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A+ Manual

A+ Manual

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Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: Hofmang on Sep 02, 2009
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11/19/2012

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The small computer system interface (SCSI) is a hardware interface standard
that enables you to connect multiple peripheral devices to a single board called a
SCSI host adapter. The SCSI host adapter plugs into the motherboard, usually
using a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slot.
The advantage of SCSI is that you can daisy-chain multiple peripheral devices to
one host adapter, using a single slot in the bus. Each SCSI device has a second
port to connect the next device in line.

The original SCSI interface allows 8-bit parallel data transmission.
SCSI devices can be

internal
external

internal

Internal SCSI devices – such as hard disks or tape drives – don't have their own power supplies.
So you need to connect these devices to one of the system's power connectors.

A ribbon cable connects these devices to the host adapter.

external

External SCSI devices – such as CD-ROMs or scanners – have built-in or plug-in power supplies
that you need to connect to a commercial AC outlet.

You can implement the SCSI standard using different types of cables and
connectors.

For example, you can use an A-cable format, in which external connections use
a 50-pin shielded cable with Centronics-type connectors, and internal
connections use a 50-pin flat ribbon cable.
The 68-pin P-cable format – using D-shell connectors – allows 16-bit
transmission. And the 68-pin Q-cable format allows 32-bit transmission. For 32-
bit transfers, you need to use the P and Q cables in parallel.
The maximum recommended length of a standard SCSI chain is 6 meters. But to
minimize induced noise, the maximum recommended length of individual SCSI
segments is less than 1 meter.

However, you need to consider the length of internal cabling when you deal with
SCSI cable distances. Because the length of internal cabling is about 0.9 to 1.5
meters, you need to reduce the maximum total length of the chain to about 4.5
meters.
Updated SCSI specifications include

Wide SCSI-2
Fast SCSI-2
Wide Fast SCSI-2

224

Ultra SCSI
Ultra 320 SCSI

Wide SCSI-2

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) developed the Wide SCSI-2 specification to
double the number of data lines available in the standard interface.

The specification adds balanced, dual-line drivers for faster data transfer speeds. The maximum
synchronous data transfer speed for this standard is 5 MegaBytes per second.

It also provides an 8/16-bit bus standard and increases the standard cable and connector
specification to 68 pins. It can support up to 15 devices.

Fast SCSI-2

The Fast SCSI-2 specification increases the synchronous data transfer speed for the interface
from 5 MegaBytes per second to 10 MegaBytes per second. It provides an 8/16-bit bus standard,
and supports up to 7 devices.

Under this specification, the system and the I/O device perform non-data message, command, and
status operations in 8-bit asynchronous mode. After they've agreed on a bigger – or faster – file
format, they perform transfers using the agreed word size and transmission mode.

Fast SCSI-2 connections use 50-pin connectors. The higher speed of the specification reduces the
maximum length of a SCSI chain to approximately 3 meters.

Wide Fast SCSI-2

The Wide Fast SCSI-2 specification combines the improvements of Wide SCSI-2 and Fast SCSI-
2.

It provides a maximum synchronous data transfer speed of 20 MegaBytes per second, and
doubles the bus size of the original SCSI to 16 bits. It supports a chain of up to 15 additional
devices.

Ultra SCSI

The Ultra SCSI specification provides a special high-speed serial transfer mode and special
communications media, such as fiber-optic cabling.

This update includes the following specifications – Ultra2 SCSI, Wide Ultra SCSI, Wide Ultra2
SCSI, and Wide Ultra3 SCSI.

The Ultra SCSI specification provides a maximum synchronous data transfer speed of 20
MegaBytes per second and a bus size of 8 bits. It supports a chain of up to 7 devices.

Ultra 320 SCSI

The newest SCSI specification is Ultra 320 SCSI. It provides a maximum bus speed of 320
MegaBytes per second, uses a 16-bit bus, and supports up to 15 external devices.

The Ultra 320 SCSI connection uses an 80-pin Single Contact Attachment (SCA) connector.

You can implement redundant array of independent disks (RAID) with Integrated
Drive Electronics (IDE) or SCSI hard drives, depending on which type of RAID
controller you select.

Small business servers can often save money by using an IDE RAID solution.

Generally, high-end servers use a SCSI RAID solution. SCSI RAID levels
include RAID 0, 1, and 5.

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