Está en la página 1de 12


1 | Page Individual Learning

Theory of Learning Cycle (By David Kolb) In order to learn from an experience. reflect upon the experience. Learning is inhibited when a learner misses one of Kolb’s stages. David Kolb stated that for true learning to take place. we need to have an experience. the social context of a learning environment may provide support for its members. In other words it implies that How an individual learns in an organization and how is it important in an organization. we refer individual learning in the context of organization. 2 | Page Individual Learning . INDIVIDUAL LEARNING All individuals learn.. Prof David Merrill asserts: ". Theories Following section deals with the various models and theories coined by different pshycologists explaining how an individual learns. make sense of it and finally apply our theories to our lives by planning what we would do next time we were in the same or similar situation. Individual learning is defined as the capacity to build knowledge through individual reflection about external stimuli and sources. and through the personal re-elaboration of individual knowledge and experience in light of interaction with others and the environment.whether they do it consciously or unconsciously." Here. you have to go through the learning cycle.. It is a fundamental requirement of existence. nevertheless the change in cognitive structure and the acquisition of knowledge and skill is and individual event.

Fig: Four Stages of Learning Based on Kolbs learning Cycle. Thus based on the learning styles of the individuals an appropriate learning method must be designed for every individual. Theory of Competence: This theory states that learning is a four stage process. nor recognizes the deficit. nor has a desire to address it. which involves the journey from unconscious incompetence to unconscious competence. Unconscious incompetence: The individual neither understands nor knows how to do something. problems. They like Logic and are rational and analytical in a leaning situation. They do not effectively. tasks etc… Reflector: Reflectors are people who enjoy reviewing and considering situations and events. 1. Pragmatist: They prefer practicality to theory and learn effectively when they are able to apply the learning to the situation and the real world. 3 | Page Individual Learning . they prefer to learn through involving excercises. They seek out new ideas and want to try them out drawing links between the subject and their current jobs. Activist: People who learn through doing and prefer activity based development. Peter honey and Alan Mumford made an attempt to classify individuals into four groups based on their learning styles. respond well to lectures or highly reflective activity. Theorist: Theorist like to know theories behind a piece of learning. They feel uncomfortable if they are put into limelight without prior warning. models and information..In groups they observe and reflect rather than actively join or lead the discussion. They will be uncomfortable with high emotion and feelings. data. they prefer to learn from research.

Conscious incompetence: Though the individual does not understand or know how to do something. body-kinesthetic. Norman) There are three modes of learning: accretion. insight. opinions). spatial. Gardner proposes seven primary forms: linguistic. depending upon how and when it was learned.g. Conscious competence: The individual understands or knows how to do something.. structuring and tuning. Tuning is the adjustment of knowledge to a specific task usually through practice. structuring occurs much less frequently and requires considerable effort.. He or she may or may not be able to teach it to others. there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions (i. Rumelhart & D. it is most likely that the attitude will change to accommodate the behavior.e. metacognition) and interpersonal (e. something must change to eliminate the dissonance. 4 | Page Individual Learning . without yet addressing it. intrapersonal (e. Accretion is the most common form of learning. The implication of the theory is that learning/teaching should focus on the particular intelligences of each person. if an individual has strong spatial or musical intelligences. 2. In the case of a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior. he or she does recognize the deficit. Modes of Learning (D. Unconscious competence: The individual has had so much practice with a skill that it becomes "second nature" and can be performed easily (often without concentrating too deeply). For example. they should be encouraged to develop these abilities. Structuring involves the formation of new conceptual structures or schema. Accretion is the addition of new knowledge to existing memory. Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (By Leon Festinger) According to cognitive dissonance theory. 3. logical-mathematical. 4.g. tuning is the slowest form of learning and accounts for expert performance. beliefs.. When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance). However. musical. demonstrating the skill or knowledge requires a great deal of consciousness or concentration. social skills). Theory of Multiple Intelligencies (By: Howard Gardener) The theory of multiple intelligences suggests that there are a number of distinct forms of intelligence that each individual possesses in varying degrees.

Organizational Learning Organizational learning is concerned with the development of new knowledge or insights that have the potential to influence behavior. individual learning needs to lead to behavioral changes that clearly improve organizational performance. And adult learning is influenced by organizational context. Individual learning alone is not sufficient for a learning organization. An essential aspect in the learning organization is the way in which the organization seeks to improve the capacity of individuals to recognize and take advantage of learning opportunities. and organizational learning and transformation. effective individual learning does not necessarily result in a learning organization. Individual learning in the workplace will be adult learning. Recently. it must be used to create organizational learning. it is per se necessary to also understand concept of Organizational learning. 1999): • Learning is the key to developing a person’s potential • Learning to learn is the key to effective learning • Learning enables the individuals to meet the demands of change • The capacity to learn is an asset that never becomes obsolete • Embracing learning helps the individual to acknowledge that learning is more than formal education and training According to Giesecke and McNeil (1999). Individual Learning in the Workplace All individuals have the capacity to learn. Organizational learning examines how in this context 5 | Page Individual Learning . given sufficient time and support. Individual learning & Organizational Learning The concept of learning organization has two important elements: individual learning. who has increasing responsibility for his own development. The benefits of learning for individuals are as follows (Allan. there has been a shift towards viewing learning as a continuous lifelong activity which is focused on the learner. know how. And the results of learning must become a part of the organizational culture and processes.After understanding various theories related to individual learning. Rather. It takes place within the wide institutional context of inter organizational relationships and 'refers broadly to an organization's acquisition of understanding. techniques and practices of any kind and by any means. It is impossible for organizations to invest continually in one person’s development without seeing the return on that investment.

employees are required to adapt and respond to the changes quickly and without loss of productivity. where collective aspiration is set free.’ Relationship between Individual Learning and Organizational Learning Organizational learning occurs when individuals. Thus Learning organization can be defined as “one 'where people ' continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. Just like an individual. • Double Loop Learning. The Move from Training And Development To Learning And Development Organizations need good people who can perform effectively in their job. individual and team learning can be translated into an organizational resource and is therefore linked to processes of knowledge management. It is about dealing with the problems or symptoms of a situation rather than the underlying causes. if an organization is successful in embedding new learnings into its organizational patterns. In simple words. that learning at operational. It is about ‘Doing things right’. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. continuous and integrated. team learning appears to be a prerequisite for organizational learning as it enables the learning from individuals to be shared and refined. In the workplace . within an organization. examines the underlying cause of a situation which may lead to a review of the organization’s assumptions and goals. Organizational learning can take place at two levels: • Single Loop learning. Learning organization “Learning organization” implies an Organization which needs to continuously learn to survive. and where people are continually learning how to learn together'. experience a problematic situation and inquire into it on the organization’s behalf. ‘It is about doing the right things. the learning that results from organizational inquiry must become embedded in the images of organization held in its members’ minds. policy and strategic levels needs to be conscious. Organizational learning Vs. Learning needs to be 6 | Page Individual Learning . In order to become organizational. it is able to develop new capacities for learning and establish a new equilibrium. While individual learning is very important and underpins the development of employees.

individuals and their managers must be involved and take the share of identifying learning needs and ensuring everyone is appropriately skilled to achieve business goals and objectives. resulting in change or progression. 7 | Page Individual Learning . Imposed Change: change that happens within an organization ( whether internally or externally driven) and leads to a need for different skills knowledge and behaviors to be demonstrated. Training is an instructor-led.’training’ and ‘development’. Personal Motivation: when an individual decides to enhance their knowledge and skills or alter their behavior in order to achieve personal goals. increase their happiness or make other significant life changes. The various factors that will create a development need are: 1. Methods Of Learning • Action learning Action learning is based on the premise that learning will take place when existing knowledge is applied to a problem through the use of questioning. 2.internalization of the learning and its application to the situation at hand. including the reflection about what has been learnt . 3. Development is the process of growth and learning. Learning and development within organizations is not going to be delivered unless there is a development need. Performance Review: development needs that arise as a result of reviewing current performance against standards and results(actual or desired). content-based intervention leading to desired changes in behavior. which may be to achieve a promotion. take on a different career. It is more than learning by doing because it involves all aspects of the learning cycle. We need to understand the meaning of ‘learning’. continuous because of the pace of change and therefore it can no longer be the sole responsibility of the HR or training department. Learning is the process of increasing knowledge and skills and developing our attitudes or beliefs so that we have the opportunity for increased choice.

• Discussion Boards and Groups Discussion groups are an opportunity to share knowledge and experiences. and career direction to an individual. • On-the-job training It is a structured training that takes place in the workplace. It is highly valid and relevant to the learner as it occurs in a real environment and provides the learner with a realistic experience and opportunity to apply or transfer their learning straightaway. • Self-study It is a learning which is self-directed. • Coaching The process of helping people enhance or improve their performance through reflection on how they apply a specific skill and/or knowledge to a specific situation. • Mentoring It is a process of helping an individual enhance or improve a specific skill in order to improve performance. rather worry about being judged by senior members of their organization. It can be very useful for managerial training which is often delivered via formal off-the-job courses. There is no formal hierarchy in discussion groups and each member can contribute as they feel able. The learners takes responsibility for their own learning and for the methods they choose to use. The mentor provides ongoing support. Mentoring is a formal or informal relationship between senior and junior employees for the purpose of supporting learning and development. It encourages self-development and self-reliance and can help individuals to learn and to value their own resources. • Job rotation Job Rotation is a career development strategy where an individual temporarily moves laterally into an established or "shadow" position. advice. An employee may complete a series of Job Rotations. thus resulting in an improvement in performance. Self study is often prompted by a specific need. 8 | Page Individual Learning .

It may take some time for the learner to transfer their learning and use in the real world. so that the changes can be measured. 3. Pre-event validation ensures that the learning objectives for the activity are a true reflection of the needs identified. It states how much the development has cost against the returns for the organizations. Validation Validation measures the achievement of learning . its impact on the organization should be assessed . Evaluation Evaluation measures the overall cost benefit of the programme and not just the achievement of laid down objectives. 2. It is useful to have pre development data to compare. Performance: Measures the effect of a learning experience on the individuals work/life depending on the purpose of the programme. Thus its basic objective was to take the Organization to the next orbit of business performance and to build a cohesive senior team. CASE ANALYSIS The SEW-EURODRIVE India Pvt.Assessment of Learning Impact It is necessary to assess the learning developments of the individual and its impact on the organization. or through observation where changes in behaviour can be noticed. Post event evaluation checks whether learning has occurred and whether the learning objectives have been achieved. Impact on organization: Before a programme is planned. Return on investment: it is a cost benefit analysis. Measurement should take place over a period of time. This can be done with many of the available options. Changes in performance can be measured by quantitative data such as the number of errors or items produced. It has three stages: 1. a manufacturing firm faced by the problem of shortage in leadership skills. It is essential to know what the performance was before the program. It involved a set of processes starting with identification of competencies of the employee using 360° 9 | Page Individual Learning . Ltd. Many benefits of development cannot be measured whereas cost of any development can be easily measured. To achieve a higher level of individual learning. the firm implemented WLDP TM (Wholesome leadership Development Process).

many other global firms like Motorola. etc. Coaching. Learning was not only focused on leadership development but also extended to individual learning objectives. is internationally renowned as one of the few service sector organisations to innovate in the field of organizational learning. It also involved identification of competencies required for a leader and understanding the business. At the hospital. Based on strengths of employees and required competencies. Employees had to undertake two projects to expose them to self-learning as they get chance to work in a group. and the university continuously revises its curriculum based on participant inputs. learning modules were developed. They have done this by building a culture of constant learning and and MBIT. It is the one most adaptable to change. good team behavior.. or the most intelligent. Conclusion Every employee is a veritable island of knowledge. The firm adopted learning strategies like mentoring. enhanced team spirit. At the same time.  The pediatric care centre. global benchmarking and changing strategic requirements. In order to remain competitive. it cannot afford to lose focus on the individual's personal development. Florida. The visible results of the programme were improved leadership competencies. It has set up the Motorola University to meet all its training needs."  The electronics and telecom major Motorola. "It is not the strongest of the species that will survive.. Self- learning. As Charles Darwin famously remarked. It also made employees more committed and engaged. The training methodology includes role playing to sensitize staff to the needs of young patients. moulded every employee as a change agent and thought leader. it is mandatory for all new patient-care staff to undergo six-month family- centered training. Action learning. It focuses on holistic learning. and the organization must integrate these isolated pockets to channelize individual learning towards achieving its larger strategic objectives. Each learning intervention is consciously aligned to the hospital's mission of excelling in family-centered healthcare. This balancing 10 | P a g e Individual Learning . has been globally recognized for its learning culture and innovative training practices. discussion board. Group learning. Miami Children's Hospital.

http://tip.Individual Learning And Organizational Learning In Academic Libraries Kim. Sloan management review INTERNET SITE ADDRESSES http://www.html 11 | P a g e Individual Learning .html http://tip.The link between Individual and organizational learning.Workplace learning and development – Delivering competitive advantage for your organization Sherry Shiuan has by far been the biggest challenge for the human resource function in the context of the knowledge economy REFERENCES Easter and Smith Mark of Organizational learning and Knowledge Jackie Clifford & Sara Thorpe .psychology. Daniel H.html http://tip.psychology..cfm.

ac.psychology.html http://tip.html 12 | P a g e Individual Learning .za/catts/learner/2000/scheepers_md/projects/loo/theory/individ.