UNIT 12 BRIDGES
Structure
12.1 12.3 12.3 12.4 Introduction
Objectives
12.6
End Bearings
12.6.1 12.6.2 12.6.3 12.6.4 12.6.5 12.6.6 12.6.7 12.6.8 12.6.9 12.6.10 12.6.1 1 12.6.12 12.6.13 12.6.14 12.6.15 IS Code Recommendations Forces Acting on Bearings Types of Bearings Plate Bearings Roller Bearing Rocker Bearings Knuckle Bearings Spherical Bearing Railway Board Roller Bearing Rocker & Roller Bearing Design Considerations for Elastomeric Bearings Design of Rocker Bearing Design a Rocker Bearing Design of Rocker and Roller Bearing Design a Rocker Roller Bearing
12.7 12.8
INTRODUCTION
Bridges are mainly constructed over a gap in highways or railways. The railway bridges are constructed with steel. The bridge may plate girder type or lattice girder type. These may be deck type or through type. The details about their components. structural action and design procedures are discussed i n this unit. The bridges are placed over bearings. The bearings may be rocker type, roller type or elastomeric bearing.
Steel Structures
Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to
a a a a
know the different type of bridges, design the deck type railway bridges using riveted, welded or welded with flange angles, design the lattice girder type bridge, and design the suitable bearings for railway bridges.
According to provided support to pedestrian loads of vehicular traffic loads bridges are classified as
1) 2) 3)
4)
Highway bridges: To carry highway traffic loads Railway bridges: To carry railway traffic loads Combine highway and railway bridges: To carry both highway and railway loads Foot bridges: These are constructed to serve the purpose of providing means to pedestrians only. Aqueduct bridges: These are used to carry canals and pipelines. Deck type bridge: These are two types:
a) b) c)
5)
ii)
Deck type plate girder bridge: In this the floor is placed on the top flanges. Deck type truss girder bridge: In this type the floor is placed on the top chords
In these deck type bridges over the top of the traffic there will not be any bracing.
2)
Through type bridge: In this type the floor is supported on the bottom of the maill load carrying members.
a) b)
Through type plate girder bridge: The floor is supported on buttom flanges. Through type truss girder bridge: The floor is supported on the bottom chords.
In these through type bridges over the top of the traffic bracing is also done.
3)
Half through type bridge: In between the top and the bottom of the main load carrying members the floor is laid. In this type of bridge load carrying members project above the floor level and over bracing is not provided. These are also double deck type bridges in which decks are provided at two different levels. In these double deck type bridges both the decks may be through type or one can be open deck type and the other can be through type.
iii) According to the make up of main load carrying element steel bridges are classified under 1)
Bridges
Ibeam bridges: Rolled steel wide flange Ibeams are used as load carrying elements.
In Railway bridges up to 15 m span  Ibeams are used. In Highway bridges up to 25 m span  Ibeams are used.
2)
Plate girder bridges: Load carrying members are the plate girders.
For span up to 30 m plate girder bridges may be used. But depth is limited up to 4 m.
3)
4)
Truss girder bridges: For more depths truss girder bridges are used as load carrying members from span 30 m to 250 m. Suspension bridges or cable bridges: In this type load carrying members are the high tensile steel wire cables. These are used for span of 250 m for highway bridges.
iv)
According to the structural layout the main load carrying members are classified as
1)
Simply supported span bridges: The total width of the bridge is divided into a number of individual spans and each span the load carrying member is simply supported at both the ends. Suitability: Where uneven settlement of foundation may take place.
2)
Continuous span bridges: In this type load carrying member of the bridge is continuous over more than two supports. Suitability: When uneven settlement of foundation does not occur. Advantages: Saving of material running is as high as 10 to 20 per cent.
They can take higher loads.
3)
Cantilever bridges: It is defined as a bridge in which one or more of its trusses are extended beyond their supports forming the cantilever arms. Arch bridges: To upgrade the beauty of its surroundings
a)
4)
for highway
b)
c)
d) 5)
Tied Arch: In this horizontal ties resist the horizontal thrust of the arch
Rigid frame bridges: Here rigid frames are load carrying members
Spans: 10 m to 25 m Suitability: For rigid foundations
v)
Riveted bridges: They are rigid and have more secondary stresses
Steel Structures
2)
3)
vi)
Overbridges: When the highway bridge is carried over the railway track by means of a bridge. Underbridges: When the highway bridge is carried under the railway track by means of a bridge.
Fixed (permanent bridges): They remain in one portion without any movement Movable bridges: They can be opened in horizontal or in vertical directions to allow over or channel traffic to pass.
Loads
The loads, which should be taken into account in the design of railway bridge are as follows: a) b)
C)
Dead loads: It includes weight of rails, sleepers floor system and the supporting structure and the dead weight of the structure. Live loads: Live loads are due to the train loadings like main lines axle loads, engineer, pedestrian traffic uniformly distributed over the foot way. Impact load: The dynamic effect of the moving load is taken care of by increasing the live load by a certain factor called impact factor. This impact factor should depend on many variables like the type of loading, speed, type of the structure, material of the structure loaded length. Centrifugal load: (Loads due to curvature of track) When a curve is there where railway bridge is situated, the structure will be affected by the centrifugalaction of moving vehicles
Centrifugal force can be found by formula
d)
where,
Wind load: Wind loads are the lateral loads which are caused due to the interference in the flow of wind by the moving load on the structure and the bridge structure itself. The intensity of wind pressure depends on the wind velocity which in turn depends upon the height of the structure above the mean retarding surface. Racking forces: Lateral forces are applied by the train due to its small lateral movement while moving on straight track. Longitudinal forces: The longitudinal loads are caused due to
i) ii) the tractive effort of the driving wheels of the locomotives. the braking effect resulting from the application of the brakes to all braked wheels.
f) g)
iii) the resistance offered by bearings to the movement at the roller end. The live loads and longitudinal loads on railway bridges are given in the Tables 12.1 to 12.5.
Bridges
Live loads on foot bridges and foot paths attached to railway bridges
1) The live load due to pedestrian traffic shall be treated as uniformly distributed over the foot way. For the design of foot bridges or foot paths on railway bridges, the live load including impact shall be taken as 490 kg/m2 of the foot path area. Live load on foot path for the purpose of designing the main girders shall be taken as follows. i) ii) For effective span of 7.5 m or less = 415 kg/m2 For effective span over 7.5 m but not exceeding 30 m. An intensity of load reducing uniformly from 415 kg/m2 for a span of 7.5 m to 295 kg/m2 for a span of 30 m.
2)
iii) For effective span of over 30 m, live load is taken according to the formula:
where,
3)
Kerbs 600 mm or more in width shall be designed for the load of 490 kg/m2 in addition to the lateral loading of 750 kg/m run of the kerb, applied horizontally at the top. If the width of kerb is less than 600 mm, no live load shall be applied.
SAQ 1
1) 2) 3) What is a bridge? What are the types of bridges based on material of construction? What are deck type bridges? Differentiate between deck type and through type bridges. What are the uses of aqueduct bridges? What is the difference between plate girder bridges and trussgirder bridges? Enumerate the types of arch bridges? Differentiate between dead loads and live loads. What is impact load? How can you consider it in the design of railway bridges?
4)
5) 6)
7)
8)
9)
10) Enumerate the different loads acting on the railway bridges. 11) What are the factors contributing to the longitudinal forces? 12) What is the live load acting on foot paths? 13) What is the,live load acting on Kerb?
Steel Structures
(a) Elevation
I
CROSS
FRAME
Figure 12.1
In this type bridge, the plate girders are the main load carrying members. These are placed at a spacing of 2 to 3 m clc, to resist the wind and other transverse 1 loads. The minimum spacing is about x span, or depth of girder. Sleepers are 20 placed directly over the top surface of the plate girder. These reduce the impact, though spring action. The reduction depends on the length of the sleepers. Bracing is provided to resist lateral and longitudinal loads. Main horizontal bracing (a horizontal) is provided in between the top flanges of the girder and at the level of bottom flanges also. These bracing are designed to resist a transverse shear equal to 2.5% of the total compressive force by the flanges. Crossframes are provided in parallelvertical girders, to transfer the load at top flanges to the bottom flanges.
7)
Laterals
(a) Elevation
Steel Structures
This type of bridge consists of two plate girders. The plate girders receive the load through the crossbeams. The beams span right angles to the main plate girders. The beams are provided at some suitable spacing and are connected to the girders with framed connection. The stringers are provided parallel to the main girders and are supported and framed into crossbeams. These carry sleepers. Horizontal bracing system is provided to transmit the lateral forces to the bearings. This is provided at the level of lower flange. The triangular gusset plates are provided at the top flange. These are connected with inner sides of crossbeams.
M =8
w L~
WL 2
V =
zva= 100 ~ / r n m ~
thickness, t = rva d where, V = shear force (N)
abc d e
obc = 165 ~ / r n r n ~
de = effective depth of plate plate girder (mm)
= C to c distance of flange elements (may be taken as equal to 6)
Calculate the Gross area of flange Calculate the deductions for rivet holes Calculate the Net area of flange
: .
Net area of flange = (Gross area of flange  deductions for rivet holes)
Calculate the Gross Moment of Inertia of section abbut N.A. Calculate the actual bending stress in Compression, obc, cal = x ymax I where,
Compression fibre from N.A (mm) Calculate the actual bending stress in tension.
Obt9b'."
t
a)
t = min thick of element to be connected (mm) = allowable shear stress in fastenings (100 ~ / m m ~ )
where, V = max. SF (N) d = depth (mm) Max. allowable pitch is 12t or 200 mm, whichever is less b) Flange angles to flange plate Calculate the strength of rivets in i) Single shear = d 4 ii) Bearing = dt opf Calculate the rivet value (R) Calculate the pitch of rivets, p (Gross area of flange) Rd x V (Gross area of flange plates) Maximum allowable pitch is 12t or 200 mm, whichever is less.
2
/,
Calculate the minimum pitch, p = 2.5 x nominal dia. providing rivets in two rows.
n Calculate the extra length of plate required for connecting rivets = 2 'P
Calculate the actual length of the plate to be curtailed = (theoretical length + n. PI.
Step 7: Design of bearing stiffeners
These are provided at the supports and under concentrated loads. Calculate the allowable bearing stress, o , ,
 Reaction or
Try 4 equal angle sections such that the area provided is more than the bearing area required. Calculate the length of the bearing stiffener
=
Calculate the slenderness ratio =
from Table 5.1 of Calculate the value of Allowable Compressive stream (o,,) IS: 800  1984. Calculate the load carrying capacity
=, a
x Gross area.
Calculate the strength of rivets in double shear and bearing. Calculate the Rivet value (R) Calculate the number of rivets required,
n=
Calculate d, d , , d7
Steel Structures
i)
Calculate
6 
If the thickness of web is less than any one of the above values, provide vertical stiffeners. If the thickness of web is more, no intermediate stiffeners are required. ii) Calculate clear panel (smallest) 180
9
d2 200 and
* d2 3200
If the thickness of web is less than any one of the above values a horizontal stiffener at a distance of 2/5. The distance of compression flange to NA. iii) Calculate Smallest clean panel d2 d2 @ and2 ' 250 4000 180
If the thickness of web is less than any one of the above values, a horizontal stiffener is provided at N.A.
c d '
d t
Generally 2 angle seCtions are used. Calculate the MoI about the centre line of the web. It should be greater than the MoI required
Design of rivets
Calculate the rivet value (R) Calculate the shear force, S = 25t2 N/mm h
t = web thickness
h = outstand
R Calculate the pitch = S
Maximum allowed pitch of 32 t or 300 mm, whichever is less.
2 th of
5
Calculate the value of Imq = 4 c t 3 . Generally one pair 2 of equal angle section is preferred. Calculate the MoI of the stiffener about the centre line of the web.
Connections
Calculate the strength of rivets in double shearing and bearing Calculate the rivet value ( R )
Calculate the shear flow ( S ) = 125 N/mm h R Calculate the pitch = S Maximum allowable pitch is 32 t or 300 mm whichever in less.
'
4 t3
Generally one pair of equal angle section is preferred. Calculate the MoI of the stiffener about the centre line of the web.
Connection: p =  < 32 t
c 200 mm.
+ 1.417 x 2034 = 3482.2 kN Total load for SF = 600 + 1.417 x 223 1 = 3761.3 kN.
Total load for BM = 600
Steel Structures
Max. SF,
M = 5223.3 kNm
o , ,= 165 ~
/ m m ~
Economical depth,
Adopt 12 mm thick web plate of 1600 mm depth Step 3: Design o f flange Net flange area required =
4 c .d
Gross area of flange reqd. = 1.25 x 19785.2 = 24731.5 mmL Gross area of flange angles reqd. = 24731'5 = 8243.8 rnm2 3
8243m8  4121.9 mm2 Gross area of one flange angle = 2
Bridges'
+ 15)
15
+ 23.5 (2 x
Net area of flange = 33960  3572
Moment of Inertia I =
Ymax 
obc, c a ~ = j
Ymax
obr, C O I = o b c , cal
Figure 123
x=2
Reaction = 
1741.1.
Figure 12.4
Bending stress = x y
1 1
Ml
S t r e n g t ho f rivets in
a)
b)
: .
24.
: .
i)
ii)
V = 940.32 kN.
Gross area of flange Gross area of flangeweb component
1
mm.
= 154.9 mm.
Maximum allowable spacing = 12 t or 200 mm.
: .
V = 940.32 kN.
Pitch,
~d Gross area of flange p = x V Grossarea of flange plates
= 250.6 mm.
V = 940.32 kN
o , = 187.5 ~ / m m ~
Bearing area required = = 940'32x lo3 = 5015.04 mm2 OP 187.5 Adopt 4ISA 9090, 10 mm. (A = 1703 mm2, I = 126.7 x lo4 mm4, Cxx = 25.9 mm) Length of the bearing stiffener = 1600  2 x 1.5 = 1570 mm. Effective length = 0.7 x 1570 = 1099 mm.
Gross area
Steel Structures
Radius of gyration,
r=
10772
= 43.2 mm.
Slenderness ratio,
o,,= 146.5 ~ / m m ~
P = oa, . A = 146.5 x 10772 N
= 1578 N
> V (Safe)
Connections
dl
:.
ii)
: .
Bridges
t is the greater of
"
ii) iii)
d 2 ~
2
1570
= 3.9 mm. ~
6400 
: .
t = 5.88 mm.
Let us try 21SA 9Q90, 10 mm. Moment of Inertia about the centre line 126.7~ l @ + 1703
Figure 12.6
Design of rivets Using 22 mm dia P.D.S rivets. Rivet values R = 70.5 kN. 125 t ' Shear flow, S = h
Pitch p == S
Steel Structures
Calculate r,,, = 0 . 4 4 =I00 ~ / r n m * Calculate the thickness, t = d . ="a Adopt 12 mm, 16 mrnt20 mm thickness. Step 3: Design of flange plate Flange area required, Af=
M 9  d
L L Flange width, B =  to 40 45
Thickness =
A B
Step 4: CIleck for flexure Calculate Gross area (A), M.o.1 (Ixx and lyy) Calculate r y y=
Calculate elastic critical stress K b ) From Table 6.2 of IS:800, find permissible bending stress (obc) Calculate bending stress,
= (Area of flange plate) x (distance between centroid and c.g. of flange plate)
1 = lxx,.
Adopting continuous weld, on both sides, strength of weld = 2 x 0.7 S x 110 Here shear strength of weld is 110 ~ / m m ~
Adopt 2 flats such that the outstand should not be greater than 12t. The web length about 20 t in effective in bearing. Calculate A. I about centre line of web, r = IS: 800). Calculate the load carrying capacity
di,!,
o, (Tables 5.1 of
P = oUc A.
It should be greater than V.
Design of connections
Adopt size of weld as 6 mm (S) Length of intermittent weld, L = lot. Strength of weld = 0.7 S L x 110 N.
= 77 SL N
Required strength of weldlmm length
v 
4d
: .
Steel Structures
z,,
v (d , =dt
=d
14)
ii)
If the thickness of web is less than any one of the above values, a 2 horizontal stiffener is provided at a distance of  of the distance from 5 the compression flange to NA. iii) Calculate

If the thickness of web in less than any one of the above values, a horizontal stiffener is required at N.A.
: .
Choose a single flat. Find the moment of inertia about centre line of the web. It should be greater than required I.
2 distance
5
comp. flange
Refer step 10 of Section 12.4 to NA For Design of weld refer step 8 of this procedure
Step 10: Horizontal stifener at NA
Example 12.1
'
Design a welded plate girder bridge for Broad Gauge Main line of span 24 m.
Solution
Step I : Computation of loads, BM an SF
V = 940.32 kN
Economical depth, d = 5
Gb
Steel
Structures
Figure 12.7
Radius of gyration, r y y 
From Table 6.5, (IS: 8001984), X = 1713 Y = 1656 Elastic critical stress, Lb = kl (X+ k2 Y ) C2
c,= c*
Y = 1, k, = 1.0 (Table 6.3)
w = 0.5, k2 = 0 (Table 6.4)
c1
_VAy  I
= 517.2 Nlmm
Let the weld is provided are both faces of the web continuously. Strength of weld = 2 x (0.7 S) x 110
= 154 S N/mm
: .
154 S = 517.2
: . S = 3.36
;
mm
= 2507.3 mm2
Adopt 2 plates of 240 x 20 mm plate A=2~240~20+340 12 x
= 13680 rnm2
Moment of inertia about centre line.
Radius of gyration, r =
=
1 1120 = 9.3. Slenderness ratio, h =  = r 120.47 From Table 5.1 (IS: 800),
o , ,= 1 5 0 ~ / m m ~
: .
>V
(OK)
Design of Connection
Let us adopt size of weld, S = 6 mm. Length of weld = 10 t = 10 x 20 = 200 mm Strength of weld = 0.7 S L x 110 =77x6x200N
= 92.4 kN.
Spacing of Weld
Bridges
Thickness of web is less than the above values, vertical intermediate I stiffeness are required.
Panel dimension min = 0.33 d = 0.33 x 1600 = 533 mm. Maximum 1.5d = 1.5 x 1600 = 2400 mm For , z ,
= 49 ~ / m r n and ~
d = 133.33, t
C = 1.5d.
Adopt a panel dimension of 1600 mm
ii)
4 t==400
1'1
Steel Structures
Let us try .a flat section 110 x 10 mm Moment of Inertia about the face of web = l o x ' l o 3 =443.7x 104mm4 3
'
'required
(OK)
FLANGE
Size of weld, S = 3 mm Length of weld, L = l o t = l o x 10= 100mm. Max. allowable spacing = 16 t or 300 m m
= 1 6 x 10= 160mm.
=77SLN. = 7 7 x 3 x 100=23.lkN.
Shear force per mm length = 125  N/mm h
t2
Spacing
Example 12
Design a welded plate girder bridge for B.G. main line for a span of 24 m.
Solution
For mole details refer Section 12.4.1
Bridges
For more details refer section 12.4.1 Adopt 1600 mm depth x 12 mm thick web plate.
Step 3: Design of flange
Adopt 21SA 200 200, 15 rnm flange angle. Adopt 2 plates of 500 mm x 200 mm.
Step 4: Check for flexural stresses
Figure 12.10
Steel Structures
Radius of gyration, ry =
D 1680  42
T  40
c 2
: .
From Table 6.2 of IS: 800, obc = 157N/mm2 Allowable bending stress, obc = 157 N/mm2 Actual bending stress, obc, cal = x Ymax I
. ;
Safe.
Steel Structures
ii) iii)
x=l
Figure 12.13
= 103.28 ~ / r n m '
: .
0.924 L = 824.9
L = 892.7 mm.
Adopt 900 mm length weld.
: .
2
Figure 12.14
Bridges
Design of weld
c/c
Strength of weld = 2 X 23.1 = 46.2 kN. Spacing of weld, lesser of the following, i) ii) iii) 1 6 t = 1 6 15=240mm ~ 300 mm 2 ~ 2 3 . l1 ~ 200
~ ~ = ~ ~ ~ ~
12.4.4 Lateral Bracing System for Deck Type Plate Girder Bridges
The lateral bracing system is generally provided at the top level of the flanges. It consists of diagonals and cross members. The system may consist of single diagonals, double diagonals, or Ktype diagonals. The diagonals are provided in square type panels. The lateral bracing system are shown is Figure 12.17.
Steel Structures
/Wind
load intrnsi ty
(e)
Let p = intensity of wind load per unit length (maximum value of loaded and unloaded cases) The bracing system can be assumed to be a simply supported girder.
where, P = PL = Total wind load. Due to this bending moment, equal and opposite axial force will be developed the loaded flange of the girder.
Stress, where,
F PL a==A
8SA
A = area of flange.
At the bottom flange, another lateral bracing system is provided to take 114 of the load taken by the top lateral bracing sqstem.
Bridges
= 3.00 kN/m
Wind load on train = 1.5 x 3.5 = 5.25 kN/m Racking force (assume) Total wind loads Step 2: Forces in the members Let us divide the bracing system of 2 m size No. of panels is 12. The force acting at intermediate node = 14 x 2 = 28 kN The force acting at end node = 14 x 1 = 14 kN
= 5.75 kN/m
p = 14 kN1m
I 2 Panels @ 2 m
R =I68kN
Figure 12.18
I68kN
Reaction, R =
14 x 24 = 168kN. 2
8 = 45"
Compressive force in the end strut = 168 kN Tensile Force is the end diagonal = sin 45"
= 154 6 k N = 217.79 kN
Step 3: Design of endstrut Let us provide to angles on the same side of angles plate. Force, P = 168 kN. Assume
a , = 70 N/mm
2
rmin= 27.3 mm
Effective length, 1 = 2000 mm
lOm m
: .
I
lOmm gusset plate
ISA 9 0 x 9 0 ~
Let us adopt 3 mm size weld Strength of end weld = (0.7 x 3) (2 x 90) (1 10)
= 41.58 kN
Bridges
3) (L) (1 10)
= 462 L N.
: .
L = 273.6 mm
a , , = 0.64 = 150 ~ / m d
Net area required =
217.79 x lo3 = 1452 mm2 150
Gross area required = 1.4 x 1452= 2032 mm2 Adopting 2 ISA. 90mm x 90mm x lOmm Gross area = 3406 mm2 If 20 mm diameter power driven shop rivets are used, deduction for rivet =2x21.5x10=430mm2 holes Net area provided = 3406  430
= 2976 mm2
Adopt 3 rivets for each angle at a pitch of 50 mm and end distance of '30 mm. (Ref. Figure 12.19)
b) Design of welding jor diagonal
Adopting 3 mm size weld, the strength of end weld = 41.58 kN. Strength of fillets welds to be provided by longitudinal welding
= 217.7941.58
= 176.21 kN
Strength of longitudinal weld
Steel Structures
. :
L = 381 mm.
12.4.6 Crossframes
These are provided between two girders in the vertical plane. These are provided at all plane points of horizontal bracing. Generally, they consist of two diagonal members, top and bottom member. The diagonal member is subjected to maximum load. The top and bottom member are in lateral bracing system.
Design procedure
Calculate the force in the diagonal member
Connection design
1) 2)
Rivet: Calculate the rivet value. Calculate the no. of rivets. Welding: Assume size of weld. Calculate the strength of end weld. Find the length of filled weld required.
Bridges
Solution
From subsection 12.4.6, Force at the end panel point = 168 kN. Force at the intermediate panel point = 28 kN.
Design of end crossframe
16 tan 8='=0.8
2
= 168 x 1.28
= 215.14kN
o , ,= 150 ~ / m m ~
Net area required = 215'14 lo3 = 1434.3 mm2 150 Gross area required
=
Let us try 21SA 80 x 80 x 8 mm Gross area = 2 x 1221 = 2442 mm2 Using 20 mm dia, P.D.S rivets, reduction for rivet holes
= 2 x 21.5 x 8 = 344 mm2
2442
+
2 m 
Figure 1223
a)
Rivet
: .
Steel Structures
b)
Welding
Figure 12.25
+ 160) x
1 10
+ 80) N.
Force = 215.14 kN
L = 386 mm
Adopt L
400 mm
Force in the diagonal = P sec 8 = 28 x I .28 = 35.84 kN. Net area required =
35.84 x lo3 = 238.9 mm2 150
Gross area required = 1.4 x 238.9 = 334.5 1 mm2 Let us try for 2ISA 50 50, 6 mm. Gross area = 2 x 568 = 1136 mm2 Using 20 mm dia. P.D.S. rivets, Reduction for rivet holes = 2 x 21.5 x 6 = 258 mm2 Net area provided = 1136  258
= 878 mm2
a)
1.
b)
+ 50)N
: .
27.6 mm
=
Adopt 5 mm, L
400 mm
Design of intermediate crossframe Force in the diagonal = P sec 8 = 28 x 1.28 = 35.84 kN. 35.84 x lo3 2 Net area required = = 238.9 mm 150 Gross area required = 1.4 x 238.9 = 334.51 mm2 Let us try for 2ISA 50 50, 6 mm. Gross area = 2 x 568
=
Bridges
1136 mm2
Using 20 mm dia. P.D.S. rivets, Reduction for rivet holes = 2 x 21.5 x 6 = 258 mm2 Net area provided = 1136  258
Net area> required (OK) Connection 35.84 Rivets: No. of rivets =  1. 36.3 Use one rivet for each angle. b) Welding: Using 3 mm size weld, Strength of weld = (0.7 x 3j (2 L + 100) x 1 10 =462(L+50)N Force = 35.84 kN.
SAQ 2
1)
Design a deck type riveted plate girder bridge for BG Main line for a span of 20 m. Design a deck type welded plate girder bridge for BG branch line for a span of 16 m. Design a deck type welded plate girder bridge for BG Main line for a span of 22 m. Use flange angles. Design a lateral bracing system for pr. (I), (2), & (3) Design crossframes for pr. (I), (2) & (3). Enumerate the types of lateral bracing system.
2) 3) 4) 5) 6)
Steel Structures
Table 12.1: Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Live Loads (EUDLL) on each Track and Impact Factors for Broad Gauge Bridges
L (Metres)
Impact Factor
20 14+L
B.L.
L (Metres)
B.L.
3316 3448 3576 3702 4010 4310 4600 4882 5154 5438 5708 5978 6246 6512 6772 7042 7302 7564 7824 8804
Impact Factor 20 14 + L
0.345 0.333 0.323 0.313 0.290 0.270 0.253 0.238 0.225 0.213 0.202 0.192 0.183 0.175 0.168 0.161 0.155 0.149 0.144 0.139
dges
3910 4080 4240 4380 4775 5148 5440 5918 6280 6670 7035 7420 7800 8200 8580 8970 9350 9730 10100 10485
Note : The intermediate values may be found by linear interpolation. The values of loads have been converted from
metric tonnes to kiloNewtons.
Table 12.2: Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Live Load (EUDLL) in on each Track and Impact Factors for Metre Gauge Bridges Total Load for BM (kN) L (Metres) M.L.
264 364 264 282 320 386 437 477 508 550 593 623 657 690 728 76 1 789 816
B.L.
214 214 214 229 257 313 354 386 41 1 446 480 508 542 576 605 630 653 674
C
162 162 174 20 1 223 260 289 3 10 338 365 389 409 437 459 482 499 516 537
B.L.
214 236 284 313 354 394 426 470 508 540 566 60 1 633 660 684 706 730 756
C
162 192 138 255 289 317 350 383 409 43 1 454 482 503 523 541 560 582 602
Impact Factor 20 14 + L
1.000 1,000 1. O O O 1. O O O 1. O O O 1.000 1.000 1.OW 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.976 0.952 0.931 0.909 0.889 0.870 0.85 1
1.O 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5
Steel Structures
M.L.
B.L.
1
I
B.L.
I
I
Impact Factor 20
Note : The intermediate values may be found by linear interpolation. The values of loads have been converted from metric tonnes to kilo Newtons.
Table 12.3: Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Live Load (EUDLL) on each Track and Impact Factor for 762 mm Narrow Gauge Bridges Total Load for BM (kN)
L (Metres)
Bridges
H Class Loading
A Class Loading
B Class Loading
120 122 160 190 220 240 225 270 295 340 380 405 425 445 455 465 475 480 485 500 520 550 600 700 770 800 840 870 900 940 970 1000 1040 1070 1110 1140 1180 1210 1240 1310 1380 1450
B Class Loading
Impact Factor 90 90 + L
'
193 220 255 300 330 370 400 430 460 485 510 530 550 570 590 615 630 650 670 720 765 8 10 855 900 960 1010 1060 1100 1150 1190 1230 1280 1320 1370 1410 1450 1500 1540 1590 1670 1760 1840
Steel Structures
L (Metres)
H Class Loading
2010 2080 2140 2210 2280 2340 2400 2560 2720 2830 2880 2910
A Class Loading
1810 1890 1960 2020 2090 2150 2220 2390 2540 2690 2840 2990
B Class Loading
1520 1580 1650 1720 1780 1850 1910 2060 2190 2320 2420 2490
H Class Loading
2170 2240 23 10 2380 2450 2510 2580 2740 2910 3080 3240 3400
A Class Loading
1920 1990 2070 2140 2210 2280 2350 2510 2680 2840 3000 3150
B Class Loading
1560 1620 1690 1750 1800 1860 1920 2070 2220 2360 2500 2630
38 40 42 44 46 48 50 55 60 65 70 75
Note : The intermediate values may be found by linear interpolation. (The values of loads have been converted from
metrictonnes to kiloNewtons.
Table 12.4: Longitudinal Loads (Without Deduction for Dispersion) for broad gauge 1676 mm
L (Metres)
Bridges
B.L.
315 324 33 1 335 339 344 350 352 356 36 1 366 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 358 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368
B.L.
280 29 1 300 304 311 318 325 33 1 336 343 349 353
125 130
1
B.L.
74 72 70 73 79 94
Note: Intermediate values may be found by linear interpolation. The values of loads have been converted from metrictonnes to kiloNewton.
Table 125: Longitudinal Loads (Without Deduction for Dispersion) for Metre Gauge 1 m
L (Metres)
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
M.L.
58 57 56 60 67 80
B.L.
47 46 46 49 54 65
C
35 35 37 43 44 54
Steel Structures
I. 
(Metres)
B.L.
104 111 115
M.L.
B.L.
73 79 83

L (Metres)
B.L.
Bridges
Note : Intermediate valus may be found by linear interpolation. The values of loads have been converted from
i~~erricronnes to kiloNewton.
Main truss girders Floor Lateral bracing systemtop and bottom Portal bracing Sway bracing
2)
3)
4)
5)
\ 1 1
_Topc . h o d m e m b e r
Generally, the bridge consists of two trusses arranged at some spacing. The crossgirders or floor beams connect the correspondent lower points. The stringer beams run parallel to the span. The stringer beams distribute the loads to the floor beams. These support sleepers on which the rails can be laid longitudinally. Hence, the loads from the moving trains distribute from rails to sleepers, from sleepers to stringer beams, from stringer beams to floor beams, from floor beams to lower panel points of truss girder. Lateral bracing system is provided at top and bottom to receive lateral loads, wind loads, seismic loads and racking forces. The loads acting on bottom lateral bracing system is transferred to the bearings. The loads acting on the top lateral bracing system is transferred to the end posts. Sway bracing are provided, to keep the rectangular shape, at each panel point.
12.5.2
..
(c) Warren Truss With Verticals
Steel Structures
P,, U , . sin 0 + RL = 0 p
u = RL y=
sin0
[
$)cosecO
8I
9 , L,
At
5 6
\&yN
Figure 12.28(e): ILD for L ~ U ~
Pass section 11 and consider the section as shown Figure 12.28(f).
Figure 1 2 . 2 8 ( f )
To get ILD for Ul U2, moment is to be taken about the point L2 where Ul L2 and L, L2 are meeting Unit load rolling from Lo to L2 (x + 0 to 2 a ) Taking moments about L2
( 1 $).2a1
(2ax)+PIII[1 x2 h=O
Bridges
& to L6
&,
Member U2 U3
Pass section 2
2
&C;L
Figure 12.28(i)
To get ILD for member U2 U3, take moments about the Joints L3 where U2 L3 and & L3 are meeting. Unit load moving from to L3 (x + 0 to 3a) Taking moments about & ,
Steel Structures
L, ro L6 : ( X 4 3a
to 6a)
Lo L,
(from Figure? 12.28(d)).
Coltsider Joint
=O
Pass section 1  1, and consider the section as shown in Figure 12.28(e), To get ILD for L1 L 2 , moment is to be taken about U, where the member U, and U1 U2 are meeting. Unit load moving from Lo to L, ( x + 0 to a ) Taking moments about joint U1
x=a,PL lLz6h
5a5
6
.cote
X
+
+ a to 6 a)
L0
cat s
L,
Lb
. . 
Bridges
Member
&5
Pass section 2  2 and consider the section as shown in Figure 12.28(i). To get ILD for & L3 , Moment is to be taken about U2 where the members U2L3 and U2 U3 are meeting.
to L1 (x
+2 a )
& ?0L6 : (x + 2 a to 6 a )
Member U1&
Pass section 1

Steel Structures
1 x = a, PU = 3. cosec 0.
I 2
4 to L6 : (x + 2a to 6a)
[ 2)
1
Cy = 0.
P,,
sin 0 = 0
pLIi=(1  ~ ) C o s e C O At x = 2 a , P u1 2 ,=jcosecO
2
x=6a,PU, =O
1 2
When unit load is moving from L, to L, i.e., in the panel, the force in member U, 4 changes from compression to tension.
Member U2 L, Pass section 2  2, and consider the section as shown in Figure 12.28(i) Unit Load moving from Cy = 0 to
L,
(x
+ to 2 a)
5 to L6 (X + 3 a to 6 a)
)Pu2isin0=o
Pu2 L3 = 1At
4
2
cosec 0
x = 3 a, P u2
1 ,= 5 cosec 0
Bridges
Mernber U 1L,
Consider to Joint L1
Z y =0
P,
, Load at Joint L,
=
1
=0 =
I I
+1
=0
Lo
L,
'
L6
Figure 12.28(r): U2 Lz
Mernber U2 L2
Pass section 3  3 and consider the section as shown in Figure 12.28(s):
Figure 12.28(s)
+ 0
2 a)
Steel Structures
Figure 12.28(t) 3
[1&)+Pu2i=o
pUlL2=[l
1 Pu2 L2 =  7
&I
P U L =o
2
Tens~on
Lo
a m press
Member U3L3
Since the unit load is moving on bottom chord, the force in U35 is always zero. The ILD is as shown.
i
Li
Figure 1 2 . 2 8 ( v ) : 1LL) for U j LJ
+
L6
Bridges
/.
higure IZ.LY(b)
To got ILD for member U1 U2 take moments about the Joint L2 where the members L, L, and L, L2 are meeting.
Unit load moving front L1 to
4:
(x + 0 to a )
C.Mk=O*
a
i4
14
al(ax)+Pu
1
1 2
.h=O
2
[a~u+x)=Pu
=3
At
x = 0,
x = a,
4 to L4 (X + a to 3a)
Figure 12.29(c)
Steel Structures
Figure 12.2Y(e)
To get ILD for member L12 U3, take moments about the joints L3 where the member U2 4 and L 2 4 .
Lo to L1 : (x +
0 to 2 a )
to L4 : (x + 2a to 3a)
Figure 12.29(f)
ZML3=0
At
4 ~ = 2 a , P , ~ ~ ~ [ l= 3 
3E
Figure 12.29(g): ILD for UZU3
Bridges
4 : (Figure 12.29(c))
(
xd g t o 3a 2
Since the load is i o v i n g on the bottom chord member, linear variation starts from L, to &.
Steel Slructures
3i
.
. .
&
Similarly, using this procedure you arealso to draw the influence line diagram for any member of any type of truss.
Bridges
12.5.5
Stringer Beams
These are the longitudinal beams provided parallel to the track. The span of the stringer beam equal to the spacing of crossbeam. The loads acting are 1) Weight of stock rails, guard~rails, fastenings, sleepers, self wt. Live load from rolling stock. Impact load
2) 3)
The stringer beams are braced to resist the effect of wind load. The stringer beam is checked for stress due to dead load, live load, wind effect, racking force and longitudinal force.
Example 12.4
Design a stringer beam for a through type truss bridge of span 60 m. The cross beams are provided at 6 m clc. The stringer beams are at 2 m clc. Solution
Step 1: Calculation of loads
Assume weight of stock rails, guard rails, fastenings, sleepers and self wt. as 8 kN/m. of track. From table, EUDL for BM = 763.9 kN EUDL for SF = 918.9 kN To calculate CDA, L = 1.5 x c to c spacing of crossbeams
C D A =0.15+
8 8 =0.15+(6 + 9 )  0.683. (6 + L)
Impact EUDL for B M = 0.683 x 763.9 = 522 kN. Impact EUDL for SF = 0.683 x 918.9 = 627.6 kN. Total load for BM per track = 48 + 763.9 + 522 = 1333.9 kN Total load for SF per track = 48 + 918.9 + 627.6 = 1594.5 kN
Total load/stringer beam
Steel Structures
Let us select IS MB 600 with one plate 300 mm x 10 mm one each flange.
figure 1Z.JU
300n103 + l o o x l O P + f j
z , , = 147633 3 10
lo'
= 4762.4 x
lo3 rnm4
Gross area of flange = 300 x 10 + 210x 20.8 = 7368 mm" Using 20 mm dia. P.D.S rivets, Reduction for rivets = 2 1.5 x (10 20.8) = 662.2 mm2
: .
Bridges
< 100 ~ / m m ~
Step 4: Design oj' conrzection
( : .
Safe)
Strength ol a) b)
I i\,ctq
in
7t
1000
 64.5
kN
..
= 246 N/mm.
i) ii) iii)
12 t = 12 x 10 = 120 mm 200 mm
6 Length of subpanel =  = 2 m 3
Length of the diagonal Calculation of lateral loads a) Wind load on exposed Area of stringer above chord (let the height of stringer above the top of bottom chord is 0.4 m) = 0.4 x 1.5 = 0.6 kN/m Intensity of wind load = 1.5 k ~ / m ~ b) c) Wind load on moving train = 3.5 x 1.5 = 5.25 kN/m (height of bogie as 3.5 m) Racking force Total lateral load
=2 f i m
= 12 kN/m (say)
Load at end panel = 12 x 1 = 12 kN. Load at intermediate panel = 12 x 2 = 24 kN.
Steel Structures
Figure 12.31
Let us assume o , , = 60 ~ / m m ~
= 565.67 rnm2
Let us try ISA 100 x 100 x 6 mm
A = 1167 mm2
1 A=_=
2 6 x 1000
r min
19.5
= 145

Bridges
Assume self weight as 5 kN/m. To get max. BM and SF, two adjacent lengths should be loaded. For this loaded length (= 2 x span of stringer beam), take total EUDL for BM and SF from railway bridge codes.
2)
1
1
3)
The impact factor (CDA) is to be calculated for a span of 2.5 x span of the stringer beam. Calculate total load for BM and SF.
I
)
I
4)
d)
Example 12.5
Choose the size and length of the framing angle to accommodate the rivets.
Design a crossgirder for the following data: Stringer beam = ISMB 600 with 300 x 10 mm flange plates. Span of the bridge = 60 mm. Type of bridge  through type bridge with truss girders. Spacing of the truss girders = 5.2 m. Type of truss  10 panels of equal length pratt type truss. Type of track  B.G Main line.
Steel Structures
Solution
Step I: Calculation of loads
60
For maximum BM and SF, loaded length = 2 x 6 = 12 m. From railway bridge code Table 2.1 Total EUDL for BM = 1228 kN. Total EUDL for SF= 1359 kN. For Impact (CDA), L = 2.5 x 6 = 15 m.
CDA = 0.531
Assume dead load of stock rails, guard rails, fastenings, stringer beam as 8 kN/m.
Table 12.6: Various Loads on Cross Girders
Loading
1) Dead load
For BM (kN)
1 ~(8~6)=24 2
For SF (kN)
1 ~(8~6)=24 2 1 x 1359 = 339.75 4 180.40 544.15
1 x 4
1228 = 307
163 494
Total load
11 1r.3~
Max. BM, M = 5 x
Figure 12.33
52 2
Bridges
Design of Web
o,, = 165 ~ / m m . ~
3 M Economical depth of web, d = 5&
Obc
= 5 q 8 0 7 . 3 x lo6
165
Adopt 1000 mm depth
= 764 mm.
t =  v '"a. d
Design of flange
M Net area of flange required = O6c .d
c)
= 21.5 (12 x 2
+ 10)
=8418731
o b c , cai =
Ymax
= 117.16 ~ / m r n ~
..
V AY Shear flow, F = I
= 465.73 N/mm.
Pitch of the rivets, p, will be lesser of: i) ii) iii) 12t = 12 x 10 = 120 mm 200 mm 64.5 x ld = 138.49 mm. 465.73
10 rivets.
Use 10 rivets for connecting cross girder with cleat angles. The size of cleat angle: ISA 200 100, 10 mm.
Cross Girder
J
 + t
b
.L
300mm
3trimBer
1
(a) Elevation
Bebm

u
Web
1511 ZOOLOO, lomm
I I
OF Cross Girder
L t ~ e of b Stringer Beam
a)
I
!
I
Dead weight of stock rails, guard rails, fastenings, sleepers, stringer beams and crossbeams, truss. (In the absence of data, assume a DL of 10 kN/m) Live load from railway bridge codes as per loaded length. Impact load from railway bridge codes as per loaded length. Longitudinal load for bottom chord members. The longitudinal load is the maximum of tractive effort or bracking force. It may be compressive or tensile. The nature of the force depends upon the direction of train.
b) c) d)
Steel Structures
e)
Wind load
Wind pressure may be taken as 1.5 ~ / m To ~ .take the effect of wind on' leeward surface, the area may be increased by 50%. Bottom lateral truss system takes the wind load acting on train, truss projections below the top of the train, stringer beams, track, etc. Top lateral truss system takes the wind load acting on truss projection above the top of the train.
i)
Diagonals
It is a statically indeterminate
Assumptions
1)
The forces in the chord members of a panel are equal and opposite. The diagonals equally share the shear in the panel. Calculate the total load on the bottom chord W = (wind load intensity) x (projected area for bottom chord) Calculate the force acting at intermediate panel point, P = Calculate the force at end panel points = E 2' Calculate the Reaction at the end, R = . 2
W
2)
No. of panels
Calculate the Moment at middle of panel ( M ) Calculate the force in the member of the panel =  . S Where S = Spacing of Girder. For example, to find the force in the member Lo L,.
Force in
4 L3
ii)
Struts.
Diagonals.
It is a statically indeterminate system. Calculate the total load on the top chord W1= (wind toad intensity) x (projected area for top chord) Calculate the force acting at intermediate panel Point =
WI =P, no. of panels
PI Point = 2
\\',
&
,.
Steel Structures
Leeward truss is subjected to additional vertical; stresses due to overturning effect of wind. Calculate the value of 2 R2
2 R2
It is expressed as % of DL
. :
computed.
Bridges
H (c + h,)
S
Sway effect
Calculate BM in verticals =
I
The final forces in the members of the truss girder are calculated by algebraic sum.
Calculate the forces in the members of the truss girder for the following date. Effective span = 36 m.
i
i
Spacing of stringer beam = 2 m. Type of track B.G Main line Spacing of the girders: 5.4 m. Height of the truss girder: 7.0 m. Assume any suitable data
Steel Structures
Step 3: Influence lines for member forces Top chord members Member U lU2(Compressive)
I11Uz and Uz
UJ
144
1 5 Area of ILD =  x  x 3 6 = 2 7
+90 7
1 9 Area of ILD =  x  x 36 = 2 7
Diagonal Members
+ 162 7
Member PL
7 Lo U 1(compressive) tan 0 = 6
1
5 6 cosec 8
cosec 8 = 1.317
1 Area df ILD=x l . i 2 ~ 3 6 =  2 0 . 1 6 2
Member U 1
1  cosec0 6
6x
4  cosec 8
6
4x=6x
x=1.2m
Area of ILD
1 1 ve portion =  x  cosec 8 x 7.2 = 0.79 2 6
3 cosec 0 h
Steel Structures
Member
Lz U3
'1
Figure 12.49 : ILD for U2 L2
'6
Area of ILD = 0
Member U3 5
, &
L,
LZ
L3
Tension
' L ,
D.L. = 10 kN/m.
I
L
I
Bridges
= 36 m.
CDA =0.15+
Z L = 0 . 3 4 35.26= ~ 11.99 kN/m Total load = DL + LL + IL = 10 + (35.26 + 11.99 = 57.25 kN/m. Force in the member U 1U2and U, Uj = (Total load) x (Area of ILD)
+ LL + IL = 57.25 kN/m. +
736.07 kN.
4&
+ LL + ZL = 57.25 kN/m.
162 = + 1324.93 kN. 7
Force in Member L2 & = 57.25 x Diagonal Members: Member LOUl Arca of ILD = 20.16 Loaded length = 36 m. Dl, = 10 kN/m. CDA = 0.34
Steel Structures
Total load = DL + LL + IL
=
= 61.3 1 kN/m.
Force in
L, U, =(20.16) (61.31)
= 1235.98 kN
Men~herUI K b
11.85
118.5 kN.
: .
+ IL)
118.5
 96.81
+ 21.69
kN
12.63
CDA =0.15+
8 = 0.38 6 + 28.8
+ IL = 44.91 +
Force in member due to ( L L + IL) = +(12.64) x 61.98 = +783.37 kN Force in member due to ( D L + LL
= +901.87 kN.
Mernber L2 U3
Net area = +3.16  7.12 = 3.96 Force in the member due to DL
= (3.96)
x 10 = 39.6 kN.
+ 3.16
= +255.26 kN.
+ lL)
Loaded length = 21.6 m. 2072.2  1036.1 kN Total EUDL for S F = 2 L L = Z  47.97 kN/m 21.6 CDA = 0.15
= 0.44. + 6 +8 21.6
(69.07) = 
= 531.38 kN.
Area of ILD =
+6
111.
Loaded length = 12
+ 56.63 + 33.63
= 100.26 kN 1111.
Steel Structures
= (+6) (100.26) =
+ 601.56 kN.
'
Member U2L2
No force.
+735.5 = + 367.75 kN 2
Loaded length = L, to L6 = 30 m.
1 Tractive effort =  x 637.4 = f 3 18.7 kN 2
For Member L2 L3
Loaded length =
to L6 = 24 m.
Wind pressure = 1.5 kN/m2 Projected area : i) Projected area of stringer beam, sleepers, up to the top of rail = 1.20 x 36 = 43.2 m2 Exposed area of moving train = 3.5 x 36 = 126 m2.
ii)
To take the effect on leeward side, increase the area of truss components and stock by 50%. Total area = 1.50 (43.2
48.4 Load at end panel point = = 24.2 kN. 2 1 Force in the Member = k  (Moment at the midpoint of the member) 5.4
Bridges
iii) Truss Members = 8.5 rn2 Total projected area = 1.5 (9.6 (Taking 50% for leeward area) Total load = 1.5 x 30 = 45 kN Reaction = 45 = 22.5 kN. 2 Load at intermediate panel point =
1.9 + 8.5) = 30 m2
= 11.25 kN.
0 S . E . W U
Figure 12.52: Bottom ~ a ( e r aT jr u s s
u.soL(L
Steel Structures
Height of the train = 3.5 m. Height of the support = 0.6 m. Height of the axle from sleeper 0.4 m. The bearings are provided at 0.6 m before the centre line of the bottom chord. Taking moment about bearing, 2R x 5.4 = 101.25 x 0.6 + 45 (7 + 0.6) Standard value
Step 9: Portal
+!.lo
Bridges
6IIon+
1W 6 m
, POC
 1
5.Mm
46 + 7 
= 9.22 m.
H = wind load reaction from top chord + 1.25% of total axial force in the end top chord
= 22.5
+ 29.4 = 51.9
kN
Axial load due to: i) ii) Wind load reaction = (22.5) (1.7 5.4
1
+ 3.76)
= f 22.75 kN.
Force in
= 22.75 x
6 9.22
= 14.80 kN
BM in
BM in
POC
 1
m
b W n 4
Steel Structures
BM in verticals
2x2
1 1 6.25 kN
P,
,= + 67.18+78.43+14.8 = f 160.4kN
1
Diagonal member
P,
Vertical members
+ longitudinal effect
P,
,=  1177.71T 1 1 6 . 2 5 ~ 1293.96kN.
2
Diagonal Member
= 901.87
+ 72.29 = + 974.16 kN
(ii) 491.78T24.16=515.94kN.
Vertical mentber
cover Plate
Channel
    'I    
(d)
Figure 12.56
The force in the chord members is high. Hence, built up members with less number components is preferable. Top cover plate is necessary to avoid entering of rain water. The bottom of the section is to be provided with lacing. The number of cover plate should be only one. The thickness of cover plate should be as small as possible. The webs should be as thick as possible. The section should be such that
r,, = r,,. The depth of top chord members is about
1 the
10
height of the truss +2 x thickness of gusset plate. Uniform section is to be provlded throughout the top chord length. The section for end posts is also same as that for top chord.
If the members are subjected to axial load and BM,then
[ i i ]
a) b)
oat
Ob,
Normal loads are DL, LL and IL. Occasional loads are DL,%LL and IL and WL.
Steel Structures
Design .src>p.s
Desigrr qf .s.vectio~l
1) Assunie o,,,. = 100 ~ / m t n ' Calculate Gross area reouiled:
A required =
2)
A required =
3)
4)
Calculate ~ r o s area s (A), centroidnl di.\t~uice ( Y ), M.o.1 about XXaxis ( I x x ) and MoI about YYaxis (I,,) Calculate r,,, ryy and r,,,,,, Calculate Effective length =0.85 x length of the ~tieniber. Calculate slenderness ratio Find o,,. from Table 5.1 (IS : 800) Calculate the load carrying capacity:
5)
6)
7)
8) 9)
b)
Desigrz o f lacirzg
1)
Assume the angle of lacing angle, 0 = 4 8 to 70, generally 60" Calculate the shear force = 1.25% of axi;rl force due to normal loads. Calculate the force in the lacing ~nelnber
F=
2)
3)
4)
5)
Calculate the distance hetwecn two clid rivct lincs ((1) Calculate the effective Icngrh of lacing mcnihcr
6)
7) 8)
12.5.10 Design the Top Chord Members of the Truss Bridge (Given in Sec: 12.5.8)
Data: From Scc: 12.5.8
Met?7ho. 11, 1J2&[I4 1J5
1 177 7 1 kN (Comprcssivc)
=
1293.96 kN (Cornprcssive)
Forcc undcr Nornial loads = 1 177.71 kN (Compressive) Forcc undcr occasional loads = 128 1.46 kN (Cornprcssive) Sincc thc samc scction is providcd throughout thc lcngth of top chord, takc the maximum valucs of forcc. Forcc undcr Normal loads = 1177.71 kN Forcc undcr occasional loads = 1293.96 kN.
1) 2)
Assumc o , , = 100 ~ / m m ~ A rcquircd a) Normal loads = 1177 71 x lo3 = 1 1777.1 mm2 100

b) 3)
Occasional loads =
Mas dcpth =
I = 59 x 10%m4
C7.yx = 2 1 . 4 mm
Steel Structures
Calculation of Y, ! , and
 .! ,
top
y= CAY
CA
6) 7) 8)
9)
142N/mm2
3)
4) 5) 6)
1 A==7) 8)
From Table 5.1 (IS: 800), ol, 136N/mm2 Load carrying capacity = 130 938
I
I
9)
Diameter of rivets
Using one rivet for connection.
Sled Structures
_
II;'l
    Lo c ; n *

     
(a)
Ib)
Figure 12.59
(c)
No cover plates are required, either at top or at bottom of the section to avoid cdlw%ion of rain later. If the member are subjected to moments in addition to axial tension, it can be checked by:
Design Steps
Data:
Maximum force under normal loads Maximum force under occassional loads
Design of Mernber
Bridges
1)
Assume
o,, = 0.9 X 150 = 135 N/mm2 (for normal loads) oat = 1.167 x 150 ~ / m m (for ~ occasional loads)
2)
Calculate the Net area required a) b) For normal loads = Maximum force under Normal load 135 Max. force under occasional load 1.167~ 150
3) 4) 5) 6)
Choose the suitable section Calculate Gross area Calculate reduction for rivet holes Calculate Net area. If should be greater than net area required.
12.5.12 Design the Bottom Chord Members of the Truss Biidge (Given in Sec: 12.5.8.) Data : From Section : 12.5.8
Member lo L,
Maximum force under normal loads = 736.07 kN (tension) Maximum force under occasional loads = 1264.23 kN (tension)
I
Member L,
&
Maximum force under normal loads = 736.0 kN (tension) Maximum force under occasional loads = 1322.66 kN (tension)
Member Lz L . ,
I
Maximum force under normal loads = 1324.93 kN (tension) Maximum force under occasional loads =
i
)
+ 2003.46 kN
(tension)
In member Lo L, and L, L, the maximum force are almost equal. Hence, one section i s designed for both Lo L, and L , I?.
Members Lo LI and LI &
Maximum force under normal loads = 736.07 kN Maximum force under occasional loads = 1322;66 kN. 1) For normal loads, oat = 0.9 X 150 = 135 N/mm2. For occasional loads, o,, = 1.67 x 150 ~ / m m ~ . 2) Net area required for a) b) Normal loads = 736.07 lo3= 4907.13 mm2 135 Occasional loads = 1322.66 x lo3 = 7555.9 mm2 1.167~ 150
Steel Structures
3)
eao
m m d Figure 12.60

Gross area = 4 x 1 1 3 8 + 2 ~ 3 0 0 x 10 = 10552 mm2 Deductions for rivet holes = 4 x 21.5 x 18 + 2 x 21.5 x 8 = 1892 mrn2
Maximum force under normal loads = 1324.93 kN (tension) Maximum force under occasional loads = 2003.46 kN (tension)
1)
a , , = 1.167 x 150 ~ / m m ~ .
1324.93 x 10' =9814 mm2 135 2003.46 x 10' = 1445 mmz 1.167~ 150
2)
a)
b)
Normal loads =
Occasional loads =
3)
Figure 12.61
Gross area = 4 x 1138 2 x 300 x 20 = 16552 mrn2. Using 20 mm dia. rivets, Reduction for rivet holes = 4 x 21.5 x (20 + 8) + 2 x 21.5 x 8 = 2752 rnrn2. Net area provided
=
Some members are subjected to tension. These are designed as built up Isection. Some commonly used sections are shown in Figure 12.63.
(c)
(d)
Webs in Tension
Design an End Past Par the Truss Bridge (Given in Section 123.8)
12.5.14
Data : From section: 12.5.8
Member
& U1
~ l under i ~ ~ occasional
Maximum f
B M under normal loads = 55.27 IrNm. B M under occasional loads = 97.57 kNm.
1)
o , , for occasional
2)
100
3);
Plate
A ,
r
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I I I
CaOGxI6rnrn I
I
I I
I
PLate
      I
r     
    Figure 12.64
I I
I
,
I
I
1
pG1;5~@t
!.mm003~
Hate
7)
9)
Obc, cal
(y)
= 5221N/rnm2.
c 1.167 (Safe)
Steel Structures
12.5.15 Design the Diagonal Members for the Truss Bridge (Given in Section 12.5.8) Data: From section: 12.5.8
Member U1 L2
+ 974.16 kN.
Lz U3
+ 2 15.66 kN and  49 1.78 kN Force under occasional loads = + 239.82 kN and  515.94 kN.
1)
oat under normal loads = 0.9 x 150 = 135 ~ / r n m ~ . oatunder occasional loads = 1.167 x 135 ~ / m r n ~
Member UI L2 : (tension)
2)
Net area required a) b) Under normal loads = 901.87 x lo3 = 6680.5 mrn2 135 974.16~ lo3 = 6183.4 mm2 1.167 x 135
3)
Section
Figure 12.65
4)
Gross area = 2 x 4564 = 9 128 mm2. Using 20 mm dia. rivets. Reduction for rivet holes = 2 x 21.5 x 13.6 = 584.8mm2. Net area = 9128  584.8 = 8543.2 mm2.
Compressive force under normal loads = 491.78 kN Compressive force under occasional loads = 515.94 kN. 1) Assume
normal loads
2)
Occasional loads =
3)
Section
Figure 12.66
6) 7) 8) 9)
6454
99.35
: 800) = 1 17 ~ / m m ~
Using 20 mm dia. rivets, Reduction for rivets = 2 x 2 1.5 x 14.1 = 606.3 mm2 Net area provided = 7734  606.3 = 7127.7 mm2 Tensile force under normal loads = 215.66 kN
Steel Structures
Net area required = 215.66 lo3= 1597.5 rnrn2. 135 < Net area provided. (OK) Tensile force under occasional loads = 239.82 kN.
oat= 1.167 x 135 ~ / m &
(OK)
12.5.16 Design the Vertical Members for the Truss Bridge (Given in Section 12.5.8) Date : From section: 12.5.8
Members U1 L1 and U3 5
Max. Force under normal loads = + 601.56 kN (Tension) Max. Force under occasional loads = + 642.56 kN (Tension) BM under occasional load = 7.9 kN  m.
1)
o,, for normal loads = 0.9 x 150 = 135 ~ / m m ' . o,, for occasional loads = 1.167 x 135 ~lrnrn'
2)
mm2
Occasional loads =
3)
Section
Figure 12.67
4)
Using 20 mm dia. rivets, Reduction for rivet holes = 2 x 2 1.5 x (10 + 2 x 8) = 1 118 mm2. Net area provided = 7552  1118 = 6434 rnm2
>
Transmission of the end reaction to the pier. Provision of free movement of the lower chord in horizontal direction. The change in the angle of the girder is allowed. Reduction in impact due to live load. Damping of structural vibration. Limitation on the transmission of sound waves.
f)
For all spans in excess of 9 m provision shall be made for changes in length due to temperature and stress variation. The provisions for expansion and contraction should be such as to permit movement of the free bearings to the extent of not less than 25 mm for every 30 mm of length. For spans greater than 15 m on rigid piers or abutments, bearings which will permit angular deflection of the girder ends shall be provided and at one end there shall be a roller, rocker or other effective type of expansion bearing. For wide bridge and skew spans, consideration shall be given to lateral expansion and contraction. In the design of bearings, provision shall be made for the transmission of longitudinal and lateral forces to the bearings and the supporting structures. In seismic zones excess movement of the spans may be prevented by connecting the top saddle of the bearing to the bottom saddle through hinged connections. Roller bearings for spans above 35 m should preferably be protected from dirt by oil or grease boxes. Provision shall be made against any uplift to which the bearings may be subjected. Rollers and Rockers shall be located by means of dowels, lugs or keys. All bearings shall be designed to permit inspection and maintenance.
2)
I
I
3)
4)
5)
I
6)
i
i1
I
7)
8) 9)
1) 2)
1) 2)
Fired bearings: These allow only rotation. Free bearings (Expansion bearings)
These allow both rotation and translation. The movement may be due to creep in concrete, shrinkage, settlement, thermal stresses, braking force, uplift force. Generally one end of the bridge is provided with fixed bearing and the other with expansion bearing. If both the ends have fixed type bearings, internal stresses will develop in bridge structure. For a simply supported bridge girder, fired bearing is at one end and free bearing at the other. But for continuous bridge girder, fixed bearing is at one end and free bearings at the other ends.
Based on material used for bearings
1)
2)
3)
Mechanical Bearings: These allow longitudinal movements and end rotations by sliding, rocking or rolling. These are most commonly used. There are made of metals.
a)
Ferrous Bearings: These are the most commonly used mechanical bearing. These allow longitudinal movements by sliding of steel on steel and castiron. These allow rotations on pins, rollers and rockers. The types of ferrous bearings are
i) ii)
Elastomeric bearings: Elastomer is a polymeric substance obtained after vulcanisation. It possesses rubber like properties. It regains original shape completely upon unloading.
These bearings allow longitudinal movement and rotation. These consist of one or more internal layers of elastomer bond to internal steel
laminates by the process of Vulcanisation. These allow a horizontal movement of 70 mm and a rotation of 0.02 radians.
Bridges
3)
Combined mechanical and elastomeric bearing: The mechanical bearings provide the longitudinal movement and the elastomeric bearings provide the rotation.
3ole
Bed Pulte
PLde
b
Girder
Deep cast
Steel Structures
(a)
(b)
w
Pier
This is generally used for long span bridges. The roller is kept in position by using keys, lugs. A complete circular roller is provided for small sizes. For large size the segmental rollers are used. To take heavy loads number of rollers are used. Multiple Rollers permit horizontal moment very easily. For proper placing of roller spacer plates used. In the bottom stoppers are provided to avoid the movement of Rollers beyond the bottom plate.
to 12.76. IRC
The diameter of the Rocker pin shall not be less than 60 mm. The pin shall be fitted to a depth 0.5d in the groove. The minimum clean ends above the top surface of the Rocker pin shall be 2.5 mm.
Bridges
Steel Structures
bearing pressure. The whole bearing is enclosed ir? n sheet metal box, filled with lubricating oil.
rGirder
p\n o v e r cont,neou%
Bottom cust~n4
s e * m e n t d totiers
Figure 12.78
These bearings allow translation and rotation. The nest of rollers facilitates pin facilitates rotation. The main drawback is collection of translation. The r ~cker dust.
IS code provisions 1) 2) 3) The minimum diameter of the roller shall be 75 mm. The ratio of the length of the roller to the diameter shall be not more than 6 In the case of multiple rollers the gap between the rollers shall be not less than 50 mm.
Bridges
The allowable working loads per unit length of cylindrical rollers [on flat surface] shall be taken as: For mild steel 1) 2) Single and double rollers 8 0 N/mm of length Three or more rollers: 5D N/mm of length.
For high tensile steel 1) Single and double roller: 10 D, N/mm of length Three or more roller: 7 0 N/mm of length.
Cylindrical roller on curved surfaces: The permissible load per length shall be follows: a) Single or double rollers:
(l/Dsl)
 (l/Dsz)
I, /mrn
k4
b)
kN/mm
0.80 1.10
0.50 0.70
and Ds, and s4 are the diameters in mm, of the convex and concave surfaces respectively. 2)
For turned and fitted knuckle pins and spheres in bearing. The permissible stress on projected area shall not exceed 118 N/mm2 for steel conforming to IS : 226  1958. No pins shall be of diameter less than 100 mm. For railway bridges and road bridges the permissible stresses for pin (including knuckle pins) are given in above Table 28.13. However, as per IS : 800  1984 permissible stresses in pin of mild stefi conforming to IS : 226 shall be : In shear : 100 N/mm2 , in bearing: 300 ~/mrn and ~ in bending : 0.66 0 , .
Steel Structures
3)
Sliding Rearing: The permissible pressure for steel sliding on steel, hard copper alloys, or on cast iron shall not exceed 31 ~ l m m * .
I)
An elastic bearing should satisfy the following conditions as per IRC 83 (part 11) code. a) b) c) d) e) Hardness should be 60 & 5 degrees on IRHD scale (international) rubber hardness scale) Minimum tensile strength should be.17 MPa Minimum elongation at break shall be 400 Shear modulus of elastometer shall be in range from 0.8 MPa to 1.20 MPa Adhesion strength of elastometer to steel plates shall not be less than 7 kN1m.
I)
Plan dimensions: The preferred dimensions of elastomeric bearings are given in Table 12.1 below. Hower interpolation of plan dimensions can be made if the situation warrants.
1 1 ) The vertical (axial) stiffness of the elastometer is represented by its shape factor. The shape factor S of the elastometer is given by ratio ab (Loaded surface area)/(Surface area free to bulge) 2 t (a + b )
where, a and b are plan dimensions of the pad, and t is the thickness of pad.
Table 12.1: Standard Plan Dimensions of Elastometric Bearings (IRC: 831983, Part 11) Size Index No. Width (a) mm Length @) mm
111) Thickness: The thickness of a bearing is governed by its shear movement. If x is the translational shear deformation (Figure 12.80 then
x = t tan @
Hc H , tan @=GA
where,
G = modulus of rigidity in ~ / r n r n ~
The value of x should be less than 0.7t, such that t > 1.43 x IV) Average compressive stress : This is given by
where,
PC and P., = sustained and dynamic vertical load, respectively in newton. H, and Hs = sustained and dynamic horizontal load, respectively in newton
Design procedure
i
I
I
I
Steel Structures
Calculate max. moment in pin, M = (Load on each plate) x (distance between the centre of outer plates of castings)
M Calculate max. bending stress ?d3 32
It should be less than allowable bending stress. Calculate the max. shear stress = 
+ W1)
w + w,
Calculate the direction stress ( o l ) = a2 Calculate the moment due to wind, M I = (lateral load due to wind x 0.3 m) Assuming that the pin is at 0.3 m above the bottom of base plate.
6 MI Calculate stress due to M I = o2= j. a
a = 0 , + o2+ 03.
Calculate upward pressure, p = 1.167 Calculate max. moment ( M 3 ) is the base plate. Calculate the thickness (t).
X
t2 6
185=M3.
b
I
Bridges
Solution
Step 1 : Size of base plate
Assume the allowable bearing stress on concrete as 4 N/mm2 Area of base plate required =
Allowable bearing stress (as per code) = 208 N/mm2 Total thickness =
900 x lo3 = 34.6 mm. 125 x 208 Adopt 3 plates of 25 mm thick each.
Step 4: Check for stresses in pin 900 Downward load on each plate = = 300 kN.
Allowable shear stress = 100 (as per code) Maximum shear stress
4
= 32.6 N/mm2
Figure 12.81
Steel Structures
: .
Safe
Direct stress, ol = loo lo' = 2.24 N / ~ ~ ~ . 700 x 700 Allowable bearing pressure = 1.33 x 4 = 5.32 N/'rnm2 Let us assume the centre line of the pin is at 300 mm above the bottom of the base plate.
1 Lateral load due to wind =  x 250 = 62.5 kN. 4
'
= 9 0 x 106Nmm.
Stress due to moment M2, o3=
6 M2
a
: .
Safe
x
t2
: .
t = 24.0 mm.
Adopt 25
..tl1irl.2p.s.
Bridges
Figure 12.82
 700x25~ 1 2 . 5 + 3 x 2 1 2 . 5 x 2 5 x 131.25
Y=
700~25+3x212.5~25
= 69.1 mm.
(350)~
2
= 152.2 x
lo6 N  rnm.
: .
Mmax
= 143.7 ~ / r n r n ~
: .
Safe
r7
Girder
ease Plot?
Figure 12.83
Steel Structures
2)
Design of Rollers
L=
6M1 +a3
It should be less than bearing pressure. Calculate maximum moment due to upward pressure
where,
12.6.16 Design a Rocker Roller Bearing for the Data (Given is Section 12.6.14)
Design of Rocker bearing
Same as is Sec: 12.6.14
1)
2)
Diameter of Roller = 100 mm Load allowed on roller = 5 D Nlmm = 5 x 100 = 500 N/mm Total load = 900
3)
Total length of roller = 1100x'103 = 2200 mm 500 Adopt 4 rollers of 600 mm length.
4)
Size of base plate = 700 mm x 700 mm. Assume the thickness of base plate = 30 mm. Height of centre of Rocker pin from the bottom of base plate
Bridges
= 30
Moment due to lateral load, M , = 62.5 x 0.43 = 26.875 Id\lm Maximum pressure = c =
b=
7 0 0  4 x 1 0 0  3 x 5 0 + ~ = 125mm 2 2
(7
f \
I
Ioernm Dia I ,Rollers
Pier
SAQ 3
1)
A pratt truss consisting equilateral triangles of 12 panels of 3 m. each is used for B.G. Main line loading. Find the maximum forces in the members meeting at the fourth joint in the bottom chord.
Steel Structures
2)
Design a compression chord member of a truss bridge having a length of 8.0 m. for the forces detailed below. Force in the member due to (DL+ LL+ IL) = 1600 kN. Force in the member due to (DL+ LL Use only channel and plate sections.
+ lL+
3)
Design a compression chord member a truss bridge using plates and L angles. Panel length is 6.0 m. Force in the member due to DL+ LLt Z is 3000 kN Design the members of a truss bridge at a Joint are given below:
Vertical: +I00 kN and 800 kN under normal loading 1 100 kN under occasional loading.
4)
+ 200 kN
and
Diagonal: 150 kN and +SO0 kN under normal loading  250 kN and +I200 kN under occasional loading.
5)
Design a rocker bearing at one end and the roller bearing at the other end for a plate girder bridge of 30 m span given that the total reaction due to DL, LL and IL is 1500 kN. The vertical reaction due to overturning of wind at each end is 100 kN. Lateral wind load at each bearing is 50 kN. Design the rocker and roller bearing for a railway truss bridge for a railway truss bridge of BG Main line loading for a span of 30 m. The total line load for shear = 2680 kN.Assume self weight and superimposed dead load together as 4 kN/m track. Tractive effort = 640 kN.Breaking force = 500 kN.
6)
12.7 SUMMARY
In this unit, you have studied about steel bridges used for railways. The plate girder bridges and truss bridges are generally used. Now, you are able to do the design the above said bridge. You are aquainted with the knowledge of bridge design (Steel). In the last section, you studied about end bearings which are the most importent component of bridge structure. By going these section, you can design the bearings also.
SAQ 2
1)
Subsection 12.5.8 Subsection 12.5.10 Subsection 12.5.10 Subsection 12.5.15 Subsection 12.6.15 & 12.6.16 Subsection 12.6.16
2) 3)
4)
5)
6)