This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

### Publishers

Scribd Selects Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

P. 1

18776010 Lighting Handbook Handbook of Lighting Design|Views: 454|Likes: 9

Publicado porrope1436

See more

See less

https://es.scribd.com/doc/19655878/18776010-Lighting-Handbook-Handbook-of-Lighting-Design

10/20/2011

text

original

Whenplanningalightinginstallationit

isnecessarytoperformaseriesofcalcu-

lations.Ingeneral,theserefertothe

averageilluminancerequiredorexactillu-

minance levels in specific parts of the

space.Itmayalsobeofsignificanceto

calculatetheluminanceofspecificparts

ofthespace,ordifferentlightingqualities,

such as shadow formation and contrast

rendition,orthecostsforalightinginstal-

lation.

3.3.6.1Utilisation factor method

The utilisation factor method is used to

acquire a rough estimation of the dimen-

sioning of a lighting installation; it allows

the designer to determine the number

of luminaires required to produce the de-

fined illuminance on the working plane,

or, vice versa, the illuminance on the

workingplaneproducedbyagivennum-

ber of luminaires. This method does not

provideexactilluminancesatspecificpoints

in the space, which means that other

methods must be applied to calculate the

uniformity of a lighting installation or

to determine illuminance levels at specific

points.Theutilisationfactormethod

isbasedonthefactthattheaverageho-

rizontalilluminanceforaspaceofa

givensizecanbecalculatedfromtheover-

all luminous flux produced by the lumi-

nairesinstalled,thelight output ratio and

theutilance.Ingeneralterms,itdescribes

154

Mounting track (from

the top downwards):

surface-mounted, for

recessed mounting

into solid ceilings, sus-

pended flanged track

with ceiling panels.

Installation of recessed

floor-mounted lumi-

naires: the housing is

inserted into the floor.

The luminaire itself is

secured into the

housing and is flush

with the floor surface.

Pendant mounting of

track and structural

systems(from left to

right): pendant tube

with ceiling canopy for

electrical connection,

wire suspensionwith

ceiling canopy for

electrical connection,

wiresuspension with

adjustable height.

Luminaires mounted

on wall brackets(from

the top downwards):

cantilever bracket,

bracket with integral

transformer, bracket

for partition walls.

Mounting of wall lumi-

naires (from the top

downwards): recessed

mountingintomasonry,

hollow walls, surface-

mounting onto walls.

3.3 Practical planning

3.3.6 Calculations

the portion of luminous flux emitted by

thelightsources, whichfallsonthe

working plane after interaction withlumi-

nairesandroomsurfaces.Thedeciding

factorinthiscalculationistheutilance,

whichisderivedfromthegeometryof

thespace,thereflectanceoftheroomsur-

faces and the efficiency and the distri-

butioncharacteristicsoftheluminaires

used.

Tobeabletocalculate the appropriate

utilanceineachindividualcase,there

aretablesavailable,whichcontainthe

utilance of a standardised space with

changingroomgeometry,changingre-

flection factors and luminaires with a

variety of distribution characteristics.The

basic, idealised space is presumed to be

empty and of regular shape and propor-

tions, i.e. rectangular and having the ratio

of length to width approx. 1.6 to 1. The

luminairesarepresumedtobe arranged

inaregularpatternontheceiling,either

mounted directly onto the ceiling or sus-

pendedfromtheceiling.Thesestandar-

disedvalueshaveadecisiveinfluenceon

the accuracy of the calculations for the

application. If the conditions inherent in

the basic concept are in line with those in

the model space, the results will be rea-

sonably accurate. The more the basic con-

ditions deviate from the standardised

conditions, e.g. if the lighting layout is

distinctlyasymmetrical,itmustbeaccepted

that an increasing number of errors will

occur in the calculation.

When using the utilisation factor

methodanappropriateutilancetablehas

tobeusedforeachtypeofluminaire.The

corresponding standard luminaire classifi-

cationtablecanbeusedforthispurpose.

Luminaire classification in accordance

withDIN5040 and theGermanLighting

EngineeringSocietyismadeupofone

letter and two digits,a combination indi-

cates a number of luminaire qualities.

Theletterdefinestheluminaireclassand

indicateswhetheraluminaireemits

light primarily in the upper or lower part

of the space, i.e. direct or indirect ligh-

ting.Thefirstdigitrefers to the proportion

ofluminousfluxfallingontotheworking

planeinthelowerpartofthespace. The

seconddigitindicatesthecorresponding

value for the upper part of the space. It is

oftennotnecessarytousethestandard

tableofluminaireclassification,asexact

tablesaresuppliedbythelightingmanu-

facturers.

155

Light output ratio hLB:

ratio of the luminous

flux emitted by a lumi-

nair ÏLeunder opera-

ting conditions to the

luminous flux of the

lamp ÏLa.

Utilisation factor

method:formula for

calculating thenominal

illuminance ENfor a

given number of lumi-

nairesor the number

of luminaires n for

a given illuminance.

Typical light output

ratios hLBfor direct

luminaires with various

cut-off angles and

lamp types.

Luminaire

Lamp type hLB

Louvred luminaire 30°T26

0.65–0.75

Louvred luminaire 40°T26

0.55–0.65

Louvred lumin. squareTC

0.50–0.70

Downlight 30°

TC

0.60–0.70

Downlight 40°

TC

0.50–0.60

Downlight 30°

A/QT

0.70–0.75

Downlight 40°

A/QT

0.60–0.70

EN(lx)

Nominal illuminance

n

Number of luminaires

a (m)

Length of space

b (m)

Width of space

Ï(m)

Luminous flux per luminaire

hR

Utilance

hLB

Light output ratio

V

Light loss factor

ÏLa

ÏLe

**æLB= ÏLe
ÏLa
**

**EN= V . n .Ï .æR.æLB
a .b
**

**n = . En.a .b
Ï .æR.æLB
**

**1
V
**

3.3 Practical planning

3.3.6 Calculations

156

The room index k

describes the influence

of the roomgeometry

on the utilance. It is

calculated from the

length and width of

the room, and the

height h above the

Utilance values hRfor

typical interior lumi-

naires (from the top

downwards): narrow-

beam luminaires(A 60,

DIN 5040)

working plane under

direct luminaires(room

index k) and height h'

above the working

plane under predomi-

nantly indirect lumi-

naires (room index k').

Light loss factor V in

relation to the degree

of deterioration in the

space.

Wide-beam

luminaires

(A 40, DIN 5040)

Indirect luminaires

(E 12, DIN 5040)

The appropriate

utilance is calculated

from the specific room

index k (k') and the

combination of the

reflectance factors of

ceiling (RC), walls (RW)

and floor (RF).

V

Degree of Deterioration

0.8

Normal deterioration

0.7

Increased deterioration

0.6

Heavy deterioration

hR

RC

0.700.700.700.700.700.500.500.200.00

RW

0.700.500.500.200.200.500.200.200.00

RF

0.500.200.100.200.100.100.100.100.00

k

0.60

1.040.860.840.810.800.840.800.800.78

1.00

1.170.950.920.900.880.910.880.870.85

1.25

1.261.060.980.980.950.970.950.940.92

1.50

1.301.041.001.000.970.990.970.960.94

2.00

1.351.071.021.041.001.010.990.980.97

2.50

1.381.091.031.061.021.021.010.990.97

3.00

1.411.111.051.081.031.031.021.000.99

4.00

1.431.111.051.091.031.031.021.000.98

hR

RC

0.700.700.700.700.700.500.500.200.00

RW

0.700.500.500.200.200.500.200.200.00

RF

0.500.200.100.200.100.100.100.100.00

k

0.60

0.630.430.420.310.310.410.310.300.26

1.00

0.870.630.610.510.500.590.490.490.44

1.25

0.990.730.700.620.610.680.600.590.55

1.50

1.060.790.760.690.670.740.660.650.61

2.00

1.170.880.830.790.760.810.750.730.70

2.50

1.230.930.890.860.820.860.810.790.76

3.00

1.290.980.920.910.870.900.860.840.81

4.00

1.341.020.960.960.910.940.900.880.85

hR

RC

0.700.700.700.700.700.500.500.200.00

RW

0.700.500.500.200.200.500.200.200.00

RF

0.500.200.100.200.100.100.100.100.00

k'

0.60

0.270.140.140.070.070.110.050.030

1.00

0.430.250.250.150.150.190.110.050

1.25

0.500.310.300.200.200.230.140.070

1.50

0.560.360.350.250.240.260.180.080

2.00

0.650.430.420.320.310.300.220.100

2.50

0.710.490.470.380.370.340.260.110

3.00

0.760.530.510.430.410.360.290.120

4.00

0.820.580.550.490.470.400.340.140

**k = a .b
h (a+b)
**

**k = 1.5 .a .b
h' (a+b)
**

0˚

90˚

-90˚

300

600

900

60˚

-60˚

30˚

-30˚

1200

A 60 (DIN)

I (cd/klm)

a

b

h'h

0˚

30˚

90˚

-30˚

-90˚

150

300

450

600

60˚

-60˚

A 40 (DIN)

I (cd/klm)

0˚

90˚

60˚

30˚

-90˚

-60˚

-30˚

100

200

300

E 12 (DIN)

I (cd/klm)

3.3 Practical planning

3.3.6 Calculations

When the appropriate table has been

drawnup,theroomindex k canbedeter-

minedfromtheroomgeometry.Theuti-

lancecanthenbereadoffthetablefrom

thecolumnshowingthe corresponding

roomindexand line showing the appro-

priatecombinationofreflectancefactors

or,forgreateraccuracy,calculated

through interpolation. The average hori-

zontal illuminance is the result ofthe total

luminous flux produced by all the lamps

installed per room surface in the space,

correctedbythelight output ratio (which

isprovidedbythelightingmanufacturer),

by the calculated utilance and light loss

factorV,whichtakesintoaccountthe

ageingofthelightinginstallationand is

usuallytakentobe0.8.Shouldalighting

installationconsistofseveraltypesoflumi-

naireofvaryingclassification,e.g.wide-

beamlightingprovidedbylouvredlumi-

naires and a narrow-beam component

provided by downlights for incandescent

lamps, then the illuminance has to be cal-

culated separately for each component

and then added.

Therearecomputersoftwareprograms

available for calculating the utilisation

factor. They not only calculate the illumi-

nance, but also locate the appropriate

tablesandandcanhandlethecomplex

interpolationbetweentheindividual

tablesorvaluescontainedinthetables,

if required.

3.3.6.2Planning based on specific connec-

ted load

Anothermethodofprovidingtherough

dimensioningofalightinginstallation

derivedfromtheutilisationfactormethod

is based on the specific connected load

available. This method allows the calcula-

tion of the required connected load for

anaverageilluminanceprovidedbyagiven

luminaire and light source, or vice versa,

theaverageilluminancethatcanbeob-

tained given a specific connected load

and a light source.

Planning a lighting installation based

on a specified connected load relies on

the fact that every type light source has a

specificluminousefficacypracticallyirre-

spective of the power consumption.

When using the utilisation factor method

itispossibletosubstitutethe overall lu-

minous fluxby theconnected load correc-

ted by the respective luminous efficacy.

Taking this as a basis it is possible to cal-

culate the connected load per m2

which is

requiredforagivencombinationoflumi-

naireandlightsourcetoobtainanaver-

ageilluminanceof100lxinaspacewith

standardised room geometry and reflec-

tance factors. Values obtained in this way

only apply with accuracy to the particular

standardroom.Acorrectionfactormust

be included in the calculations to take

accountof conditionsthatdeviatefrom

the standard.

157

Standard values for

specific connected

loadP* for different

lamp types in direct

luminaires.

Lighting calculations

based on a specific

connected load of

lamps (P*). Formulae for

calculating the nominal

illuminanceENfor a

given number of lumi-

naires,or the number

of luminaires required

n for a given illumi-

nance.

Correction factor f

takes into account the

effect of the room

geometry and the re-

flectance factors on

the illuminance or

number of luminaires.

The appropriate value

is calculated from the

basic area A, the room

heighth and the reflec-

tance factor of the

ceiling(RC), walls (RW)

and floor(RF).

Example of a rough

calculation of the illu-

minance for a room

with a combination of

two different luminaire

types.

Luminaire type 1 (A)

n= 12

PL= 100 W

P*= 12 ·

W

m2

· 100 lx

Luminaire type 2 (TC)

n= 9

PL= 46 W

(2·18 W + ballast)

P*= 4 ·

W

m2

· 100 lx

EN1= 9o lx

EN2= 93.2 lx

Ecom=183.2 lx

Room data

Length a = 10 m

Width b = 10 m

Height h = 3 m

R= 0.5/0.2/0.1

f= 0.9

Lamp

P* (W/m2

·100lx)

A

12

QT

10

T

3

TC

4

HME

5

HIT

4

EN(lx)

Nominal illuminance

n

Number of luminaires

PL(W)

Connected power for one

luminaire incl. control gear

P*(W/m2

·100lx)Specific connected load

f

Correction factor

a (m)

Length of room

b (m)

Width of room

f

RC

0.70

0.50

0.00

RW

0.50

0.20

0.00

RF

0.20

0.10

0.00

A(m2

)h (m)

20 ≤3

0.75

0.65

0.60

50

0.90

0.80

0.75

≥100

1.00

0.90

0.85

203–5

0.55

0.45

0.40

50

0.75

0.65

0.60

≥100

0.90

0.80

0.75

50 ≥5

0.55

0.45

0.40

≥100

0.75

0.60

0.60

1

2

**n = .P* .EN.a .b
100 .PL
**

**1
f
**

**EN= f .100 .n .PL
P* .
**

**a .
**

**b
**

h

I

Eh

h

Eh

å

Iå

Ev

å

Iå

d

Ev

å

Iå

d

**Eh= l
h2
**

**Eh= .cos3
**

**å
**

**lå
h2
**

**Ev= .cos3
**

**(90–å)
**

**lå
d2
**

**Eind=
**

**.®M
1–®M
**

**ÏLe
Ages
**

[E] = lx

[l] = cd

[h] = m

[d] = m

3.3 Practical planning

3.3.6 Calculations

Aby-productofthismethodofcalculation

isthatforeachlamptypeatypicalvalue

canbedefinedforthespecificconnected

load. This means, for example, that a lu-

minous flux of around 20000 lm can be

obtained from conventional incandescent

lampswithaconnectedloadof1500W,

withoutstrictregardforwhetherten150W

lamps,fifteen100Wlampsortwenty75W

lampsareused.Theconnectedpowerre-

quiredforspecificlamptypescanbe used

forroughplanningand,aboveall,to

enable a quick comparison to be made of

different light sources.

- Lea e imprima sin anuncios
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->