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Shelter for warm-humid climates

Nature of climate • Hot. . • Temperature moderately high. Btw 21 and 32 degree c with little variation btw day and night. • Favourable to the growth of vegetation • Winds of low speed. • Humidity is high during all seasons.sticky conditions and the continual presence of dampness.

• Failure to do this would produce indoor conditions always warmer than a shaded external space which is open to air movement.therefore vital to indoor comfort.the building will have to be opened up to breezes and orientated to catch whatever air movement there is. .Form and planning • As movement of air is the only available relief from climatic stress.

. • Door and window openings should be large as possible.• Buildings tend to have open elongated plan shapes. • Group of buildings also tend to be spread out. • Openness and shadings will be the dominant part of building.

this may often conflict with the orientation of wind.the best arrangement would be to orientate buildings with the long axes in east west direction. Skilful use of elements built outside eg screen walls or even the projecting wing of a building can change the direction of air movement. .• From the point of view of solar gain.

orientation for wind is more advisable.and avoidance of sun should be the decisive factor. .• With low rise buildings . With the high rise building the opposite is true .where the walls would not get much radiation.

. • Pergolas and light framing to be covered by climbing plants can be provided cheaply and they can be very effective. • Open spaces left under buildings elevated on stilts can also be put to use as shaded outdoor spaces.External spaces • Shading and free passage for air movement are the two basic requirements.

. Most of this consists of louvred timber boards or some overlapping arrangements of boads or planks.• For providing privacy as well as for the passage of air various systems of paling fences and screen walls can be used.

.so it is advisable to construct buildings of low thermal capacity materials.Roofs and walls • Principle of thermal storage cannot relied on this climate.using light weight can prevent the indoor temperature increasing above the outdoor air temperature and keep the ceiling temp around the same level as other surfaces. • If well designed .

asbestos cement or bright aluminium .a ceiling with its upper surface highly reflective and having a good resistive insulation.• This will be achieved by reflective upper surface.with roof space ventilated . Both the ceiling and roof should be of low thermal capacity. a pitched roof will most often used. a double roof construction. Covered by corrugated iron. • Because of rainfall.

good insulation will prevent elevation of inner surface temp above the air temp.• The ceiling temperature should not exceed the air temperature by more than 4 deg C. • For solid vertical walls insulation is not necessary if they are shaded.reflective qualities on the outer surface of such unshaded walls will allso be helpful. . • If the walls are exposed to solar radiation.but it si expensive. • This is achieved by a ceiling of some kind of insulation board.

• The air flow should not pass over the hot surfaces before reaching the building. • Flow of air can be influenced by topographical features. • Openings should be free from the effect of outside obstructions. Ie in the living zone (up to 2m). .Air flow and openings • Openings should be large • Permit natural air flow through the internal spaces at body level.

ventilation • Exchange of air • Ventilation of the roof space can cause a ceiling temp to drop 2 deg C. . • Care must be taken to avoid air which has passed through a roof space reaching the living zone as this will be much hotter than the normal out-door air.

Mechanical controls • Greatest need for air conditioning. . • If air conditioned the building should be closed and cooled below the out door temp. • Air is both hot and humid. and it often remains warm overnight. • Ample air movement is achieved by designing a building as open and transparent for wind as possible.thus the walls need to be well insulated.

thus the only element be insulated is the roof.Thermal insulation • Roofs receive far more solar energy than walls. . Walls would normally be shaded.