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UNIT 12 BRIDGES
Structure
12.1 12.3 12.3 12.4 Introduction
Objectives

Types of Bridges Plate Girder Bridges


12.3.1 12.3.2 12.4.1 12.4.2 12.4.3 12.4.4 12.4.5 12.4.6 12.4.7 12.5.1 12.5.2 12.5.3 12.5.4 12.5.5 12.5.6 12.5.7 12.5.8 12.5.9 12.5.10 12.5.11 12.5.12 12.5.13 12.5.14 12.5.15 12.5.16 Deck Type Plate Girder Railway Bridges Half Through Type Plate Girder Bridges Design Problem Design of Welded Plate Girder Bridge Design Problem Lateral Bracing System for Deck Type Plate Girder Bridges Design Problem Crossframes Design Problem Component of Through Type Bridges Types of Truss Girders lnfluence Lines for Pratt Truss Members Influence Lines for Warren Truss Members Stringer Beams Cross Girders Calculation of Forces in the Members of Truss Girder Problem on Calculation of Forces in Members of Truss Girder Design of Top Chord Members Design the Top Chord Members of the Truss Bridge Bottom Chord Members Design the Bottom Chord Members of the Truss Bridge Diagonal and Vertical Members Design an End Post for the Truss Bridge Design the Diagonal Members for the Truss Bridge Design the Vertical Members for the Truss Bridge

Design of Deck Type Plate Girder Bridges

Lattice Type Railway Bridges

12.6

End Bearings
12.6.1 12.6.2 12.6.3 12.6.4 12.6.5 12.6.6 12.6.7 12.6.8 12.6.9 12.6.10 12.6.1 1 12.6.12 12.6.13 12.6.14 12.6.15 IS Code Recommendations Forces Acting on Bearings Types of Bearings Plate Bearings Roller Bearing Rocker Bearings Knuckle Bearings Spherical Bearing Railway Board Roller Bearing Rocker & Roller Bearing Design Considerations for Elastomeric Bearings Design of Rocker Bearing Design a Rocker Bearing Design of Rocker and Roller Bearing Design a Rocker Roller Bearing

12.7 12.8

Summary Answers to SAQs

INTRODUCTION

Bridges are mainly constructed over a gap in highways or railways. The railway bridges are constructed with steel. The bridge may plate girder type or lattice girder type. These may be deck type or through type. The details about their components. structural action and design procedures are discussed i n this unit. The bridges are placed over bearings. The bearings may be rocker type, roller type or elastomeric bearing.

Steel Structures

Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to
a a a a

know the different type of bridges, design the deck type railway bridges using riveted, welded or welded with flange angles, design the lattice girder type bridge, and design the suitable bearings for railway bridges.

12.2 TYPES OF BRIDGES


Bridges are the structures which are used to provide means of communication over a gap. i)

According to provided support to pedestrian loads of vehicular traffic loads bridges are classified as
1) 2) 3)
4)

Highway bridges: To carry highway traffic loads Railway bridges: To carry railway traffic loads Combine highway and railway bridges: To carry both highway and railway loads Foot bridges: These are constructed to serve the purpose of providing means to pedestrians only. Aqueduct bridges: These are used to carry canals and pipelines. Deck type bridge: These are two types:
a) b) c)

5)

ii)

According to the location of floor, the bridges are classified as


1)

Deck type plate girder bridge: In this the floor is placed on the top flanges. Deck type truss girder bridge: In this type the floor is placed on the top chords
In these deck type bridges over the top of the traffic there will not be any bracing.

2)

Through type bridge: In this type the floor is supported on the bottom of the maill load carrying members.
a) b)

Through type plate girder bridge: The floor is supported on buttom flanges. Through type truss girder bridge: The floor is supported on the bottom chords.
In these through type bridges over the top of the traffic bracing is also done.

3)

Half through type bridge: In between the top and the bottom of the main load carrying members the floor is laid. In this type of bridge load carrying members project above the floor level and over bracing is not provided. These are also double deck type bridges in which decks are provided at two different levels. In these double deck type bridges both the decks may be through type or one can be open deck type and the other can be through type.

iii) According to the make up of main load carrying element steel bridges are classified under 1)

Bridges

I-beam bridges: Rolled steel wide flange I-beams are used as load carrying elements.
In Railway bridges up to 15 m span - I-beams are used. In Highway bridges up to 25 m span - I-beams are used.

2)

Plate girder bridges: Load carrying members are the plate girders.
For span up to 30 m plate girder bridges may be used. But depth is limited up to 4 m.

3)
4)

Truss girder bridges: For more depths truss girder bridges are used as load carrying members from span 30 m to 250 m. Suspension bridges or cable bridges: In this type load carrying members are the high tensile steel wire cables. These are used for span of 250 m for highway bridges.

iv)

According to the structural layout the main load carrying members are classified as
1)

Simply supported span bridges: The total width of the bridge is divided into a number of individual spans and each span the load carrying member is simply supported at both the ends. Suitability: Where uneven settlement of foundation may take place.

2)

Continuous span bridges: In this type load carrying member of the bridge is continuous over more than two supports. Suitability: When uneven settlement of foundation does not occur. Advantages: Saving of material running is as high as 10 to 20 per cent.
They can take higher loads.

3)

Cantilever bridges: It is defined as a bridge in which one or more of its trusses are extended beyond their supports forming the cantilever arms. Arch bridges: To upgrade the beauty of its surroundings
a)

4)

Solid ribbed steel arch bridges-used


Span: 150 m to 200 m bridges

for highway

b)

Braced rib a~ches-used for highway bridges


Span: 500 m to 600 m

c)

Spandrel braced arches: used for Railway bridges


Spans: up to b50 m

d) 5)

Tied Arch: In this horizontal ties resist the horizontal thrust of the arch

Rigid frame bridges: Here rigid frames are load carrying members
Spans: 10 m to 25 m Suitability: For rigid foundations

v)

According to type of fasteners used


1)

Riveted bridges: They are rigid and have more secondary stresses

Steel Structures

2)

Welded bridges Pinconnected and bolted bridges

3)
vi)

According to level of crossing railway track and highway


1) 2)

Overbridges: When the highway bridge is carried over the railway track by means of a bridge. Underbridges: When the highway bridge is carried under the railway track by means of a bridge.

vii) According to the nature of movement of the bridge girders 1) 2)

Fixed (permanent bridges): They remain in one portion without any movement Movable bridges: They can be opened in horizontal or in vertical directions to allow over or channel traffic to pass.

Loads
The loads, which should be taken into account in the design of railway bridge are as follows: a) b)
C)

Dead loads: It includes weight of rails, sleepers floor system and the supporting structure and the dead weight of the structure. Live loads: Live loads are due to the train loadings like main lines axle loads, engineer, pedestrian traffic uniformly distributed over the foot way. Impact load: The dynamic effect of the moving load is taken care of by increasing the live load by a certain factor called impact factor. This impact factor should depend on many variables like the type of loading, speed, type of the structure, material of the structure loaded length. Centrifugal load: (Loads due to curvature of track) When a curve is there where railway bridge is situated, the structure will be affected by the centrifugalaction of moving vehicles
Centrifugal force can be found by formula

d)

where,

C = centrifugal force in tonnestmetre of span

W = equivalent distributed live load in tonnestmetre run V = maximum speed in kmph


R = radius of curvature in metres
e)

Wind load: Wind loads are the lateral loads which are caused due to the interference in the flow of wind by the moving load on the structure and the bridge structure itself. The intensity of wind pressure depends on the wind velocity which in turn depends upon the height of the structure above the mean retarding surface. Racking forces: Lateral forces are applied by the train due to its small lateral movement while moving on straight track. Longitudinal forces: The longitudinal loads are caused due to
i) ii) the tractive effort of the driving wheels of the locomotives. the braking effect resulting from the application of the brakes to all braked wheels.

f) g)

iii) the resistance offered by bearings to the movement at the roller end. The live loads and longitudinal loads on railway bridges are given in the Tables 12.1 to 12.5.

Bridges

Live loads on foot bridges and foot paths attached to railway bridges
1) The live load due to pedestrian traffic shall be treated as uniformly distributed over the foot way. For the design of foot bridges or foot paths on railway bridges, the live load including impact shall be taken as 490 kg/m2 of the foot path area. Live load on foot path for the purpose of designing the main girders shall be taken as follows. i) ii) For effective span of 7.5 m or less = 415 kg/m2 For effective span over 7.5 m but not exceeding 30 m. An intensity of load reducing uniformly from 415 kg/m2 for a span of 7.5 m to 295 kg/m2 for a span of 30 m.

2)

iii) For effective span of over 30 m, live load is taken according to the formula:

where,

P = live load in kg/m2


L = effective span of bridge in m.
W = width of foot way in m.

3)

Kerbs 600 mm or more in width shall be designed for the load of 490 kg/m2 in addition to the lateral loading of 750 kg/m run of the kerb, applied horizontally at the top. If the width of kerb is less than 600 mm, no live load shall be applied.

SAQ 1
1) 2) 3) What is a bridge? What are the types of bridges based on material of construction? What are deck type bridges? Differentiate between deck type and through type bridges. What are the uses of aqueduct bridges? What is the difference between plate girder bridges and truss-girder bridges? Enumerate the types of arch bridges? Differentiate between dead loads and live loads. What is impact load? How can you consider it in the design of railway bridges?

4)
5) 6)
7)

8)
9)

10) Enumerate the different loads acting on the railway bridges. 11) What are the factors contributing to the longitudinal forces? 12) What is the live load acting on foot paths? 13) What is the,live load acting on Kerb?

Steel Structures

12.3 PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES


These are solid web girders bridges. When the span of the bridges is less, simple I-girders may be used. f i r large spans and heavy loads, plate girders built up of plates are used. These are very popular in railways. These can be easily transported. These are effectively used for spans up to 30 m for railway bridges. For more details about plate girders, you may refer to Unit 10. These are two types: 1) Deck type plate girder bridges. 2) Half through type plate girder bridges In railways generally deck type bridge is generally preferred. The half through type plate girder bridge is preferred, where a sufficient head room cannot be provided or the additional cost to raise the embankment is higher.

12.3.1 Deck Type Plate Girder Railway Bridges


The components are: I ) Rails, 2) Sleepers, 3) Plate girders, 4) Horizontal bracing, 5 ) Cross-frames, and 6) Bearings.

(a) Elevation

(b) Top Plan

I
CROSS
FRAME

( c ) 1'1:1n 81 Ilori/onl.~l .Sru\\ 15raci11g

id) Cross Frames

Figure 12.1

In this type bridge, the plate girders are the main load carrying members. These are placed at a spacing of 2 to 3 m clc, to resist the wind and other transverse 1 loads. The minimum spacing is about -x span, or depth of girder. Sleepers are 20 placed directly over the top surface of the plate girder. These reduce the impact, though spring action. The reduction depends on the length of the sleepers. Bracing is provided to resist lateral and longitudinal loads. Main horizontal bracing (a horizontal) is provided in between the top flanges of the girder and at the level of bottom flanges also. These bracing are designed to resist a transverse shear equal to 2.5% of the total compressive force by the flanges. Cross-frames are provided in parallel-vertical girders, to transfer the load at top flanges to the bottom flanges.

12.3.2 HaIf Through Type Plate Girder Bridges


The load is carried at the lower flanges with the provision of cross beams. These consist of: 1) Rails 2) Sleepers 3) Stringers 4) Cross beams 5) Plate girders 6) Bearings

7)

Laterals

8) Triangular gusset plates for transverse bracing.

(a) Elevation

(b) Top Plan

(c) Plan at Cross-girder Level


Figure 12.2

(d) Cross View(Ha1n

Steel Structures

This type of bridge consists of two plate girders. The plate girders receive the load through the cross-beams. The beams span right angles to the main plate girders. The beams are provided at some suitable spacing and are connected to the girders with framed connection. The stringers are provided parallel to the main girders and are supported and framed into cross-beams. These carry sleepers. Horizontal bracing system is provided to transmit the lateral forces to the bearings. This is provided at the level of lower flange. The triangular gusset plates are provided at the top flange. These are connected with inner sides of cross-beams.

12.4 DESIGN OF DECK TYPE REVETED PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES


The Given Data
Span of the bridge, spacing of girders.

Step I: Computation of loads BM and SF


Assume the self weight of girder, main rails, guard rails, sleepers, fastenings as 25 kN/m. Take EUDL for BM and EUDL for SF from' steel bridge code tables. Calculate the value of CDA. Calculate the max. BM, Calculate the max. SF,

M =8

w L~
WL 2

V =-

Step 2: Design of web plate


Calculate the economical depth of web plate,
dz4.5

Here M = maximum bending moment, N-mm

% , = allowable bending stream in compression, ~ / m m '


= 0.66 x 250 = 165 ~ / m m ' Thickness of web plate
Allowable shear stress = 0.4 f , = 0 . 4 250 ~

zva= 100 ~ / r n m ~
thickness, t = rva d where, V = shear force (N)

d = depth of web plate (mm) . r ,= allowable shear stress ( ~ / r n m ~ )


The minimum thickness should be 6 mm. Generally, a thickness of 10 mm, 12 mm or 16 mm is preferred for bridges.

Step 3: Design of flange elements

Net flange area required =-

abc d e

where, M = maximum moment (N-mm)

obc = 165 ~ / r n r n ~
de = effective depth of plate plate girder (mm)
= C to c distance of flange elements (may be taken as equal to 6)

Gross area of flange required


= 1.25 x Net area of flange required

Gross area of flange angles required 1 3 Gross area of flange plate


= - x Gross area of flange required. Try for 2 angles of equal sides.

2 = - x Gross area of flange required.

Minimum number of two plates is required.


Step 4: Check for flexural stresses

Calculate the Gross area of flange Calculate the deductions for rivet holes Calculate the Net area of flange

: .

Net area of flange = (Gross area of flange - deductions for rivet holes)

Calculate the Gross Moment of Inertia of section abbut N.A. Calculate the actual bending stress in Compression, obc, cal = -x ymax I where,

M = maximum bending moment (N-mm)

I = moment of inertia (mm4)


= , , y distance of the extreme

Compression fibre from N.A (mm) Calculate the actual bending stress in tension.
Obt9b'."
t

area of flange - ObC, ~ a l Gross Net area of flange

Step 5: Rivet connections

a)

Flange angle to web


Calculate the strength of rivets in i) double shear = 2 x - d2
4

ii) bearing = d t opf where, d = gross diameter (mm)

t = min thick of element to be connected (mm) = allowable shear stress in fastenings (100 ~ / m m ~ )

opf = allowable bearing stress in fastenings (300 ~ / m m ~ )


Calculate the Rivet value (R), which is the least value of the above two. Calculate the pitch of rivets, p Gross area of flange (Gross area of flange - web component area

where, V = max. SF (N) d = depth (mm) Max. allowable pitch is 12t or 200 mm, whichever is less b) Flange angles to flange plate Calculate the strength of rivets in i) Single shear = d 4 ii) Bearing = dt opf Calculate the rivet value (R) Calculate the pitch of rivets, p (Gross area of flange) -Rd x V (Gross area of flange plates) Maximum allowable pitch is 12t or 200 mm, whichever is less.
2

Step 6: Curtailment o f flange plates


Calculate the theoretical length of the plate to be curtailed. x=lx

/,

~ r e of a the plates be curtailed Gross area of flange

Calculate the bending stress in tension in the plate to be curtailed

where, MI = BM at TPC (N-mm)

I , = MI of the section at TPC) (mm4)

y, , , , = distance of centroidal axis of the curtailed plate from N.A. (mm).


Calciilate the force in the plate.

F = (bending stress x area of plate). N


Calcylate the strength of rivets in single shear and bearing. Calculate the rivet value (R)
F Calculate the number of rivets, n = -. R

Calculate the minimum pitch, p = 2.5 x nominal dia. providing rivets in two rows.

n Calculate the extra length of plate required for connecting rivets = 2 'P

Calculate the actual length of the plate to be curtailed = (theoretical length + n. PI.
Step 7: Design of bearing stiffeners

These are provided at the supports and under concentrated loads. Calculate the allowable bearing stress, o , ,

Calculate the bearing area required

- Reaction or

concentrated load (mm2)

Try 4 equal angle sections such that the area provided is more than the bearing area required. Calculate the length of the bearing stiffener

= [ d - 2 x thickness of web plates ] (mm)


Calculate the effective length of the bearing stiffener = 0.7 x Actual length of the bearing stiffener. In calculating, Gross area and moment of inertia, the length 20 times the thickness of web is effective in bearing. Calculate the Gross area of the stiffener Calculate the Gross M.I. about the centre line of web. Calculate minimum radius of gyration

=
Calculate the slenderness ratio =

Moment of Inertia area Effective length Radius of gyrating

from Table 5.1 of Calculate the value of Allowable Compressive stream (o,,) IS: 800 - 1984. Calculate the load carrying capacity
=, a

x Gross area.

It should be greater then the reaction or the concentrated load.


Design of riveted connection

Calculate the strength of rivets in double shear and bearing. Calculate the Rivet value (R) Calculate the number of rivets required,

n=

Reaction or Concentrated load R

Provide the rivets in two rows.


Step 8: Necessity of intermediate stiffener

Calculate d, d , , d7

Steel Structures

i)

Calculate

dl dl dl 85' 1344 and 816

6 -

If the thickness of web is less than any one of the above values, provide vertical stiffeners. If the thickness of web is more, no intermediate stiffeners are required. ii) Calculate clear panel (smallest) 180
9

d2 200 and

* d2 3200

If the thickness of web is less than any one of the above values a horizontal stiffener at a distance of 2/5. The distance of compression flange to NA. iii) Calculate Smallest clean panel d2 d2 @- and2 ' 250 4000 180

If the thickness of web is less than any one of the above values, a horizontal stiffener is provided at N.A.

Step 9: ~ e s i of ~ n vertical stifSener Panel dimension ( C )


Minimum = 180 t or 0.33d Maximum = 270 t or 1.50d. Using Table 6.6 (IS: 800), for
d ; and T,,,,,~,

find the value of C

: . Choose the values of C.


Calculate the moment of inertia required

where, C = panel dimension

t = minimum thickness of web required, can be computed as follows:


Calculate

c d '

d t

From Table 6.6 (IS 800) calculate , z , Calculate t = dzva

Generally 2 angle seCtions are used. Calculate the MoI about the centre line of the web. It should be greater than the MoI required

Design of rivets

Calculate the rivet value (R) Calculate the shear force, S = 25t2 N/mm h

t = web thickness

h = outstand
R Calculate the pitch = S
Maximum allowed pitch of 32 t or 300 mm, whichever is less.

Step 10: Design of horizontal stiffener at flange

2 th of
5

the distance to NA from comp.

Calculate the value of Imq = 4 c t 3 . Generally one pair 2 of equal angle section is preferred. Calculate the MoI of the stiffener about the centre line of the web.

Connections
Calculate the strength of rivets in double shearing and bearing Calculate the rivet value ( R )

Calculate the shear flow ( S ) = 125 N/mm h R Calculate the pitch = S Maximum allowable pitch is 32 t or 300 mm whichever in less.

'

Step 11: Design of horizontal stiffener at NA


Calculate the value of I req =

4 t3

Generally one pair of equal angle section is preferred. Calculate the MoI of the stiffener about the centre line of the web.

Connection: p = - < 32 t

c 200 mm.

12.4.1 Design Problem


Design a riveted plate girder bridges for BG Main line: Span of bridge = 24 m.

Step 1: Computation of loads, BM and SF


Assume self wt = 25 kN/m, Total live load for BM, EUDL = 2034 kN. Total live load for SF, EUDl = 2034 kN. CDA = 0.417 Dead load = 25 x 24 = 600 kN,

+ 1.417 x 2034 = 3482.2 kN Total load for SF = 600 + 1.417 x 223 1 = 3761.3 kN.
Total load for BM = 600

Steel Structures

3482'2 - 1741.1 kN. Total load per track, for BM = 2

3761.3 Total load per track, for SF =yj-- = 1880.65 kN.

W1- 1741'1 24 = 5223.3 kN-m. Max. BM, M = -8 8

Max. SF,

V = -= 1880.65 = 940.32 kN. 2 2

Step 2: Design o f web plate

M = 5223.3 kN-m

o , ,= 165 ~

/ m m ~

Economical depth,

Adopt d = 1600 mm.

Thickness of web plate, t = d. %a

lo3 = 5.9 mm. - 940.32~


1600x 100

Adopt 12 mm thick web plate of 1600 mm depth Step 3: Design o f flange Net flange area required =-

4 c .d

Gross area of flange reqd. = 1.25 x 19785.2 = 24731.5 mmL Gross area of flange angles reqd. = 24731'5 = 8243.8 rnm2 3
8243m8 - 4121.9 mm2 Gross area of one flange angle = 2

Let us adopt 21SA 200 200, 15 mm.


(A

= 5780 mrn2, I,, = 2197.7 x lo4mm4


C,, = 54.9 mm)

2 Gross area of flange plate = 7 x 2473 1.5 = 16487.6 mm2

= 8243.8 rnm2 Gross area of one flange plate = 16487m6 2


Adopt 2 plates of 500 x 20 mm. as flange plates

Step 4: Check for flexure stresses


Using 22 mm diameter power driven shop rivets. Gross area of flange = 2 x 5780 + 2 x (500 x 20) + 200 x 12 = 33960 mm2 Deductions for rivet holes
= 2 x (23.5) x (40

Bridges'

+ 15)
15

+ 23.5 (2 x
Net area of flange = 33960 - 3572

+ 12) = 3572 mm2

Moment of Inertia I =

l2 16003 + 4 219 7 . 7 ~ 10' x 5780 (800 - 54.912] 12

Ymax -

- 1600 + 2 x 40 - 1680 - 840 mm,


2 2

obc, c a ~ = -j-

Ymax

obr, C O I = o b c , cal

Gross area of flange Net area of flange

< 165 ~ / m m (Safe) ~

Figure 123

Stap 5: Curtailment of flange plates


Theoretical length of curtailed plate,

x=2

d ~ r e of a plate to be curtailed Gross area of flange

Reaction = -

1741.1.

Figure 12.4

Bending stress = -x y
1 1

Ml

Force in ,theplate = Bending stress x area

S t r e n g t ho f rivets in
a)

Single shear = - (23.5)' x 1 0 0= 43.37 kN 4 1000


300 Bearing = 23.5 x 20 x = 141 kN. 1000

b)

: .

Rivet value, R = 43.37 kN.


2 :

1016.4 No. of rivets required = - 23.4 43.37

24.

Adopting a pitch of 60 mm and two rows of rivets

24 Extra length required for rivets = -x 60 = 720 mm = 0.72 m. 2

: .

Actual length of the plate to be curtailed

= 13.02 + 2 x 0.72 = 14.46 m.

Step 6: Riveted connections


a)

Flange angles to web


Strength of rivets in double shear = 2 x 43.37 = 86.74 kN.

i)

ii)

300 bearing = 23.5 x 12 x = 84.6 kN. 1000


Rivet value, R = 84.6 kN.

V = 940.32 kN.
Gross area of flange Gross area of flangeweb component

1
mm.

= 154.9 mm.
Maximum allowable spacing = 12 t or 200 mm.

Adopt 22 mm diameter power driven shop rivets at 140 mm c/c b)

Flange angles with flange plate


Strength of rivets in i) ii) single shear = 43.37 kN. bearing = 23.5 x 15 x 300 - 105.75 kN. 1000 Rivet value, R = 43.37 kN.

: .

V = 940.32 kN.
Pitch,
~d Gross area of flange p = x V Grossarea of flange plates

= 250.6 mm.

Maximum allowable spacing = 12 t or 200 mm


= 1 2 x 15 or 200 mm = 180 mm.

Adopt 22 mm dia. P.D.S rivets @ 180 mm c/c in a staggered manner.

Step 7: Design of bearing stiffener

V = 940.32 kN

o , = 187.5 ~ / m m ~
Bearing area required = -= 940'32x lo3 = 5015.04 mm2 OP 187.5 Adopt 4ISA 9090, 10 mm. (A = 1703 mm2, I = 126.7 x lo4 mm4, Cxx = 25.9 mm) Length of the bearing stiffener = 1600 - 2 x 1.5 = 1570 mm. Effective length = 0.7 x 1570 = 1099 mm.

Figure 12.5: Bearing blil'l'e~wr

Gross area

A = 4 x 1703+ 330x 12= 10772mm2


M.o.1. about its centre line

Steel Structures

Radius of gyration,

r=

10772

= 43.2 mm.

Slenderness ratio,

From Table 5.1 of IS: 800-1984,

o,,= 146.5 ~ / m m ~
P = oa, . A = 146.5 x 10772 N
= 1578 N

> V (Safe)

Connections

Rivet value, R = 70.5 kN.


V 940.32 No. of rivets, n = - = = 13.33 R 70.50

Provide 14 rivets in two rows @ 220 mm c/c


Step 8: Necessity of intermediate stiffeners t = 12 mm. (thickness of webs) d , = 1600- 2 x 15 = 1570 mm.

dl 6 = 1570m I = 18.47 mm. 1344 1344

dl

6 -1 5706 = 13.47 mm.


816 816

:.
ii)

Vertical intermediate stiffeners are required.

4 1570- 7.85 mm. %==-

: .

No horizontal stiffeners are required.

Stap 9: Design of vertical stiffeners Panel dimension ( c )

Minimum value 0.33 d = 0.33

1600 = 528 mm.

Maximum value: 1.5d = 1.50 x 1600

From Table 6.6, C = 1.5d = 2400 mm. Adopt 1600 mm panels.

Bridges

t is the greater of

"
ii) iii)

d 2 ~
2

1570

= 3.9 mm. ~

-6400 -

1 5 7 0 a = 3.88 mm. 6400

V 940.32~ lo3 = 5.88 mm. d ~ , , 1600x100

: .

t = 5.88 mm.

= 48.8 x lo4 mm4

Let us try 21SA 9Q90, 10 mm. Moment of Inertia about the centre line 126.7~ l @ + 1703

Figure 12.6

Design of rivets Using 22 mm dia P.D.S rivets. Rivet values R = 70.5 kN. 125 t ' Shear flow, S = h

Pitch p =-= S

70'5 lo3 = 352. J mm. 200

Steel Structures

Max. allowable pitch, p = 32 t or 300 mm


= 32 x 12 or 300= 384 or 300 = 300 mm.

Adopt 22 mm dia. P.D.S. rivets @ 300 mm clc

12.4.2 Design of Welded Plate Girder Bridge


For more details refer Unit 10. Step I: Computation of loads, BM and SF Assume the self wt. of girder and track as 25 kN1m Take EUDL for BM and EUDL for SF from tables of steel bridges. Calculate the value of CDA.
WL Calcutta the max. BM, M = 8 W Calculate the max. SF, V = 2

Step 2: Design of web plate Calculate the economical depth

where, M = max. BM (N-mm)

Calculate r,,, = 0 . 4 4 =I00 ~ / r n m * Calculate the thickness, t = d . ="a Adopt 12 mm, 16 mrnt20 mm thickness. Step 3: Design of flange plate Flange area required, Af=

M 9 - d

L L Flange width, B = - to 40 45

Thickness =

A B

Step 4: CIleck for flexure Calculate Gross area (A), M.o.1 (Ixx and lyy) Calculate r y y=

Calculate elastic critical stress K b ) From Table 6.2 of IS:800, find permissible bending stress (obc) Calculate bending stress,

It should be less than oh,. Otherwise, revise the section.

Stel-' 5: Welded corlnection between the flange and web


Calculate shear force per mm length, F = where, V = ~naxirnumshear force (N) A y-= moment of the area of flange plate about centroidal horizontal axis
VA 7

= (Area of flange plate) x (distance between centroid and c.g. of flange plate)
1 = lxx,.

Adopting continuous weld, on both sides, strength of weld = 2 x 0.7 S x 110 Here shear strength of weld is 110 ~ / m m ~

From the above equation find the size of the weld.

Szey 6: Design of bearing stiffener


a, = 187.5 N/mm 2

V Calculate the bearing area required = DP

Adopt 2 flats such that the outstand should not be greater than 12t. The web length about 20 t in effective in bearing. Calculate A. I about centre line of web, r = IS: 800). Calculate the load carrying capacity

di,!,

o, (Tables 5.1 of

P = oUc A.
It should be greater than V.

Design of connections
Adopt size of weld as 6 mm (S) Length of intermittent weld, L = lot. Strength of weld = 0.7 S L x 110 N.

= 77 SL N
Required strength of weldlmm length

v --

4d

(Since the weld is provided at four corners of bearing stiffener)

: .

Spacing of intermittent weld

Steel Structures

< 16t < 300 mm.


Step 7: Necessity of intermediate stiffeners
Calculate i)

z,,

v (d , =dt

=d

1-4)

dl d , dfy dl J~IIU, c',, Calculate and 85 ' 1344 816


If the thickness of web is less than any one of the above values, intermediate vertical stiffeners are required.

ii)

d2 d2 dfy Calculate 200 ' 3200

If the thickness of web is less than any one of the above values, a 2 horizontal stiffener is provided at a distance of - of the distance from 5 the compression flange to NA. iii) Calculate
-

d2 d2 250 ' 4000

If the thickness of web in less than any one of the above values, a horizontal stiffener is required at N.A.

Step 8: Design of vertical stiffener Panel dimension ( c )


Minimum: 180t or 0.33d Maximum: 270t or 1.50d

d Using Table 6.6 (I S: 800), for - and t

z ,,, , . , , find the value of C.

: .

Choose the value of C

d3t3 Calculate required 1 = 1.5 -

Choose a single flat. Find the moment of inertia about centre line of the web. It should be greater than required I.

Design of weld 125 t' Calculate shear forcelmm = N/mm. h


Assume the size of weld S as 3 mm Length of intermittent weld, L = 10t Strength of weld = (0.7 S ) L x 110 = 77 SL N

< 300 mm.

Step 9: Horizontal stiffener at


L

2 distance
5

comp. flange

Refer step 10 of Section 12.4 to NA For Design of weld refer step 8 of this procedure
Step 10: Horizontal stifener at NA

Refer step 11 of section 12.4 For design of weld refer step 9.

12.4.3 Design Problem

Example 12.1
'

Design a welded plate girder bridge for Broad Gauge Main line of span 24 m.

Solution
Step I : Computation of loads, BM an SF

For details refer, step 1 of section 12.4.1


M = 5223.3 kN-m

V = 940.32 kN

Step 2: Design of web plate

Economical depth, d = 5
Gb

Adopt d = 1600 mm.


T , , = 100 ~ / m m ~

Thickness of web, t = A d - =,a

- 940.32 x lo3 = 5.9 mm.


1600x 100 Adopt 12 mm thick web plate.
Step 3: Design of flange plate

Area of flange required = 0b.d

L L Fla, ;e width = -or 40 45

Adopt 600, width Thickness of flange =


19785'22 = 32-98 600

Steel

Structures

Adopt 600 mm x 50 mrn flange plate.


Step 4: Check for flexure

Figure 12.7

Gross area, A = 2 x 600 x 50 + 1600 x 12 = 79200 mm2

Radius of gyration, r y y -

Let us provide the cross beam at 4 mclc.

From Table 6.5, (IS: 800-1984), X = 1713 Y = 1656 Elastic critical stress, Lb = kl (X+ k2 Y ) C2

c,= c*
Y = 1, k, = 1.0 (Table 6.3)
w = 0.5, k2 = 0 (Table 6.4)

c1

f,,= 1.0 (1713+0) x 1 = 1713~/rnm~


From Table 6.2 of IS: 800,

Actual bending stress,

< 157 ~ / r n r n( . :~ Safe)


Step 5: Connection between the flange and web

Shear forcelmm length

_VAy - I

= 517.2 Nlmm

Let the weld is provided are both faces of the web continuously. Strength of weld = 2 x (0.7 S) x 110

= 154 S N/mm

: .

154 S = 517.2

: . S = 3.36
;

mm

Adopt 5 mm size weld.


Step 6: Design of bearing stiffener

Allowable bearing ob= 187.5~ / m m ~


V 940.23~ 10' Bearing Area required = -= OP 187.5

Figure 12.8: Rearing Stiffener

Adopting two plates, 5014.6 Area of one plate required = --2

= 2507.3 mm2
Adopt 2 plates of 240 x 20 mm plate A=2~240~20+340 12 x

= 13680 rnm2
Moment of inertia about centre line.

Radius of gyration, r =
=

13680 120.47 mm.

Length, = d = 1600 mm. Effective length, 1 = 0.7 d = 0 . 7 x 1600


= 1120mm

1 1120 = 9.3. Slenderness ratio, h = - = r 120.47 From Table 5.1 (IS: 800),

o , ,= 1 5 0 ~ / m m ~

: .

Load carrying capacity = a , , A


= 150 x 13680 N = 2052 kN

>V

(OK)

Design of Connection
Let us adopt size of weld, S = 6 mm. Length of weld = 10 t = 10 x 20 = 200 mm Strength of weld = 0.7 S L x 110 =77x6x200N
= 92.4 kN.

Required weld strength per mm. length

Spacing of Weld

92.4 x lo3 = 629 mm. 146.9

Max. allowable spacing = 16t or 300 mm

= 16 x 20 or 300 mm = 300 mm.

Bridges

Adopt 6 mm size weld of length 200 mm @ 300 mm c/c

Step 7: Necessity of intermediate stiffeners

160066y= = 18.82 mm. 1344 1344

Thickness of web is less than the above values, vertical intermediate I stiffeness are required.

No horizontal stiffener is required.


f intermediate vertical stiffeeneer Step 8: Design o

Panel dimension min = 0.33 d = 0.33 x 1600 = 533 mm. Maximum 1.5d = 1.5 x 1600 = 2400 mm For , z ,
= 49 ~ / m r n and ~

d = 133.33, t

C = 1.5d.
Adopt a panel dimension of 1600 mm

d3 t3 I required = 1.5 -ZC

ii)

4 t=-=-400

1600 - 4 mm. 400

2 q L 1 6 0= 0 a iii) t d = = 3.95 mm. 6400 6400


Adopt t = 5.88 mm

1'1

Steel Structures

Let us try .a flat section 110 x 10 mm Moment of Inertia about the face of web = l o x ' l o 3 =443.7x 104mm4 3

'

'required

(OK)

FLANGE

Figure 12.9: Vertical Stiffener

Size of weld, S = 3 mm Length of weld, L = l o t = l o x 10= 100mm. Max. allowable spacing = 16 t or 300 m m
= 1 6 x 10= 160mm.

Strength of weld = (0.7 S ) L (1 10)

=77SLN. = 7 7 x 3 x 100=23.lkN.
Shear force per mm length = 125 - N/mm h
t2

Spacing

23.1 x l d = 203 mm 113.64

Adopt 3 mm size weld of 100 mm length @ 160 mm c/c

Example 12
Design a welded plate girder bridge for B.G. main line for a span of 24 m.

Solution
For mole details refer Section 12.4.1

Step I : Computation of loads, BM and SF


Refer Section 12.4.1

Step 2: Design of web plate

Bridges

For more details refer section 12.4.1 Adopt 1600 mm depth x 12 mm thick web plate.
Step 3: Design of flange

Adopt 21SA 200 200, 15 rnm flange angle. Adopt 2 plates of 500 mm x 200 mm.
Step 4: Check for flexural stresses

Figure 12.10

Gross area, A = 2 x 500 x 20 + 2 x 450 x 20 + 1600 x 12

+ 4 x 5780 = 80320 mm2


Moment of inertia ;bout XX-axis, Ixx

Moment of inertia about YY-axis, I,,

Steel Structures

= 8.94 x lo4 mm4

Radius of gyration, ry =

Let us provide cross frames at 4 m clc L = 4 m = 4000 mm.

D 1680 ---- 42

T - 40

From Table 6.5 of IS: 800 - 1984, X = 1702

Elastic critical stress, fcb = K1 (X + K2 Y ) Cl Here, Cl = C2 For Y = l , K l = l . O

c 2

: .

fcb = 1.0 (1702 + 0) x 1 = 1702N/mm 2

From Table 6.2 of IS: 800, obc = 157N/mm2 Allowable bending stress, obc = 157 N/mm2 Actual bending stress, obc, cal = -x Ymax I

= 101.1 N/rnrn2 < obc

. ;

Safe.

Step 5: Design of welded connections


a)

Fillet weld connecting the flange plates


Adopt 6 mm size weld Min. length = 4 x 6 = 24 mm. Adopt 50 rnm length welds. Strength of weld = (0.7 S)(L) (1 10) N = 7 7 x 6 x 5 0 N = 2 3 . 1 kN Shear forcelmm length =
V Ay I
Figure 12.11

Steel Structures

Spacing of weld, lesser of the following

ii) iii)

300mm 69.3 x lo3 = 125.4 mm. 552.7

: . Adopt 6 mm size weld of 150 mm length at 125 mm c/c


Step 6: Curtailment of top plate

Theoretical length of the plate to be curtailed,

x=l

Area of the plate to be curtailed ~ross area of flange

Referring section: 12.4.1, M , = 3685.99 kN-m

Figure 12.13

MI Bending stress is the plate =- x y


11

= 103.28 ~ / r n m '

Tensile force in the plate = 103.28 x (500 x 20)


= 1032.8 kN

Adopting 6 mm size weld. Strength of weld provided in transverse direction

The strength to be resisted by longitudinal filled welded = 1032.8 - 207.9

Strength of weld = 2 x (0.7 x 6) x L x 110

: .

0.924 L = 824.9

L = 892.7 mm.
Adopt 900 mm length weld.

: .

Actual length of plate to be curtailed


= 13.02 + 2 x 0.9 = 14.82 m.

2
Figure 12.14

Step 7: Design of bearing stiffener

Bridges

Ado~4 t ISA 9090. 10 mm. as bearing stiffener

Figure 12.15: Bearing Stiffener


I

Design of weld

Strength of weld required for mm length

Refer Section 12.4.3 Adopt 6 mm size weld of 50 mm length @ 150 ~JI


Step 8: Necessity of intermediate stiffeners

c/c

Vertical intermediate stiffeners lare required.


Step 9: Design of vertical stiffener

Adopt 2 ISA 9090, 10 mm @ 1600 mm c/c


Design of weld

Shear flow = 200 N1 mm. Adopting 6 mm size weld of 100 mm length,

Figure 12.16: Vertical Stiffener

Strength of weld = 2 X 23.1 = 46.2 kN. Spacing of weld, lesser of the following, i) ii) iii) 1 6 t = 1 6 15=240mm ~ 300 mm 2 ~ 2 3 . l1 ~ 200
~ ~ = ~ ~ ~ ~

Adopt 6 mm size weld of 100 mm length @ 200 mm c/c.

12.4.4 Lateral Bracing System for Deck Type Plate Girder Bridges
The lateral bracing system is generally provided at the top level of the flanges. It consists of diagonals and cross members. The system may consist of single diagonals, double diagonals, or K-type diagonals. The diagonals are provided in square type panels. The lateral bracing system are shown is Figure 12.17.

Steel Structures

Wind load intensity

AWind load intensity

/Wind

load intrnsi ty

(e)

Figure 12.17: Lateral Bracing Systems

Let p = intensity of wind load per unit length (maximum value of loaded and unloaded cases) The bracing system can be assumed to be a simply supported girder.

P . L= Maximum bending moment, M = 7

where, P = PL = Total wind load. Due to this bending moment, equal and opposite axial force will be developed the loaded flange of the girder.

PL F = - where, S = Spacing of girders.


8s

Stress, where,

F PL a=-=A

8SA

A = area of flange.

At the bottom flange, another lateral bracing system is provided to take 114 of the load taken by the top lateral bracing sqstem.

12.4.5 Design Problem


Design the lateral bracing system for a deck type plate girder bridge over a B.G. Main line for a span of 24 m. The spacing of girder is 2 m. Take intensity of wind pressure as 1.5 kNlm2. The depth of girder is 1600 mm. Design of top lateral bracing Step 1: Computation of wind load Wind load on both girder
= 1.5 (1 0.25) x 1.6

Bridges

= 3.00 kN/m
Wind load on train = 1.5 x 3.5 = 5.25 kN/m Racking force (assume) Total wind loads Step 2: Forces in the members Let us divide the bracing system of 2 m size No. of panels is 12. The force acting at intermediate node = 14 x 2 = 28 kN The force acting at end node = 14 x 1 = 14 kN
= 5.75 kN/m

p = 14 kN1m

I 2 Panels @ 2 m

R =I68kN
Figure 12.18

I68kN

Reaction, R =

14 x 24 = 168kN. 2

8 = 45"
Compressive force in the end strut = 168 kN Tensile Force is the end diagonal = sin 45"

= 154 6 k N = 217.79 kN

Step 3: Design of end-strut Let us provide to angles on the same side of angles plate. Force, P = 168 kN. Assume
a , = 70 N/mm
2

P 168x103 Grosss area required = -= aac 70

Provide 2 ISA 9090, 10 mm Area, A = 3406 mm2

rmin= 27.3 mm
Effective length, 1 = 2000 mm

1 2000 Slenderness ratio h = -= - 73.3. rmin 27.3

, , = 109 ~ / m m ~ From Table 5.1 (IS : 800) o


Load carrying capacity = o , , .A = 109 x 3406 N

= 37 1.3 kN > 168 kN (Safe)


4: a)Design of rivets for end strut
Using 20 mm diameter power driven shop rivets. Gross diameter = 20 Strength of rivets in i) Single shear = - (21 . n 2 x = 36.3 kN 4 1000

+ 1.5 = 21.5 mm.

lOm m

thick gusset plate

Figure 12.19: End Strut

ii) Bearing =21.5xlOx-- 300 - 64.5 kN 1000

: .

Rivet value, R = 36.3 kN.

P 168 No. of rivets required = - = -= 6 R 36.3


Pitch = 2.5 x 20 = 50 mm. Edge distance = 30 mm b)

Design of welding for end strut

I
lOmm gusset plate

ISA 9 0 x 9 0 ~

Figure 12.20: End Strut

Let us adopt 3 mm size weld Strength of end weld = (0.7 x 3) (2 x 90) (1 10)
= 41.58 kN

Bridges

Strength to be resisted by longitudinal fillet Welds = 168 - 41.58


= 126.42 kN

Strength of longitudinal weld


= 2 (0.7 x

3) (L) (1 10)

= 462 L N.

: .

462 L = 126.42 X lo3

L = 273.6 mm

Adopt 300 m m length weld


Step 5: Design of diagonal member

Tensile force, P = 217.79 kN

a , , = 0.64 = 150 ~ / m d
Net area required =
217.79 x lo3 = 1452 mm2 150

Gross area required = 1.4 x 1452= 2032 mm2 Adopting 2 ISA. 90mm x 90mm x lOmm Gross area = 3406 mm2 If 20 mm diameter power driven shop rivets are used, deduction for rivet =2x21.5x10=430mm2 holes Net area provided = 3406 - 430
= 2976 mm2

> Net area required (OK)

Step 6: a)Design of rivets for diagonal number

217.79 No. of rivets = -5 . 9 9 ~ 6 36.3

Adopt 3 rivets for each angle at a pitch of 50 mm and end distance of '30 mm. (Ref. Figure 12.19)
b) Design of welding jor diagonal

Adopting 3 mm size weld, the strength of end weld = 41.58 kN. Strength of fillets welds to be provided by longitudinal welding
= 217.79-41.58

= 176.21 kN
Strength of longitudinal weld

Steel Structures

. :

L = 381 mm.

Adopt 400 mm. longitudinal weld.

12.4.6 Crossframes
These are provided between two girders in the vertical plane. These are provided at all plane points of horizontal bracing. Generally, they consist of two diagonal members, top and bottom member. The diagonal member is subjected to maximum load. The top and bottom member are in lateral bracing system.

Figure 12.21: Cross Frame

Design procedure
Calculate the force in the diagonal member

o,,= 150 ~ / m m =P ~sec 0.


Calculate the net area required for the member. Calculate the gross area required

= 1.4 x Net area required


Choose 2 IS equal angles on one side of the gusset plate. Calculate the net effective area provided. It should be greater than the net area required.

Connection design
1) 2)

Rivet: Calculate the rivet value. Calculate the no. of rivets. Welding: Assume size of weld. Calculate the strength of end weld. Find the length of filled weld required.

12.4.8 Design Problem


Example 12.2 Design cr6ssframes for the problem'in sub-section 12.4.1 & 12.4.6

From sub-section 12.4.1, the section is as shown in Figure 12.22.

Bridges

Solution
From sub-section 12.4.6, Force at the end panel point = 168 kN. Force at the intermediate panel point = 28 kN.
Design of end crossframe

16 tan 8='=0.8
2

sec 8 = 1.28 Force in the diagonal

= 168 x 1.28
= 215.14kN

o , ,= 150 ~ / m m ~

Net area required = 215'14 lo3 = 1434.3 mm2 150 Gross area required
=

1.4 x 1434.3 = 2008 mm2

Let us try 21SA 80 x 80 x 8 mm Gross area = 2 x 1221 = 2442 mm2 Using 20 mm dia, P.D.S rivets, reduction for rivet holes
= 2 x 21.5 x 8 = 344 mm2

Net afea provided

2442

> Net area required


Design of connections

- 344 = 2098 mm2 : . Safe

+-----

2 m -

Figure 1223

a)

Rivet

Rivet value = 36.3 kN.

: .

215 14 No of rivets = --- = 5.9 -- 6 36.3

Provide 3 rivets for each angle.

Figure 12.24: Diagonal of Crossfmme

Steel Structures

b)

Welding

Adopting 3 mm size weld

Figure 12.25

Strength of weld = (0.7 x 3 ) ( 2 L


= 462 ( L

+ 160) x

1 10

+ 80) N.

Force = 215.14 kN
L = 386 mm

Adopt L

400 mm

Design of intermediate crossframe

Force in the diagonal = P sec 8 = 28 x I .28 = 35.84 kN. Net area required =
35.84 x lo3 = 238.9 mm2 150

Gross area required = 1.4 x 238.9 = 334.5 1 mm2 Let us try for 2ISA 50 50, 6 mm. Gross area = 2 x 568 = 1136 mm2 Using 20 mm dia. P.D.S. rivets, Reduction for rivet holes = 2 x 21.5 x 6 = 258 mm2 Net area provided = 1136 - 258
= 878 mm2

Net area> required (OK)


Connection

a)

35.84 Rivets: No. of rivets = 36.3

1.

Use one rivet for each angle.

b)

Welding: Using 3 mm size weld,

Strength of weld = (0.7 x 3 ) (2 L + 100) x 110


= 462 ( L

+ 50)N

Force = 35.84 kN.

: .

27.6 mm
=

Adopt 5 mm, L

400 mm

Design of intermediate crossframe Force in the diagonal = P sec 8 = 28 x 1.28 = 35.84 kN. 35.84 x lo3 2 Net area required = = 238.9 mm 150 Gross area required = 1.4 x 238.9 = 334.51 mm2 Let us try for 2ISA 50 50, 6 mm. Gross area = 2 x 568
=

Bridges

1136 mm2

Using 20 mm dia. P.D.S. rivets, Reduction for rivet holes = 2 x 21.5 x 6 = 258 mm2 Net area provided = 1136 - 258

Net area> required (OK) Connection 35.84 Rivets: No. of rivets = -- 1. 36.3 Use one rivet for each angle. b) Welding: Using 3 mm size weld, Strength of weld = (0.7 x 3j (2 L + 100) x 1 10 =462(L+50)N Force = 35.84 kN.

Adopt 50 mm length weld.O mm length weld.

SAQ 2
1)

Design a deck type riveted plate girder bridge for BG Main line for a span of 20 m. Design a deck type welded plate girder bridge for BG branch line for a span of 16 m. Design a deck type welded plate girder bridge for BG Main line for a span of 22 m. Use flange angles. Design a lateral bracing system for pr. (I), (2), & (3) Design cross-frames for pr. (I), (2) & (3). Enumerate the types of lateral bracing system.

2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Steel Structures

Table 12.1: Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Live Loads (EUDLL) on each Track and Impact Factors for Broad Gauge Bridges
L (Metres)

Total Load for BM (kN) M.L.

Total Load for SF (kN) B.L. B.L.

Impact Factor
20 14+L

B.L.

L (Metres)

Total Load for BM (kN) M.L. B.L.


3085 3222 3345 3470 3765 4052 4335 4610 4865 5130 5390 5680 5913 6160 6425 6685 6945 7195 7450 7700

Total Load for SF (kN) M.L.


4218 4384 4549 4713 5 122 5528 5916 6322 6700 7109 7504 7898 8278 8686 9062 9456 9848 10253 10724 11133

B.L.
3316 3448 3576 3702 4010 4310 4600 4882 5154 5438 5708 5978 6246 6512 6772 7042 7302 7564 7824 8804

Impact Factor 20 14 + L
0.345 0.333 0.323 0.313 0.290 0.270 0.253 0.238 0.225 0.213 0.202 0.192 0.183 0.175 0.168 0.161 0.155 0.149 0.144 0.139

dges

44 46 48 50 55 69 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130

3910 4080 4240 4380 4775 5148 5440 5918 6280 6670 7035 7420 7800 8200 8580 8970 9350 9730 10100 10485

Note : The intermediate values may be found by linear interpolation. The values of loads have been converted from
metric tonnes to kilo-Newtons.

Table 12.2: Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Live Load (EUDLL) in on each Track and Impact Factors for Metre Gauge Bridges Total Load for BM (kN) L (Metres) M.L.
264 364 264 282 320 386 437 477 508 550 593 623 657 690 728 76 1 789 816

Total Load for SF (kN) M.L.


264 29 1 350 386 437 488 525 579 627 666 699 73 1 770 806 835 862 888 922

B.L.
214 214 214 229 257 313 354 386 41 1 446 480 508 542 576 605 630 653 674

C
162 162 174 20 1 223 260 289 3 10 338 365 389 409 437 459 482 499 516 537

B.L.
214 236 284 313 354 394 426 470 508 540 566 60 1 633 660 684 706 730 756

C
162 192 138 255 289 317 350 383 409 43 1 454 482 503 523 541 560 582 602

Impact Factor 20 14 + L
1.000 1,000 1. O O O 1. O O O 1. O O O 1.000 1.000 1.OW 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.976 0.952 0.931 0.909 0.889 0.870 0.85 1

1.O 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5

Steel Structures

Total Load for BM (kN)


L (Metres)

Total Load for SF (kN) M.L.

M.L.

B.L.

1
I

B.L.

I
I

Impact Factor 20

Note : The intermediate values may be found by linear interpolation. The values of loads have been converted from metric tonnes to kilo Newtons.

Table 12.3: Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Live Load (EUDLL) on each Track and Impact Factor for 762 mm Narrow Gauge Bridges Total Load for BM (kN)
L (Metres)

Bridges

Total Load for SF (kN)

H Class Loading

A Class Loading

B Class Loading
120 122 160 190 220 240 225 270 295 340 380 405 425 445 455 465 475 480 485 500 520 550 600 700 770 800 840 870 900 940 970 1000 1040 1070 1110 1140 1180 1210 1240 1310 1380 1450

H Class , A Class Loading Loading


242 270 315 370 405 430 460 495 5 15 535 555 580 610 640 670 695 725 755 785 850 915 970 1030 1090 1140 1200 1270 1340 1410 1470 1520 1560 1600 1640 1690 1730 1770 1820 1860 1940 2010 2090

B Class Loading

Impact Factor 90 90 + L

'

193 220 255 300 330 370 400 430 460 485 510 530 550 570 590 615 630 650 670 720 765 8 10 855 900 960 1010 1060 1100 1150 1190 1230 1280 1320 1370 1410 1450 1500 1540 1590 1670 1760 1840

Steel Structures

Total Load for BM (kN)

Total Load for SF (kN)

L (Metres)

H Class Loading
2010 2080 2140 2210 2280 2340 2400 2560 2720 2830 2880 2910

A Class Loading
1810 1890 1960 2020 2090 2150 2220 2390 2540 2690 2840 2990

B Class Loading
1520 1580 1650 1720 1780 1850 1910 2060 2190 2320 2420 2490

H Class Loading
2170 2240 23 10 2380 2450 2510 2580 2740 2910 3080 3240 3400

A Class Loading
1920 1990 2070 2140 2210 2280 2350 2510 2680 2840 3000 3150

B Class Loading
1560 1620 1690 1750 1800 1860 1920 2070 2220 2360 2500 2630

Impact Factor 90 90+L


0.703 0.692 0.662 0.672 0.662 0.652 0.643 0.621 0.600 0.581 0.563 0.545

38 40 42 44 46 48 50 55 60 65 70 75

Note : The intermediate values may be found by linear interpolation. (The values of loads have been converted from
metric-tonnes to kilo-Newtons.

Table 12.4: Longitudinal Loads (Without Deduction for Dispersion) for broad gauge 1676 mm

L (Metres)

Tractive Efforts (kN) M.L.


405 416 424 43 1 435 440 448 455 458 465 469 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476

Braking Force (kN) M.L.


360 374 384 393 399 408 416 427 432 442 447 457

Bridges

B.L.
315 324 33 1 335 339 344 350 352 356 36 1 366 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 358 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368

B.L.
280 29 1 300 304 311 318 325 33 1 336 343 349 353

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 52 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120


I

125 130

1
B.L.
74 72 70 73 79 94

Note: Intermediate values may be found by linear interpolation. The values of loads have been converted from metric-tonnes to kilo-Newton.

Table 125: Longitudinal Loads (Without Deduction for Dispersion) for Metre Gauge 1 m

L (Metres)
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

Tractive Efforts (kN) M.L.


91 85 86 89 99 116

Braking Force (kN) C


56 54 57 64 69 78

M.L.
58 57 56 60 67 80

B.L.
47 46 46 49 54 65

C
35 35 37 43 44 54

Steel Structures

I. -

Tractive Efforts (I&)


M.L.
128 137 142 151 159 165 169 174

Braking Force (kN)

(Metres)

B.L.
104 111 115

M.L.

B.L.
73 79 83

---

L (Metres)

Tractove Efforts (kN) M.L.

Braking Force (kN)


C

B.L.

Bridges

Note : Intermediate valu-s may be found by linear interpolation. The values of loads have been converted from
i~~erric-ronnes to kilo-Newton.

12.5 LATTICE TYPE RAILWAY BRIDGES


When the span of the bridge is more, the plate girder type is more uneconomical. In such cases, truss type bridges are preferred. These are also called as lattice girders or open web girders. These may be deck type, through type or half through type-

12.5.1 Components of Through Type Bridge


1)

Main truss girders Floor Lateral bracing system-top and bottom Portal bracing Sway bracing

2)

3)
4)

5)

The Figure 12.26 shows a through type plate girder

(a) Top Lateral Bracing System

\ 1 1

_Topc . h o d m e m b e r

(b) Elevation of Truss Bridge

Figure l2.26(c): Bottom Lateral Bracing System

Generally, the bridge consists of two trusses arranged at some spacing. The cross-girders or floor beams connect the correspondent lower points. The stringer beams run parallel to the span. The stringer beams distribute the loads to the floor beams. These support sleepers on which the rails can be laid longitudinally. Hence, the loads from the moving trains distribute from rails to sleepers, from sleepers to stringer beams, from stringer beams to floor beams, from floor beams to lower panel points of truss girder. Lateral bracing system is provided at top and bottom to receive lateral loads, wind loads, seismic loads and racking forces. The loads acting on bottom lateral bracing system is transferred to the bearings. The loads acting on the top lateral bracing system is transferred to the end posts. Sway bracing are provided, to keep the rectangular shape, at each panel point.

12.5.2

Types of Truss Girders

(a) Pratt Truss

(b) Warren Truss

---..
(c) Warren Truss With Verticals

(d) N-Type Truss

Steel Structures

Figure 12.28(c): ILD for RR

ILD for LOUl : In panel L&, the SF is taken by LOUl.At joint Lo


Ey=O

P,, U , . sin 0 + RL = 0 p

u = -RL y=
sin0

-[

-$)cosecO

The above equation is valid from


I

8I

9 , L,

At

x = a, PL, U,= - - cosec 0


x = 6a7PL, U1= 0

5 6

Figure 12.28(d): Joint rLo

ILD for top chord members


Member U , U2

\&yN
Figure 12.28(e): ILD for L ~ U ~

Pass section 1-1 and consider the section as shown Figure 12.28(f).

Figure 1 2 . 2 8 ( f )

To get ILD for Ul U2, moment is to be taken about the point L2 where Ul L2 and L, L2 are meeting Unit load rolling from Lo to L2 (x + 0 to 2 a ) Taking moments about L2

( 1 -$).2a-1

(2a-x)+PIII[1 x2 h=O

Bridges

Unit load is moving from (x +2a to 6a)

& to L6

kigure 12.28 (g)

Taking moments about

&,

Figure 12.28(h): ILD for U JUz

Member U2 U3
Pass section 2

-2

and consider the section as shown in Figure 12.28(i).

&C;L

Figure 12.28(i)

To get ILD for member U2 U3, take moments about the Joints L3 where U2 L3 and & L3 are meeting. Unit load moving from to L3 (x -+ 0 to 3a) Taking moments about & ,

Steel Structures

Unit load moving from Taking moments about

L, ro L6 : ( X 4 3a

to 6a)

Figure 12.28(k): ILD for U2 U3

ILD for bottom chord members Member

Lo L,
(from Figure? 12.28(d)).

Coltsider Joint

x=6a,PL Member L1 &

=O

Figure 12.28(1): ILD for LOLl

Pass section 1 - 1, and consider the section as shown in Figure 12.28(e), To get ILD for L1 L 2 , moment is to be taken about U, where the member U, and U1 U2 are meeting. Unit load moving from Lo to L, ( x + 0 to a ) Taking moments about joint U1

x=a,PL lLz-6h

5a-5
6

.cote
X

+
+ a to 6 a)
L0

cat- s

Unit load moving from Ll to Lg : (

L,

Lb

Taking moments about joint U, (from Figure 12.28(g))

Figure 12.28(m): LLD for L~ L~

. . -

Bridges

Member

&5

Pass section 2 - 2 and consider the section as shown in Figure 12.28(i). To get ILD for & L3 , Moment is to be taken about U2 where the members U2L3 and U2 U3 are meeting.

Unit load moving from

to L1 (x

+2 a )

Taking moments about Joint U2 ,

Unit load moving from

& ?0-L6 : (x + 2 a to 6 a )

Taking moments about joint U2, and from Figure 12.28Cj),

x = 6 a , PL2%=0 ILD for diagonal members


The diagonal members take the shear in the panel

Figure 1 2 . 2 8 ( n ) : ILD for L2L~

Member U1&
Pass section 1
-

1 , and consider the section as shown in Figure 12.28(f).

Unit load moving from Lo to L, (x + 0 to a )


zy=o

Steel Structures

1 x = a, PU = 3. cosec 0.
I 2

Unit load moving from

4 to L6 : (x + 2a to 6a)

[ 2)
1-

Cy = 0.

-P,,

sin 0 = 0

pLIi=(1 - ~ ) C o s e C O At x = 2 a , P u1 2 ,=jcosecO
2

x=6a,PU, =O
1 2

When unit load is moving from L, to L, i.e., in the panel, the force in member U, 4 changes from compression to tension.

Figure 12.28(0): ILD for U I Lz

Member U2 L, Pass section 2 - 2, and consider the section as shown in Figure 12.28(i) Unit Load moving from Cy = 0 to

L,

(x

+ to 2 a)

Unit load moving from Cy=O


3

5 to L6 (X + 3 a to 6 a)

-)-Pu2isin0=o

Pu2 L3 = 1At

4
2

cosec 0

x = 3 a, P u2

1 ,= 5 cosec 0

Bridges

Figure 12.28(p): ILD for U ZL3

ILD for Vertical Members

Mernber U 1L,
Consider to Joint L1

Z y =0

P,

, Load at Joint L,
=
1

When unit load is at Lo, P , at L,, P , . at L,, P,

=0 =

I I

+1

=0

Lo

L,

'-

L6

Figure 12.28(r): U2 Lz

Mernber U2 L2
Pass section 3 - 3 and consider the section as shown in Figure 12.28(s):

Figure 12.28(s)

Unit load moving from Lo to L2 : (x

-+ 0

2 a)

Steel Structures

Unit load movling from L3 to L6 : ( x + 3a to 6a)

Figure 12.28(t) 3

[1-&)+Pu2i=o

pUlL2=-[l
1 Pu2 L2 = - 7

-&I

P U L =o
2

Tens~on

Lo
a m press

Figure 1 2 . 2 8 ( u ) : ILD for V2 L2

Member U3L3

Since the unit load is moving on bottom chord, the force in U35 is always zero. The ILD is as shown.

i
Li
Figure 1 2 . 2 8 ( v ) : 1LL) for U j LJ

+
L6

12.5.4 Influence Lines for Warren Truss Members

Figure 12.29(a): Warren Truss

ILD for top chord member


Member U1 U2

Bridges

Pass section ( 1 ) - ( I ) , consider the section as shown below.

/.

higure IZ.LY(b)

To got ILD for member U1 U2 take moments about the Joint L2 where the members L, L, and L, L2 are meeting.
Unit load moving front L1 to

4:

(x + 0 to a )

C.Mk=O*
a

i4
1--4

a-l(a-x)+Pu
1
1 2

.h=O
2

[a-~-u+x)=-Pu

=3

-2x -2xx2 -4x Pul u2=3h =3=

At

x = 0,
x = a,

Pul u2= 0 PO, u2=

Unit load moving from

4 to L4 (X + a to 3a)

Figure 12.29(c)

Figure 12.2Y(d): ILD for U , U 2

Steel Structures

Member U2 U3 Pass section ( 2 ) - ( 2 ) consider the section as below:

Figure 12.2Y(e)

To get ILD for member L12 U3, take moments about the joints L3 where the member U2 4 and L 2 4 .

Unit load moving from

Lo to L1 : (x -+

0 to 2 a )

Unit load moving from

to L4 : (x -+ 2a to 3a)

Figure 12.29(f)

ZML3=0

At

-4 ~ = 2 a , P , ~ ~ ~ [ l=- 3 -

3E
Figure 12.29(g): ILD for UZU3

ZLD for bottbm chord members Members L1 L2

Bridges

Consider the Figure 12.31(b) taking moments about U1

Unit load moving from L1 to U1 :

Unit load in between U , and

4 : (Figure 12.29(c))
(

xd g t o 3a 2

Since the load is i o v i n g on the bottom chord member, linear variation starts from L, to &.

Figure 12.29(11): ILL) fur L1 Lz

Member &L3 : Unit load moving from L1 to U2

Consider Figure 12.29(e) Taking Moments about U2,

Steel Slructures

Unit load moving from U2 to L4 x + -to 3 a


\

3i

Taking moments about U2, (Ref. Figure 12.29(f))

Since the load is moving on the bottom chord members, linear L2 to 5.

-.

. .

Figure 12.2Y(i): ILD for L2 Lj

Similar to ILD for L,

&

Figure 12.2YG): ILD for L3 L4

Similarly, using this procedure you are-also to draw the influence line diagram for any member of any type of truss.

Bridges

12.5.5

Stringer Beams

These are the longitudinal beams provided parallel to the track. The span of the stringer beam equal to the spacing of cross-beam. The loads acting are 1) Weight of stock rails, guard~rails, fastenings, sleepers, self wt. Live load from rolling stock. Impact load

2) 3)

The stringer beams are braced to resist the effect of wind load. The stringer beam is checked for stress due to dead load, live load, wind effect, racking force and longitudinal force.

Example 12.4
Design a stringer beam for a through type truss bridge of span 60 m. The cross beams are provided at 6 m clc. The stringer beams are at 2 m clc. Solution
Step 1: Calculation of loads

Assume weight of stock rails, guard rails, fastenings, sleepers and self wt. as 8 kN/m. of track. From table, EUDL for BM = 763.9 kN EUDL for SF = 918.9 kN To calculate CDA, L = 1.5 x c to c spacing of cross-beams

C D A =0.15+-

8 8 =0.15+--(6 + 9 ) - 0.683. (6 + L)

Impact EUDL for B M = 0.683 x 763.9 = 522 kN. Impact EUDL for SF = 0.683 x 918.9 = 627.6 kN. Total load for BM per track = 48 + 763.9 + 522 = 1333.9 kN Total load for SF per track = 48 + 918.9 + 627.6 = 1594.5 kN
Total load/stringer beam

for BM = 666.95 kN. for SF = 797.25 kN.


Stop 2: Calculation of BM and SF

Step 3: Design of section

Permissible bending stress, obc = 165 ~ / m r n ~ .


M Z required = Ohr

Steel Structures

= 3031.58 x lo3 mm3.

Let us select IS MB 600 with one plate 300 mm x 10 mm one each flange.

figure 1Z.JU

Gross area = 15621+ 2 x 300 x 10


= 21621 mm2

I,, = 91813 x lo4 + 2

300n103 + l o o x l O P + f j

= 147633x lo4 mm4

z , , = 147633 3 10

lo'

= 4762.4 x

lo3 rnm4

Gross area of flange = 300 x 10 + 210x 20.8 = 7368 mm" Using 20 mm dia. P.D.S rivets, Reduction for rivets = 2 1.5 x (10 20.8) = 662.2 mm2

: .

Net area of flange = 7368 - 662.2 = 6705.8 mm2

Stress in top flange = -. Y,,,,, I

Stress in bottom flange = 105 x

Gross area Net area

< 165 ~ / m m(Safe) ~


Shear stress = dtw

Bridges

< 100 ~ / m m ~
Step 4: Design oj' conrzection

( : .

Safe)

Strength ol a) b)

I i\,ctq

in
7t

loo - 36.3 kN Single shear = - (21.5) x 4 1000

Bearing =21.5 x l o x - -300

1000

- 64.5

kN

..

Rivet value, R = 36.3 kN.


V AY

Shear stresslmm length = I

= 246 N/mm.

Pitch of rivets, lesser of the following

i) ii) iii)

12 t = 12 x 10 = 120 mm 200 mm

36'3 lo3 > 147.6 mm. 246

Provide 20 mm dia. P.D.S rivets at a staggered pitch of 120 mm clc


Step 5: Bracing system for strirzger beams

Let us sub-divide the panel length 6 m into three sub-panels,

6 Length of sub-panel = - = 2 m 3
Length of the diagonal Calculation of lateral loads a) Wind load on exposed Area of stringer above chord (let the height of stringer above the top of bottom chord is 0.4 m) = 0.4 x 1.5 = 0.6 kN/m Intensity of wind load = 1.5 k ~ / m ~ b) c) Wind load on moving train = 3.5 x 1.5 = 5.25 kN/m (height of bogie as 3.5 m) Racking force Total lateral load
=2 f i m

= 12 kN/m (say)
Load at end panel = 12 x 1 = 12 kN. Load at intermediate panel = 12 x 2 = 24 kN.

Steel Structures

Figure 12.31

Force in the diagonal = (36 - 12) fi


= 24 f i k N = 33.94 kN. (Comp.)

Let us assume o , , = 60 ~ / m m ~

= 565.67 rnm2
Let us try ISA 100 x 100 x 6 mm
A = 1167 mm2

rmi, = 19.5 mm.

1 A=-_-=

2 6 x 1000

r min

19.5

From Table 5.1

= 145

(IS: 800), o , , = 48 N/rnrn2


Load carrying capacity = o , , . A = 48 x 1167 N = 56 kN 33.94 No. of 20 mm dia, rivets = -1 36.3 Adopt 2 rivets.

12.5.6 Cross Girders


These are the floor beams or girders provided at each panel point. These are provided to join the lower panel points of truss girders. The span of the girder generally equals the spacing of the truss girder. The loads acting on cross girders are self weight, load (reaction) from stringer beams. To calculate, the maximum BM and SF, two adjoining panel lengths should be loaded. For this loaded length, the live load reaction from each stringer beam will be 1/4 of total EUDL per track. Generally, the cross girder is a plate girder since the stringer beam is to be housed into this.

--

Design Procedure for Cross Girder


Step I: Calculation of loads
1)

Bridges

Assume self weight as 5 kN/m. To get max. BM and SF, two adjacent lengths should be loaded. For this loaded length (= 2 x span of stringer beam), take total EUDL for BM and SF from railway bridge codes.

2)

1
1
3)

The impact factor (CDA) is to be calculated for a span of 2.5 x span of the stringer beam. Calculate total load for BM and SF.

I
)
I

4)

Step 2: Calculation of Max. BM and SF


Calculate maximum BM and SF from loading diagram.

Step 3: Section of the girder


It is designed as a plate girder. For more details refer Unit 10.

Step 4: Connection of flange angles with web


a) b) c) d) Calculate strength of rivets in double shear and bearing. Calculate the rivet value, R
V AY Calculate the shear flow, F = ---1

R Calculate the pitch of rivets, p = - . F


The maximum allowable pitch is 12t or 200 mm, whichever is less.

Step 5: Connection between stringer beam and cross girder


Stringer beam is connected to the web of the cross girder. Generally framed connection is used. For more details refer Unit 7. a) b) c) Calculate strength of rivets in double shear and bearing Calculate the rivet value, R. Calculate the number of rivets, n = Reaction

d)
Example 12.5

Choose the size and length of the framing angle to accommodate the rivets.

Design a cross-girder for the following data: Stringer beam = ISMB 600 with 300 x 10 mm flange plates. Span of the bridge = 60 mm. Type of bridge - through type bridge with truss girders. Spacing of the truss girders = 5.2 m. Type of truss - 10 panels of equal length pratt type truss. Type of track - B.G Main line.

Assume any suitable data, if necessary.

Steel Structures

Solution
Step I: Calculation of loads

Assume self weight = 5 kNIm. Span of stringer beam = panel length = -= 6 m


10

60

For maximum BM and SF, loaded length = 2 x 6 = 12 m. From railway bridge code Table 2.1 Total EUDL for BM = 1228 kN. Total EUDL for SF= 1359 kN. For Impact (CDA), L = 2.5 x 6 = 15 m.
CDA = 0.531

Assume dead load of stock rails, guard rails, fastenings, stringer beam as 8 kN/m.
Table 12.6: Various Loads on Cross Girders

Loading
1) Dead load

For BM (kN)
1 -~(8~6)=24 2

For SF (kN)
1 -~(8~6)=24 2 1 x 1359 = 339.75 4 180.40 544.15

2) Live load from stringer bean1


3) Impact load
-

1 x 4

1228 = 307

163 494

Total load

Step 2: Calculation of Max. BM and SF

Assume the C to C distance of stringer beam be 2 m.


t

11 1r.3~

Max. BM, M = 5 x

5 z2 + 494 x 1.6 = 807.3 kN m. 8

Figure 12.33

Max. SF. V = 5 x A 544.15 = 557.15 kN

52 2

Stap 3: Section of the girder


a)

Bridges

Design of Web

o,, = 165 ~ / m m . ~
3 M Economical depth of web, d = 5&
Obc

= 5 q 8 0 7 . 3 x lo6

165
Adopt 1000 mm depth

= 764 mm.

t = - -v '"a. d

557.15 = 5.57 mm. 100 x 1000

Adopt 1000 mm x 10 mm web plate. b)

Design of flange
M Net area of flange required = O6c .d

- 807'3 lo6= 4892.72 mm. 165 x 1000


Adopt 2 ISA 154150, 12 mm. (Area provided = 2 x 3459 = 69 18 mm2)

c)

Check for stresses


Gross area of flange = 2 x 3459 + 150 x 10
= 8418 mm2

Reduction for rivet holes

= 21.5 (12 x 2

+ 10)

(Using 20 mm dia. P.D.S rivets) = 731 mm2 Net area of flange

=8418-731

Figure 12.34: Section of Cross Girder

o b c , cai =

Ymax

(Jbr. caI= 4 c . car

Gross area of flange ~~t of flange

= 117.16 ~ / m r n ~

< 165 N/mm2 ( : . Safe)


Step 4: Connection of flange angles with web
Using 20 mm diameter power driven shop rivets, Gross diameter = 20 + 1.5 = 21.5 mm. Strength of rivets in i) ii) double shear = 2 x - (2 1.5)' x ! @ = 72.6 kN. 4 1000

300 - 64.5kN. bearing = (21.5 x 10) x 1000

..

Rivet value, R = 64.5 kN

V AY Shear flow, F = I

= 465.73 N/mm.

Pitch of the rivets, p, will be lesser of: i) ii) iii) 12t = 12 x 10 = 120 mm 200 mm 64.5 x ld = 138.49 mm. 465.73

Adopt 20 mm diameter P.D.S rivets @ 120 mm clc.

: Connection between stringer bean? and cross girder Step 5


Load, Reaction from stringer beam = 544.15 kN. Rivet value, R = 64.5 kN.

544.15 No. of rivets, n =64.5

10 rivets.

Use 5 rivet for connecting stringer beam with cleat angles.

Use 10 rivets for connecting cross girder with cleat angles. The size of cleat angle: ISA 200 100, 10 mm.

Length o f the angle


Pitch = 50 mm Edge distance = 300 mm. Length of the angle required = 4 x 50 + 30 = 230 mm Adopt 300 mm length cleat angle.

Cross Girder
J

-- + t
b

.L

300mm

-3trimBer
1
(a) Elevation

Bebm

--

--u
Web
1511 ZOOLOO, lomm
I I

OF Cross Girder

L t ~ e of b Stringer Beam

(b) Wan Figure 12.35

12.5.7 Calculation of Forces in the Members o f * ~ r u sGirder s


The following loads induce forces in the members
I

a)
I

!
I

Dead weight of stock rails, guard rails, fastenings, sleepers, stringer beams and cross-beams, truss. (In the absence of data, assume a DL of 10 kN/m) Live load from railway bridge codes as per loaded length. Impact load from railway bridge codes as per loaded length. Longitudinal load for bottom chord members. The longitudinal load is the maximum of tractive effort or bracking force. It may be compressive or tensile. The nature of the force depends upon the direction of train.

b) c) d)

Steel Structures

e)

Wind load
Wind pressure may be taken as 1.5 ~ / m To ~ .take the effect of wind on' leeward surface, the area may be increased by 50%. Bottom lateral truss system takes the wind load acting on train, truss projections below the top of the train, stringer beams, track, etc. Top lateral truss system takes the wind load acting on truss projection above the top of the train.

i)

Bottom lateral truss effect


Bottom lateral truss will consist of Chord members - bottom chord members of the truss girders.

Figure 12.36: Bottom Lateral Truss System Struts (horizontal)-cross-members.

Diagonals
It is a statically indeterminate

Assumptions
1)

The forces in the chord members of a panel are equal and opposite. The diagonals equally share the shear in the panel. Calculate the total load on the bottom chord W = (wind load intensity) x (projected area for bottom chord) Calculate the force acting at intermediate panel point, P = Calculate the force at end panel points = E 2' Calculate the Reaction at the end, R = -. 2
W

2)

No. of panels

Calculate the Moment at middle of panel ( M ) Calculate the force in the member of the panel = - . S Where S = Spacing of Girder. For example, to find the force in the member Lo L,.

Force in

4 L3

ii)

Top lateral truss effect


Top lateral struss will consist of : Chord member-Top chord members of the truss girders.

Figure 12.37: Top Lateral Truss System

Struts.

Diagonals.
It is a statically indeterminate system. Calculate the total load on the top chord W1= (wind toad intensity) x (projected area for top chord) Calculate the force acting at intermediate panel Point =
WI =P, no. of panels

Calculate the force acting at end panel

PI Point = 2

Calculate the reaction, R1 =

\\',
&

,-.

Calculate the moment M1 at the niid point of panel.

MI Calculate the force in the member = S

Steel Structures

iii) Overturning eflecr

Figure 12.38: Overturning Effect

Leeward truss is subjected to additional vertical; stresses due to overturning effect of wind. Calculate the value of 2 R2

This reaction 2 R2 is UDL

Intensity of load = . kN/m Span

2 R2

It is expressed as % of DL

. :

The forces in the members can be easily

computed.

iv) Portal efect

Figure 12.39: Portal Frame

The lateral load will consist of

i) wind load reaction from top chord.


ii) 1.25% of the force is two end top chord.
Calculate the lcngth of the post : (L)

Bridges

Calculate the force in end post, P3 =

H (c + h,)
S

a Calculate the force in bottom chord member = P3 x -. L


v)

Sway effect

Figure 12.40: Sway Frame

Calculate BM in verticals =
I

The final forces in the members of the truss girder are calculated by algebraic sum.

12.5.8 Problem on Calculation of Forces in Members of Truss Girder


;

Calculate the forces in the members of the truss girder for the following date. Effective span = 36 m.

i
i

Spacing of stringer beam = 2 m. Type of track- B.G Main line Spacing of the girders: 5.4 m. Height of the truss girder: 7.0 m. Assume any suitable data

Step I : Configuration of the truss

Figure 12.41: Truss Girder

Steel Structures

Let us adopt pratt type truss The panel dimension is 6.0 m.

Step 2: Calculation of dead load


Assume weight of track, floor beam, etc. = 5.0 kN/m Self Wt.
= 5.0 kN/m

Step 3: Influence lines for member forces Top chord members Member U lU2(Compressive)

Member U2U, : (Compressive)

Figure 12.42: ILD for

I11Uz and Uz

UJ

1 8 Area of ILD -X-x36=2 7

-144

Bottom chord members

, , Ll& L, L2 : (Tension) Member L

Figure 12.43 : ILD for 4LI& LILz

1 5 Area of ILD = - x - x 3 6 = 2 7

+90 7

Member & L3 :(Tension) ,

Figure 12.44 : ILD for LZLJ

1 9 Area of ILD = - x - x 36 = 2 7
Diagonal Members

+ 162 7

Member PL

7 Lo U 1(compressive) tan 0 = 6
1

5 6 cosec 8

cosec 8 = 1.317

bipure 12.45 :ILD for Lo U1

1 Area df ILD=-x l . i 2 ~ 3 6 = - 2 0 . 1 6 2
Member U 1

Figure 12.46 : ILD for UILz

1 - cosec0 6

6-x

4 - cosec 8
6

4x=6-x

x=1.2m

Area of ILD
1 1 -ve portion = - x - cosec 8 x 7.2 = 0.79 2 6

+ve portion = x cosec 0 x 28.8 = 12.64. 2 6 - cosec 8


6
L

3 cosec 0 h

Steel Structures

Member

Lz U3

Figure 12.47 : ILD for L z UJ

Area of ILD 1 2 + ve portion = x - cosec 0 x 14.4 = 3.16 2 6 1 3 -ve portion = - X - c o s e c 0 ~ 2 1 . 6 = 7 . 1 2 2 6


Vertical Members Member U I L,

Figure 12.48 : ILD from UI L i

Area of ILD = - x 1 x 12=6. 2


Member U2
I

'-1
Figure 12.49 : ILD for U2 L2

'-6

Area of ILD = 0
Member U3 5

, &
L,
LZ
L3

Tension

' L ,

Figure 1250 : ILD for U JLJ

Step 4: Calculation of forces due to DL, LL & IL

D.L. = 10 kN/m.

I
L
I

Top chord members (U, UZ u 2 U3) Area of ILD Loaded length


=-- 144
7

Bridges

= 36 m.

Total EUDL for BM = 2539 kN.

CDA =0.15+--

8 8 -0.15+-6 + 36 - 0'34 6+L

Z L = 0 . 3 4 35.26= ~ 11.99 kN/m Total load = DL + LL + IL = 10 + (35.26 + 11.99 = 57.25 kN/m. Force in the member U 1U2and U, Uj = (Total load) x (Area of ILD)

Bottom chord members Member LI & L, 4

Loaded length = 36 m, Total load = DL

+ LL + IL = 57.25 kN/m. +
736.07 kN.

90 = Force in Members Lo L, &L, 4 = 57.25 x 7 Member

4&

+I62 Area of ILD = 7 Loaded length = 36 m. Total load = DL

+ LL + ZL = 57.25 kN/m.
162 = + 1324.93 kN. 7

Force in Member L2 & = 57.25 x Diagonal Members: Member LOUl Arca of ILD = -20.16 Loaded length = 36 m. Dl, = 10 kN/m. CDA = 0.34

Total EUDL for SF = 2757 - 1378.5 kN. 2

Steel Structures

Total load = DL + LL + IL
=

I0+ 38.29+ 13.02

= 61.3 1 kN/m.

Force in

L, U, =(-20.16) (61.31)
= -1235.98 kN

Men~herUI K b

-1.e portion: Area of ILD = -0.79


Loaded length = 7.2 m. Total UDL for Sf:= 1004'8X = 502.44 kN. 2

IL = 0.756 x 69.78 = 52.76 kN/m. LL + IC = 69.78 + 52.76 = 122.53 kN/ni


Comp. force in Member due to ( L L + IL) = -0.79 x 122.53 = -96.8 1 kN Net area = 12.64 - 0.79 =

11.85

Tensile force in Member due to DL = + 11.85 x 10 =

118.5 kN.

: .

Net force in Member due to ( D L + LL


=

+ IL)

118.5

- 96.81

+ 21.69

kN

+ve portion : Area of ILD =


Loaded length = 28.8 rn. Total udl for SF = 2587 - 1293.5 kN

12.63

CDA =0.15+

8 = 0.38 6 + 28.8

IL = 0.38 x 44.91 = 17.07 kN/m. LL

+ IL = 44.91 +

17.07 = 61.98 kN/m.

Force in member due to ( L L + IL) = +(12.64) x 61.98 = +783.37 kN Force in member due to ( D L + LL

+ IL) = +118.5 + 783.37

= +901.87 kN.

Mernber L2 U3
Net area = +3.16 - 7.12 = -3.96 Force in the member due to DL
= (-3.96)

x 10 = -39.6 kN.

+v.e porriarz : area of ILD =

+ 3.16

Loaded length = 14.4 rn.

1508'2 - 754.2 kN. Total EUDL for S F = 2

Force in the menlber due to (LL + IL)


= (52.38 + 28.40) x (+3.16)

= +255.26 kN.

Net force i n the ~nernberdue to ( D L + LL


= +255.26
- 1 ~ portion

+ lL)

- 39.6 = +215.66 kN.

: Area of ILD = -7.12

Loaded length = 21.6 m. 2072.2 - 1036.1 kN Total EUDL for S F = 2 L L = Z - 47.97 kN/m 21.6 CDA = 0.15
= 0.44. + 6 +8 21.6

IL = 0.44 x 47.97 = 21.10 kN/m (LL + IL) = 47.97 Force in

+ 2 1.10 = 69.07 kN1m. the member due to (LL + l L ) = (-7.12)


= -39.6
-

(69.07) = -

Force in the member due to (DL+ LL+ IL) 491.78

= -531.38 kN.

Vertical Metnber Menrbcr U , L, & U, L,

Area of ILD =

+6
111.

Loaded length = 12

1359 kN. Total EUDL for S F = 2

CDA = 0.504 IL = 0.594 x 56.63 = 33.63 kN/m DL = 10 kN /m (DL+ LL+ l L ) = 10

+ 56.63 + 33.63

= 100.26 kN 1111.

Force in the ~ncn~ber due to (DL+ LL+ l L )

Steel Structures

= (+6) (100.26) =

+ 601.56 kN.
'

Member U2L2

No force.

Step 5: Force in the member due to longitudinal load

The truss is hinged at Lo and on robbers at Lg.


For Member Lo L,

Loaded length = from Lo to L6 = 36 m. (From table) Tractive effort =


For Member L, L2

+-735.5 = + 367.75 kN 2

Loaded length = L, to L6 = 30 m.
1 Tractive effort = - x 637.4 = f 3 18.7 kN 2
For Member L2 L3

Loaded length =

to L6 = 24 m.

1 Tractive effort = - x 588.4= f 294.2 kN. 2


Step 6: Bottom lateral truss effect

Wind pressure = 1.5 kN/m2 Projected area : i) Projected area of stringer beam, sleepers, up to the top of rail = 1.20 x 36 = 43.2 m2 Exposed area of moving train = 3.5 x 36 = 126 m2.

ii)

2 iii) Area of truss components = 1.8 m

To take the effect on leeward side, increase the area of truss components and stock by 50%. Total area = 1.50 (43.2

+ 1.8) + 126 = 193.5 m.


= 290.25 kN

Total load due to wind = 193.5 x 1.5

Reaction = 290.25 = 145.13kN. 2

290'25 - 48.4 kN. Load at intermediate panel point = -

48.4 Load at end panel point = -= 24.2 kN. 2 1 Force in the Member = k - (Moment at the mid-point of the member) 5.4

Bridges

7: Top lateral truss effect


Intensity of wind pressure = 1.5 k ~ / m ~ Projected area: i) ii) Top chord = 0.4 x 24 = 9.6 rn2 (Depth = 400 rnm) 20 Gussets (20% Top chord) = 9.6 x -= 1.9 rn2
100

iii) Truss Members = 8.5 rn2 Total projected area = 1.5 (9.6 (Taking 50% for leeward area) Total load = 1.5 x 30 = 45 kN Reaction = 45 = 22.5 kN. 2 Load at intermediate panel point =

1.9 + 8.5) = 30 m2

= 11.25 kN.

1 . 2 5= 5.63 kN Load at end point = 1 2

0 S . E . W U
Figure 12.52: Bottom ~ a ( e r aT jr u s s

u.soL(L

Steel Structures

Step 8: Overturning Effect

Figure 12.53: Overturning Effect

Height of the train = 3.5 m. Height of the support = 0.6 m. Height of the axle from sleeper 0.4 m. The bearings are provided at 0.6 m before the centre line of the bottom chord. Taking moment about bearing, 2R x 5.4 = 101.25 x 0.6 + 45 (7 + 0.6) Standard value

Vertical load on leeward truss


36
-

Forces in the member

Step 9: Portal
+!.lo-

Bridges

6IIon+

1W 6 m

, POC

- 1

5.Mm

Figure 1254 : Portal Effect

Length of the end post

-46 + 7 -

= 9.22 m.

H = wind load reaction from top chord + 1.25% of total axial force in the end top chord

= 22.5

+ 29.4 = 51.9

kN

Axial load due to: i) ii) Wind load reaction = -(22.5) (1.7 5.4
1

+ 3.76)

= f 22.75 kN.

1.25% of total axial force in two end top chord

Force in

(u, ,L, and & &)

= 22.75 x

6 9.22

= 14.80 kN

BM in

U,,in absence of wind 55.27 kN/m

BM in

51 9 Lo U,, with wind = -X 3.76 = 97.57 kNm 2

Step 10: Sway egec.1

POC

- 1

m
b W n 4

Figure 12.55: : Sway Effect

Steel Structures

11.25 (1.4 + 2.8) Force in verticals = 2 5.4

BM in verticals

=x 2.8 = 7.9 kN-rn

2x2

Step 11: Total wind load effect Top chord member


PuI u2= 9.37 7: 125.03 =

1 1 6.25 kN

Bottom chord member

P,

,= + 67.18+-78.43+14.8 = f 160.4kN
1

Diagonal member

P,

,= + 122.98T 22.75 =T 145.73 kN


I

Vertical members

Pul L , = & 36.6&4.4=+41kN.

Step 12: Total forces in member (DL + LL + IL) + WL

+ longitudinal effect

Top chord members (Maximum values)

P,

,= - 1177.71T 1 1 6 . 2 5 ~ -1293.96kN.
2

Bottom chord members


P ~ o ~ ,

= 736.07f 367.75 f 160.41 = + 1264.23kN.

Diagonal Member

PLou, = (- 1235.98- 29.73) T 145.73=- 1411.44kN. P,,


L2

= 901.87

+ 72.29 = + 974.16 kN

(ii) -491.78T24.16=-515.94kN.
Vertical mentber

12.5.9 Design of Top Chord Members


In through type truss bridges, the top chord members are subjected to compression. Generally the following sections are adopted (Figure 12.56).
r~op

cover Plate

Channel

-- - - - -'--I------ - - - -

(d)

Figure 12.56

The force in the chord members is high. Hence, built up members with less number components is preferable. Top cover plate is necessary to avoid entering of rain water. The bottom of the section is to be provided with lacing. The number of cover plate should be only one. The thickness of cover plate should be as small as possible. The webs should be as thick as possible. The section should be such that
r,, = r,,. The depth of top chord members is about
1 the

10

height of the truss (c to

height of the truss +2 x thickness of gusset plate. Uniform section is to be provlded throughout the top chord length. The section for end posts is also same as that for top chord.
If the members are subjected to axial load and BM,then

c distance between top and bottom chords). The clear width =

[ i i ]

a) b)

(Jar.c n ~ ' b c , cal +1 1.0

oat

for normal loads.

Ob,

o a r , cal Obc cal +oac Obc

1 1.167 for occasional loads.

Normal loads are DL, LL and IL. Occasional loads are DL,%LL and IL and WL.

Steel Structures

Under occassional loads, the permissible \trcs\c.s arc to be incrcasetl by 16" %.

Design .src>p.s

Data: Forcc in the member


(i) under normal loads (ii) under occasional loads a)

Desigrr qf .s.vectio~l
1) Assunie o,,,. = 100 ~ / m t n ' Calculate Gross area reouil-ed:
A required =

2)

Force under norlnal loads


OfK

A required =
3)
4)

Force under occasional loads 1 . 167 o ~ , ~ .

Choose the suitable sections (Ref. Figure 12.58)

Calculate ~ r o s area s (A), centroidnl di.\t~uice ( Y ), M.o.1 about XX-axis ( I x x ) and MoI about YY-axis (I,,) Calculate r,,, ryy and r,,,,,, Calculate Effective length =0.85 x length of the ~tieniber. Calculate slenderness ratio Find o,,. from Table 5.1 (IS : 800) Calculate the load carrying capacity:

5)

6)
7)
8) 9)

Y under Norrnal load) = o,,,. XA


P I ( under occasion and load) = 1.167 P There should be less than the meniher forces under corresponding load conclitions.

b)

Desigrz o f lacirzg
1)

Assume the angle of lacing angle, 0 = 4 8 to 70, generally 60" Calculate the shear force = 1.25% of axi;rl force due to normal loads. Calculate the force in the lacing ~nelnber
F=

2)
3)

Shear force sin 0

4)
5)

Calculate the distance hetwecn two clid rivct lincs ((1) Calculate the effective Icngrh of lacing mcnihcr

6)

Colc~llatethe slentlcl.lic\s of lacing member

7) 8)

Find o , , fro111Tablc 5.1 (IS : 800)


Calculate the load carning capacity of lacing mcmbcr = u , , x arca of lacing mcmbcr

It should bc lnorc than thc forcc in thc lacing mcrnbcr 9)

Calculation of dim~ctcr of rivet Adopting only onc rivct.

From thc abovc cquation \vc can calculate thc diamctcr.

12.5.10 Design the Top Chord Members of the Truss Bridge (Given in Sec: 12.5.8)
Data: From Scc: 12.5.8
Met?7ho. 11, 1J2&[I4 1J5

Forcc undcr Normal loads

1 177 7 1 kN (Comprcssivc)
=

Forcc undcr occasional loads


Met?7hcr 1J2 lJj & 1J3 1J4

1293.96 kN (Cornprcssive)

Forcc undcr Nornial loads = 1 177.71 kN (Compressive) Forcc undcr occasional loads = 128 1.46 kN (Cornprcssive) Sincc thc samc scction is providcd throughout thc lcngth of top chord, takc the maximum valucs of forcc. Forcc undcr Normal loads = 1177.71 kN Forcc undcr occasional loads = 1293.96 kN.

1) 2)

Assumc o , , = 100 ~ / m m ~ A rcquircd a) Normal loads = 1177 71 x lo3 = 1 1777.1 mm2 100
-

b) 3)

Occasional loads =

1293.96 x 1o3 = 11087.9 mm2 1.167~700

Mas dcpth =

I x 7000 = 700 mm. 10

Lct us assumc 400 nim dcpth For ISA 75 75, 8 mm anglc.


A = 1138 mm 2

I = 59 x 10%m4
C7.yx = 2 1 . 4 mm

Steel Structures

Calculation of Y, ! , and

- .--! ,

10 ~,=500x 10=5000mm2, y,=-=5mmfrom 2

top

A2 = 2 x 1138 = 2276 mm2; y2 = 10 + 21.4 = 31.4 mm.

A, = 2 x 1138 = 2276 rnm2; y, 10 + 400 - 21.4 = 388.6 mm.

y=- CAY
CA

6) 7) 8)
9)

Effective length, 1 = 0.85 x 600 = 5 100mm.


2 5100 Slenderness ratio, A = --rmi, 146.5

, , Form Table 5.1 (IS : 800), o


Load carrying capacity a)
P=o,,xA

142N/mm2

= 142 x 2353 = 3173.98 kN

> ~brce in member under normal load,


b)

P , = 1.167 x 3173.98 = 3704.0kN

> Member force under occasional load


Design of lacing system
1) 2) Let angle of lacing member = 60" 1.25 S.F. in lacing system = -x 1177.71 100

3)

14'72 - 17.00 kN. Force in lacing member = sin 60"


Distance between two end rivets = 300 + 2 x 16 + 2 x 35 = 402 mm. 402 Effective length of lacing member 1= = 464.2 mm. sln 60 Let us adopt ISA 7550, 8 mm.
A = 938 m2, r m i ,= 10.6mm

4) 5) 6)

1 A=-=-7) 8)

464.2 - 44. rmin 10.6

From Table 5.1 (IS: 800), ol, 136N/mm2 Load carrying capacity = 130 938

I
I

> Force in lacing member (ob)

9)

Diameter of rivets
Using one rivet for connection.

Adotp 14 mm dia rivets.

Sled Structures

-Figure 12.58: Lacing for Top Chord Members

12.5.11 Bottom Chord Members


In through type truss bridges, the bottom chord members are subjected to tension. The following sections are generally adopted (Figure 12.59).

Locan9 ,----I ------------

-_

II;'l
- - - - --Lo c ; n *

--

- - - - -- -

(a)

Ib)
Figure 12.59

(c)

No cover plates are required, either at top or at bottom of the section to avoid cdlw%ion of rain later. If the member are subjected to moments in addition to axial tension, it can be checked by:

Design Steps

Data:

Maximum force under normal loads Maximum force under occassional loads

Design of Mernber

Bridges

1)

Assume

o,, = 0.9 X 150 = 135 N/mm2 (for normal loads) oat = 1.167 x 150 ~ / m m (for ~ occasional loads)

2)

Calculate the Net area required a) b) For normal loads = Maximum force under Normal load 135 Max. force under occasional load 1.167~ 150

For occasional loads =

3) 4) 5) 6)

Choose the suitable section Calculate Gross area Calculate reduction for rivet holes Calculate Net area. If should be greater than net area required.

12.5.12 Design the Bottom Chord Members of the Truss Bi-idge (Given in Sec: 12.5.8.) Data : From Section : 12.5.8
Member lo L,

Maximum force under normal loads = 736.07 kN (tension) Maximum force under occasional loads = 1264.23 kN (tension)
I

Member L,

&

Maximum force under normal loads = 736.0 kN (tension) Maximum force under occasional loads = 1322.66 kN (tension)

Member Lz L . ,
I

Maximum force under normal loads = 1324.93 kN (tension) Maximum force under occasional loads =

i
)

+ 2003.46 kN

(tension)

In member Lo L, and L, L, the maximum force are almost equal. Hence, one section i s designed for both Lo L, and L , I?.
Members Lo LI and LI &

Maximum force under normal loads = 736.07 kN Maximum force under occasional loads = 1322;66 kN. 1) For normal loads, oat = 0.9 X 150 = 135 N/mm2. For occasional loads, o,, = 1.67 x 150 ~ / m m ~ . 2) Net area required for a) b) Normal loads = 736.07 lo3= 4907.13 mm2 135 Occasional loads = 1322.66 x lo3 = 7555.9 mm2 1.167~ 150

Steel Structures

3)

Choose the section as shown

-eao

m m d Figure 12.60

--

Gross area = 4 x 1 1 3 8 + 2 ~ 3 0 0 x 10 = 10552 mm2 Deductions for rivet holes = 4 x 21.5 x 18 + 2 x 21.5 x 8 = 1892 mrn2

(Using 20 mm diameter rivets)


Net are provided = 10552 - 1892 = 8660 mm2 Net area required (OK)
Member

Maximum force under normal loads = 1324.93 kN (tension) Maximum force under occasional loads = 2003.46 kN (tension)
1)

For normal loads, o , = 0.9 x 150 = 135 ~ / m m ~


For occasional loads,

a , , = 1.167 x 150 ~ / m m ~ .
1324.93 x 10' =9814 mm2 135 2003.46 x 10' = 1445 mmz 1.167~ 150

2)

Net area required for

a)
b)

Normal loads =

Occasional loads =

3)

Choose the section:

Figure 12.61

Gross area = 4 x 1138 2 x 300 x 20 = 16552 mrn2. Using 20 mm dia. rivets, Reduction for rivet holes = 4 x 21.5 x (20 + 8) + 2 x 21.5 x 8 = 2752 rnrn2. Net area provided
=

16552- 27$2 = 13800 mm2

> Net area required (safe)

12.5.13 Diagonal and Vertical Members


The vertical members in pratt truss are subjected to compressive force. The alternate diagonals in a warren truss are subjected to compressive force. In some cases, the members which are subjected to tension are also designed as compression member in case of stress reversal. Generally, there are designed as built up I-section. Some commonly used compression member section are shown in Figure 12.62.

Figure 12.62: Common Sections for Webs in Compression

Some members are subjected to tension. These are designed as built up I-section. Some commonly used sections are shown in Figure 12.63.

(c)

(d)

Figure 12.63. Canman SPctiolro for

Webs in Tension

Design an End Past Par the Truss Bridge (Given in Section 123.8)
12.5.14
Data : From section: 12.5.8
Member

& U1
~ l under i ~ ~ occasional

Maximum force under normal loads = 1265.71 (Compression)

Maximum f

loads = 14 11.44 kN, (Compression)

B M under normal loads = 55.27 IrN-m. B M under occasional loads = 97.57 kN-m.
1)

ow for normal loads = 100 N/mm2 (let)

o , , for occasional
2)

loads = 1.167 x 100 N/mm2 (let)

G m m a required for normal loads = 1265.71 lo3 = 12657.1 mm2

100

G r o s s area required for occasional loads

3);

Choose the section


aoexibmm

Plate
A ,

r
I
I

I
I

I
I

I
I I I I

CaOGxI6rnrn I
I

I I
I

PLate

- - - -- - - --I
r - - - - -

- - - - -------Figure 12.64

I I
I

,
I

I
1

pG1;5~@t

!.mm003~

Hate

Effective length, 1 = 0.70 x 9220 = 6454 m m


6)

1 6454 Slenderness ratio, h = -= 'min 109.68 - 58'84'

7)

oocfrom Table 5.1 (IS: 800) = 123 N/mm2

9)

Check for stresses under normal loads

10) Check for stresses under occasional loads

Obc, cal

7 y = 97'57 lo6 = 2.8 x 10'

(y)

= 52-21N/rnm2.

c 1.167 (Safe)

Steel Structures

12.5.15 Design the Diagonal Members for the Truss Bridge (Given in Section 12.5.8) Data: From section: 12.5.8
Member U1 L2

Force under normal loads = + 901.87 kN Force under occasional loads =


Member

+ 974.16 kN.

Lz U3

Force under normal loads =

+ 2 15.66 kN and - 49 1.78 kN Force under occasional loads = + 239.82 kN and - 515.94 kN.
1)
oat under normal loads = 0.9 x 150 = 135 ~ / r n m ~ . oatunder occasional loads = 1.167 x 135 ~ / m r n ~

Member UI L2 : (tension)

2)

Net area required a) b) Under normal loads = 901.87 x lo3 = 6680.5 mrn2 135 974.16~ lo3 = 6183.4 mm2 1.167 x 135

Under occasional loads =

3)

Section

Figure 12.65

4)

Gross area = 2 x 4564 = 9 128 mm2. Using 20 mm dia. rivets. Reduction for rivet holes = 2 x 21.5 x 13.6 = 584.8mm2. Net area = 9128 - 584.8 = 8543.2 mm2.

> Net area required.


Hence, Safe.
Member

Lz U, :It is primarily Compression Member

Compressive force under normal loads = 491.78 kN Compressive force under occasional loads = 515.94 kN. 1) Assume

q,= 1 0 0 ~ / m m ' for

normal loads

o,, = 1.167 x 100 ~ / m m * for occasional loads.

2)

Gross area required for Normal loads =


491.78 x 100

lo3 =4917.8 mm2

Occasional loads =
3)

515'94x ld =4421 mm2 1.167~ 100

Section

Figure 12.66

For ISMC 250, A = 3867 mm2


Cyy = 23 m'm.

6) 7) 8) 9)

Effective length, 1 = 0.70 x 9220 = 6454 mm Slenderness ratio, ?LC-= -= 65


'min

6454

99.35

o,,,for Table 5.1 (IS

: 800) = 1 17 ~ / m m ~

Load carrying capacity = 117 x 7734


= 904.9 kN.

> Maximum load, (Safe)


Check for tension

Using 20 mm dia. rivets, Reduction for rivets = 2 x 2 1.5 x 14.1 = 606.3 mm2 Net area provided = 7734 - 606.3 = 7127.7 mm2 Tensile force under normal loads = 215.66 kN

Steel Structures

Net area required = 215.66 lo3= 1597.5 rnrn2. 135 < Net area provided. (OK) Tensile force under occasional loads = 239.82 kN.
oat= 1.167 x 135 ~ / m &

Net area required =

239.82 x lo3 1.167 x 135

< Net area provided.

(OK)

12.5.16 Design the Vertical Members for the Truss Bridge (Given in Section 12.5.8) Date : From section: 12.5.8
Members U1 L1 and U3 5
Max. Force under normal loads = + 601.56 kN (Tension) Max. Force under occasional loads = + 642.56 kN (Tension) BM under occasional load = 7.9 kN - m.

1)

o,, for normal loads = 0.9 x 150 = 135 ~ / m m ' . o,, for occasional loads = 1.167 x 135 ~lrnrn'

2)

Net area required for: Normal loads =

601.56 x lo3 = ,56 135

mm2

Occasional loads =

642.56 x ld = 4078.6 mm2 1.167 x 135

3)

Section

Figure 12.67

4)

Gross area = 300 x 10 + 4 x 1138


= 7552 mm2.

Using 20 mm dia. rivets, Reduction for rivet holes = 2 x 2 1.5 x (10 + 2 x 8) = 1 118 mm2. Net area provided = 7552 - 1118 = 6434 rnm2

>

Since BM is very less No check is required for combined stresses

12.6 END BEARINGS


Bearing is a part of a bridge which receives all the forces from the structure above and transmits the same to the supports. These are provided at the ends of the span of the main girders. The functions of the bearings are a) b) c) d) e)
l

Transmission of the end reaction to the pier. Provision of free movement of the lower chord in horizontal direction. The change in the angle of the girder is allowed. Reduction in impact due to live load. Damping of structural vibration. Limitation on the transmission of sound waves.

f)

12.6.1 IS Code Recommendations


IS: 1995 - 1961 stipulates the following specification:
1)

For all spans in excess of 9 m provision shall be made for changes in length due to temperature and stress variation. The provisions for expansion and contraction should be such as to permit movement of the free bearings to the extent of not less than 25 mm for every 30 mm of length. For spans greater than 15 m on rigid piers or abutments, bearings which will permit angular deflection of the girder ends shall be provided and at one end there shall be a roller, rocker or other effective type of expansion bearing. For wide bridge and skew spans, consideration shall be given to lateral expansion and contraction. In the design of bearings, provision shall be made for the transmission of longitudinal and lateral forces to the bearings and the supporting structures. In seismic zones excess movement of the spans may be prevented by connecting the top saddle of the bearing to the bottom saddle through hinged connections. Roller bearings for spans above 35 m should preferably be protected from dirt by oil or grease boxes. Provision shall be made against any uplift to which the bearings may be subjected. Rollers and Rockers shall be located by means of dowels, lugs or keys. All bearings shall be designed to permit inspection and maintenance.

2)
I

I
3)

4)

5)
I

6)

i
i1
I

7)

8) 9)

12.6.2 Forces Acting on Bearings


The following forces are considered in the design of bearings:

1) 2)

Reaction at the support Longitudinal loads

Uplift forces Transverse forces.


T y p e s of Bearings Based on functional behaviours

1) 2)

Fired bearings: These allow only rotation. Free bearings (Expansion bearings)

These allow both rotation and translation. The movement may be due to creep in concrete, shrinkage, settlement, thermal stresses, braking force, uplift force. Generally one end of the bridge is provided with fixed bearing and the other with expansion bearing. If both the ends have fixed type bearings, internal stresses will develop in bridge structure. For a simply supported bridge girder, fired bearing is at one end and free bearing at the other. But for continuous bridge girder, fixed bearing is at one end and free bearings at the other ends.
Based on material used for bearings

1)

Mechanical bearings a) Ferrous bearings b) Non-ferrous bearings

2)

Elastomeric bearings Combined mechanical and elastomeric bearings.

3)

Mechanical Bearings: These allow longitudinal movements and end rotations by sliding, rocking or rolling. These are most commonly used. There are made of metals.

a)

Ferrous Bearings: These are the most commonly used mechanical bearing. These allow longitudinal movements by sliding of steel on steel and cast-iron. These allow rotations on pins, rollers and rockers. The types of ferrous bearings are

i) ii)

Plate bearings Roller bearings

iii) Rocker bearings iv) v) Spherical bearings Knuckle-pin bearings

vi) Railway board bearings. b)


Non-ferrous Bearings: These are made from aluminium alloys. These should be used with copper. "Ball and Socket type bearing" is the most commonly used bearing. These permit rotation up to 0.09 radians.

Elastomeric bearings: Elastomer is a polymeric substance obtained after vulcanisation. It possesses rubber like properties. It regains original shape completely upon unloading.

These bearings allow longitudinal movement and rotation. These consist of one or more internal layers of elastomer bond to internal steel

laminates by the process of Vulcanisation. These allow a horizontal movement of 70 mm and a rotation of 0.02 radians.

Bridges

3)

Combined mechanical and elastomeric bearing: The mechanical bearings provide the longitudinal movement and the elastomeric bearings provide the rotation.

12.6.4 Plate Bearings


This is also called as sliding bearings. This does not allow rotation. This is recommended for use for spans less than 15 m. These can be fabricated out of steel, Teflon and Bronze. These are only used for straight bridges. These are unstable under lateral forces. This bearing contains sole plate and bed plate. The sole plate is attached to the bottom of the Bridge Supporting Structure. The bed plate is fixed to the supporting structure. The size of the plates depends upon end reaction and allowable compressive strength of the material used for supporting structure. For sliding, Pintles are fixed in the bed plate. Different types of plate bearings are shown in Figures 12.68 to 12.71.

3ole

Bed Pulte

PLde

Figure 12.68: Sliding Bearing

b
Girder
Deep cast

Iron bed Plate

Figure 12.69: Cast-Iron Bed Plate Bearing

Figure 12.70: Curved Sole Plate Bearing

Steel Structures

(a)

(b)

Figure 12.71: Provision of Pintles

12.6.5 Ro3er Bearings


This type of bt?ring allows both translation and rotation. Figures 12.72 and 12.73 show a typical riller bearing.

Figure 12.72 : Single Roller Bearing

w
Pier

Figure 12.73 : Multiple Rollers Bearing

This is generally used for long span bridges. The roller is kept in position by using keys, lugs. A complete circular roller is provided for small sizes. For large size the segmental rollers are used. To take heavy loads number of rollers are used. Multiple Rollers permit horizontal moment very easily. For proper placing of roller spacer plates used. In the bottom stoppers are provided to avoid the movement of Rollers beyond the bottom plate.

12.6.6 Rocker Bearings


These are suitable for straight steel bridges. This type of Rocker bearing consist of a pin to accommodate very high deflections. These are used for spans more than 15 m. These are made of steel. These are connected with the substructure through a dead plate. These are bolted or welded to the bridge structure component. These do not permit horizontal movement. These allow only Rotation. Different types of Rocker bearings were shown in Figures specifications for Rocker pins:
13 74

to 12.76. IRC

The diameter of the Rocker pin shall not be less than 60 mm. The pin shall be fitted to a depth 0.5d in the groove. The minimum clean ends above the top surface of the Rocker pin shall be 2.5 mm.

Bridges

Figure 12.74 : Rocker Bearing with Curved Sole Plate

Figure 12.75 : Rocker Bearing with Curved Bed Plate

Figure 12.76 : Kocker Bearing with Pin

12.6.7 Knuckle Bearings


This is a special form of Roller bearing. A knuckle pin is inserted between top and bottom castings. The bottom casting is attacked to the top of the Rollers. The top casting is attached bottom of the Bridge girder. Figure 12.77 shows a typical knuckle pin bearing. ,

12.6.8 Spherical Bearing


In this type of bearing a spherical convex Rocker rotater in a spherical concave seating. The seating is attached to base plate. The Rocker is attached with the distributed plate which is with the bottom of bridge girder.

12.6.9 Railway Board Roller Bearing


Figure 12.78 shows railway board roller bearing. Top castings is attached to the bottom of the bridge girder. The bottom casting is attached on the top of the rollers. The total height of the bearing is ahout l m . The pin is subjected to only

Steel Structures

bearing pressure. The whole bearing is enclosed ir? n sheet metal box, filled with lubricating oil.

r-----Girder
p\n o v e r cont,neou%
Bottom cust~n4
s e * m e n t d totiers

Figure 12.78

12.6.10 Rocker & Roller Bearing


A typical rocker and roller bearing is shown in Figure 12.79

Figure 1279: Rocker and Roller Bearing

These bearings allow translation and rotation. The nest of rollers facilitates pin facilitates rotation. The main drawback is collection of translation. The r ~cker dust.

IS code provisions 1) 2) 3) The minimum diameter of the roller shall be 75 mm. The ratio of the length of the roller to the diameter shall be not more than 6 In the case of multiple rollers the gap between the rollers shall be not less than 50 mm.

Bridges

The allowable working loads per unit length of cylindrical rollers [on flat surface] shall be taken as: For mild steel 1) 2) Single and double rollers 8 0 N/mm of length Three or more rollers: 5D N/mm of length.

For high tensile steel 1) Single and double roller: 10 D, N/mm of length Three or more roller: 7 0 N/mm of length.

2) where D is the diameter of roller in mm. IS code provision: [IS 1915-19611 1)

Cylindrical roller on curved surfaces: The permissible load per length shall be follows: a) Single or double rollers:

(l/Dsl)

- (l/Dsz)

I, /mrn
k4

b)

k4 Three or more rollers: 101.9

kN/mm

where, k3 and k4 are as follows:


k3

Steel conforming to IS : 226 - 1958 Steel conforming to IS : 961 - 1957

0.80 1.10

0.50 0.70

and Ds, and s4 are the diameters in mm, of the convex and concave surfaces respectively. 2)

Pins: The permissible stresses in pins shall be as follows:


Steel conforming to IS : 226 - 1958 (~/rnrn') 1) 2) 3) In Shear In Bearing In Bending 98 206 206 Steel conforming to IS : 961-1957 ( ~ / m m ~ ) 137 294 294

For turned and fitted knuckle pins and spheres in bearing. The permissible stress on projected area shall not exceed 118 N/mm2 for steel conforming to IS : 226 - 1958. No pins shall be of diameter less than 100 mm. For railway bridges and road bridges the permissible stresses for pin (including knuckle pins) are given in above Table 28.13. However, as per IS : 800 - 1984 permissible stresses in pin of mild stefi conforming to IS : 226 shall be : In shear : 100 N/mm2 , in bearing: 300 ~/mrn and ~ in bending : 0.66 0 , .

Steel Structures

3)

Sliding Rearing: The permissible pressure for steel sliding on steel, hard copper alloys, or on cast iron shall not exceed 31 ~ l m m * .

12.6.11 Design Considerations for Elastoweric Bearings


IRC Specifications

I)

An elastic bearing should satisfy the following conditions as per IRC 83 (part 11) code. a) b) c) d) e) Hardness should be 60 & 5 degrees on IRHD scale (international) rubber hardness scale) Minimum tensile strength should be.17 MPa Minimum elongation at break shall be 400 Shear modulus of elastometer shall be in range from 0.8 MPa to 1.20 MPa Adhesion strength of elastometer to steel plates shall not be less than 7 kN1m.

Design of unreinforced electrometric bearings

I)

Plan dimensions: The preferred dimensions of elastomeric bearings are given in Table 12.1 below. Hower interpolation of plan dimensions can be made if the situation warrants.

1 1 ) The vertical (axial) stiffness of the elastometer is represented by its shape factor. The shape factor S of the elastometer is given by ratio ab (Loaded surface area)/(Surface area free to bulge) 2 t (a + b )

where, a and b are plan dimensions of the pad, and t is the thickness of pad.
Table 12.1: Standard Plan Dimensions of Elastometric Bearings (IRC: 83-1983, Part 11) Size Index No. Width (a) mm Length @) mm

111) Thickness: The thickness of a bearing is governed by its shear movement. If x is the translational shear deformation (Figure 12.80 then

Figure 12.80 : Iiearillg I)i111er1siul1s nlld I)el'urn~atiun

x = t tan @
Hc H , tan @=GA

where,
G = modulus of rigidity in ~ / r n r n ~

Hc = sustained horizontal load in newton. Hs = sustained dynamic horizontal load in newton

The value of x should be less than 0.7t, such that t > 1.43 x IV) Average compressive stress : This is given by

where, P = total vertical load in newton

a-x Ae = effective plan area excluding shear deformation in mm2 =b


The average stress so calculated should be less than 245. V)
To prevent slip : The slip of a bearing is due to high horizontal force and low vertical force. To avoid slip, the following conditions need to be met with

where,
PC and P., = sustained and dynamic vertical load, respectively in newton. H, and Hs = sustained and dynamic horizontal load, respectively in newton

p = coefficient of friction (average value = 0.3 )


VI) In order that a bearing does not overturn or topple, the thickness of bearing is restricted to less than a/5.

12.6.12 Design of Rocker Bearing


Data:
Vertical load due to (DL+ LL+ IL) (W) Vertical load due to wind (W)

Lateral load (F).

Design procedure

i
I

Step 1: Size of base plate


Area of base plate requires =
W Safe bearing pressure

I
I

Generally square plate is adopted.


Step 2: Din. of pin 2 100 mnz. ( d )

Steel Structures

Step 3: Thickness of vertical plates of bearing plate:

W 'd x allowable stress in bearing

Step 4: Check for stresses in pin

Calculate max. moment in pin, M = (Load on each plate) x (distance between the centre of outer plates of castings)
M Calculate max. bending stress ?d3 32

It should be less than allowable bending stress. Calculate the max. shear stress = -

4 Load on each plate

It should be less than the allowable shear stress.


Step 5: Check for bearing pressure

Calculate total vertical load (W

+ W1)
w + w,

Calculate the direction stress ( o l ) = a2 Calculate the moment due to wind, M I = (lateral load due to wind x 0.3 m) Assuming that the pin is at 0.3 m above the bottom of base plate.
6 MI Calculate stress due to M I = o2= --j-. a

Calculate the moment due to wind, M2

= (longitudinal load) x 0.3.


6 M2 Calculate the stress due to M2 = o3- 3 a

Calculate the total stress,

a = 0 , + o2+ 03.

It should be less than 1.33 x allowable stress.


Step 6: Design of base plate

Calculate upward pressure, p = 1.167 Calculate max. moment ( M 3 ) is the base plate. Calculate the thickness (t).
-X

t2 6

185=M3.

Step 7: Check for bending stress in the plate

Calculate Y, I,, Z Calculate bending stress

b
I

It should be less than 185 N/mm2.

Bridges

12.6.13 Design a Rocker Bearing


Data
Vertical load due to (DL+ LL+ 1L) = 900 kN. Vertical load due to wind = 200 kN. Lateral load due to wind = 250 kN. Longitudinal load = 300 kN.

Solution
Step 1 : Size of base plate
Assume the allowable bearing stress on concrete as 4 N/mm2 Area of base plate required =

900 lo3 = 22.5 x lo4rn2 4

Let us adopt 700 mm x 700 mm base plate

Step 2: Diameter of pin


Minimum diameter = 100 mm Adopt 125 mm diameter.

Step 3: Thickness of vertical bearing plates


I

Allowable bearing stress (as per code) = 208 N/mm2 Total thickness =

900 x lo3 = 34.6 mm. 125 x 208 Adopt 3 plates of 25 mm thick each.

Step 4: Check for stresses in pin 900 Downward load on each plate = -= 300 kN.

Allowable shear stress = 100 (as per code) Maximum shear stress
-4

300x lo3 (125)~


4

= 32.6 N/mm2

< 100~ / m m ~ ( : . Safe)


Provide a clear gap of 5 mm between the two outer plates of top casting and bottom casting.

Figure 12.81

Moment in pin, M = 300x 30 x lo3= 9 x lo6 N - rnm.

Steel Structures

Allowable bending stress = 208 N/mm2

< 208 N/mm2


Step 5: Check for bearing pressure

: .

Safe

Total vertical load = 900

+ 200 = 1100 kN.

Direct stress, ol = loo lo' = 2.24 N / ~ ~ ~ . 700 x 700 Allowable bearing pressure = 1.33 x 4 = 5.32 N/'rnm2 Let us assume the centre line of the pin is at 300 mm above the bottom of the base plate.
1 Lateral load due to wind = - x 250 = 62.5 kN. 4

'

Moment due to lateral load, MI = (62.5 x lo3)(300) = 18.75 x lo6 N-mm.

6 Ml Stress due to moment MI, o2=a3

Moment due to longitudinal load, M2 = (300 x lo3) (300)

= 9 0 x 106N-mm.
Stress due to moment M2, o3=

6 M2
a

Maximum Stress, o = ol + o2+ o3


= 2.24

+ 0.33 + 1.57 = 4.14 N/mm2


< 5.32N/mm2

: .

Safe

Step 7: Design of base plate

4.14 2 Upward pressure, p = = 3.55 N/mm . 1.167


Projection = 100 mm.

-x

t2

185 = 1.78 x lo4

: .

t = 24.0 mm.

Adopt 25

--.-.tl1irl.2p.s.

Bridges

Figure 12.82

Step 7: Check jor bending stress in the plate

- 700x25~ 1 2 . 5 + 3 x 2 1 2 . 5 x 2 5 x 131.25
Y=

700~25+3x212.5~25

= 69.1 mm.

Max. moment, MmaX = (3.55) (700)

(350)~
2

= 152.2 x

lo6 N - rnm.

: .

Bending stress = 1 a x ,= '

Mmax

= 143.7 ~ / r n r n ~

< 185 N mm2

: .

Safe

r--7
Girder
ease Plot?

Figure 12.83

12.6.15 Design of Rocker and Roller Bearing


1)

Design o f Rocker bearing and Base plate

Follow the design steps given in Sec 12.6.13.

Steel Structures

2)

Design of Rollers

Step 1 : Assume the diameter of roller


Minimum diameter should be 75 mm.

Step 2: Calculate the load on rollers ( P )


for a) b) Multiple roller = 5D Nlmm. length Single & double roller = 8 DNImm length

Step 3: Calculate the total length of rollers

L=

Total vertical load 1.167 ( P )

By choosing suitable length, calculate the number of rollers.


Step 4: Design of base plate below rollers
Size of base plate is same as in part 1 . Assume the thickness of base plate as 30 mm or 50 mm. Calculate the height of rocker pin from the bottom of the base plate. Calculate the moment due to lateral load ( M I ) Calculate the max. pressure o = W+Wl

6M1 +a3

It should be less than bearing pressure. Calculate maximum moment due to upward pressure

where,

b = projection of plate beyond C.L. of last roller.

It should be greater than Mma,.

12.6.16 Design a Rocker Roller Bearing for the Data (Given is Section 12.6.14)
Design of Rocker bearing
Same as is Sec: 12.6.14

Design of Roller bearing

1)
2)

Diameter of Roller = 100 mm Load allowed on roller = 5 D Nlmm = 5 x 100 = 500 N/mm Total load = 900

3)

+ 200 = 1100 kN.

Total length of roller = 1100x'103 = 2200 mm 500 Adopt 4 rollers of 600 mm length.

4)

Size of base plate = 700 mm x 700 mm. Assume the thickness of base plate = 30 mm. Height of centre of Rocker pin from the bottom of base plate

Bridges

= 30

+ 100 + 300 = 430 mm.


1lOOx lo3 6 x 26.875 x lo6 700 x 700 (700)~
+

Moment due to lateral load, M , = 62.5 x 0.43 = 26.875 Id\l-m Maximum pressure = c =

= 2.72 N/mrn2 < 1.33 x 4 ~ / m m ~ . (O.K.)

2'72 - 2.33 N/rnm2. Upward pressure, p = 1.167


Providing a clear spacing between rollers as 50 mm. Projection from centre of outer roller

b=

7 0 0 - 4 x 1 0 0 - 3 x 5 0 + ~ = 125mm 2 2

P b2 1252 Max. moment = -= 2\33 x N-mdmm 2 2


= 1.82 x lo4N - d m m length.

(7

f \

I
Ioernm Dia I ,Rollers

Pier

Figure 12.84 : Rocker and Roller Bearing

SAQ 3
1)

A pratt truss consisting equilateral triangles of 12 panels of 3 m. each is used for B.G. Main line loading. Find the maximum forces in the members meeting at the fourth joint in the bottom chord.

Steel Structures

2)

Design a compression chord member of a truss bridge having a length of 8.0 m. for the forces detailed below. Force in the member due to (DL+ LL+ IL) = 1600 kN. Force in the member due to (DL+ LL Use only channel and plate sections.

+ lL+

WL) = 1900 kN.

3)

Design a compression chord member a truss bridge using plates and L angles. Panel length is 6.0 m. Force in the member due to DL+ LLt Z is 3000 kN Design the members of a truss bridge at a Joint are given below:
Vertical: +I00 kN and -800 kN under normal loading -1 100 kN under occasional loading.

4)

+ 200 kN

and

Diagonal: 150 kN and +SO0 kN under normal loading - 250 kN and +I200 kN under occasional loading.

5)

Design a rocker bearing at one end and the roller bearing at the other end for a plate girder bridge of 30 m span given that the total reaction due to DL, LL and IL is 1500 kN. The vertical reaction due to overturning of wind at each end is 100 kN. Lateral wind load at each bearing is 50 kN. Design the rocker and roller bearing for a railway truss bridge for a railway truss bridge of BG Main line loading for a span of 30 m. The total line load for shear = 2680 kN.Assume self weight and superimposed dead load together as 4 kN/m track. Tractive effort = 640 kN.Breaking force = 500 kN.

6)

12.7 SUMMARY
In this unit, you have studied about steel bridges used for railways. The plate girder bridges and truss bridges are generally used. Now, you are able to do the design the above said bridge. You are aquainted with the knowledge of bridge design (Steel). In the last section, you studied about end bearings which are the most importent component of bridge structure. By going these section, you can design the bearings also.

12.8 ANSWERS TO SAQs


SAQ 1
Refer Preceding text given in the block

SAQ 2
1)

Sub-section 12.5.8 Sub-section 12.5.10 Sub-section 12.5.10 Sub-section 12.5.15 Sub-section 12.6.15 & 12.6.16 Sub-section 12.6.16

2) 3)
4)

5)
6)