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Honors Chemistry

Name Michael Wu

Stoichiometry and Measurements Lab

Unit 4: Stoichiometry Stoichiometry Lab As a doctor in the hospital, your patient needs 1.35 g of barium sulfate for the production of his "life saving" medicine. You know that every time you conduct this reaction, you get a 79.5% yield. The chemicals that you have to work with are sodium sulfate and barium nitrate . (they are very expensive, so use the minimum amount needed) Purpose: To determine the minimum mass of sodium sulfate and barium nitrate are needed to produce 1.35g of barium sulfate.

Procedure: 1. First, we will calculate the theoretical amount of barium sulfate we need to create in order to have an actual yield of 1.35g 2. Next, we will calculate the molar masses of Ba(NO3)2(aq), Na2SO4(aq), and BaSO4(s). 3. We will balance the equation for the precipitate reaction between Ba(NO3)2(aq) and Na2SO4(aq). 4. Using this data, we will use stoichiometry to determine the minimum amount of Ba(NO3)2 and Na2SO4 needed in order to produce the amount of BaSO4 needed. 5. We measure out the masses of the beaker to be used (denoted by B), and the mass of the filter paper we used (denoted by P). We will also denote the mass of the precipitate by A. 6. We measured out the necessary materials, put them into a single beaker

7. We put water into the beaker, and stirred thoroughly until the solutions had dissolved, and the precipitate had formed 8. We pour the mixture into a funnel with a filter paper on top to let the liquid filter through, and the precipitate remain 9. After the liquid has filtered completely, we measure the mass of the filter paper with the precipitate in it 10. We subtract the mass of the filter paper to determine the actual mass of the BaSO 4. 11. Using this, we calculate the theoretical yield, and compare it to what should have happened, and then the lab is done

Materials: Flask Beaker Sodium Sulfate Barium Nitrate Filter Paper Filter Scale Stirring Rod

Lab: Step 1: 1.35g of BaSO4 needed, so AY=1.35g Since you get a 79.5% yield, AY/TY=0.795 Plugging in AY, you get 1.35g/TY=0.795 Solving, you get TY=1.69811g Rounding to correct significant figures, we get that TY=1.70g This means that in theory, we need to create 1.70 grams of BaSO4 Step 2: Table 1: Molar Masses of compounds Compound Na2SO4(aq) Ba(NO3)2(aq) BaSO4(s) Step 3: The equation balances as follows: Molar Mass (g) 156.08g 261.32g 233.37g

Ba(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) BaSO4(s) + 2NaNO3 (aq) Step 4: 1.70g of BaSO4 x

1 mole 233.37g/mole

1 mole of Ba(NO3)2 x 261.32g/mole 1 mole of BaSO4 1 mole of Ba(NO3)2

=1.90g of BaNO3(aq) needed. 1.70g of BaSO4 x 1 mole BaSO4 x 1 mole of Na2SO4 x 142.05g/mole Na2SO4 233.37g/mole BaSO4 1 mole of BaSO4 1 mole of Na2SO4 =1.03g of Na2SO4(aq) needed. Table 2: Necessary masses of each solution Item Barium Nitrate solution Sodium Sulfate solution Mass needed 1.90g 1.03g

Step 5: Table 2: Masses of tools

Table 3: Masses of tools Item Filter Paper Beaker Mass (g) 1.202g 51.999g

Step 6:

Step 7:

Step 8:

Step 9: Mass of filter paper and precipitate (P+A): 2.580g

(incorrect picture because taken from another group) Step 10: (P+A) - P = A =2.580g-1.202g = A A = 1.375g

Step 11 will be discussed later Pre-lab: Questions to address prior to starting lab 1. How much of the reactants will you need to measure out? We will measure out 1.90g of BaNO3 and 1.03g of NaSO4 2. How much water should you add to the beaker? The amount of water doesn't matter, as it will be filtered out along with the aqueous Sodium Nitrate. As long as it is enough to completely dissolve the reactants, then it is enough. 3. To separate the solid from the liquid, you will need to filter. What is in the filter paper? Should you mass the filter paper before hand? Why?

The solid precipitate of the reaction (Barium Sulfate) is in the filter paper. We should mass the paper before hand, because we need to subtract its weight from the total weight of the filter paper and the solid precipitate to figure out the solid precipitates mass. 4. How will you collect the aqueous product? Does this need to be measured? We will collect our aqueous product in the flask (Sodium Nitrate). This does not have to be measured, as we are only finding how much Barium Sulfate is needed. However, if we wanted to figure out its mass, we still wouldn't have to measure its, as we could simply calculate it using the mass of the precipitate. 5. Where are some places where you might lose some of your product? How can you maximize your percent yield and minimize your percent error?
We could lose some product when pouring the solution into the filter paper because not all of the precipitate could have slid out of the beaker. We could prevent this by spraying more distilled water while pouring the precipitate out. We could maximize our percent yield and minimize our percent error by avoiding human error as much as possible, such as making sure all the stuff Analysis and Discussion: As you collect your data, include a calculation of the percent yield and percent error, sources of error, will your patient have enough for his medicine, what improvements would you make to your procedure for next time. Percent Yield (Step 11): AY = 1.375g BaSO4(s) TY = 1.70g BaSO4(s) 1.375g/1.70g x 100%

=80.882% Rounding to correct sig figs, we get the percent yield is =80.9% Percent Error (Step 11): (1.35g - 1.375g)/(1.375g) x 100% = 1.81% Sources of Error: For this lab, my group put too much of barium nitrate and sodium sulfate in the beaker. Thus we had expected to receive more of barium nitrate. However, some of the barium sulfate was visible in the flask, we concluded that some barium sulfate must have gone through. So of percent error of 1.81% was supposed to be more. The reason for some

of the barium sulfate gone through the filter paper could be because we didn't fold the filter paper properly. Conclusion: For this lab, we used stoichiometry to figure out the needed masses of each of the reactants. We did this by first figuring out the theoretical yield that would produce 1.35g of Barium Sulfate. We then converted from one unit to the other using the concepts and rules of stoichiometry. This lab was fairly successful as our percent error was only 1.81%, and our percent yield is close to the actual yield. However, we did get lucky this time, because some of the barium sulfate had went through the filter paper, and improved our results. We could improve our results next time by making sure that the mass of the reactants are what we want it to be, fold the filter paper properly, or even put 2 filter paper over each other. Furthermore, we could also make sure that the materials and tools we use are cleaned well. (meaning that there are no residues from the previous use.) Our patient has more then enough Barium Sulfate to eat. Conclusion Statement: In the lab, we produced 1.375g of Barium Sulfate from 1.9g of Barium Nitrate and 1.3g of Sodium Sulfate with a 1.81% error.