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A+ Manual

A+ Manual

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Publicado porHofmang

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Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: Hofmang on Sep 02, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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RAM is a type of memory that the CPU uses to temporarily hold data and
instructions. However, the information stored in RAM is volatile – it is erased
when you turn the PC off.

RAM is measured in megabytes (MB). The average PC today has around 128
MB of RAM.


When used as a measure of the amount of memory, 1 MB is generally
understood to mean 2 to the power of 20 – or 1,048,576 – bytes.

RAM is available in the following different physical packages:



The 168-pin dual inline memory module (DIMM) is currently the most common type of memory
module used in PCs.


The small outline DIMM (SODIMM) is available with either 72 pins or 144 pins. Because
SODIMMs are smaller than DIMMs, they are often found in notebook computers.


Standard inline memory module (SIMMs) are found in older PCs, and have been largely replaced
by DIMMs. They are available in 30-pin and 72-pin packages.

RAM is not the only kind of memory used in a PC. Data and instructions can be
stored in read-only memory (ROM) chips.

Unlike RAM, ROM is nonvolatile – it is retained even when the power is switched
off. For this reason, ROM is used to store the basic input/output system (BIOS)
services and configuration information.
Two types of ROM chips that you may find on a typical motherboard are

non-reprogrammable ROM
flash ROM

non-reprogrammable ROM

Older motherboards contain several non-reprogrammable ROM chips. You can't change the data
stored on this kind of chip. If you stored the BIOS on such a chip – a ROM BIOS chip – you'd have
to physically replace the chip to change the BIOS. So, the BIOS, which can be thought of as a set
of small programs, is permanently stored on the chip. Programs stored in this way are known as
firmware – a hybrid between software, which can be easily erased, and hardware.

flash ROM

The flash ROM chip performs the same function as previous generations of ROM chips – it stores
the BIOS, for example. However, you can reprogram the data held on the chip.


The data on the chip is still nonvolatile, and is permanently stored on a flash ROM chip unless you
decide to reprogram it. Chips of this kind make it possible to update the BIOS using software,
rather than physically replacing the chip.

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