*l/ad(!;G 0History (C 6i-iliDation in England/ N*e7a 6(r{" #1)1" &&; #% ss.? N( !e &*ede negar @*e la e!/ad2!/ica re&re!en/a *na a8*da grande 8 7ali(!a en el e!/*di( de l(! Cenmen(! !(ciale! ( ec(nmic(!; Tam3i n en el cam&( de la Ai!/(ria de3em(! admi/ir la *niC(rmidad 8 la reg*laridad de cier/a! acci(ne! A*mana!; La Ai!/(ria n( niega @*e e!/a! acci(ne!" !iend( el re!*l/ad( de ca*!a! am&lia! 8 generale! @*e ac/Ean !(3re l(! agregad(! de la !(ciedad" &r(d*cen cier/a! c(n!ec*encia! c(n inde&endencia de la 7(l*n/ad de l(! indi7id*(! @*e c(m&(nen la !(ciedadM &er( c*and( /ra/am(! de de!cri3ir Ai!/ricamen/e *n ac/( indi7id*al n(! enCren/am(! c(n *n &r(3lema diCeren/e; P(r !* &r(&ia na/*raleDa" l(! m /(d(! e!/ad2!/ic(! !e limi/an a l(! Cenmen(! Gc(lec/i7(!G; La! le8e! e!/ad2!/ica! n( !ir7en &ara de/erminar *n ca!( !ing*lar" /ra/an Enicamen/e de Cenmen(! c(lec/i7(!; L*c{le e!/F m*8 leB(! de /ener *na 7i!in clara del carFc/er 8 Cinalidad de l(! m /(d(! e!/ad2!/ic(!; Sl( mF! /arde !e lle7 a ca3( *n anFli!i! lgic( adec*ad( de ell(!;#11 Alg*na! 7ece! Aa3la de le8e! e!/ad2!/ica! en *na C(rma" mF! 3ien" mi!/eri(!a; Parece c(n!iderarla!" n( c(m( Crm*la! @*e de!cri3en cier/(! Cenmen(!" !in( c(m( C*erDa! @*e l(! &r(d*cen; E!/( e! mF! 3ien mi/(l(g2a @*e ciencia; Para l la! le8e! e!/ad2!/ica! !(n" en cier/( !en/id(" Gca*!a!G @*e n(! im&(nen cier/a! acci(ne!; El !*icidi(" &(r eBem&l(" &arece !er *n ac/( c(m&le/amen/e li3re &er(" !i e!/*diam(! e!/ad2!/ica m(ral" B*Dgarem(! de (/ra manera; Enc(n/rarem(! @*e el !*icidi( e! meramen/e el &r(d*c/( de la c(ndicin general de la !(ciedad 8 @*e el de!graciad( indi7id*( n( Aace !in( lle7ar a eCec/( l( @*e e! nece!aria c(n!ec*encia de circ*n!/ancia! an/eceden/e!; En *n e!/ad( dad( de la !(ciedad" *n cier/( nEmer( de &er!(na! /iene @*e &(ner / rmin( a !* 7ida;;; 6 el &(der de la am&lia le8 e! /an irre!i!/i3le @*e ni el am(r a la 7ida ni el /em(r a la (/ra &*eden c(n!eg*ir alg( &ara amin(rar !*! eCec/(!; +L*c{le" op. cit./ &; ?N;, A&ena! !i nece!i/( decir @*e e!/e G/iene @*eG encierra /(d( *n cEm*l( de Calacia! me/aC2!ica!" &er( el Ai!/(riad(r n( !e Aalla in/ere!ad( en e!/e a!&ec/( del &r(3lema; Si n(! Aa3la de *n ca!( indi7id*al Hdigam(!" del !*icidi( de Ca/nH" e! (37i( @*e &ara la in/er&re/acin Ai!/rica de e!/e AecA( indi7id*al n( &*ede e!&erar a8*da alg*na de l(! m /(d(! e!/ad2!/ic(!; S* in/encin &rimaria n( c(n!i!/e en CiBar *n ac(n/ecimien/( C2!ic( en el e!&aci( 8 en el /iem&( !in( en re7elar el !en/id( de la m*er/e de Ca/n e>&re!ad( en el 7er!( de L*can(4 2ictrix causa diis placuit ed -icta 6atoni. #cS El !*icidi( de Ca/n n( era !l( *n ac/( C2!ic( !in( *n ac/( !im3lic(; Era la e>&re!in de *n gran carFc/erM la El/ima &r(/e!/a de la men/alidad re&*3licana r(mana Cren/e a *n n*e7( (rden de c(!a!; T(d( e!/( e! c(m&le/amen/e inacce!i3le a e!a! ca*!a! am&lia! 8 generale! @*e &*di ram(! &en!ar c(m( re!O
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Para 3i3li(graC2a m(derna !(3re e!/ad2!/ica" 7 a!e ^e8One!; A >reatise on 5ro!a!ility +L(ndre!" #$?#," 8 _(n Mi!e!" Wahrscheinlich3eit/ %tatisti3 und Wahrheit +_iena" #$?1,; # #1$ GLa ca*!a de l(! c(n@*i!/ad(re! &lac2a a l(! di(!e! &er( la de l(! 7encid(! a Ca/n;G
#11

&(n!a3le! de l(! grande! m(7imien/(! c(lec/i7(! de la Ai!/(ria; Si /ra/am(! de red*cir la! acci(ne! A*mana! a regla! e!/ad2!/ica! BamF! l(grarem(! c(n e!/a! regla! el (3Be/i7( rec(n(cid( Aa!/a &(r l(! Ai!/(riad(re! de la e!c*ela na/*rali!/a; N( 7erem(! a l(! A(m3re! de (/r(! /iem&(!" ni la 7ida real" el drama de la Ai!/(ria !in(" Enicamen/e" l(! m(7imien/(! 8 ge!/ic*laci(ne! de l(! m*'ec(! en *n g*i'(l 8 la! c*erda! c(n @*e !e m*e7en la! mari(ne/a!; La mi!ma (3Becin 7ale Cren/e a l(! in/en/(! de red*cir el c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric( al e!/*di( de l(! /i&(! &!ic(lgic(!; A &rimera 7i!/a &arece e7iden/e @*e" ca!( de @*e &(dam(! Aa3lar de le8e! generale! de la Ai!/(ria" e!/a! le8e! n( &*edan !er de la na/*raleDa !in(" Enicamen/e" &!ic(lgica!; La reg*laridad @*e /ra/am(! de 7er 8 de de!cri3ir en la Ai!/(ria n( &er/enece a la e>&eriencia e>/erna !in( a la in/erna; E! *na reg*laridad de e!/ad(! &!2@*ic(!" de &en!amien/(! 8 !en/imien/(!; Si l(grFram(! enc(n/rar *na le8 general in7i(la3le @*e g(3ernara e!/(! &en!amien/(! 8 !en/imien/(! 8 le! &re!cri3iera *n (rden deCinid(" &(dr2am(! Cig*rarn(! @*e Aa32am(! enc(n/rad( la cla7e del m*nd( Ai!/ric(; En/re l(! Ai!/(riad(re! m(dern(!" ^arl Lam&recA/ e!/a3a c(n7encid( de @*e Aa32a de!c*3ier/( *na le8 !emeBan/e; En l(! d(ce 7(lEmene! de !* Historia aleC mana /ra/ de &r(3ar !* /e!i! general c(n *n eBem&l( c(ncre/(; SegEn Lam&recA/" e>i!/e *n (rden in7aria3le c(n arregl( al c*al !e !*ceden *n(! a (/r(! l(! e!/ad(! del e!&2ri/* A*man(; E!/e (rden de/ermina" de *na 7eD &(r /(da!" el &r(ce!( de la c*l/*ra A*mana; Lam&recA/ recAaDa3a la! idea! del ma/eriali!m( ec(nmic(; T(d( ac/( ec(nmic(" l( mi!m( @*e /(d( ac/( men/al" de&ende" !egEn l" de c(ndici(ne! &!2@*ica!; Per( /enem(! nece!idad" n( de *na &!ic(l(g2a indi7id*al !in( !(cial" *na !(ci(l(g2a @*e e>&li@*e l(! cam3i(! @*e !e &r(d*cen en la &!i@*e !(cial @*e !e Aallan 7inc*lad(! a *n e!@*ema CiB( 8 r2gid(; La Ai!/(ria &(r l( /an/(" de3e ce!ar de !er *n e!/*di( de indi7id*(!M /iene @*e emanci&ar!e de /(da !*er/e de c*l/( a l(! A r(e!; S* &r(3lema &rinci&al /iene @*e 7er c(n Cac/(re! &!ic(!(ciale!" c(m&arad(! 8 c(n/ra!/ad(! c(n l(! Cac/(re! &!ic(indi7id*ale!; Ni la! diCerencia! indi7id*ale! ( naci(nale! &*eden aCec/ar ( al/erar el c*r!( reg*lar de n*e!/ra 7ida &!ic(!(cial; La Ai!/(ria de la ci7iliDacin n(! m*e!/ra !iem&re 8 en /(da! &ar/e! la mi!ma !ec*encia 8 el mi!m( ri/m( *niC(rme; De!de *na &rimera e/a&a" @*e e! de!cri/a &(r Lam&recA/ c(m( animi!m(" &a!am(! a *na edad de !im3(li!m(" /i&i!m(" c(n7enci(nali!m(" indi7id*ali!m( 8 !*3Be/i7i!m(; E!/e e!@*ema e! inm(diCica3le e ine>(ra3le; Si ace&/am(! e!e &rinci&i(" la Ai!/(ria 8a n( !erF *na mera ciencia ind*c/i7a; N(! Aallam(! en !i/*acin de e>&(ner en*nciad(! ded*c/i7(! de carFc/er general; Lam&recA/ a3!/raB( !* e!@*ema de l(! AecA(! de la Ai!/(ria alemana" &er( en m(d( alg*n( /ra/ de re!/ringirl( a !* Frea &r(&ia; Pen! @*e !e &(d2a a&licar en general" c(m( !i C*era *n &rin ci&i( a priori de /(da 7ida Ai!/rica; GDel ma/erial /(/al (3/enem(! n( !l( la idea de *nidad" Ai!/rica y em&2rica" !in( /am3i n *na im&re!in &!ic(lgica general @*e n(! re7ela 8 e>ige a3!(l*/amen/e !emeBan/e *nidadM /(da! la! incidencia! &!2@*ica! !im*l/Fnea!" l( mi!m( la! &!ic(indi7id*ale! @*e la! &!ic(!(ciale!" &(!een *na /endencia a acercar!e a *na !emeBanDa c(mEn;G 0What Is History/ /rad; ingl; de E; A; Andre9!" N*e7a 6(r{" Macmillan" #$N)" &; #-.;, El mecani!m( &!2@*ic( *ni7er!al

del c*r!( de l(! di7er!(! &eri(d(! !e re&i/e !iem&re" l( mi!m( en la R*!ia m(derna @*e en la Ai!/(ria de Grecia ( de R(ma" en A!ia l( mi!m( @*e en E*r(&a; Si re7i!am(! l(! /e!/im(ni(! del n(r/e" el cen/r( 8 el !*r de E*r(&a" &arang(nFnd(l(! c(n l(! del Medi/errFne( (rien/al 8 el A!ia Men(r" 7erem(! @*e e!/a! ci7iliDaci(ne! Aan &r(gre!ad( en l2nea! &aralela!; GUna 7eD @*e l( Aa8am(! realiDad( &(drem(! a&reciar la im&(r/ancia de la Ai!/(ria *ni7er!al &ara cada c(m*nidad ( nacin; En/(nce! !e &(drF e!cri3ir *na Ai!/(ria *ni7er!al cien/2Cica;G 0Idem/ &; ?#$;, El e!@*ema general de Lam&recA/ e! 3ien diCeren/e de la c(nce&cin @*e del &r(ce!( Ai!/ric( /iene L*c{le; Sin em3arg(" la! d(! /e(r2a! &re!en/an *n &*n/( de c(n/ac/(; En am3a! /r(&eDam(! c(n la mi!ma e>&re!in (min(!a4 G/iene @*eG; De!&* ! de *n &eri(d( de /i&i!m( 8 c(n7enci(nali!m( G/iene @*eG !eg*ir !iem&re *n &eri(d( de indi7id*ali!m( 8 !*3Be/i7i!m(; Ning*na edad ni ning*na c*l/*ra &*ede el*dir e!/e c*r!( general de la! c(!a!" @*e &arece !er *na e!&ecie de Ca/a O li!m( Ai!/ric(; Si e!/a c(nce&cin C*era 7erdad" el gran drama de la Ai!/(ria !e c(n7er/ir2a en *n e!&ec/Fc*l( 3a!/an/e a3*rrid( @*e !e &(d2a di7idir de an/eman( en di7er!(! ac/(! de !*ce!in in7aria3le; Per( la realidad de la Ai!/(ria n( la c(n!/i/*8e *na !*ce!in *niC(rme de ac(n/ecimien/(! !in( la 7ida in/erna del A(m3re; E!/a 7ida &*ede !er de!cri/a e in/er&re/ada de!&* ! @*e Aa !id( 7i7idaM n( &*ede !er an/ici&ada c(n *na Crm*la general a3!/rac/a ni !er red*cida a *n r2gid( e!@*ema de /re! ( cinc( ac/(!; N( &re/end( di!c*/ir aA(ra el c(n/e>/( de la /e!i! de Lam&recA/ !in( &r(m(7er Enicamen/e *na c*e!/in C(rmal" me/(d(lgica; `Cm( c(n!ig*i Lam&recA/ la &r*e3a em&2rica en @*e 3a!a !* /e(r2a c(n!/r*c/i7aa Al ig*al @*e l(! Ai!/(riad(re! @*e le &recedier(n" /*7( @*e c(menDar c(n *n e!/*di( de d(c*men/(! 8 m(n*men/(!; N( !e Aalla3a in/ere!ad( Enicamen/e en ac(n/ecimien/(! &(l2/ic(!" en (rganiDaci(ne! !(ciale!" en Cenmen(! eco nmic(!" !in( @*e de!ea3a a3arcar /(da la am&li/*d de la 7ida c*l/*ral; _ari(! de !*! arg*men/(! mF! im&(r/an/e! !e 3a!an en *n anFli!i! c*idad(!( de la 7ida religi(!a" de la! (3ra! de mE!ica 8 de li/era/*ra; El e!/*di( de la Ai!/(ria de la! 3ella! ar/e! c(n!/i/*2a *n( de !*! ma8(re! in/ere!e!; En !* Ai!/(ria de Alemania n( !l( Aa3la de ^an/ 8 de Lee/A(7en !in( /am3i n de Fe*er3acA" ^linger 8 L(ec{lin; En !* in!/i/*/( Ai!/ric( de Lei&Dig almacen *na can/idad !(r&renden/e de ma/e riale! !(3re /(da! e!/a! c*e!/i(ne!; Per( e! clar( @*e" &ara in/er&re/arl(!" de3i /rad*cirl(! an/e! a *n leng*aBe diCeren/e; Para decirl( c(n &ala3ra! de Taine" /*7( @*e enc(n/rar" den/r( de la c(ncAa C!il" al animal" 8 de/rF! del d(c*men/( al A(m3re; `0* e! l( @*e 3*!cFi! c*and( mirFi! c(n 7*e!/r(! (B(! al A(m3re 7i!i3lea &reg*n/a3a Taine; El A(m3re in7i!i3le; La! &ala3ra! @*e en/ran en 7*e!/r(! (2d(!" l(! ge!/(!" l(! m(7imien/(! de !* ca3eDa" l(! 7e!/id(! @*e lle7a" ac/(! 8 AecA(! 7i!i3le! de /(d( g ner(" n( !(n mF! @*e e>&re!inM c(n ell(! !e n(! re7ela alg( 8 e!/e alg( e! *n alma; Un A(m3re in/eri(r !e Aalla (c*l/( /ra! el A(m3re e>/eri(rM &er( el !eg*nd( de3e re7elarn(! al &rimer(;;; T(da! e!/a! maniCe!/aci(ne! e>/erna! n( !(n mF! @*e (/ra! /an/a! a7enida! @*e c(n7ergen en *n cen/r(M caminam(! &(r e!a! a7enida! a l(! Cine! de llegar al cen/r( 8 e!/e cen/r( e! el A(m3re gen*in(;;; E!/e

!*3m*nd( e! *n n*e7( /ema" mF! &r(&i( del Ai!/(riad(r; 0'p. cit./ #"%;, El e!/*di( de Ai!/(riad(re! na/*rali!/a! c(m( Taine 8 Lam&recA/ n(! c(rr(3(ra" !egEn 7em(!" en n*e!/ra &r(&ia idea 8 n(! c(n7ence de @*e el m*nd( de la Ai!/(ria e! *n *ni7er!( !im3lic( 8 n( *n *ni7er!( C2!ic(; De!&* ! de la &*3licacin del &rimer 7(l*men de la Historia alemana de Lam&recA/ !e C*e Aaciend( cada 7eD mF! maniCie!/a la cri!i! crecien/e del &en!amien/( Ai!/ric( 8 !en/ida en /(da !* in/en!idad; S*rgi *na larga 8 a&a!i(nada c(n/r(7er!ia acerca del carFc/er del m /(d( Ai!/ric(; Lam&recA/ Aa32a declarad( @*e /(da! la! idea! /radici(nale! al re!&ec/( e!/a3an an/ic*ada!; C(n!ider !* &r(&i( m /(d( c(m( el Enic( Gcien/2Cic(G 8 el Enic( Gm(dern(G; #$N S*! ad7er!ari(!" &(r (/ra &ar/e" e!/a3an c(n7encid(! de @*e l( @*e l Aa32a (Crecid( n( &a!a3a de !er *na carica/*ra del &en!amien/( Ai!/ric(; #$# Am3a! &ar/e! !e e>&re!a3an en *n leng*aBe c(n/*nden/e 8 &(c( c(nciliad(r" &arec2a im&(!i3le *n ac*erd(; El /(n( acad mic( del de3a/e !e 7e2a in/err*m&id(" a men*d(" &(r &reB*ici(! &er!(nale! ( &(l2/ic(!; Si a3(rdam(! el &r(3lema c(n *n e!&2ri/* n( &redi!&*e!/( 8 de!de *n &*n/( de 7i!/a &*ramen/e lgic(" enc(n/rarem(! @*e" a &e!ar de /(da! la! diCerencia! de (&inin" e>i!/e *na cier/a *nidad C*ndamen/al; C(m( Aem(! indicad(" /am&(c( l(! Ai!/(riad(re! na/*rali!/a! negar(n" ni &(d2an negar" @*e l(! AecA(! Ai!/ric(! n( eran del mi!m( /i&( @*e l(! AecA(! C2!ic(!; Se da3an c*en/a de @*e !*! d(c*men/(! n( eran mera! c(!a! C2!ica!" &*e! /en2an @*e !er le2d(! c(m( !2m3(l(!; Tam3i n e! clar(" &(r (/ra &ar/e" @*e cada !2m3(l( H*n ediCici(" *na (3ra de ar/e" *n ri/( religi(!(H (Crece !* a!&ec/( ma/erial; El m*nd( A*man( n( e! *na en/idad !e&arada ( *na realidad a*/(!*Cicien/e; El A(m3re 7i7e en *n am3ien/e C2!ic( @*e l( inCl*8e c(n!/an/emen/e e im&rime !* !ell( !(3re la! C(rma! de !* 7ida; Para c(m&render !*! creaci(ne! H!* *ni7er!( !im3lic(H de3em(! ac(rdarn(! !iem&re de e!/a inCl*encia; M(n/e!@*ie* /ra/ de de!cri3ir en !* (3ra mae!/ra el Ge!&2ri/* de la! le8e!G" &er( enc(n/r @*e e!/e e!&2ri/* !e Aalla 7inc*lad(" &(r /(da! &ar /e!" a !*! c(ndici(ne! C2!ica!; C(n!ider @*e el !*el(" el clima" el carFc/er an/r(&(lgic( de la! di7er!a! naci(ne!" c(n!/i/*2an alg*na! de la! c(ndici(ne! C*ndamen/ale! de !*! le8e! e in!/i/*ci(ne!; E! clar( @*e e!/a! c(ndici(ne! C2!ica! /ienen @*e !er e!/*diada! &(r m /(d(! C2!ic(!; Tan/( el e!&aci( c(m( el /iem&( Ai!/ric( !e Aallan enca*Dad(! en *n /(d( mF! am&li(; El /iem&( Ai!/ric( n( e! mF! @*e *n &e@*e'( Cragmen/( de *n /iem&( c!mic( *ni7er!al; Si de!eam(! medir e!/e /iem&(" !i n(! Aallam(! in/ere!ad(! en la cr(n(l(g2a de l(! ac(n/ecimien/(!" de3erem(! &(!eer in!/r*men/(! C2!ic(!; Den/r( de la (3ra c(ncre/a del Ai!/(riad(r" n( enc(n/ram(! (&(!icin en/re e!/a! d(! 7i!i(ne!M !e C*nden &erCec/amen/e en *na !(la; En n*e!/r( anFli!i! lgic( nada mF! &(dem(! !e&arar *n AecA( del (/r(; En la in7e!/igacin de *n c(m&licad( &r(3lema cr(n(lgic(" el Ai!/(riad(r de3e &r(ceder de diCeren/e! manera!; P*ede em&lear cri/eri(! ma/eriale! ( C(rmale!M a&licar m /(d(! e!/ad2!/ic(! ( m /(d(! ideale! de in/er&re/acin; El &r(3lema" /an in/rincad(" de la cr(n(l(g2a de l(! diFl(g(! &la/nic(! !e re!(l7i"
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CC; Lam&recA/" Alte und neue )ichtungen in der GeschichtsBissenschaft +#1$-,; Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e LernAeim" &ehr!uch der historischen Methode +)a ed;" M*nicA" D*nc{er" #$N1," &&; 5#N ss.

en *na gran medida" gracia! a (3!er7aci(ne! e!/ad2!/ica! c(ncernien/e! al e!/il( de Pla/n; Median/e cri/eri(! e!/il2!/ic(! diCeren/e! !e e!/a3leci @*e *n cier/( gr*&( de diFl(g(! Hel %ofista/ el 5oltico/ el ile!o y el >imeoH c(rre!&(nd2a a la &(ca de la 7eBeD de Pla/n; #$? C*and( Adic{e! &re&ar !* edicin de l(! man*!cri/(! de ^an/ n( &*d( enc(n/rar meB(r cri/eri( &ara e!/a3lecer *n (rden cr(n(lgic( deCinid( @*e el anFli!i! @*2mic( de la /in/a c(n @*e Aa32an !id( e!cri/a! la! di7er!a! n(/a!; Si en l*gar de em&lear e!/(! cri/eri(! C2!ic(! &ar/im(! de *n anFli!i! de l(! &en!amien/(! de Pla/n ( de ^an/ 8 de !* c(ne>in lgica" /endrem(! mene!/er de c(nce&/(! @*e &er/enecen" !in d*da" a (/r( cam&(M !i" &(r eBem&l(" me enc*en/r( an/e *na ag*aC*er/e" &*ed( rec(n(cerla inmedia/amen/e c(m( (3ra de Rem3rand/" 8 Aa!/a @*iDF &*eda decir a @* &eri(d( de !* 7ida &er/enece; L(! cri/eri(! e!/il2!/ic(! c(n l(! @*e 8( decid( e!/a c*e!/in !(n de *n (rden diCeren/e @*e l(! cri/eri(! ma/eriale!; #$.El d*ali!m( de l(! m /(d(! n( &erB*dica la (3ra del Ai!/(riad(r ni de!/r*8e la *nidad del &en!amien/( Ai! /ric(; Am3(! m /(d(! c((&eran a *n Cin c(mEn !in &er/*r3ar!e * (3!/r*ir!e; La c*e!/in acerca de c*Fl de e!/(! m /(d(! &(!ee &rimac2a lgica 8 e! 7erdaderamen/e cien/2Cic( a&ena! !i admi/e *na re!&*e!/a &reci!a; Si ace&/am(! la deCinicin de ^an/" @*e n( &(dem(! a&licar el caliCica/i7( de ciencia" en !* !en/id( &r(&i(" mF! @*e a *n c*er&( de c(n(cimien/(! c*8a cer/eDa !ea a&(d2c/ica" #$% clar( @*e n( &(drem(! Aa3lar de *na ciencia de la Ai!/(ria; Per( el n(m3re @*e a&li@*em(! a la Ai!/(ria n( /iene im&(r/ancia mien/ra! &(!eam(! *na idea clara de !* carFc/er general; Sin !er *na ciencia e>ac/a" man/endrF !iem&re !* l*gar 8 !* c(ndicin &r(&ia en el (rgani!m( del c(n(cimien/( A*man(; N( 3*!cam(! en la Ai!/(ria el c(n(cimien/( de *na c(!a e>/erna !in( el c(n(cimien/( de n(!(/r(! mi!m(!; Un gran Ai!/(riad(r c(m( Ia{(3 L*rc{Aard/ n( !e Cig*ra @*e en !* (3ra !(3re C(n!/an/in( el Grande ( !(3re la ci7iliDacin del Renacimien/( n(! (CreDca *na de!cri&cin cien/2Cica de e!/a! &(ca!; Ni !i@*iera 7acil en deCender la &arad(Ba de @*e la Ai!/(ria e! la men(! cien/2Cica de /(da! la! ciencia!; #$)GL( @*e 8( c(n!/r*8( Ai!/ricamen/e He!cri32a L*rc{Aard/ en *na car/aH" n( e! el re!*l/ad( del cri/ici!m( ( de la e!&ec*lacin !in( de la imaginacin" @*e /ra/a de llenar la! lag*na! de !*! (3!er7aci(ne!; Para m2 la Ai!/(ria e!" en *na gran medida" &(e!2aM c(n!/i/*8e *na !erie de la! mF! 3ella! 8 &in/(re!ca! c(m&(!ici(ne!; #$-El mi!m( &*n/( de 7i!/a C*e man/enid( &(r M(mm!en" @*e n( era !l( *n geni( cien/2Cic( !in( al mi!m( /iem&(" *n( de l(! mF! grande! (rganiDad(re! de la la3(r cien/2Cica; Cre el 6orpus inscriptianumI (rganiD el e!/*di( de la n*mi!mF/ica 8 &*3lic !* Historia de la moneda. DiC2cilmen/e &(dem(! c(n!iderar e!/( c(m( la (3ra de *n ar/i!/a; Per( c*and(
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Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e K; L*/(!la9!{i" TAe Origin and Gr(9/A (C Pla/(w! L(gic 9i/A an Acc(*n/ (C Pla/(w! S/8le and /Ae CAr(n(l(g8 (C :i! Kri/ing! +L(ndre! 8 N*e7a 6(r{" #$N5,;; #$. 6( Ae di!c*/id( el carFc/er lgic( de e!/(! Gc(nce&/(! e!/il2!/ic(!G en Qur &ogi3 der <ulturBissenschaften +G(/em3*rg(" #$%?," &&; -. !!; #$% ^an/" Metaphysische AnfangsgrKnde der FaturBissenCschaft/ _(rrede" GKer{eG +Ed; Ca!!irer," I_" .5N; #$) Ia{(3 L*rc{Aard/" Kelige!cAicA/licAe Le/racA/*ngen" &; 1#; #$(aseler [ahr!Kcher +#$#N," &&; #N$ s.I ci/ad( !egEn ^arl I(l" [a3o! (urc3hardt als Geschichtsphilosoph +La!iOlea" #$#1,;

M(mm!en C*e n(m3rad( rec/(r de la Uni7er!idad de Lerl2n 8 &r(n*nci !* di!c*r!( ina*g*ral" deCini !* ideal del m /(d( Ai!/ric( diciend( @*e el Ai!/(riad(r &er/enece meB(r aca!( al gremi( de l(! ar/i!/a! @*e al de l(! cien/2Cic(!; A &e!ar de @*e l mi!m( era *n( de !*! mae!/r(! mF! eminen/e!" n( /*7( re&ar( en decir @*e la Ai!/(ria n( e! *na c(!a @*e &*ede !er ad@*irida de *n m(d( inmedia/(" en!e'and( 8 a&rendiend(; La *rdim3re @*e g*2a mile! de Ail(! 8 la 7i!in en la indi7id*alidad de A(m3re! 8 naci(ne! !(n d(ne! del geni( @*e de!aC2an /(da en!e'anDa 8 /(d( a&rendiDaBe; Si *n &r(Ce!(r de Ai!/(ria &ien!a @*e &*ede C(rmar Ai!/(riad(re! en el mi!m( !en/id( en @*e &*eden !er C(rmad(! l(! ma/emF/ic(! 8 l(! @*e !e dedican a la! A*manidade!" e! 72c/ima de *na il*!in &eligr(!a 8 &erB*dicial; El Ai!/(riad(r n( !e Aace !in( @*e naceM n( &*ede !er C(rmad(" /iene @*e C(rmar!e a !2 mi!m(; +TA; M(mm!en" GRe{/(ra/!redeG" #15%" en )eden und AufsLtDe/ Lerl2n" #$#?;, Per( !i 3ien n( &(dem(! negar @*e /(da (3ra Ai!/rica eCec/i7a lle7a en !2 *n elemen/( ar/2!/ic(" n( &(r e!/( Aa de c(n7er/ir!e en *na (3ra de Ciccin; En !* 3*!ca de la 7erdad el Ai!/(riad(r !e Aalla 7inc*lad( &(r la! mi!ma! regla! e!/ric/a! @*e el cien/2Cic(M /iene @*e em&lear /(d(! l(! m /(d(! de la in7e!/igacin em&2rica" /iene @*e rec(ger /(da! la! &r*e3a! di!&(ni3le! 8 c(m&arar 8 cri/icar /(da! !*! C*en/e!; N( le e!/F &ermi/id( (l7idar ( de!c*idar ningEn AecA( im&(r/an/e; Sin em3arg(" el El/im( 8 deci!i7( ac/( e! !iem&re *n ac/( de la imaginacin &r(d*c/i7a; En *na c(n7er!acin c(n Ec{ermann !e lamen/a3a G(e/Ae @*e Aa32a &(c(! A(m3re! @*e /*7ieran Gimaginacin &ara la 7erdad de l( realG; GLa ma8(r2a &reCiere regi(ne! 8 circ*n!/ancia! e>/ra'a! de la! @*e n( c(n(ce nada 8 c(n la! @*e !* imaginacin !e &*ede eBerci/ar de ma O nera 3a!/an/e e>/ra7agan/e; Per( Aa8 (/r(! @*e miran !iem&re a la realidad 8" c(m( carecen &(r c(m&le/( de e!&2ri/* &( /ic(" !(n dema!iad( !e7er(! en !*! demanda!;G #$5 L(! grande! Ai!/(riad(re! el*den am3(! e>/rem(!; S*elen !er em&2ric(!M (3!er7ad(re! e in7e!/igad(re! c*idad(!(! de l(! AecA(! e!&eciale!" &er( n( carecen de e!&2ri/* &( /ic(; La 7erdadera !2n/e!i! ( !in(&!i! Ai!/rica de&ende de la c(m3inacin de *n !en/id( ag*d( &(r la realidad em&2rica de la! c(!a! c(n el li3re d(n de la imaginacin; N( &*ede de!cri3ir!e c(n *na Crm*la general el C*nci(namien/( ideal de e!/a! C*erDa! (&*e!/a!; La &r(&(rcin &arece 7ariar de *na &(ca a (/ra 8 de *n e!cri/(r a (/r(; En la Ai!/(ria an/ig*a enc(n/ram(! *na c(nce&cin diCeren/e de la mi!in del Ai!/(riad(r @*e en la Ai!/(ria m(derna; L(! di!c*r!(! @*e in!er/a T*c2dide! en !* (3ra Ai!/rica n( /ienen 3a!e em&2rica" n( C*er(n &r(n*nciad(! c(m( T*c2dide! l(! (Crece; Sin em3arg(" n( !(n &*ra Ciccin ni /am&(c( mer(! ad(rn(! re/ric(!; S(n Ai!/(ria" n( &(r@*e re&r(d*Dcan ac(n/ecimien/(! reale!" !in( &(r@*e c*m&len en la (3ra de T*c2dide! c(n *na im&(r/an/e C*ncin Ai!/rica; En *na C(rma en rgica 8 c(ncen/rada lle7an a ca3( *na carac/eriDacin de A(m3re! 8 ac(n/ecimien/(!; La (racin CEne3re de Pericle! c(n!/i/*8e aca!( la meB(r 8 mF!
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G(e/Ae a Ec{ermann" ?) de diciem3re" #1?)" en 6on-ersaciones de Goethe con Ec3ermann y %orel/ /rad; ingl; &(r I(An O>C(rd +L(ndre!" #15%," &; #-?;

im&re!i(nan/e de!cri&cin de la 7ida 8 la c*l/*ra a/enien!e! en el !igl( _; El e!/il( de /(d(! e!/(! di!c*r!(! lle7a el !ell( &er!(nal 8 gen*in( de T*c2dide!; GT(d(! ell(! !(n" di7er!amen/e" de e!/il( /*cididean(" !e Aa dicA(" l( mi!m( @*e l(! di7er!(! carac/ere! de *na /ragedia de E*r2&ide! em&lean *na diccin !imilar;G#$1 Sin em3arg(" n( !l( re/ra/an la! idi(!incra!ia! &er!(nale! !in( @*e re&re!en/an" /am3i n" la &(ca en !* c(nB*n/(; En e!/e !en/id( !(n (3Be/i7(!" n( !*3Be/i7(!M &(!een *na 7erdad ideal" 8a @*e n( *na 7erdad em&2rica; En l(! /iem&(! m(dern(! n(! Aem(! AecA( m*cA( mF! !*!ce&/i3le! a la! e>igencia! de la 7erdad em&2rica" &er( aca!( n(! Aallem(! Crec*en/emen/e en &eligr( de &erder de 7i!/a la 7erdad ideal de c(!a! 8 &er!(nalidade!; El B*!/( e@*ili3ri( en/re e!/(! d(! elemen/(! de&ende del /ac/( indi7id*al del Ai!/(riad(r 8 n( e! &(!i3le red*cirl( a *na regla general; En la m(derna c(nciencia Ai!/rica Aa cam3iad( la &r(&(rcin" &er( l(! elemen/(! Aan &ermanecid( l(! mi!m(!; C(n re!&ec/( a la di!/ri3*cin 8 7ig(r de la! d(! C*erDa! cada Ai!/(riad(r &(!ee !* ec*acin &er!(nal; Sin em3arg(" la idealidad de la Ai!/(ria n( e! la mi!ma @*e la idealidad del ar/e; El ar/e n(! &r(&(rci(na *na de!cri&cin ideal de la 7ida A*mana median/e *na e!&ecie de &r(ce!( al@*2mic(M c(n7ier/e n*e!/ra 7ida em&2rica en la dinFmica de la! C(rma! &*ra!;La Ai!/(ria n( &r(cede de e!/e m(d(; N( marcAa mF! allF de la realidad em&2rica de la! c(!a! 8 l(! ac(n/ecimien/(! !in( @*e m(ldea e!/a realidad en *na n*e7a C(rma &re!/Fnd(le la idealidad del rec*erd(; La 7ida !ig*e !iend( a la l*D de la Ai!/(ria *n gran drama reali!/a" c(n /(da! !*! /en!i(ne! 8 c(nClic/(!" !*! grandeDa! 8 mi!eria!" !*! e!&eranDa! e il*!i(ne!" !* B*eg( de energ2a! 8 &a!i(ne!" &er( e!e drama n( !l( e! !en/id( !in( in/*id(; Al 7er e!/e e!&ec/Fc*l( en el e!&eB( de la Ai!/(ria" mien/ra! !eg*im(! 7i7iend( en n*e!/r( m*nd( em&2ric( de em(ci(ne! 8 &a!i(ne!" n(! &erca/am(! de *n !en/id( in/ern( de claridad 8 de calma" de la l*ciO deD 8 !erenidad de la &*ra c(n/em&lacin; GEl e!&2ri/* He!cri3e Ia{(3 L*rc{Aard/ en !*! )eflexiones so!re la historia uni-ersal`/ /iene @*e /ra!m*/ar en *na &(!e!in el rec*erd( de !* &a!( a /ra7 ! de la! edade! del m*nd(; L( @*e *na 7eD C*e alegr2a 8 &re(c*&acin /iene @*e c(n7er/ir!e aA(ra en c(n(cimien/(;;; Per( n*e!/r( e!/*di( n( !l( c(n!/i/*8e *n derecA( 8 *n de3er !in( /am3i n *na nece!idad !*&rema; E! n*e!/ra li3er/ad en la &erca/acin de la 7inc*lacin *ni7er!al 8 de la c(rrien/e de nece!idade!;G E!cri/a 8 le2da c(m( e! de3id(" la Ai!/(ria n(! ele7a a e!/a a/m!Cera de li3er/ad en/re /(da! la! nece!idade! de n*e!/ra 7ida C2!ica" &(l2/ica" !(cial 8 ec(nmica; N( era mi &r(&!i/(" en e!/e ca&2/*l(" /ra/ar de l(! &r(3lema! de *na Cil(!(C2a de la Ai!/(ria; Una Cil(!(C2a de la Ai!/(ria" en el !en/id( /radici(nal del / rmin(" e! *na /e(r2a e!&ec*la/i7a 8 c(n!/r*c/i7a del &r(ce!( Ai!/ric( mi!m(; Un anFli!i! de la c*l/*ra A*mana n( nece!i/a a3(rdar e!/a c*e!/in e!&ec*la/i7a" !e Aa &r(&*e!/( *na /area mF! !encilla 8 m(de!/a; Tra/a de de/erminar el l*gar @*e c(rre!&(nde al c(n(cimien/( Ai!/ric( en el (rgani!m( de la ci7iliDacin A*mana; N( &(dem(!
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_ a!e I; R; L*r8; >he Ancient Gree3 Historians/ :ar7ard Lec/*re! +N*e7a 6(r{" Macmillan" #$N$," Lec/*re I_; .$ _ an!e &&; ?#1" ??N;

d*dar @*e !in Ai!/(ria ecAar2am(! de men(! *n e!la3n im&(r/an/e en la e7(l*cin de e!/e (rgani!m(; El ar/e 8 la Ai!/(ria re&re!en/an l(! in!/r*men/(! mF! &(der(!(! en n*e!/r( e!/*di( de la na/*raleDa A*mana; `0* c(n(cer2am(! del A(m3re !in e!/a! d(! C*en/e! de inC(rmacina De&ender2am(! de l(! da/(! de n*e!/ra 7ida &er!(nal" @*e !l( n(! &*eden &r(&(rci(nar *na 7i!in !*3Be/i7a 8 @*e" en el meB(r de l(! ca!(!" n( !(n mF! @*e Cragmen/(! di!&er!(! del e!&eB( r(/( de la A*manidad; En realidad" !i de!eam(! c(m&le/ar el c*adr( e!3(Dad( &(r e!/(! da/(! in/r(!&ec/i7(! /enem(! @*e a&elar a m /(d(! mF! (3Be/i7(!M Aacer e>&erimen/(! &!ic(lgic(! ( rec(ger AecA(! e!/ad2!/ic(!; Per(" a &e!ar de e!/(" n*e!/r( re/ra/( del A(m3re !er2a iner/e 8 !in c(l(r; Enc(n/rar2am(! el A(m3re medi(" el A(m3re de n*e!/r( /ra/( &rFc/ic( 8 !(cial diari(; En la! grande! (3ra! de Ai!/(ria 8 de ar/e c(menDam(! Ga 7er" /ra! e!/a mF!cara del A(m3re c(n7enci(nal" l(! ra!g(! del A(m3re real" indi7id*al; Para enc(n/rarl( /enem(! @*e ac*dir a l(! grande! Ai!/(riad(re! ( a l(! grande! &(e/a!" a l(! e!cri/(re! /rFgic(! c(m( E*r2&ide! ( SAa{e!&eare" a l(! e!cri/(re! cmic(! c(m( Cer7an/e!" M(liere ( La*rence S/erne" ( a n*e!/r(! n(7eli!/a! m(dern(! c(m( Dic{en! ( TAac{era8" LalDac ( Fl(*3er/" G(g(l ( D(!/(ie7!{i; La &(e!2a n( e! mera imi/acin de la na/*raleDaM la Ai!/(ria n( e! *na narracin de AecA(! 8 ac(n/ecimien/(! m*er/(!; La Ai!/(ria" l( mi!m( @*e la &(e!2a" e! *n rgan( del c(n(cimien/( de n(!(/r(! mi!m(!" *n in!/r*men/( indi!&en!a3le &ara c(n!/r*ir n*e!/r( *ni7er!( A*man(;

XI; LA CIENCIA CIENCIA#$$ re&re!en/a el El/im( &a!( en el de!arr(ll( e!&iri/*al del A(m3re 8 &*ede !er c(n!iderada c(m( el l(gr( mF>im( 8 carac/er2!/ic( de la c*l/*ra; Se /ra/a de *n &r(d*c/( 7erdaderamen/e /ard2( 8 reCinad(" @*e n( &*ede de!arr(llar!e !in( en c(ndici(ne! e!&eciale!; Ni !i@*iera la c(nce&cin de la ciencia" en !* !en/id( e!&ec2Cic(" e>i!/i an/e! de la &(ca de l(! grande! &enO !ad(re! grieg(!" an/e! de l(! &i/agric(! 8 l(! a/(mi!/a!" an/e! de Pla/n 8 Ari!//ele!; E!/a c(nce&cin &rimera &areci (l7idar!e 8 ecli&!ar!e en l(! !igl(! !ig*ien/e!M /*7( @*e !er rede!c*3ier/a 8 re!/a*rada en la &(ca del Renacimien/(; De!&* ! de e!/e rede!c*3rimien/( el /ri*nC( de la ciencia &areci !er c(m&le/( e indi!c*/i3le; N( Aa8 ningEn (/r( &(der en n*e!/r( m*nd( m(dern( @*e &*eda !er c(m&arad( c(n el del &en!amien/( cien/2Cic(; Se c(n!idera c(m( el summum y la c(n!*macin de /(da! n*e!/ra! ac/i7idade! A*mana!" c(m( el El/im( ca&2/*l( en la Ai!/(ria del g ner( A*man( 8 c(m( el
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E!/e ca&2/*l( n( /ra/a de !er *n e!3(D( de *na filosofa de la ciencia ( de *na Cen(men(l(g2a del c(n(cimien/(; 6( Ae di!c*/id( e!/e El/im( &r(3lema en el /ercer 7(l*men de la 5hilosophie der sym!olischen ormen +#$?$," an/eri(rmen/e en %u!stance and unction 8 Einstein+s >heory of )elati-ity/ +#$#NM /rad; ingl; &(r K; C; 8 M; C; S9a38" CAicag( 8 L(ndre!" #$?., 8 en 1eterminismus und Indeterminismus in der modernen 5hysi3 +G(/e3(rg! :g!{(la! Ar!!{riC/" #$.-4 #,; A@*2 Ae in/en/ad( !(lamen/e indicar la C*ncin general de la ciencia 8 de/erminar !* l*gar en el !i!/ema de la! C(rma! !im3lica!;

/ema mF! im&(r/an/e de *na Cil(!(C2a del A(m3re; E! &(!i3le di!cre&ar en l( @*e c(ncierne a l(! re!*l/ad(! de la ciencia ( a !*! &rimer(! &rinci&i(!" &er( &arece C*era de /(da d*da !* C*ncin general; La cien O cia e! la @*e n(! &r(&(rci(na la !eg*ridad de *n m*nd( c(n!/an/e; P(dem(! a&licar a la ciencia la c(n(cida Cra!e de Ar@*2mede!4 Dadme *n &*n/( de a&(8( 8 m(7er el m*nd(; En *n *ni7er!( cam3ian/e" el &en!amien/( cien/2Cic( n(! CiBa l(! &*n/(! @*ie/(!" l(! &(l(! en re&(!(" inc(nm(7i3le!; En la leng*a griega el / rmin( episteme !e deri7a" e/im(lgicamen/e" de *na ra2D @*e !igniCica CirmeDa 8 e!/a3ilidad; El &r(ce!( cien/2Cic( n(! c(nd*ce a *n e@*ili3ri( e!/a3le" a *na e!/a3iliDacin 8 c(n!(lidacin del m*nd( de n*e!/ra! &erce&ci(ne! 8 &en!amien/(!; P(r (/ra &ar/e" la ciencia n( !e Aalla !(la en la realiDacin de e!/a mi!in; En n*e!/ra e&i!/em(l(g2a m(derna" /an/( en la e!c*ela em&2rica c(m( en la raci(O nali!/a" /r(&eDam(! a men*d( c(n la c(nce&cin de @*e l(! &rimer(! da/(! de la e>&eriencia A*mana !e Aallan en *n e!/ad( c(m&le/amen/e ca/ic(; El mi!m( ^an/ &arece &ar/ir en !*! &rimer(! ca&2/*l(! de la 6rtica de la raDn pura de e!/e !*&*e!/(; La e>&eriencia" n(! dice" e! el &rimer &r(d*c/(" !in d*da" de n*e!/r( en/endimien/(" &er( n( e! *n AecA( !im&leM e! *n c(m&*e!/( de d(! Cac/(re! (&*e!/(!" la ma/eria 8 la C(rma; El Cac /(r ma/erial !e n(! da en n*e!/ra! &erce&ci(ne! !en!i3le!M el C(rmal !e Aalla re&re!en/ad( &(r n*e!/r(! c(nce&/(! cien/2Cic(!; E!/(! c(nce&/(!" l(! c(nce&/(! del en/endimien/( &*r(" !(n l(! @*e &re!/an a l(! Cenmen(! !* *nidad !in/ /ica; L( @*e den(minam(! *nidad de *n (3Be/( n( &*ede !er (/ra c(!a @*e la *nidad C(rmal de n*e!/ra c(nciencia en la !2n/e!i! de l( mEl/i&le de n*e!/ra! re&re!en/aci(ne!; Decim(! @*e c(n(cem(! *n (3Be/(" c*and( Aem(! &r(d*cid( *nidad !in/ /ica en la m*l/i&licidad de la in/*icin 8 !l( en/(nce!; ?NN Para ^an/" &(r c(n!ig*ien/e" /(da la c*e!/in de la (3Be/i7idad del c(n(cimien/( A*man( !e Aalla indi!(l*3lemen/e ligada al AecA( de la ciencia; S* e!/ /ica /ra!cenden/al !e (c*&a del &r(3lema de la ma/emF/ica &*raM !* anFli!i! /ra!cenden/al /ra/a de e>&licar el AecA( de *na ciencia ma/emF/ica de la na/*raleDa; Per( *na Cil(!(C2a de la c*l/*ra /iene @*e lle7ar el &r(3lema a *na C*en/e m*cA( mF! rem(/a; El A(m3re 7i72a en *n m*nd( (3Be/i7( m*cA( an/e! @*e 7i7iera en *n m*nd( cien/2Cic(; An/e! de Aa3er de!c*3ier/( !* camin( &ara la ciencia" !* e>&eriencia n( era *na mera ma!a am(rCa de e>&re!i(ne! !en!i3le!M &(r el c(n/rari(" era *na e>&eriencia (rganiDada 8 ar/ic*lada; P(!e2a *na e!/r*c/*ra deCinida" &er( l(! c(nce&/(! @*e &re!/an a e!/e m*nd( !* *nidad !in/ /ica n( !(n del mi!m( /i&( ni /am&(c( !e Aallan en el mi!m( ni7el @*e n*e!/r(! c(nce&/(! cien/2Cic(!; S(n m2/ic(! ( lingJ2!/ic(!M !i l(! analiDam(! 7erem(! @*e n( !(n" en m(d( alg*n(" !im&le! ( G&rimi/i7(!G; La! &rimera! cla!iCicaci(ne! de l(! Cenmen(! @*e enc(n/ram(! en el leng*aBe ( en el mi/( !(n" en cier/( !en/id(" m*cA( mF! c(m&licada! 8 alam3icada! @*e n*e!/ra! cla!iCicaci(ne! cien/2Cica!; La ciencia c(mienDa c(n *na @*erencia de !im&licidad; Una de !*! di7i!a! C*ndamen/ale! &arece !er simplex sigillum -eri. E!/a !im&licidad lgica e! *n terminus ad ;uem 8 n( *n terminus a ;uoI e! *n / rmin(
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^an/" 6ritica de la raDn pura +#a ed; alemana," &; #N);

Cinal 8 n( *n c(mienD(; La c*l/*ra !e inicia c(n *n e!/ad( de e!&2ri/* m*cA( mF! c(m&leB( e in/rincad(; Ca!i /(da! n*e!/ra! ciencia! de la na/*raleDa /ienen @*e &a!ar &(r *na e/a&a m2/ica; En la Ai!/(ria del &en!amien/( cien/2Cic( la al@*imia &recede a la @*2mica" la a!/r(l(g2a a la a!/r(n(m2a; La ciencia &*d( a7anDar mF! allF de e!/(! &rimer(! &a!(! in/r(d*ciend( *na n*e7a medida" *n n*e7( &a/rn lgic( de 7erdad; Declara @*e la 7erdad n( &*ede !er alcanDada mien/ra! el A(m3re c(n/inEe encerrad( den/r( del e!/recA( c2rc*l( de !* e>&eriencia inmedia/a" de l(! AecA(! (3!er7a3le!; En l*gar de de!cri3ir AecA(! di!&er!(! 8 ai!lad(! la ciencia /ra/a de &r(&(rci(narn(! *na 7i!in c(m&reAen!i7aM &er( e!/a 7i!in n( &*ede !er alcanDada &(r mera e>/en!in" &(r *n en!ancAamien/( 8 enri@*ecimien/( de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia (rdinaria; Re@*iere *n n*e7( &rinci&i( de (rden" *na C(rma n*e7a de in/er&re/acin in/elec/*al; El leng*aBe e! el &rimer in/en/( del A(m3re &ara ar/ic*lar el m*nd( de !*! &erce&ci(ne! !en!i3le!; E!/a /endencia c(n!/i/*8e *n( de l(! ra!g(! C*ndamen/ale! del leng*aBe A*man(; Alg*n(! lingJi!/a! Aa!/a Aan c(n!iderad( nece!ari( !*&(ner la e>i!/encia de *n Gin!/in/( cla!iCica/(ri(G e!&ecial &ara &(der e>&licar el AecA( 8 la e!/r*c/*ra del leng*aBe A*man(; El A(m3re Hdice O//( Ie!&er!enH e! *n animal cla!iCicad(r4 en *n !en/id( !e &*ede decir @*e /(d( el &r(ce!( de Aa3lar n( e! mF! @*e di!/ri3*cin de Cenmen(!" de l(! c*ale! n( Aa8 d(! @*e !ean ig*ale! en /(d(! l(! a!&ec/(!" en diCeren/e! cla!e!" !egEn la in/en!idad de la! !emeBanDa! 8 de!ig*aldade! &erci3ida!; En el &r(ce!( de!igna/i7( &re!enciam(! la mi!ma /endencia ine>/irO &a3le 8 7erdaderamen/e &rFc/ica de 7er !emeBanDa! 8 de e>&re!ar e!/a !emeBanDa de l(! Cenmen(! &(r la !emeBanDa de l(! A(m3re!; +Ie!&er!en" &anguage/ &&; .11 !;, La ciencia 3*!ca en l(! Cenmen(! alg( mF! @*e !emeBanDa4 3*!ca (rden; La! &rimera! cla!iCicaci(ne! @*e enc(n/ram(! en el leng*aBe A*man( n( lle7an *n &r(&!i/( e!/ric/amen/e /eric(; L(! n(m3re! de l(! (3Be/(! c*m&len c(n !* c(me/id( !i n(! &ermi/en c(m*nicar n*e!/r(! &en!amien/(! 8 c((rdinar n*e!/ra! ac/i7idade! &rFc/ica!" &(!een *na C*ncin /ele(lgica @*e &(c( a &(c( 7a de!em3(cand( en *na C*ncin mF! (3Be/i7a" re&re!en/a/i7a; ?N# C*al@*ier !emeBanDa a&aren/e en/re Cenmen(! di7er!(! 3a!/a &ara de!ignarl(! c(n *n n(m3re c(mEn; En alg*n(! leng*aBe! la mari&(!a e! de!cri/a c(m( a7e ( la 3allena c(m( &eD; C*and( la ciencia inici !*! &rimera! cla!iCicaci(ne! /*7( @*e rec/iCicar 8 !*&erar e!/a !emeBanDa !*&erCicial; L(! / rmin(! cien/2Cic(! n( e!/Fn Ca3ricad(! al aDarM !ig*en *n &rinci&i( deCinid( de cla!iCicacin; La creacin de *na /ermin(l(g2a !i!/emF/ica c(Aeren/e" en m(d( alg*n( c(n!/i/*8e *n ra!g( meramen/e acce!(ri( de la cienciaM re&re!en/a *n( de !*! elemen/(! inAeren/e! e indi!&en!a3le!; C*and( Linne( cre !* 5hilosophia !ot7nica /*7( @*e Aacer Cren/e a la (3Becin de @*e l( @*e (Crec2a era *n !i!/ema ar/iCicial 8 n( na/*ral" &er( /(d(! l(! !i!/ema! de cla!iCicacin !(n ar/iCiciale!; La na/*raleDa" en c*an/( /al" n( c(n/iene mF! @*e Cenmen(! indi7id*ale! 8 di7er!iCicad(!; Al !*3!*mirl(! 3aB( c(nce&/(! gen ric(! 8 le8e! generale! n( de!cri3im(! AecA(! de la na/*raleDa; T(d( !i!/ema e! *na (3ra de ar/e" *n re!*l/ad( de *na ac/i7idad cread(ra c(n!cien/e; :a!/a l(!
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C(n relacin a e!/e &r(3lema 7 a!e 5hilosophie der sym!oKschen ormen/ I" ?)) ss.

mi!m(! !i!/ema! 3i(lgic(! llamad(! na/*rale!" @*e !e (&*!ier(n al !i!/ema de Linne(" /*7ier(n @*e em&lear n*e7(! elemen/(! c(nce&/*ale!; E!/a3an 3a!ad(! en *na /e(r2a general de la e7(l*cin" &er( /am&(c( la e7(l*cin e! *n mer( AecA( de Ai!/(ria na/*ralM e! *na Ai&/e!i! cien/2Cica" *na mF>ima reg*lad(ra &ara n*e!/ra (3!er7acin 8 cla!iCicacin de l(! Cenmen(! na/*rale!; La /e(r2a de Dar9in a3ri *n A(riD(n/e n*e7( 8 mF! am&li(" (Creci *na 7i!in mF! c(m&le/a 8 c(Aeren/e de l(! Cenmen(! de la 7ida (rgFnica; N( !igniCica3a" en m(d( alg*n(" *na reC*/acin del !i!/ema de Linne(" @*e !* a*/(r c(n!ider !iem&re c(m( *n &a!( &reliminar; bl mi!m( !e da3a c*en/a de @*e" en cier/( !en/id(" n( Aa32a AecA( mF! @*e crear *na n*e7a /ermin(l(g2a 3(/Fnica" &er( e!/a3a c(n7encid( de @*e e!/a /ermin(l(g2a &(!e2a" a la 7eD" *n 7al(r 7er3al 8 (/r( real; Fomina si nescis Hdec2aH" perit et cognitio rerum. En e!/e a!&ec/( n( &arece Aa3er !(l*cin de c(n/in*idad en/re el leng*aBe 8 la ciencia; N*e!/r(! n(m3re! lingJ2!/ic(! 8 n*e!/r(! &rimer(! n(m3re! cien/2Cic(! &*eden !er c(n!iderad(! c(m( el re!*l/ad( 8 &r(d*c/( del mi!m( in!/in/( cla!iCica/(ri(; L( @*e !e &r(d*ce inc(n!cien/emen/e en el leng*aBe e! &r(&*e!/( c(n!cien/emen/e 8 lle7ad( a ca3( me/dicamen/e en el &r(ce!( cien/2Cic(; En !*! &rimera! e/a&a! la ciencia /iene @*e ace&/ar l(! n(m3re! de la! c(!a! c(n el !en/id( c(n @*e !(n em&lead(! en el leng*aBe c(rrien/e; P*ede *!arl(! &ara de!cri3ir l(! elemen/(! ( c*alidade! C*ndamen/ale! de la! c(!a!; _em(! cm( e!/(! n(m3re! c(m*ne! !ig*en /eniend( *na gran inCl*encia !(3re el &en!amien/( cien/2Cic( en l(! &rimer(! !i!/ema! grieg(! de Cil(!(C2a na/*ral" en Ari!//ele! mi!m(;?N? En el &en!amien/( grieg( e!/e &(der n( e! el Enic( ni /an !i @*iera el @*e &re7alece; En la &(ca de Pi/Fg(ra! 8 de l(! &rimer(! &i/agric(! grieg(!" la Cil(!(C2a de!c*3ri *n n*e7( leng*aBe" el de l(! nEmer(!; E!/e de!c*3rimien/( !e'ala el na/alici( de n*e!/ra m(derna c(nce&cin de la ciencia; Una de la! &rimera! grande! e>&eriencia! de la A*manidad e! @*e e>i!/e *na reg*laridad" *na cier/a *niC(rmidad en el acaecer na/*ral" en l(! m(7imien/(! de l(! &lane/a!" en la !alida del !(l ( de la l*na" en el cam3i( de la! e!/aci(ne!M /am3i n en el &en!amien/( m2/ic( e!/a e>&eriencia Aa !id( rec(n(cida &lenamen/e 8 Aa enc(n/rad( !* e>&re!in carac/er2!/ica; A@*2 /r(&eDam(! c(n la! &rimera! A*ella! de la idea de *n (rden general de la na/*raleDa; ?N. M*cA( an/e! de Pi/Fg(ra!" e!/e (rden Aa !id( de!cri/( n( !l( en / rmin(! m2/ic(! !in( /am3i n c(n !2m3(l(! ma/emF/ic(!; El leng*aBe m2/ic( 8 el ma/emF/ic( !e en/relaDan en C(rma m*8 c*ri(!a en l(! &rimer(! !i!/ema! de la a!/r(l(g2a 3a3ilnica" @*e &(dem(! da/ar en *n &eri(d( /an an/ig*( c(m( &(r l(! a'(! .1NN a; c; L(! a!/rn(m(! 3a3ilnic(! in/r(d*Ber(n la di!/incin en/re l(! diCeren/e! gr*&(! de a!/r(! 8 la di7i!in d*(decimal del <(diac(M n( &*dier(n Aa3er!e (3/enid( e!/(! re!*l/ad(! !in di!&(ner de *na n*e7a 3a!e /erica; Per( C*e nece !aria" /(da72a" *na generaliDacin m*cA( mF! (!ada &ara crear la &rimera Cil(!(C2a del m*nd(; L(! &en!ad(re! &i/agric(! !(n l(! &rimer(! en c(nce3ir el nE mer( c(m( *n elemen/( (mnic(m&ren!i7(" c(m( *n *ni7er!al real; S* *!( 8a n( !e Aalla c(nCinad( a
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CC; Ca!!irer" GTAe InCl*ence (C Lang*age *&(n /Ae De7el(&men/ (C Scien/iCic TA(*gA/G" [ournal (C 5hilosophy/ XXXIX" N~ #? +B*ni(" #$%?," .N$O.?5; ?N. _ a!e 5hilosophie der sym!olischen ormen/ II" &&; #%# ss.

l(! l2mi/e! de *n cam&( e!&ecial de la in7e!/igacin" !e e>/iende a /(d( el cam&( del !er; C*and( Pi/Fg(ra! AiD( !* &rimer gran de!c*3rimien/(" c*and( enc(n/r @*e el /(n( de&end2a de la l(ngi/*d de la! c*erda!" l( deci!i7( &ara la (rien/acin C*/*ra del &en!amien/( Cil(!Cic( 8 ma/emF/ic( n( C*e el AecA( mi!m( !in( !* in/er&re/acin; Pi/Fg(ra! n( &(d2a &en!ar en e!/e de!c*3rimien/( c(m( *n Cenmen( ai!lad(; Parec2a Aa3er!e re7elad( *n( de l(! mi!/eri(! mF! &r(C*nd(!" el de la 3elleDa; Para la men/e griega la 3elleDa Aa /enid( !iem&re *na !igniCicacin en/eramen/e (3Be/i7a; La 3elleDa e! 7erdadM c(n!/i/*8e *n carFc/er C*ndamen/al de la realidad; Si la 3elleDa @*e !en/im(! en la arm( n2a de l(! !(nid(! !e &*ede red*cir a *na !im&le &r(&(rcin n*m rica" en/(nce! re!*l/a @*e el nEmer( n(! re7ela la e!/r*c/*ra C*ndamen/al del (rden c!mic(; GEl nEmer( Hdice *n( de l(! /e>/(! &i/agric(!H e! el g*2a 8 mae!/r( del &en!amien/( A*man(; Sin !* &(der /(d( @*edar2a (!c*r( 8 c(nC*!(;G ?N% N( 7i7ir2am(! en *n m*nd( de 7erdad !in( en *n m*nd( de dece&cin e il*!in; En el nEmer( 8 !l( en l enc(n/ram(! *n *ni7er!( inteligi!le. Pen!ar @*e e!/e *ni7er!( c(n!/i/*8e *n n*e7( *ni7er!( del di!c*r!( Hel m*nd( del nEmer( e! *n m*nd( !im3lic(H era *na c(nce&cin aBena &(r c(m&le/( a la men/e de l(! &en!ad(re! &i/agric(!; En !/e" l( mi!m( @*e en /(d(! l(! demF! ca!(!" n( &(d2a e>i!/ir *na di!/incin ag*da en/re !2m3(l( 8 (3Be/(; El !2m3(l( n( !l( e>&lica3a el (3Be/( !in( @*e (c*&a3a !* l*gar deCini/i7amen/e; La! c(!a! n( !l( g*arda3an relacin c(n l(! nEmer(! ( eran e>&re!a3le! &(r ell(! !in( @*e eran ell(!; 6a n( admi/im(! e!/a /e!i! &i/agrica de la realidad !*!/ancial del nEmer(M n( l( c(n!ideram(! c(m( el 7erdader( nEcle( de la realidad" &er( /enem(! @*e rec(n(cer @*e el nEmer( c(n!/i/*8e *na de la! C*n ci(ne! C*ndamen/ale! del c(n(cimien/( A*man(" *n &a!( nece!ari( en el gran &r(ce!( de (3Be/i7acin @*e c(mienDa c(n el leng*aBe &er(" c(n la ciencia" ad(&/a *na C(rma en/eramen/e n*e7a" &*e! el !im3(li!m( del nEmer( e! de *n /i&( lgic( /(/almen/e diCeren/e del !im3(li!m( del leng*aBe; En !/e enc(n/ram(! l(! &rimer(! e!C*erD(! de cla!iCicacin" &er( !ig*en !iend( inc(ne>(!" n( n(! lle7an a *na 7erdadera !i!/ema/iDacin; L(! !2m3(l(! 7er3ale! n( &(!een ell(! mi!m(! *n (rden !i!/emF/ic( deCinid(; T(d( / rmin( lingJ2!/ic( &(!ee *n Frea e!&ecial de !en/id(; C(m( dice Gardiner" e! G*n ra8( de l*D @*e il*mina aA(ra e!/a &(rcin 8 l*eg( e!a (/ra del cam&( en @*e radica la c(!a (" mF! 3ien" la c(m&leBa c(nca/enacin de c(!a! !igniCicada &(r *na Cra!eG; +>he >heories of %peech and &anguage/ &; )#;, Per( /(d(! e!/(! diCeren/e! ra8(! de l*D n( &(!een *n C(c( c(mEn" !e Aallan di!&er!(! 8 ai!lad(!; En la G!2n/e!i! de l( mEl/i&leG cada n*e7a &ala3ra arranca de n*e7(; E!/a !i/*acin cam3ia &(r c(m&le/( en c*an/( en/ram(! en el reinad( del nEmer(; 6a n( &(dem(! Aa3lar de nEmer(! !ing*lare! ( ai!lad(!; La e!encia del nEmer( e! !iem&re rela/i7a" n( a3!(l*/a; El nEmer( !ing*lar n( e! mF! @*e *n l*gar !ing*lar en *n (rden !i!/emF/ic( general" n( &(!ee *n !er &r(&i(" *na realidad a*/(!*Cicien/eM !* !en/id( !e deCine &(r la &(!icin @*e (c*&a en /(d( el !i!/ema n*m ric(; La !erie de l(! nEmer(! na/*rale! e! *na !erie inCini/a" &er( e!/a inCini/*d n( &(ne l2mi/e! a n*e!/r( c(n(cimien/( /eric(; N( !igniCica *na inde/erminacin" *n 7peiron en el
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_ a!e Fil(la(" Fragmen/( %" ##" en Diel!" 1ie ragmente der 2orso3rati3er/ I" %N1" %##;

!en/id( &la/nic(" !in( B*!/amen/e l( c(n/rari(; En la &r(gre!in de l(! nEmer(! n( /r(&eDam(! c(n *na limi/acin e>/erna" c(n *n El/im( / rmin(M &er( !2 enc(n/ram(! limi/acin en 7ir/*d de *n &rinci&i( lgic( in/r2n!ec(; T(d(! l(! / rmin(! !e Aallan 7inc*lad(! en/re !2 &(r *n ne>( c(mEnM !e (riginan &(r *na 8 la mi!ma relacin gen /ica" @*e c(nec/a *n nEmer( n c(n !* !*ce!(r inmedia/( 0n e 8 ,; De e!/a relacin /an !encilla &(dem(! deri7ar /(da! la! &r(&iedade! de l(! nEmer(! en/er(!; La !e'al di!/in/i7a 8 el &ri7ilegi( lgic( mF>im( de e!/e !i!/ema e! !* /ran!&arencia c(m&le/a; En n*e!/ra! /e(r2a! m(derna! Hen la! /e(r2a! de Frege 8 R*!!ell" de Pean( 8 Dede{indH el nEmer( Aa &erdid( /(d(! !*! !ecre/(! (n/(lgic(!; L( c(nce3im(! c(m( *n n*e7( 8 &(der(!( !im3(li!m( @*e" &(r l( @*e re!&ec/a a l(! Cine! cien/2Cic(!" e! inCini/amen/e !*&eri(r al !im3(li!m( del leng*aBe; N( enc(nO /ram(! &ala3ra! di!&er!a! !in( / rmin(! @*e &r(ceden !egEn el mi!m( &lan C*ndamen/al 8 @*e n(! (Crecen" &(r l( /an/(" *na le8 e!/r*c/*ral clara 8 deCinida; Sin em3arg(" el de!c*3rimien/( &i/agric( n( !igniCica mF! @*e *n &rimer &a!( en el de!en7(l7imien/( de la ciencia na/*ral; T(da la /e(r2a del nEmer( C*e !E3i/amen/e &*e!/a en c*e!/in &(r *n n*e7( AecA(; C*and( l(! &i/agric(! !e dier(n c*en/a de @*e en *n /riFng*l( rec/Fng*l( la Ai&(/en*!a n( era c(nmen!*ra3le c(n l(! ca/e/(!" /*7ier(n @*e encarar!e c(n *n &r(3lema en/eramen/e n*e7(; Sen/im(! la &r(C*nda re&erc*!in de e!/e dilema en /(da la Ai!/(ria del &en!amien/( grieg(" e!&ecialmen/e en l(! diFl(g(! de Pla/n; SigO niCica *na a*/ n/ica cri!i! de la ma/emF/ica griega; NingEn &en!ad(r an/ig*( &(d2a re!(l7er el &r(3lema a la manera m(derna" in/r(d*ciend( l(! llamad(! GnEO mer(! irraci(nale!G; De!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a de la lgica 8 de la! ma/emF/ica! griega!" la e>&re!in GnEmer(! irraci(nale!G e! *na c(n/radiccin en l(! / rmin(!; Era *n WggU\fY" alg( @*e n( &*ede !er &en!ad( 8 de l( @*e n( !e &*ede Aa3lar; ?N) De!de @*e el nEmer( Aa !id( deCinid( c(m( *n en/er( ( c(m( *na raDn en/re en/er(!" *na l(ngi/*d inc(nmen!*ra3le era *na l(ngi/*d @*e n( admi/2a ning*na e>&re!in n*m rica" @*e de!aCia3a 8 ani@*ila3a l(! &(dere! lgic(! del nEmer(; L( @*e l(! &i/agric(! 3*!car(n 8 enc(n/rar(n en el nEmer( C*e la arm(n2a &erCec/a de /(da! la! e!&ecie! del !er 8 de /(da! la! C(rma! del c(n(cimien/(" de la &erce&cin" de la in/*icin 8 del &en!amien/(; A &ar/ir de en/(nce!" la ari/m /ica" la ge(me/r2a" la C2!ica" la mE!ica 8 la a!/r(n(m2a &arec2an C(rmar *n /(d( Enic( 8 c(Aeren/e; T(da! la! c(!a! en el ciel( 8 en la /ierra !e c(n7er/2an en G*na arm(n2a 8 *n nEmer(G; ?N- Per( el de!c*3rimien/( de la! l(ngi/*de! inc(nmen!*ra3le! !igniCica3a el @*e3ran/amien/( de e!/a /e!i!M 8a n( e>i!/2a arm(n2a real en/re ari/m /ica 8 ge(me/r2a" en/re el cam&( de l(! nEmer(! di!cre/(! 8 el cam&( de la! can/idade! c(n/in*a!; F*e mene!/er el e!C*erD( de 7aria! cen/*ria! del &en!amien/( ma/emF/ic( 8 Cil(!Cic( &ara re!/a*rarla; Un( de l(! El/im(! l(gr(! del &en!amien/( ma/emF/ic( Aa !id( la /e(r2a lgica del c(n/in*( ma/emF/ic(; ?N5 Sin ella" /(da creacin de
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CC; :einricA ScA(lD 8 :; :a!!e" 1ie Grundlagen der <rise der griechischen Mathemati3 +CAarl(/em3*rg(," #$?1; ?NCC; Ari!//ele!" Metafsica/ I" )" $1)3; ?N5 _ a!e :ermann Ke8l" 1as <ontinuum/ <ritische $nterCsuchungen K!er die Grundlagen der Analysis +Lei&Dig" #$#1,;

nEmer(! n*e7(! HnEmer(! Cracci(nari(!" nEmer(! irraci(nale!" e/c;H &arec2a !iem&re *na em&re!a m*8 d*d(!a 8 &recaria; Si la men/e A*mana &(d2a crear &(r !* &r(&i( &(der ar3i/rariamen/e *na n*e7a e!Cera de c(!a!" /en2am(! @*e cam3iar n*e!/r(! c(nce&/(! acerca de la 7erdad (3Be/i7a; Tam3i n en e!/a (ca!in el dilema &ierde !* C*erDa en c*an/( /(mam(! en c(n!ideracin el carFc/er !im3lic( del nEmer(; En /al ca!( !e Aace e7iden/e @*e al in/r(d*cir n*e7a! cla!e! de nEmer(! n( cream(! (3Be/(! n*e7(! !in( !2m3(l(! n*e7(!; L(! nEmer(! na/*rale! !e Aallan a e!/e re!&ec/( en el mi!m( ni7el @*e l(! nEmer(! Cracci(nari(! ( irraci(nale!; Tam&(c( !(n ell(! de!cri&ci(ne! ( imFgene! de c(!a! c(ncre/a!" de (3Be/(! C2!ic(!M e>&re!an" mF! 3ien" relaci(ne! 7erdaderamen/e !im&le!; La am&liacin del Fm3i/( na/*ral de l(! nEmer(!" !* e>/en!in a *n cam&( mF! ancA(" n( !igniCica mF! @*e la in/r(d*ccin de n*e7(! !2m3(l(! a&/(! &ara de!cri3ir relaci(ne! de *n (rden !*&eri(r; L(! nEmer(! n*e7(! !(n !2m3(l(!" n( de relaci(ne! !im&le!" !in( de relaci(ne! de relaci(ne!" de relaci(ne! de relaci(ne! de relaci(ne! 8 a!2 !*ce!i7amen/e; T(d( e!/( n( e!/F en c(n/radiccin c(n el carFc/er de l(! nEmer(! en/er(! !in( @*e l( aclara 8 c(nCirma; Para llenar l(! Aia/(! en/re l(! nEmer(! en/er(!" @*e !(n can/idade! di!cre/a!" 8 el m*nd( de l(! Cenmen(! C2!ic(! c(n/enid( en el c(n/in*( de e!&aci( 8 /iem&(" el &en!amien/( ma/emF/ic( !e 7i( (3ligad( a 3*!car *n n*e7( in!/r*O men/(; Si el nEmer( C*era *na c(!a" *na su!stantia ;uae in se est et per se concipitur/ el &r(3lema A*3iera !id( in!(l*3le; C(m( era leng*aBe !im3lic(" 3a!/a3a c(n de!arr(llar el 7(ca3*lari(" la m(rC(l(g2a 8 la !in/a>i! de e!/e leng*aBe en *na C(rma c(n!ec*en/e; N( Aac2a Cal/a *n cam3i( en la na/*raleDa 8 e!encia del nEmer( !in( !l( *n cam3i( de !en/id(; Una Cil(!(C2a de la! ma/emF/ica! /iene @*e &r(3ar @*e *n cam3i( !emeBan/e n( c(nd*ce a *na am3igJedad ( a *na c(nO /radiccin" @*e can/idade! n( a&/a! de !er e>&re!ada! e>ac/amen/e &(r nEmer(! en/er(! ( la raDn en/re ell(! !e Aacen c(m&le/amen/e c(m&ren!i3le! 8 e>&re!a3le! c(n la in/r(d*ccin de !2m3(l(! n*e7(!; Un( de l(! &rimer(! grande! de!c*3rimien/(! de la Cil(!(C2a m(derna c(n!i!/e en Aa3er 7i!/( @*e /(da! la! c*e!/i(ne! ge(m /rica! admi/en !emeBan/e /ran!C(rO macin; La ge(me/r2a anal2/ica de De!car/e! (Creci la &rimera &r*e3a c(n7incen/e de la relacin en/re la e>/en!in 8 el nEmer(; A &ar/ir de en/(nce!" el leng*aBe de la ge(me/r2a ce! de !er *n idi(ma e!&ecialM !e c(n7ir/i en &ar/e de *n leng*aBe m*cA( mF! am&li(" de *na mathesis uni-ersalisI &er( n( le C*e &(!i3le a De!car/e! d(minar el m*nd( C2!ic(" el m*nd( de la ma/eria 8 del m(7imien/(" en la mi!ma C(rma; S*! in/en/(! &ara de!arr(llar *na C2!ica ma/emF/ica Craca!ar(n; El ma/erial de n*e!/r( m*nd( C2!ic( !e c(m&(ne de da/(! !en!i3le! 8 l(! AecA(! indcile! 8 reCrac/ari(! re&re!en/ad(! &(r ell(! &arec2an re!i!/ir a /(d(! l(! e!C*erD(! del &en!amien/( lgic( 8 raci(nal de De!car/e!; S* C2!ica re!*l/ *na *rdim3re de !*&*e!/(! ar3i/rari(!" &er( !i &*d( e@*i7(car!e c(m( C2!ic( en !*! medi(!" n( !e e@*i7(c en !* &r(&!i/( Cil(!Cic( C*ndamen/al @*e" a &ar/ir de en/(nce!" !e c(m&rendi c(n claridad 8 @*ed e!/a3lecid( c(n CirmeDa; En /(da! !*! rama!" la C2!ica /iende al mi!m( &*n/(M /ra/a de c(l(car el m*nd( de l(! Cenmen(! na/*rale! 3aB( el c(n/r(l del nEmer(;

En e!/e ideal me/(d(lgic( general n( enc(n/ram(! an/ag(ni!m( en/re la C2!ica clF!ica 8 la m(derna; La mecFnica c*Fn/ica re&re!en/a" en cier/( !en/id(" el 7erO dader( renacimien/(" ren(7acin 8 c(nCirmacin del ideal &i/agric( clF!ic(" &er( C*e nece!ari( in/r(d*cir *n leng*aBe !im3lic( m*cA( mF! a3!/rac/(; C*and( Demcri/( de!cri3i la e!/r*c/*ra de !*! F/(m(! /*7( @*e rec*rrir a anal(g2a! !acada! del m*nd( de n*e!/ra e>&eriencia !en!i3le; TraD *na imagen @*e le a!emeBa a l(! (3Be/(! c(m*ne! de n*e!/r( macr(c(!m(; L(! F/(m(! !e di!/ing*2an en/re !2 &(r !* C(rma" !* /ama'( 8 la ac(m(dacin de !*! &ar/e!M !* c(ne>in !e e>&lica3a &(r 72nc*l(! ma/eriale!M e!/a3an e@*i&ad(! c(n gancA(! 8 ag*Ber(!" c(n !alien/e! 8 A*ec(! &ara @*e &*dieran B*n/ar!e *n(! c(n (/r(!; T(da e!/a il*!/racin Cig*rada Aa de!a&arecid( en n*e!/ra! /e(r2a! m(derna! del F/(m(; En el m(del( a/mic( de L(Ar n( /enem(! nada de e!/e leng*aBe &in/(re!c(; La ciencia 8a n( Aa3la c(n el leng*aBe de la e>&eriencia !en!i3le c(mEnM Aa3la el leng*aBe &i/agric(; El &*r( !im3(li!m( del nEmer( reem&laDa 8 !*&rime el !im3(li!m( del leng*aBe c(rrien/e; N( !l( el macr(c(!m( !in( /am3i n el micr(c(!m( Hel m*nd( de l(! Cenmen(! in/raa/mic(!H !e &*ede de!cri3ir aA(ra c(n e!/e leng*aBeM 8 e!/( !e n(! m*e!/ra c(m( la iniciacin de *na in/er&re/acin !i!/emF/ica en/eramen/e n*e7a; De!&* ! del de!c*3rimien/( del anFli!i! e!&ec/ral He!cri3e Arn(ld S(mmerCeld en el &rl(g( a !* li3r(" Estructura atmica y lneas espectralesH"?N1 nadie @*e e!/ CamiliariDad( c(n la C2!ica &*ede d*dar de @*e el &r(3lema del F/(m( !e re!(l7er2a !i l(! C2!ic(! !*&ieran c(m&render el leng*aBe del e!&ec/r(; Era /an a3igarrad( el en(rme ma/erial ac*m*lad( en !e!en/a a'(! de anFli!i! e!&ec/r(!c&ic(! @*e" a &rimera 7i!/a" &arec2a im&(!i3le el de!ciCramien/(;;; L( @*e e!c*cAam(! aA(ra del leng*aBe de l(! e!&ec/r(! e! *na 7erdadera GmE!ica de la! e!Cera!G den/r( del F/(m(" c(r(! de relaci(ne! en/era!" *n (rden 8 *na arm(n2a @*e re!*l/an mF! &erCec/(! a &e!ar de la di7er!2!ima 7ariedad;;; T(da! la! le8e! en/era! de la! l2nea! e!&ec/rale! 8 de la /e(r2a a/mica !*rgen (riginalmen/e de la /e(r2a de l(! c*an/(!; E! el mi!/eri(!( rgan( en el @*e la na/*raleDa /(ca !* mE!ica de l(! e!&ec/r(! 8" a /en(r de !* ri/m(" reg*la la e!/r*c/*ra de l(! F/(m(! 8 nEcle(!; La Ai!/(ria de la @*2mica re&re!en/a *n( de l(! meB(re! 8 mF! !(r&renden/e! eBem&l(! de e!/a le8 de /ran!C(rmacin del leng*aBe cien/2Cic(M en/r en el Gcamin( real de la cienciaG m*cA( de!&* ! @*e la C2!ica; N( C*e" !in d*da" la Cal/a de n*e7a! &r*e3a! em&2rica! l( @*e im&idi d*ran/e 7ari(! !igl(! el &r(gre!( del &en!amien/( @*2mic( 8 le man/*7( den/r( de l(! l2mi/e! de l(! c(nce&/(! &recien/2Cic(!; Si e!/*diam(! la Ai!/(ria de la al@*imia 7erem(! @*e l(! al@*imi!/a! e!/a3an d(/ad(! de *n !(r&renden/e /alen/( de (3!er7acin; Ac*m*lar(n *na gran can/idad de AecA(! 7ali(!(!" *na ma/eria &rima !in la c*al diC2cilmen/e !e A*3iera de!arr(llad( la @*2mica; ?N$ Per( la C(rma en @*e e!/a3a &re!en/ada e!/a ma/eria &rimera era inadec*ada del /(d(; C*and( el al@*imi!/a
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?N1 ?N$

Ed; alemana" #$#$; Para la Ai!/(ria de la al@*imia 7 a!e E; O; 7(n Li&&Omann" Entstehung und Aus!reitung der Alchimie +Lerl2n" S&ringer" #$#$," 8 L8nn TA(rndi{e" A History af Magic and Experimental %cience +N*e7a 6(r{" #$?.O%#," - 7(l!;

em&eD a de!cri3ir !*! (3!er7aci(ne! n( di!&(n2a de ningEn in!/r*men/( C*era de *n leng*aBe !emim2/ic( llen( de / rmin(! (!c*r(! 8 mal deCinid(!; :a3la3a c(n me/FC(ra! 8 aleg(r2a! 8 n( c(n c(nce&/(! cien/2Cic(!; E!/e leng*aBe (!c*r( deB !* A*ella en /(da !* c(nce&cin de la na/*raleDa" @*e !e c(n7ir/i en *n rein( de c*alidade! (!c*ra!" c(m&ren!i3le! !l( &ara l(! iniciad(!" &ara l(! ade&/(!; En la &(ca del Renacimien/( c(mienDa *na n*e7a c(rrien/e de &en!amien/( @*2mic(M en la! e!c*ela! de l(! 8a/r(@*2mic(! C*e &re7aleciend( el &en!amien/( 3i(lgic( 8 m dic(" &er( Aa!/a el !igl( X_II n( !e llegar(n a a3(rdar cien/2Cicamen/e l(! &r(3lema!; El 6hymista scepticus +#-55, de R(3er/ L(8le" c(n!/i/*8e el &rimer gran eBem&l( de *n ideal m(dern( de @*2mica 3a!ad( en *na c(nce&cin general n*e7a de la na/*raleDa 8 de la! le8e! na/*rale!; Sin em3arg(" l( mi!m( a@*2 @*e en el de!arr(ll( an/eri(r de la /e(r2a del Cl(gi!/( n( enc(n/ram(! mF! @*e *na de!cri&cin c*ali/a/i7a de l(! &r(ce!(! @*2mic(!; :a!/a Cinale! del !igl( X_III" ( !ea la &(ca de La7(i!ier" la @*2mica n( a&rendi a Aa3lar en leng*aBe c*an/i/a/i7(; A &ar/ir de en/(nce! !e (3!er7a *n rF&id( &r(gre!(; C*and( Dal/(n de!c*3ri !* le8 de &r(&(rci(ne! e@*i7alen/e! ( mEl/i&le! !e a3ri *na n*e7a 72a; Se e!/a3leci Cirmemen/e el &(der del nEmer(; Sin em3arg(" @*eda3an /(da72a am&li(! Fm3i/(! de la e>&eriencia @*2mica @*e n( e!/a3an !*Be/(! &(r c(m&le/( a la! le8e! del nEmer(; La li!/a de l(! elemen/(! @*2mic(! era *na mera li!/a em&2ricaM n( de&end2a de ningEn &rinci&i( CiB( ni m(!/ra3a ningEn (rden !i!/emF/ic( deCinid(; Tam3i n e!/e El/im( (3!/Fc*l( C*e eliminad( &(r el de!c*3rimien/( del !i!/ema &eridic( de l(! elemen/(!M cada *n( enc(n/r !* l*gar en *n !i!/ema c(Aeren/e 8 e!/e l*gar e!/a3a !e'alad( &(r !* nEmer( a/mic(; GEl 7erdader( nEmer( a/mic( e!" !encillamen/e" el nEmer( @*e (Crece la &(O !icin del elemen/( en el !i!/ema na/*ral c*and( !e /ienen en c*en/a de3idamen/e la! relaci(ne! @*2mica! al decidir el (rden de cada elemen/(;G La!Fnd(!e en el !i!/ema &eridic( era &(!i3le &redecir elemen/(! de!O c(n(cid(! 8 de!c*3rirl(! !*3!ig*ien/emen/e; De e!/e m(d( la @*2mica Aa ad@*irid( *na n*e7a e!/r*c/*ra ma/emF/ica 8 ded*c/i7a;?#N P(dr2am(! /raDar la mi!ma marcAa general del &en!amien/( en la Ai!/(ria de la 3i(l(g2a; L( mi!m( @*e la! demF! ciencia! de la na/*raleDa" /*7( @*e c(menDar c(n *na mera cla!iCicacin de l(! AecA(!" g*iada &(r l(! c(nce&/(! gen ric(! de n*e!/r( leng*aBe c(rrien/e; La 3i(l(g2a cien/2Cica &re!/ a e!/(! c(nce&/(! *n !en/id( mF! deCinid(; El !i!/ema D((lgic( de Ari!//ele! 8 el !i!/ema 3(/Fnic( de Te(Cra!/( m*e!/ran *n al/( grad( de c(Aerencia 8 de (rden me/(d(lgic(; En la 3i(l(g2a m(derna /(da! e!/a! C(rma! &rimera! de cla!iCicacin !e Aallan ecli&!ada! &(r *n ideal diCeren/eM 7a &a!and( &(c( a &(c( a *na n*e7a e/a&a de /e(r2a C(rm*lada ded*c/i7amen/e; T(da ciencia en !* de!arr(ll( n(rmal Hdice el &r(Ce!(r N(r/Ar(&H &a!a &(r d(! e/a&a!" la &rimera" @*e llamam(! la e/a&a de la Ai!/(ria na/*ral" la !eg*nda" la e/a&a de la /e(r2a &re!cri/a &(r &(!/*lad(!; A cada *na de e!/a! e/a&a!
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Para mF! de/alle! 7 a!e" &(r eBem&l(" S(mmerCeld" op. cit./ ca&; XI;

c(rre!&(nde *n /i&( deCinid( de c(nce&/( cien/2Cic(; El /i&( de c(nce&/( &r(&i( de la e/a&a de la Ai!/(ria na/*ral l( de!ignam(! c(m( Gc(nce&/( &(r in!&eccinGM el de la (/ra e/a&a" Gc(nce&/( &(r &(!/*lacinG; Un Gc(nce&/( &(r in!&eccinG e! a@*el c*8( !en/id( c(m&le/( !e n(! da &(r alg( inmedia/amen/e ca&/ad(; Un Gc(nce&/( &(r &(!/*lacinG e! a@*el c*8( !en/id( e! &re!cri/( &(r l(! &(!/*lad(! de la /e(r2a ded*c/i7a en @*e (c*&a !* l*gar; +GTAe 3earing *&(n 3i(l(gical (rganiDa/i(nG" GroBth %upplement |#$%N}" &&; #?5O)%;, Para e!/e &a!( deci!i7( @*e n(! lle7a de l( meramen/e ca&/a3le a l( c(m&ren!i3le /enem(! nece!idad" !iem&re" de *n n*e7( in!/r*men/( de &en!amien/(; De3em(! reCerir n*e!/ra! (3!er7aci(ne! a *n !i!/ema de !2m3(l(! 3ien (rdenad(! &ara &(derla! Aacer c(Aeren/e! e in/er&re/a3le! en / rmin(! de c(nce&/(! cien/2Cic(!; E! *na c(nce&cin @*e a&arece 3a!/an/e /arde en la Ai!/(ria de la Cil(!(C2a la de @*e la ma/emF/ica re&re!en/a *n leng*aBe !im3lic( *ni7er!al 8 @*e n( /iene @*e 7er c(n *na de!cri&cin de la! c(!a! !in( c(n e>&re!i(ne! generale! de relaci(ne!; Una /e(r2a de la ma/emF/ica 3a!ada en e!/e !*&*e!/( n( a&arecerF anO /e! del !igl( X_II; Lei3niD C*e el &rimer gran &en!ad(r m(dern( @*e /*7( *na 7i!in clara del 7erdader( carFc/er del !im3(li!m( ma/emF/ic( 8 @*e c(!ecA inmedia/amen/e c(n!ec*encia! Cec*nda! 8 am&lia!; En e!/e a!&ec/(" la Ai!/(ria de la! ma/emF/ica! n( diCiere de la Ai!/(ria de /(da! la! demF! C(rma! !im3lica!" Tam3i n &ara la ma/emF/ica re!*l/ e>/remadamen/e diC2cil de!c*3rir la n*e7a dimen!in del &en!amien/( !im3lic( @*e era em&lead( &(r l(! ma/emF/ic(! m*cA( an/e! de @*e &*dieran e>&licar !* carFc/er lgic( e!&ec2Cic(; L( mi!m( @*e l(! !2m3(l(! del ar/e" l(! ma/emF/ic(! !e Aallan r(dead(! de!de *n &rinci&i( &(r *na e!&ecie de a/m!Cera mFgicaM !(n c(n!iderad(! c(n *na e!&ecie de re!&e/( 8 7eneracin religi(!(!; MF! /arde" e!/a Ce religi(!a 8 m2!/ica de!em3(c &(c( a &(c( en *na e!&ecie de Ce me/aC2!ica; En la Cil(!(C2a de Pla/n el nEmer( 8a n( !e Aalla 3a'ad( en el mi!/eri(M &(r el c(n/rari(" !e le c(n!idera c(m( el cen/r( 7erdader( del m*nd( in/elec/*al" !e Aa c(n7er/id( en la cla7e de /(da 7erdad e in/eligi3ilidad; C*and( Pla/n e>&*!(" 8a de a7anDada edad" !* /e(r2a del m*nd( ideal" /ra/ de de!cri3irla en / rmin(! &*ramen/e n*m ric(!; La ma/emF/ica c(n!/i/*8e" &ara l" el rein( in/ermedi( en/re el m*nd( !en!i3le 8 el !*&ra!en!i3le; Tam3i n en e!/( e! *n 7erdader( &i/agric( 8" c(m( /al" e!/F c(n7encid( de @*e el &(der del nEmer( !e e>/iende !(3re /(d( el m*nd( 7i!i3le; Per( la e!encia me/aC2!ica del nEmer( n( &*ede !er re7elada &(r ningEn Cenmen( 7i!i3le; L(! Cenmen(! &ar/ici&an de e!/a e!encia &er( n( la &*eden e>&re!ar adec*adamen/e" &*e! !e @*edan nece!aria men/e c(r/(!; E! *n err(r c(n!iderar l(! nEmer(! 7i!i3le! @*e enc(n/ram(! en l(! Cenmen(! na/*rale!" en l(! m(7imien/(! de l(! c*er&(! cele!/e!" c(m( l(! 7erO dader(! nEmer(! ma/emF/ic(!M n( !(n mF! @*e indicaci(ne! +rcgcRZliXc\c, de l(! nEmer(! ideale! &*r(!; E!/(! nEmer(! /ienen @*e !er ca&/ad(! &(r la raDn 8 la in/eligencia 8 n( &(r la 7i!/a; L(! ciel(! &*eden !er em&lead(! c(m( *na &a*/a 8 c(n 7i!/a! a e!e c(n(cimien/( mF! al/(M !* 3elleDa e! c(m( la 3elleDa de la! Cig*ra! ( &in/*ra!" &r(d*cida! e>celen/emen/e &(r la man( de D dal( ( &(r algEn (/r( ar/i!/a" @*e &(dem(! /ener

la !*er/e de 7erM /(d( geme/ra @*e la! 7iera a&reciar2a la e>@*i!i/eD de !* ar/e!an2a &er( BamF! !e Cig*rar2a @*e &*diera enc(n/rar en ella! la 7erdadera ig*aldad ( el d(3le 7erdader( ( la 7erdad de c*al@*ier (/ra &r(&(rcin;;; 6 *n 7erdader( a!/rn(m( `n( /endrF la mi!ma !en!acin c*and( mire el m(7imien/( de l(! a!/r(!a `N( &en!arF @*e l(! ciel(! 8 la! c(!a! en el ciel( e!/Fn Ca3ricada! &(r !* cread(r de la manera mF! &erCec/aa Per( n*nca !e Cig*rarF @*e la! &r(&(rci(ne! de la n(cAe 8 el d2a ( de l(! d(! c(n el me! ( del me! c(n el a'( ( de l(! a!/r(! c(n !/(! 8 en/re !2 8 c*al@*ier (/ra c(!a ma/erial 8 7i!i3le" &*eda !er e/erna 8 n( !*Be/a a de!7iacinM e!/( !er2a a3!*rd( 8 e! ig*almen/e a3!*rd( /(mar!e /an/a &ena en in7e!/igar !* 7erdad e>ac/a; +Pla/n" )ep4!lica/ )?$" ).N;, La e&i!/em(l(g2a m(derna 8a n( man/iene e!/a /e(r2a &la/nica del m*nd(; N( c(n!idera a la ma/emF/ica c(m( *n e!/*di( de la! c(!a!" 8a !ean 7i!i3le! ( in7i!i3le!" !in( c(m( *n e!/*di( de relaci(ne! 8 de /i &(! de relaci(ne!; Si Aa3lam(! de la (3Be/i7idad del nEmer( n( l( &en!am(! c(m( *na en/idad me/aC2!ica ( C2!ica !e&arada; L( @*e @*erem(! decir e! @*e el nEmer( e! *n in!/r*men/( &ara el de!c*3rimien/( de la na/*raleDa 8 la realidad; La Ai!/(ria de la! ciencia! n(! (Crece eBem&l(! /2&ic(! de e!/e &r(ce!( in/elec/*al c(n/in*(; M*cAa! 7ece!" el &en!amien/( ma/emF/ic( &arece adelan/ar!e a la in7e!/igacin C2!ica; N*e!/ra! /e(r2a! ma/emF/ica! mF! im&(r/an/e! n( &r(ceden de nece!idade! &rFc/ica! ( / cnica! inmedia/a!" !e c(nci3en c(m( e!@*ema! generale! del &en!amien/( c(n an/eri(ridad a c*al@*ier a&licacin c(ncre/a; C*and( Ein!/ein de!arr(ll !* /e(r2a general de la rela/i7idad ac*di a la ge(me/r2a de Riemann" @*e Aa32a !id( creada m*cA( an/e!" &er( @*e Riemann c(n!idera3a !l( c(m( *na mera &(!i3ilidad lgica; E!/a3a c(n7encid( de @*e /enem(! nece!idad de /ale! &(!i3ilidade! &ara e!/ar &re&arad(! &ara la de!cri&cin de AecA(! reale!; Nece!i/am(! *na &lena li3er/ad en la c(n!/r*ccin de la! C(rma! di7er!a! de n*e!/r( !im3(li!m( ma/emF/ic( &ara d(/ar al &en!amien/( C2!ic( de in!/r*men/(! in/elec/*ale!; La na/*raleDa e! inag(/a3le 8 !iem&re n(! &lan/earF &r(3lema! n*e7(! e ine!&erad(!M n( &(dem(! an/ici&ar l(! AecA(!" &er( &(dem(! &re&ararn(! &ara !* in/er&re/acin in/elec/*al median/e el &(der del &en!a mien/( !im3lic(; Si ace&/am(! e!/a idea enc(n/rarem(! *na re!&*e!/a a *n( de l(! mF! diC2cile! 8 mF! de3a/id(! &r(3lema! de la ciencia na/*ral m(derna4 el &r(3lema del de/erO mini!m(; L( @*e la ciencia nece!i/a n( e! *n de/ermini!m( cien/2Cic( !in( me/(d(lgic(; Se &*ede re&*diar el de/ermini!m( mecFnic( @*e enc(n/r !* e>&re!in en la Cam(!a Crm*la de La&lace" ?## &er( el 7erdader( de/ermini!m( cien/2Cic(" el del nEmer(" n( e!/F e>&*e!/( a e!/a! (3Beci(ne!; 6a n( c(n!ideram(! el nEmer( c(m( *n &(der m2!/ic( ( c(m( la e!encia me/aC2!ica de la! c(!a! !in( c(m( *n in!/r*men/( e!&ec2Cic( de c(n(cimien/(; C(m( !e 7e" e!/a c(nce&cin n( &*ede !er &*e!/a en c*e!/in &(r ningEn re!*l/ad( de la C2!ica m(derna; El &r(gre!( de la mecFnica c*Fn/ica n(! Aa m(!/rad( @*e n*e!/r( leng*aBe ma/emF/ic( e! m*cA( mF! ric( 8 m*cA( mF! elF!/ic( 8 Cle>i3le de l( @*e
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S(3re e!/a c*e!/in" 7 a!e Ca!!irer" 1eterminismus und Indeterminismus in der modernen 5hysi3.

&*diera Cig*rar!e en l(! !i!/ema! de la C2!ica clF!ica; Se ada&/a a n*e7(! &r(3lema! 8 a n*e7a! e>igencia!; C*and( :ei!en3erg e>&*!( !* /e(r2a em&le *na n*e7a C(rma de !im3(li!m( alge3raic(" c(n re!&ec/( al c*al re!*l/a3an in7Flida! alg*na! de n*e!/ra! regla! alge3raica! c(rrien/e!; Per( la C(rma general del nEmer( !e &re!er7a en /(d(! e!/(! e!@*ema! !*3!ig*ien/e!; Dec2a Ga*!! @*e la ma/emF/ica e! la reina de la ciencia 8 la ari/m /ica la reina de la ma/emF/ica; En *na re7i!in Ai!/rica del de!arr(ll( del &en!amien/( ma/emF/ic( d*ran/e el !igl( XIX" dec2a F li> ^lein @*e *n( de l(! ra!g(! mF! carac/er2!/ic(! de e!/e de!arr(ll( e! la &r(gre!i7a Gari/me/iDacin de la! ma/emF/ica!G;?#? Tam3i n en la Ai!/(ria de la C2!ica m(derna &(dem(! !eg*ir e!/e &r(ce!(; De!de l(! Gc*a/erni(ne!G de :amil/(n Aa!/a l(! diCeren/e! !i!/ema! de mecFnica c*Fn/ica enc(n/ram(! !i!/ema! cada 7eD mF! c(m&leB(! de !im3(li!m( alge3raic(; El cien/2Cic( ac/Ea 3a!Fnd(!e en el &rinci&i( de @*e" Aa!/a en l(! ca!(! mF! c(m&licad(!" l(grarF enc(n/rar *n !im3(li!m( adec*ad( @*e le &ermi/irF de!cri3ir !*! (3!er7aci(ne! en *n leng*aBe *ni7er!al 8 generalmen/e in/eligi3le; E! cier/( @*e el cien/2Cic( n( n(! (Crece *na &r*e3a lgica ( em&2rica de e!/e !*&*e!/( C*ndamen/al; La Enica &r*e3a @*e n(! !*mini!/ra e! !* (3ra; Ace&/a el &rinci&i( del de/ermini!m( n*m ric( c(m( *na mF>ima g*iad(ra" c(m( *na idea reg*lad(ra @*e &re!/a a !* (3ra !* c(Aerencia lgica 8 !* *nidad !i!/emF/ica; Una de la! meB(re! e>&(!ici(ne! de e!/e carFc/er general del &r(ce!( cien/2Cic( cre( enc(n/rarl( en el >ratado de ptica fisiolgica de :elmA(l/D; Si l(! &rinci&i(! de n*e!/r( c(n(cimien/( cien/2Cic(" &(r eBem&l(" la le8 de ca*!alidad" n( C*eran mF! @*e regla! em&2rica!" !* &r*e3a ind*c/i7a" n(! dice :elmA(l/D" !e Aallar2a en *na !i/*acin 3a!/an/e diC2cil; L( meB(r @*e &(dr2am(! decir !er2a @*e e!/(! &rinci&i(! n( eran mF! 7Flid(! @*e la! le8e! de la me/e(r(l(g2a" c(m( la de la r(/a cin del 7ien/(" e/c; E!/(! &rinci&i(! lle7an en !* r(!/r( el carFc/er de le8e! &*ramen/e lgica!" &(r@*e la! c(ncl*!i(ne! @*e !e deri7an de ell(! n( !e reCieren a n*e!/ra! e>&eriencia! reale! 8 a l(! mer(! AecA(! de la na/*raleDa !in( a n*e!/ra in/er&re/acin de la mi!ma; El &r(ce!( de n*e!/ra c(m&ren!in c(n re!&ec/( a l(! Cenmen(! na/*rale! e! @*e /ra/am(! de enc(n/rar conceptos generales y leyes de la naturaleDa. La! le8e! de la na/*raleDa n( !(n mF! @*e c(nce&/(! gen ric(! &ara l(! cam3i(! de la na/*raleDa; ;; P(r e!/(" c*and( n( &(dem(! red*cir l(! Cenmen(! na/*rale! a *na le8;;; ce!a la &(!i3ilidad de c(nce3ir /ale! Cenmen(!; Sin em3arg(" de3em(! /ra/ar de c(nce3irl(!; N( e>i!/e (/r( m /(d( &ara c(l(carl(! 3aB( el c(n/r(l de la in/eligencia; 6 a!2" al in7e!/igarl(!" /enem(! @*e &r(ceder !(3re el !*&*e!/( de @*e !(n in/eligi3le!; De ac*erd( c(n e!/(" la le8 de raDn !*Cicien/e n( e!" en realidad" mF! @*e el apremio de n*e!/ra in/eligencia &ara c(l(car /(da! nEe!/ra! &erce&ci(ne! 3aB( !* &r(&i( c(n/r(l; N( e! *na le8 de la na/*raleDa; N*e!/ra in/eligencia e! la Cac*l/ad de C(rmar c(nce&/(! generale!; Nada /iene @*e 7er c(n n*e!/ra! &erce&ci(ne! !en!i3le! 8 e>&eriencia! a n( !er @*e !ea ca&aD de C(rmar c(nce&/(! generale! ( le8e!;;; I*n/( a n*e!/ra in/eligencia" n( e>i!/e
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F li> ^lein" 2orlesungen K!er die EntBic3lung der Mathemati3 im 8S. [ahrhundert +Lerl2n" #$?-O?5,;

ning*na (/ra Cac*l/ad ig*almen/e !i!/ema/iDada" !(3re /(d( &ara en/ender el m*nd( e>/eri(r; P(r e!/(" !i !(m(! inca&ace! de conce!ir *na c(!a" n( la &(dem(! imaginar c(m( e>i!/en/e; 0>reatise on 5hysiological 'ptics/ /rad; &(r Iame! P; C; S(*/Aall" O&/ical S(cie/8 (C AmericaM Ge(rge Lan/a P*3li!Aing C(;" #$?)M c(&8rigA/" G; E; S/ecAer/" III" ..O.);, E!/a! &ala3ra! de!cri3en" en C(rma m*8 clara" la ac/i/*d general de la men/e cien/2Cica; El cien/2Cic( !a3e @*e !*3!i!/en am&li(! Fm3i/(! de Cenmen(! @*e n( Aa !id( &(!i3le red*cir /(da72a a le8e! rig*r(!a! 8 a regla! n*m rica! e>ac/a!; Sin em3arg(" !e man/iene Ciel a e!/e cred( &i/agric( general4 &ien!a @*e la na/*raleDa" /(mada en !* c(nB*n/( 8 en /(d(! !*! cam&(! &ar/ic*lare!" e! G*n nEmer( 8 *na arm(n2aG; Fren/e a la inmen!idad de la na/*raleDa" alg*n(! de l(! mF! grande! cien/2Cic(! Aan &(did( a3rigar a@*el !en/imien/( e!&ecial @*e C*e e>&re!ad( en *na Cam(!a !en/encia de Ne9/(n; :an &(did( &en!ar @*e" en !* &r(&ia (3ra" eran c(m( *n ni'( @*e !e &a!ea a l( larg( de la c(!/a de *n (c an( inmen!( 8 !e di7ier/e de 7eD en c*and( rec(giend( *na c(ncAa c*8a C(rma ( c(l(r le a/rae; E! c(m&ren!i3le e!/e !en/imien/( de m(de!/ia" &er( n( re&re!en/a la de!cri&cin 7erdadera 8 &lena de la (3ra del cien/2Cic( @*e n( &*ede l(grar !* Cin !i n( (3edece e!/ric/amen/e a l(! AecA(! de /e na/*raleDa; Per( e!/a (3ediencia n( e! *na !*mi!in &a!i7a; La (3ra de /(d(! l(! grande! cien/2Cic(! Hde Galile( 8 de Ne9/(n" de Ma>9ell 8 de :elmA(l/D" de Planc{ 8 de Ein!/einH n( c(n!i!/i en *na mera rec(leccin de AecA(!M era *na (3ra /erica" 8 e!/( @*iere decir c(n!/r*c/i7a; E!/a e!&(n/aneidad 8 &r(d*c/i7idad c(n!/i/*8e el 7erdader( cen/r( de /(da! las ac/i7idade! A*mana!; E! el &(der !*&rem( del A(m3re 8 !e'ala" al mi!m( /iem&(" l(! c(nCine! na/*rale! de n*e!/r( m*nd( A*man(; En el leng*aBe" en la religin" en el ar/e" en la ciencia" el A(m3re n( &*ede Aacer mF! @*e c(n!/r*ir !* &r(&i( *ni7er!( !im3lic( @*e le &ermi/e c(m&render e in/er&re/ar" ar/ic*lar 8 (rganiDar" !in/e/iDar 8 *ni7er!aliDar !* e>&eriencia;

E!/e li3r( !e aca3 de im&rimir el d2a # S de B*li( de #$-1 en l(! /allere! de GrFCica Panamericana" S; de R; L;" Parr(@*ia $##" M >ic( #?" D; F;" !iend( Direc/(r del FCE el licenciad( Sal7ad(r AD*ela; Se im&rimier(n #N NNN eBem&lare! 8 en !* c(m&(!icin !e */iliDar(n /i&(! !/er de 14$ 8 541 &*n/(!; La edicin e!/*7( al c*idad( de [uan Alaela.

XII; RESUMEN 6 CONCLUSIN Si AL TbRMINO de n*e!/ra larga B(rnada 7(l7em(! la mirada a n*e!/r( &*n/( de &ar/ida" &(drem(! d*dar de !i Aem(! alcanDad( n*e!/r( Cin; Una Cil(!(C2a de la c*lO /*ra c(mienDa c(n el !*&*e!/( de @*e el m*nd( de la c*l/*ra n( e! *n mer( agregad( de AecA(! di!gregad(! 8 di!&er!(!M /ra/a de c(m&renderl(! c(m( *n !i!/ema" c(m( *n /(d( (rgFnic(; Para *n &*n/( de 7i!/a em&2ric( e Ai!/ric(" &arece @*e 3a!/ar2a c(n rec(ger l(! da/(! de la c*l/*ra" &er( a n(!(/r(! n(! in/ere!a el alien/( de la 7ida A*mana; E!/am(! !*mid(! en el e!/*di( de l(! Cenmen(! &ar/ic*lare!" en !* ri@*eDa 8 7ariedadM g(Dam(! de la &(licr(m2a 8 &(liC(n2a de la na/*raleDa A*mana; Un anFli!i! Cil(!Cic( !e &r(&(ne *na /area diCeren/e; S* &*n/( de arran@*e 8 !* Ai&/e!i! de /ra3aB( encarnan en la c(n7iccin de @*e l(! ra8(! 7ariad(! 8 en a&ariencia di!&er!(! &*eden B*n/ar!e 8 c(ncen/rar!e en *n C(c( c(mEn; L(! AecA(! !(n red*cid(! a C(rma!" 8 !e !*&(ne @*e e!/a! C(rma! mi!ma! &(!een *na *nidad in/erna; Per( `Aem(! !id( ca&ace! de &r(3ar e!/e &*n/( e!enciala `Aca!( n*e!/r(! anFli!i! &ar/ic*lare! n( n(! Aan m(!/rad( B*!/amen/e l( c(n/rari(a :em(! /enid( @*e !*3ra8ar a /(d( l( larg( el carFc/er 8 la e!/r*c/*ra e!&ec2Cic(! de la! 7aria! C(rma! !im3lica!" del mi/(" del leng*aBe" del ar/e" de la religin" de la Ai!/(ria 8 de la ciencia 8" 3aB( e!/e a!&ec/( de n*e!/ra in7e!/igacin" aca!( n(! !in/am(! inclinad(! a la /e!i! c(n/raria" la de la di!c(n/in*idad 8 Ae/er(geneidad radical de la c*l/*ra; De /(d(! m(d(! !er2a m*8 diC2cil reC*/ar e!/a /e!i! de!de *n &*n/( de 7i!/a &*ramen/e (n/(lgic( ( me/aOC2!ic(" &er( &ara *na Cil(!(C2a cr2/ica el &r(3lema a!*O me (/r( cariD; N( e!/am(! (3ligad(! a &r(3ar la *nidad !*!/ancial del A(m3re; 6a n( !e le c(n!idera c(m( *na !*!/ancia !im&le @*e e>i!/e en !2 mi!ma 8 Aa de !er c(n(cida &(r !2 mi!ma; S* *nidad !e c(nci3e c(m( *na *nidad C*nci(nal; Tal *nidad n( &re!*&(ne *na A(m(geneidad de l(! di7er!(! elemen/(! en @*e c(n!i!/e; N( !l( admi/e !in( @*e re@*iere *na m*l/i&licidad 8 m*l/iC(rmidad de !*! &ar/e! c(n!/i/*/i7a!" &*e! !e /ra/a de *na *nidad dial c/ica" de *na c(e>i!/encia de c(n/rari(!; GL(! A(m3re! n( c(m&renden Hdice :erFcli/(H" cm( a@*ell( @*e e! lle7ad( en diCeren/e! direcci(ne! !e &(ne de ac*erd( c(n!ig( mi!m(4 arm(n2a e! c(n/rariedad" c(m( en el ca!( del arc( 8 la lira;G ?#. Para dem(!/rar !emeBan/e arm(n2a n( nece!i/am(! &r(3ar la iden/idad ( !emeBanDa de la! diCeren/e! C*erDa! @*e la &r(d*cen; La! di7er!a! C(rma! de la c*l/*ra n( c(nc*erdan &(r *na iden/idad de !* na/*raleDa !in( &(r *na c(nC(rmidad en !* mi!in C*ndamen/al; Si e>i!/e *n e@*ili3ri( en la c*l/*ra" Enicamen/e &(drF !er de!cri/( c(m( e@*ili3ri( dinFmic( 8 n( e!/F/ic(M e! el re!*l/ad( de *na l*cAa en/re C*erDa! (&*e!/a!; E!/a l*cAa n( e>cl*8e e!a Garm(n2a recndi/aG @*e"
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:erFcli/(" Fragmen/( )#" en Diel!" 1ie ragmente der 2orso3rati3er +)a ed;,; _ a!e la /rad; de I*an Da7id Garc2a Lacca4 &os presocr7ticos/ ed; &(r El C(legi( de M >ic(; #$%.;
?#.

!egEn :erFcli/(" e! GmeB(r @*e l( @*e e! (37i(G; ?#% La deCinicin del A(m3re &(r Ari!//ele! c(m( ani mal !(cial n( e! !*Cicien/emen/e am&liaM n(! (Crece *n c(nce&/( gen ric( &er( n( la diCerencia e!&ec2Cica; La !(cia3ilidad" c(m( /al" n( e! *na carac/er2!/ica e>cl* !i7a del A(m3re ni /am&(c( &ri7ilegi( de *n( !(l(; En l(! llamad(! e!/ad(! animale!" en/re la! a3eBa! 8 la! A(rmiga!" enc(n/ram(! *na 3ien ne/a di7i!in del /ra3aB( 8 *na (rganiDacin !(cial !(r&renden/emen/e c(m&licada; Per( en el ca!( del A(m3re n( enc(n/ram(! !l(" c(m( en/re l(! animale!" *na !(ciedad de accin" !in( /am3i n *na !(ciedad de &en!amien/( 8 !en/imien/(; El leng*aBe" el mi/(" el ar/e" la religin 8 la ciencia re&re!en/an l(! elemen/(! 8 la! c(ndici(ne! c(n!/i/*/i O 7a! de e!/a C(rma !*&eri(r de !(ciedad; S(n l(! medi(! c(n l(! c*ale! la! C(rma! de la 7ida !(cial @*e ad7er/im(! en la na/*raleDa (rgFnica !e de!arr(llan en *n n*e7( e!/ad(" el de la c(nciencia !(cial; La c(nciencia !(cial del A(m3re de&ende de *n d(3le ac/(" de iden/iCicacin 8 de di!criminacin; El A(m3re n( &*ede enc(n/rar!e a !2 mi!m(" ni &erca/ar!e de !* indi7id*alidad !i n( e! a /ra7 ! del medi( de la 7ida !(cial; Per(" &ara l" e!/e medi( !igniCica alg( mF! @*e *na C*erDa e>/eri(r de/erminan/e; L( mi!m( @*e l(! animale!" !e !(me/e a la! le8e! de la !(ciedad" &er(" ademF!" /iene *na &ar/ici&acin ac/i7a en &r(d*cirla! 8 *n &(der ac/i7( &ara cam3iar la! C(rma! de la 7ida !(cial; En la! e/a&a! r*dimen/aria! de la !(ciedad A*mana a&ena! !i e! &erce&/i3le /(da72a !emeBan/e ac/i7idadM e>i!/e en *n e!/ad( m2nim(; Ma!" a medida @*e a7anDam(!" e!/e ra!g( !e Aace cada 7eD mF! e>&l2ci/( 8 !igniCican/e 8 e! &(!i3le !eg*ir !* len/( de!en7(l7imien/( en ca!i /(da! la! C(rma! de la c*l/*ra; E! *n AecA( 3ien c(n(cid( @*e m*cAa! de la! acci(ne! @*e !e lle7an a ca3( en la! !(ciedade! animale! n( !l( ig*alan !in(" en alg*n(! a!&ec/(!" Aa!/a !(n !*&eO ri(re! a la! (3ra! del A(m3re; M*cAa! 7ece! !e Aa (3!er7ad( @*e la! a3eBa! !e c(m&(r/an en la c(n!/r*ccin de !*! celdilla! c(m( &erCec/(! geme/ra!" l(gran d( la ma8(r &reci!in 8 e>ac/i/*d; SemeBan/e ac/i7idad re@*iere *n !i!/ema m*8 c(m&leB( de c((rdinacin 8 c(la3(racin" &er( en /(da! e!/a! realiDaci(ne! n( enO c(n/ram(! diCerenciacin indi7id*al; S(n &r(d*cida! /(da! de la mi!ma C(rma 8 a /en(r de la! mi!ma! le8e! in7aria3le!M n( @*eda l*gar &ara la eleccin ( Aa3iO lidad indi7id*ale!; Unicamen/e c*and( llegam(! a la! e/a&a! !*&eri(re! de la 7ida animal /r(&eDam(! c(n la! &rimera! A*ella! de *na cier/a indi7id*aliDacin; La! (3!er7aci(ne! de K(lCgang ^(eAler c(n l(! m(n(! an/r(&(ide! &arecen &r(3ar @*e e>i!/en alg*na! diCerencia! en la in/eligencia 8 Aa3ilidad de e!/(! animale!; Un( de ell(! &*ede !er ca&aD de re!(l7er *na /area @*e &ara (/r(! re!*l/a in!(l*3leM &(dem(! Aa3lar /am3i n de in7enci(ne! indi7id*ale!" &er( /(d( e!/( carece de im&(r/ancia &ara la e!/r*c/*ra general de la 7ida animal; E!/a e!/r*c/*ra e!/F de/erminada &(r la le8 3i(lgica general a /en(r de la c*al l(! carac/ere! ad@*irid(! n( !(n a&/(! de /ran!mi!in Aeredi/aria; T(da &erCeccin c(n@*i!/ada &(r *n (rgani!m( en el c*r!( de !* 7ida indi7id*al !e Aalla c(nCinada a !* &r(&ia e>i!/encia 8 n( inCl*8e en la 7ida de la e!&ecie; El A(m3re Aa de!c*3ier/( *n n*e7( camin( &ara e!/a3iliDar 8 &r(&agar !*! (3ra!; N(
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?#%

'p. cit./ Fragmen/( )%;

&*ede 7i7ir !* 7ida !in e>&re!arla; L(! 7ari(! m(d(! de e>&re!in c(n!/i/*8en *na n*e7a e!Cera" &(!een *na 7ida &r(&ia" *na e!&ecie de e/ernidad median/e la c*al !(3re7i7en a la e>i!/encia indi7id*al 8 eC2mera del A(m3re; En /(da! la! acO /i7idade! A*mana! enc(n/ram(! *na &(laridad C*ndamen/al &(!i3le de !er de!cri/a de di7er!a! manera!; P(dem(! Aa3lar de *na /en!in en/re e!/a3iliDacin 8 e7(l*cin" en/re *na /endencia @*e c(nd*ce a C(rma! CiBa! 8 e!/a3le! de 7ida 8 (/ra @*e &r(&ende a r(m&er e!/e e!@*ema r2gid(; El A(m3re gira en/re e!/a! d(! /endencia!" *na de la! c*ale! /ra/a de &re!er7ar la! 7ieBa! C(rma! mien/ra! @*e la (/ra in/en/a &r(d*cir n*e7a!; Se da *na ince!an/e l*cAa en/re /radicin e inn(7acin" en/re C*erDa! re&r(d*c/(ra! 8 C*erDa! cread(ra!; E!/e d*ali!m( l( enc(n/ram(! en /(d(! l(! d(mini(! de la 7ida c*l/*ral; L( @*e 7ar2a e! la &r(O &(rcin de l(! Cac/(re! an/agnic(!; AA(ra &arece &re&(nderar el *n(" l*eg( el (/r(; La &re&(nderancia de/ermina en *n al/( grad( el carFc/er de la! C(rma! !ing*lare! 8 &re!/a a cada *na !* Ci!(n(m2a &ar/ic*lar; En el mi/( 8 en la religin &rimi/i7a la /endencia a la e!/a3iliDacin e! /an C*er/e @*e 7ence &(r c(m&le/( al &(l( (&*e!/(; E!/(! d(! Cenmen(! c*l/*rale! &arecen !er l(! &(dere! mF! c(n!er7ad(re! de la 7ida A*mana; El &en!amien/( m2/ic(" &(r (rigen 8 &rinci&i(" e! &en!amien/( /radici(nal" &(r@*e el mi/( n( /iene (/r( m(d( de c(m&render" e>&licar e in/er&re/ar la C(rma ac/*al de la 7ida A*mana mF! @*e c(nd*ci nd(la a *n &a!ad( rem(/(; L( @*e arraiga en e!/e &a!ad( m2/ic(" l( @*e Aa !id( de!de !iem&re" l( @*e Aa e>i!/id( de!de /iem&(! inmem(riale!" e! Cirme e ind*da3le; S*&(ndr2a *n !acrilegi( &(nerl( en d*da; Para la men/e &rimi/i7a n( Aa8 c(!a mF! !agrada @*e la G!an/idad de l(! /iem&(!G; L(! /iem&(! &re!/an a /(da! la! c(!a!" /an/( (3Be/(! C2!ic(! c(m( in!/i/*ci(ne! A*mana!" !* 7al(r" !* dignidad" !* ca/eg(r2a m(ral 8 religi(!a; A l(! eCec/(! de man/ener e!/a dignidad" re!*l/a im&era/i7( c(n/in*ar 8 &re!er7ar el (rden A*man( en la mi!ma C(rma inal/era3le; C*al@*ier !(l*cin de c(n/in*idad de!/r*ir2a la 7erdadera !*!/ancia de la 7ida m2/ica 8 religi(!a; De!de el &*n/( de 7i!/a del &en!amien/( &rimi/i7( la mF! &e@*e'a al/eracin del e!/a3lecid( e!@*ema de la! c(!a! e! de!a!/r(!a; La! &ala3ra! de *na Crm*la mFgica" de *n c(nB*n/( ( encan/amien/(" la! Ca!e! de *n ac/( religi(!(" *n !acriCici( ( *na (racin" /ienen @*e !er re&e/ida! en el mi!m( (rden in7aria3le; C*al@*ier m(diCicacin de!/r*ir2a la C*erDa 8 la eCicacia de la &ala3ra mFgica ( del ri/( religi(!(; La religin &rimi/i7a n( &*ede" &(r l( /an/(" Aacer !i/i( a ning*na li3er/ad del &en!amien/( indi7id*al; Pre!cri3e !*! regla! CiBa!" r2gida! e in7i(la3le! n( !l( &ara /(da accin A*mana !in( /am3i n &ara /(d( !en/imien/(; La 7ida del A(m3re !e Aalla 3aB( *na &re!in c(n!/an/e; Se enc*en/ra c(nCinada en el c2rc*l( ang(!/( de e>igencia! &(!i/i7a! 8 nega/i7a!" de c(n!agraci(ne! 8 &r(Ai3ici(ne!" de (3!er7ancia! 8 /a3Ee!; Sin em3arg(" la Ai!/(ria de la! religi(ne! n(! en!e'a @*e e!/a &rimera C(rma del &en!amien/( religi(!(" en m(d( alg*n( e>&re!a !* !en/id( real 8 !* Cin; Tam3i n en e!/e ca!( enc(n/ram(! *n a7ance c(n/in*( en la direccin (&*e!/a; El 72nc*l( c(n @*e !*Be/a3a el &en!amien/( m2/ic( 8 religi(!( &rimi/i7( a la 7ida A*mana 7a aCl(BFnd(!e &(c( a &(c( 8 &arece" a l( El/im(" Aa3er &erdid( !* C*erDa 7inc*la/(ria; S*rge *na n*e7a C(rma dinFmica de

religin @*e a3re *na n*e7a &er!&ec/i7a Cre!ca de la 7ida m(ral 8 religi(!a; En !emeBan/e religin dinFmica l(! &(dere! indi7id*ale! Aan c(3rad( &re&(nderancia !(3re l(! mer(! &(dere! e!/a3iliDad(re!; La 7ida religi(!a Aa alcanDad( !* mad*reD 8 !* li3er/adM Aa r(/( el c(nB*r( de *n /radici(nali!m( r2gid(; ?#) Si del cam&( del &en!amien/( m2/ic( 8 religi(!( &a!am(! al del leng*aBe enc(n/rarem(!" en diCeren/e C(rma" el mi!m( &r(ce!( C*ndamen/al; Tam3i n el leng*aBe re&re!en/a *n( de l(! &(dere! c(n!er7ad(re! mF! Cirme! de la c*l/*ra; Sin e!/e c(n!er7a/i!m( n( llegar2a a c*m&lir !* mi!in &rinci&al" la c(m*nicacin; b!/a re@*iere regla! e!/ric/a!; L(! !2m3(l(! 8 la! C(rma! lingJ2!/ica! de3en &(!eer e!/a3ilidad 8 &er!i!/encia &ara re!i!/ir la inCl*encia di!(l7en/e 8 de!/r*c/(ra del /iem&(; Sin em3arg(" el cam3i( C(n /ic( 8 !emFn/ic( n( c(n!/i/*8en ra!g(! acciden/ale! del de!arr(ll( del leng*aBeM &(r el c(n/rari(" re&re!en/an c(ndici(ne! inO Aeren/e! 8 nece!aria! del mi!m(; Una de la! raD(ne! &rinci&ale! de e!/e cam3i( c(n/in*( re!ide en el AecA( de @*e el leng*aBe /iene @*e !er /ra!mi/id( de *na generacin a (/ra; N( e! &(!i3le e!/a /ra!mi!in &(r la mera re&r(d*ccin de C(rma! CiBa! 8 e!/a3le!; El &r(ce!( de ad@*i!icin del leng*aBe im&lica" !iem&re" *na ac/i/*d ac/i7a 8 &r(d*c/i7a; :a!/a la! e@*i7(caci(ne! del ni'( !(n m*8 carac/er2!/ica! a e!/e re!&ec/(; LeB(! de !er mer(! Call(! &r(d*cid(! &(r *n &(der in!*Cicien/e de mem(ria ( re&r(d*ccin !(n la! meB(re! &r*e3a! de !* ac/i7idad 8 e!&(n/aneidad; En *na e/a&a rela/i7amen/e /em&rana de !* de!arr(ll(" &arece @*e el ni'( Aa c(3rad( cier/( !en/imien/( de la e!/r*c/*ra general de !* leng*a ma/erna !in &(!eer" !in em3arg(" ning*na c(nciencia a3!/rac/a de la! regla! lingJ2!/ica!; Em&lea &ala3ra! ( Cra!e! @*e n*nca Aa (2d( 8 @*e c(n!/i/*8en inCracci(ne! de la! regla! m(rC(lgica! ( !in/Fc/ica!; Per(" &reci!amen/e" en e!/(! en!a8(! e! c*and( a&arece !* ag*d( !en/id( &(r la! anal(g2a!; Pr*e3a en ella! !* Aa3ilidad &ara ca&/ar la C(rma del leng*aBe en l*gar de c(n/en/ar!e c(n re&r(d*cir Enicamen/e !* ma/eria; P(r l( /an/(" la /ra!mi!in de *n leng*aBe de *na generacin a (/ra n( !e &*ede c(m&arar n*nca c(n la !im&le /ra!mi!in de la &r(&iedad &(r la c*al *na c(!a ma/erial cam3ia de &(!e!in !in al/erar &ara nada !* na/*raleDa; En !*! 5rincipios de la historia del lengua=e :ermann Pa*l Aace Ainca&i en e!/e &*n/(; M*e!/ra c(n eBem&l(! c(ncre/(! @*e la e7(l*cin Ai!/rica de *na leng*a de&ende en *n al/( grad( de e!/(! cam3i(! len/(! 8 c(n/in*(! @*e /ienen l*gar en la /ra!mi!in de la! &ala3ra! 8 de la! C(rma! lingJ2!/ica! de &adre! a AiB(!; SegEn Pa*l" Aa8 @*e c(n!iderar e!/e &r(ce!( c(m( *na de la! raD(ne! &rinci&ale! de l(! cam3i(! C(n /ic(! 8 !emFn/ic(!; ?#- Perci3im(! claramen/e la &re!encia de d(! /endencia! diCeren/e!" *na @*e lle7a a la c(n!er7acin 8 (/ra a la ren(7acin 8 reB*O 7enecimien/( del leng*aBe; Sin em3arg(" a&ena! !i &(dem(! Aa3lar de *na (&(!icin en/re e!/a! d(! /endencia!; Se Aallan en &erCec/( e@*ili3ri(M c(n!/i/*8en l(! d(! elemen/(! 8 c(ndici(ne! indi!&en!a3le! de la 7ida del leng*aBe; Un n*e7( a!&ec/( del mi!m( &r(3lema /enem(! en el de!arr(ll( del ar/e; En e!/e ca!( &arece @*e el !eg*nd( Cac/(r" el de la (riginalidad" el de la indi7id*alidad" el
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?#) ?#-

Para mF! de/alle!" 7 a!e supra/ ca&; _II" &; #.); :; Pa*l" 5rinDipien der %prachgeschichte +%a ed; #$N$," &; -.;

del &(der cread(r" &arece &re7alecer de *n m(d( deCini/i7( !(3re el &rimer(; En el ar/e n( n(! c(n/en/am(! c(n la re&e/icin ( la re&r(d*ccin de C(rma! /radici(O nale!; Sen/im(! *na n*e7a (3ligacinM in/r(d*cim(! n*e7(! &a/r(ne! cr2/ic(!; Mediocri!us esse poetis non di/ non homines/ non concessere columnae/ dice :(raci( en !* Arte potica +la medi(cridad de l(! &(e/a! n( e!/F &ermi/ida ni &(r l(! di(!e! ni &(r l(! A(m3re! ni &(r la! c(l*mna! @*e !(!/ienen la! /ienda! de l(! li3rer(!,; Per(" en realidad de 7erdad" /am3i n la /radicin de!em&e'a *n &a&el im&(r/an/e; C(m( en el ca!( del leng*aBe" la! mi!ma! C(rma! !(n /ra!mi/ida! de *na generacin a (/ra; L(! mi!m(! m(/i7(! C*ndamen/ale! del ar/e re/(rnan *na 8 (/ra 7eD; 6" !in em3arg(" /(d( gran ar/i!/a 7erdader( Aace" en cier/( !en/id(" &(ca; N(! &erca/am(! de e!/e AecA( c*and( c(m&aram(! n*e!/ra! C(rma! c(rrien/e! del leng*aBe c(n el leng*aBe &( /ic(; NingEn &(e/a &*ede crear *n leng*aBe en/eramen/e n*e7(; Tiene @*e ad(&/ar la! &ala3ra! 8 /iene @*e re!&e/ar la! regla! C*ndamen/ale! de !* leng*a; Per(" a /(d( e!/(" el &(e/a n( !l( le! &re!/a *n n*e7( gir( !in( /am3i n *na n*e7a 7ida; En la &(e!2a" la! &ala3ra! n( !(n !igniCica/i7a! !l( en *na C(rma a3!/rac/aM n( !(n mer(! indicad(re! c(n l(! @*e /ra/am(! de de!ignar cier/(! (3Be/(! em&2ric(!; Tr(&eDam(!" &(r el c(n/rari(" c(n *na e!&ecie de me/am(rC(!i! de n*e!/ra! &ala3ra! c(m*ne!; Cada 7er!( de SAa{e!&eare" cada stanDa de Dan/e ( de Ari(!/(" cada &(ema l2ric( de G(e/Ae /iene !* !(nid( &ec*liar; Dice Le!!ing @*e e! /an diC2cil r(3ar *n 7er!( de SAa{e!&eare c(m( r(3ar la cla7a de : rc*le!; 6" l( @*e e! mF! a!(m3r(!(" *n gran &(e/a n*nca !e re&i/e; SAa{e!&eare Aa3la3a *na leng*a @*e n*nca Aa32a !id( (2da an/e! 8 cada carFc/er !Aa{e!&earian( Aa3la la &r(&ia inc(m&ara3le e inc(nC*ndi3le; En Lear 8 en Mac3e/A" en Lr*/( ( en :amle/" en R(!alinda ( en Lea/riD" e!c*cAam(! e!/e leng*aBe &er!(nal @*e e! el e!&eB( de *n alma indi7id*al; Sl( a!2 &*ede e>&re!ar la &(e!2a /(d(! e!(! inn*mera3le! ma/ice!" /(d(! e!(! 7i!(! delicad(! del !enO /imien/(" im&(!i3le! de maniCe!/ar c(n (/r(! m(d(! de e>&re!in; Si el leng*aBe /iene nece!idad de *na ren(7acin c(n!/an/e en !* de!arr(ll( n( enc*en/ra C*en/e meB(r ni mF! A(nda @*e la &(e!2a; La gran &(e!2a &rac/ica !iem&re *na inci!in ag*da" *na ci!*ra deCini/i7a en la Ai!/(ria del leng*aBe; La leng*a i/aliana" la ingle!a" la alemana n( eran la! mi!ma! a la m*er/e de Dan/e" de SAa{e!&eare 8 de G(e/Ae @*e el d2a de !* nacimien/(; La! /e(r2a! e!/ /ica! !in/ier(n 8 e>&re!ar(n !iem&re la diCerencia e>i!/en/e en/re l(! &(dere! c(n!er7ad(re! 8 cread(re! de l(! @*e de&ende la (3ra de ar/e; En /(d(! l(! /iem&(! !e Aa dad( *na /en!in 8 c(nClic/( en/re la! /e(r2a! de la imi/acin 8 la! de la in!&iracin; ACirma la &rimera @*e la (3ra de ar/e /iene @*e !er B*Dgada de ac*erd( c(n regla! CiBa! 8 c(n!/an/e! ( de ac*erd( c(n l(! m(del(! clF!ic(!; La !eg*nda recAaDa /(da! la! &a*/a! ( cFn(ne! de 3elleDa; La 3elleDa e! Enica e inc(m&ara3le" e! la (3ra del geni(; E!/a c(nce&cin" de!&* ! de *na larga l*cAa c(n/ra /e(r2a! cla!ici!/a! 8 ne(cla!ici!/a!" &red(min en el !igl( X_III 8 &re&ar el camin( a la e!/ /ica m(derna; GEl geni( Hdice ^an/ en !* 6rtica del =uicioH e! la di!&(!icin &!2@*ica ing ni/a 0ingenium? a /ra7 ! de la c*al la na/*raleDa dic/a !*! regla! al ar/e;G E! *n G/alen/( &ara &r(d*cir a@*ell( &ara l( c*al n( !e &*eden dic/ar regla! deCinida!4 n( e! *na mera a&/i/*d &ara l( @*e &*ede !er a&rendid(

median/e *na regla; P(r l( /an/(" !* &rimera &r(&iedad Aa de !er la (riginalidadG; E!/a C(rma de (riginalidad c(n!/i/*8e la &rerr(ga/i7a 8 la di!/incin del ar/eM n( &*ede !er e>/endida a (/r(! cam&(! de la ac/i7idad A*mana; A /ra7 ! del geni(" la na/*raleDa n( &re!cri3e regla! a la ciencia !in( al ar/eM 8 a !/e" !l( en la medida en @*e e! *n ar/e 3ell(; P(dem(! Aa3lar de Ne9/(n c(m( *n geni( cien/2Cic(M &er( en e!/e ca!( Aa3lam(! !l( me/aCricamen/e; GP(r e!/( de3em(! a&render m*8 3ien /(d( l( @*e Ne9/(n Aa &*e!/( en !* (3ra inm(r/al !(3re l(! &rinci&i(! de la Cil(!(C2a na/*ral" &(r m*8 grande @*e C*era la ca3eDa re@*erida &ara de!c*3rirl(!M &er( n( &(dem(! a&render a e!cri3ir &(e!2a in!&irada &(r m*8 e>&l2ci/(! @*e !ean l(! &rece&/(! del ar/e 8 &(r m*8 e>celen/e! @*e !ean !*! m(del(!;G 06rtica del =uicio/ !ec!; %-O%5;, La relacin en/re !*3Be/i7idad 8 (3Be/i7idad" en/re indi7id*alidad 8 *ni7er!alidad n( e! la mi!ma en la (3ra de ar/e @*e en la (3ra del cien/2Cic(; E! cier/( @*e *n gran de!c*3rimien/( cien/2Cic( lle7a /am3i n el !ell( del e!&2ri/* indi7id*al de !* a*/(r; En l n( !l( enc(n/ram(! *n n*e7( a!&ec/( (3Be/i7( de la! c(!a! !in( /am3i n *na ac/i/*d indi7id*al de la men/e 8 Aa!/a *n e!/il( &er!(nal; Per( /(d( e!/( &(!ee *na !igniCicacin &!ic(lgica 8 n( !i!/emF/ica; En el c(n/enid( (3Be/i7( de la ciencia !e (l7idan 8 3(rran e!/(! ra!g(! indi7id*ale!" &*e! *n( de l(! &r(&!i/(! &rinci&ale! del &en!amien/( cien/2Cic( re!ide en la eliminacin de /(d(! l(! elemen/(! &er!(nale! 8 an/r(&(mrCic(!; SegEn la! &ala3ra! de Lac(n" la ciencia /ra/a de c(nce3ir el m*nd( ex analoga uni-ersi 8 n( ex analoga hominis. ?8E La c*l/*ra A*mana" /(mada en !* c(nB*n/(" &*ede !er de!cri/a c(m( el &r(ce!( de la &r(gre!i7a a*/(li3eracin del A(m3re; El leng*aBe" el ar/e" la religin" la ciencia c(n!/i/*8en la! 7aria! Ca!e! de e!/e &r(ce!(; En /(da! ella! el A(m3re de!c*3re 8 &r*e3a *n n*e7( &(der" el de ediCicar *n m*nd( !*8( &r(&i(" *n m*nd( ideal; La Cil(!(C2a n( &*ede ren*nciar a la 3E!@*eda de *na *nidad C*ndamen/al en e!/e m*nd( ideal Pen( /iene @*e c(nC*ndir e!/a *nidad c(n la !im&licidad; N( de3e ign(rar la! /en!i(ne! 8 la! Cricci(ne!" l(! C*er/e! c(n/ra!/e! 8 l(! &r(C*nd(! c(nClic/(! en/re l(! di7er!(! &(dere! del A(m3re; N( &*eden !er red*cid(! a *n c(mEn den(minad(r; Tienden en direcci(ne! diCeren/e! 8 (3edecen a diCeren/e! &rinci&i(!" &er( e!/a m*l/i&licidad 8 di!&aridad n( !igniCica di!c(rdia ( Cal/a de arm(n2a; T(da! e!/a! C*nci(ne! !e c(m&le/an 8 c(m&lemen/an" &er( cada *na de ella! a3re *n n*e7( A(riD(n/e 8 m*e!/ra *n n*e7( a!&ec/( de l( A*man(; L( di!(nan/e !e Aalla en arm(n2a c(n!ig( mi!m(M l(! c(n/rari(! n( !e e>cl*8en m*/*amen/e !in( @*e !(n in/erde&endien/e!4 Garm(n2a en la c(n/rariedad c(m( en el ca!( del arc( 8 de la liraG;

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CC; Lac(n" Fo-um 'rganum/ Li3r( L" AC(r; XLI;