P. 1
18776010 Lighting Handbook Handbook of Lighting Design

18776010 Lighting Handbook Handbook of Lighting Design

|Views: 454|Likes:
Publicado porrope1436

More info:

Published by: rope1436 on Sep 12, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/20/2011

pdf

text

original

Whenplanningalightinginstallationit
isnecessarytoperformaseriesofcalcu-
lations.Ingeneral,theserefertothe
averageilluminancerequiredorexactillu-
minance levels in specific parts of the
space.Itmayalsobeofsignificanceto
calculatetheluminanceofspecificparts
ofthespace,ordifferentlightingqualities,
such as shadow formation and contrast
rendition,orthecostsforalightinginstal-
lation.

3.3.6.1Utilisation factor method

The utilisation factor method is used to
acquire a rough estimation of the dimen-
sioning of a lighting installation; it allows
the designer to determine the number
of luminaires required to produce the de-
fined illuminance on the working plane,
or, vice versa, the illuminance on the
workingplaneproducedbyagivennum-
ber of luminaires. This method does not
provideexactilluminancesatspecificpoints
in the space, which means that other
methods must be applied to calculate the
uniformity of a lighting installation or
to determine illuminance levels at specific
points.Theutilisationfactormethod
isbasedonthefactthattheaverageho-
rizontalilluminanceforaspaceofa
givensizecanbecalculatedfromtheover-
all luminous flux produced by the lumi-
nairesinstalled,thelight output ratio and
theutilance.Ingeneralterms,itdescribes

154

Mounting track (from
the top downwards):
surface-mounted, for
recessed mounting
into solid ceilings, sus-
pended flanged track
with ceiling panels.

Installation of recessed
floor-mounted lumi-
naires: the housing is
inserted into the floor.
The luminaire itself is
secured into the
housing and is flush
with the floor surface.

Pendant mounting of
track and structural
systems(from left to
right): pendant tube
with ceiling canopy for
electrical connection,
wire suspensionwith
ceiling canopy for
electrical connection,
wiresuspension with
adjustable height.

Luminaires mounted
on wall brackets(from
the top downwards):
cantilever bracket,
bracket with integral
transformer, bracket
for partition walls.

Mounting of wall lumi-
naires (from the top
downwards): recessed
mountingintomasonry,
hollow walls, surface-
mounting onto walls.

3.3 Practical planning
3.3.6 Calculations

the portion of luminous flux emitted by
thelightsources, whichfallsonthe
working plane after interaction withlumi-
nairesandroomsurfaces.Thedeciding
factorinthiscalculationistheutilance,
whichisderivedfromthegeometryof
thespace,thereflectanceoftheroomsur-
faces and the efficiency and the distri-
butioncharacteristicsoftheluminaires
used.

Tobeabletocalculate the appropriate
utilanceineachindividualcase,there
aretablesavailable,whichcontainthe
utilance of a standardised space with
changingroomgeometry,changingre-
flection factors and luminaires with a
variety of distribution characteristics.The
basic, idealised space is presumed to be
empty and of regular shape and propor-
tions, i.e. rectangular and having the ratio
of length to width approx. 1.6 to 1. The
luminairesarepresumedtobe arranged
inaregularpatternontheceiling,either
mounted directly onto the ceiling or sus-
pendedfromtheceiling.Thesestandar-
disedvalueshaveadecisiveinfluenceon
the accuracy of the calculations for the
application. If the conditions inherent in
the basic concept are in line with those in
the model space, the results will be rea-
sonably accurate. The more the basic con-
ditions deviate from the standardised
conditions, e.g. if the lighting layout is
distinctlyasymmetrical,itmustbeaccepted
that an increasing number of errors will
occur in the calculation.
When using the utilisation factor
methodanappropriateutilancetablehas
tobeusedforeachtypeofluminaire.The
corresponding standard luminaire classifi-
cationtablecanbeusedforthispurpose.
Luminaire classification in accordance
withDIN5040 and theGermanLighting
EngineeringSocietyismadeupofone
letter and two digits,a combination indi-
cates a number of luminaire qualities.
Theletterdefinestheluminaireclassand
indicateswhetheraluminaireemits
light primarily in the upper or lower part
of the space, i.e. direct or indirect ligh-
ting.Thefirstdigitrefers to the proportion
ofluminousfluxfallingontotheworking
planeinthelowerpartofthespace. The
seconddigitindicatesthecorresponding
value for the upper part of the space. It is
oftennotnecessarytousethestandard
tableofluminaireclassification,asexact
tablesaresuppliedbythelightingmanu-
facturers.

155

Light output ratio hLB:
ratio of the luminous
flux emitted by a lumi-
nair ÏLeunder opera-
ting conditions to the
luminous flux of the
lamp ÏLa.

Utilisation factor
method:formula for
calculating thenominal
illuminance ENfor a
given number of lumi-
nairesor the number
of luminaires n for
a given illuminance.

Typical light output
ratios hLBfor direct
luminaires with various
cut-off angles and
lamp types.

Luminaire

Lamp type hLB

Louvred luminaire 30°T26

0.65–0.75

Louvred luminaire 40°T26

0.55–0.65

Louvred lumin. squareTC

0.50–0.70

Downlight 30°

TC

0.60–0.70

Downlight 40°

TC

0.50–0.60

Downlight 30°

A/QT

0.70–0.75

Downlight 40°

A/QT

0.60–0.70

EN(lx)

Nominal illuminance

n

Number of luminaires

a (m)

Length of space

b (m)

Width of space

Ï(m)

Luminous flux per luminaire

hR

Utilance

hLB

Light output ratio

V

Light loss factor

ÏLa

ÏLe

æLB= ÏLe
ÏLa

EN= V . n .Ï .æR.æLB
a .b

n = . En.a .b
Ï .æR.æLB

1
V

3.3 Practical planning
3.3.6 Calculations

156

The room index k
describes the influence
of the roomgeometry
on the utilance. It is
calculated from the
length and width of
the room, and the
height h above the

Utilance values hRfor
typical interior lumi-
naires (from the top
downwards): narrow-
beam luminaires(A 60,
DIN 5040)

working plane under
direct luminaires(room
index k) and height h'
above the working
plane under predomi-
nantly indirect lumi-
naires (room index k').

Light loss factor V in
relation to the degree
of deterioration in the
space.

Wide-beam
luminaires
(A 40, DIN 5040)

Indirect luminaires
(E 12, DIN 5040)

The appropriate
utilance is calculated
from the specific room
index k (k') and the
combination of the
reflectance factors of
ceiling (RC), walls (RW)
and floor (RF).

V

Degree of Deterioration

0.8

Normal deterioration

0.7

Increased deterioration

0.6

Heavy deterioration

hR

RC

0.700.700.700.700.700.500.500.200.00

RW

0.700.500.500.200.200.500.200.200.00

RF

0.500.200.100.200.100.100.100.100.00

k
0.60

1.040.860.840.810.800.840.800.800.78

1.00

1.170.950.920.900.880.910.880.870.85

1.25

1.261.060.980.980.950.970.950.940.92

1.50

1.301.041.001.000.970.990.970.960.94

2.00

1.351.071.021.041.001.010.990.980.97

2.50

1.381.091.031.061.021.021.010.990.97

3.00

1.411.111.051.081.031.031.021.000.99

4.00

1.431.111.051.091.031.031.021.000.98

hR

RC

0.700.700.700.700.700.500.500.200.00

RW

0.700.500.500.200.200.500.200.200.00

RF

0.500.200.100.200.100.100.100.100.00

k
0.60

0.630.430.420.310.310.410.310.300.26

1.00

0.870.630.610.510.500.590.490.490.44

1.25

0.990.730.700.620.610.680.600.590.55

1.50

1.060.790.760.690.670.740.660.650.61

2.00

1.170.880.830.790.760.810.750.730.70

2.50

1.230.930.890.860.820.860.810.790.76

3.00

1.290.980.920.910.870.900.860.840.81

4.00

1.341.020.960.960.910.940.900.880.85

hR

RC

0.700.700.700.700.700.500.500.200.00

RW

0.700.500.500.200.200.500.200.200.00

RF

0.500.200.100.200.100.100.100.100.00

k'
0.60

0.270.140.140.070.070.110.050.030

1.00

0.430.250.250.150.150.190.110.050

1.25

0.500.310.300.200.200.230.140.070

1.50

0.560.360.350.250.240.260.180.080

2.00

0.650.430.420.320.310.300.220.100

2.50

0.710.490.470.380.370.340.260.110

3.00

0.760.530.510.430.410.360.290.120

4.00

0.820.580.550.490.470.400.340.140

k = a .b
h (a+b)

k = 1.5 .a .b
h' (a+b)

90˚

-90˚

300

600

900

60˚

-60˚

30˚

-30˚

1200

A 60 (DIN)

I (cd/klm)

a

b

h'h

30˚

90˚

-30˚

-90˚

150

300

450

600

60˚

-60˚

A 40 (DIN)

I (cd/klm)

90˚

60˚

30˚

-90˚

-60˚

-30˚

100

200

300

E 12 (DIN)

I (cd/klm)

3.3 Practical planning
3.3.6 Calculations

When the appropriate table has been
drawnup,theroomindex k canbedeter-
minedfromtheroomgeometry.Theuti-
lancecanthenbereadoffthetablefrom
thecolumnshowingthe corresponding
roomindexand line showing the appro-
priatecombinationofreflectancefactors
or,forgreateraccuracy,calculated
through interpolation. The average hori-
zontal illuminance is the result ofthe total
luminous flux produced by all the lamps
installed per room surface in the space,
correctedbythelight output ratio (which
isprovidedbythelightingmanufacturer),
by the calculated utilance and light loss
factorV,whichtakesintoaccountthe
ageingofthelightinginstallationand is
usuallytakentobe0.8.Shouldalighting
installationconsistofseveraltypesoflumi-
naireofvaryingclassification,e.g.wide-
beamlightingprovidedbylouvredlumi-
naires and a narrow-beam component
provided by downlights for incandescent
lamps, then the illuminance has to be cal-
culated separately for each component
and then added.
Therearecomputersoftwareprograms
available for calculating the utilisation
factor. They not only calculate the illumi-
nance, but also locate the appropriate
tablesandandcanhandlethecomplex
interpolationbetweentheindividual
tablesorvaluescontainedinthetables,
if required.

3.3.6.2Planning based on specific connec-
ted load

Anothermethodofprovidingtherough
dimensioningofalightinginstallation
derivedfromtheutilisationfactormethod
is based on the specific connected load
available. This method allows the calcula-
tion of the required connected load for
anaverageilluminanceprovidedbyagiven
luminaire and light source, or vice versa,
theaverageilluminancethatcanbeob-
tained given a specific connected load
and a light source.
Planning a lighting installation based
on a specified connected load relies on
the fact that every type light source has a
specificluminousefficacypracticallyirre-
spective of the power consumption.
When using the utilisation factor method
itispossibletosubstitutethe overall lu-
minous fluxby theconnected load correc-
ted by the respective luminous efficacy.
Taking this as a basis it is possible to cal-
culate the connected load per m2

which is

requiredforagivencombinationoflumi-
naireandlightsourcetoobtainanaver-
ageilluminanceof100lxinaspacewith
standardised room geometry and reflec-
tance factors. Values obtained in this way
only apply with accuracy to the particular
standardroom.Acorrectionfactormust
be included in the calculations to take
accountof conditionsthatdeviatefrom
the standard.

157

Standard values for
specific connected
loadP* for different
lamp types in direct
luminaires.

Lighting calculations
based on a specific
connected load of
lamps (P*). Formulae for
calculating the nominal
illuminanceENfor a
given number of lumi-
naires,or the number
of luminaires required
n for a given illumi-
nance.

Correction factor f
takes into account the
effect of the room
geometry and the re-
flectance factors on
the illuminance or
number of luminaires.
The appropriate value

is calculated from the
basic area A, the room
heighth and the reflec-
tance factor of the
ceiling(RC), walls (RW)
and floor(RF).

Example of a rough
calculation of the illu-
minance for a room
with a combination of
two different luminaire
types.

Luminaire type 1 (A)

n= 12
PL= 100 W
P*= 12 ·

W

m2

· 100 lx

Luminaire type 2 (TC)

n= 9
PL= 46 W

(2·18 W + ballast)

P*= 4 ·

W

m2

· 100 lx

EN1= 9o lx
EN2= 93.2 lx
Ecom=183.2 lx

Room data

Length a = 10 m
Width b = 10 m
Height h = 3 m
R= 0.5/0.2/0.1
f= 0.9

Lamp

P* (W/m2

·100lx)

A

12

QT

10

T

3

TC

4

HME

5

HIT

4

EN(lx)

Nominal illuminance

n

Number of luminaires

PL(W)

Connected power for one
luminaire incl. control gear

P*(W/m2

·100lx)Specific connected load

f

Correction factor

a (m)

Length of room

b (m)

Width of room

f

RC

0.70

0.50

0.00

RW

0.50

0.20

0.00

RF

0.20

0.10

0.00

A(m2

)h (m)
20 ≤3

0.75

0.65

0.60

50

0.90

0.80

0.75

≥100

1.00

0.90

0.85

203–5

0.55

0.45

0.40

50

0.75

0.65

0.60

≥100

0.90

0.80

0.75

50 ≥5

0.55

0.45

0.40

≥100

0.75

0.60

0.60

1

2

n = .P* .EN.a .b
100 .PL

1
f

EN= f .100 .n .PL
P* .

a .

b

h

I

Eh

h

Eh

å

Ev

å

d

Ev

å

d

Eh= l
h2

Eh= .cos3

å


h2

Ev= .cos3

(90–å)


d2

Eind=

.®M
1–®M

ÏLe
Ages

[E] = lx

[l] = cd

[h] = m

[d] = m

3.3 Practical planning
3.3.6 Calculations

Aby-productofthismethodofcalculation
isthatforeachlamptypeatypicalvalue
canbedefinedforthespecificconnected
load. This means, for example, that a lu-
minous flux of around 20000 lm can be
obtained from conventional incandescent
lampswithaconnectedloadof1500W,
withoutstrictregardforwhetherten150W
lamps,fifteen100Wlampsortwenty75W
lampsareused.Theconnectedpowerre-
quiredforspecificlamptypescanbe used
forroughplanningand,aboveall,to
enable a quick comparison to be made of
different light sources.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Descarga
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->