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Chapter #18: Renewing the Sectional Struggle Big Picture Themes 1.

. The main question facing the nation was, Will new lands won from Mexico have slaves or be free? 2. The answer to the question was hammered out in the Compromise of 1850. It said California was to be free, popular sovereignty (the people decide) for the rest of the lands. 3. A tougher fugitive slave law was a major concession to the South, but it wasnt enforced. This angered the Southerners. 4. The NorthSouth rift was widened with the Kansas-Nebraska Act. It repealed the Missouri Compromise which had kept the peace for a generation. In its place, popular sovereignty opened the Great Plains to potential slavery. Whereas the slave-land issue had been settled, now it was a big question mark. IDENTIFICATIONS: Stephen Douglas: Illinois politician who helped smooth over sectional conflict in 1850 but then reignited it in 1854 Franklin Pierce: Weak Democratic president hose pro-soutthern cabinet pushed aggresive expansionist schemes Compromise of 1850: California a free state, Texas lost New Mexico but was paid $10 million, slavetrade banned in DC, popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico, stronger fugitive slave law Zachary Taylor: Whig Party candidate in the election of 1848 John C. Calhoun: argued for the South and for states' rights; wanted slavery to be left alone, the runaway slaves to be returned to the South, and state balance kept intact Matthew C. Perry: got Japan to open itself to trade in the Treaty of Kanagawa Henry Clay: the "Great Compromiser;" offered a compromise for the California slavery issue by creating the Compromise of 1850 Free-Soil Party: Party that garnered 5% of the Northern vote Fugitive Slave Law: "round up" runaways up North and ship them back South Harriet Tubman: most well-known "conductor" of the "railroad;" snuck back into the South 19 times and led some 300+ slaves to freedom Ostend Manifesto: said the U.S. would offer $120 million for Cuba, and if Spain rejected it, the U.S. would be justified in taking Cuba by force

Kansas-Nebraska Act: Act wrecked the Compromise of 1850 and created deep divisions within the Democratic Party. Proposed to organize Kansas and Nebraska and give them popular sovereignty and move the transcontinental railroad up north Chapter #19: Drifting Toward Disunion Big Picture Themes 1. Uncle Toms Cabin drove a wedge between the Northerner and Southerner. The South cried foul saying it gave a view of slavery that was too harsh and unrealistic, but it cemented each sections feelings on the issue. 2. Kansas became the battleground over slavery. Since slavery there was to be decided by popular vote, each side passionately fought for their position. Bloodshed resulted. 3. The Supreme Courts Dred Scott decision was huge. It said that Congress or a legislature cannot outlaw slavery in the territories. Effectively then, all new lands were possible slave lands. 4. A financial panic in 1857 added to the chaos and uncertainty. 5. Abe Lincoln arrived on the scene. Although he lost to Stephen Douglas for Illinois Senate, he made a name for himself there. 6. In 1860, Abe Lincoln won a very sectional race for president over 3 other candidates. The South had promised to leave the union if Abe won. He won, and the South indeed seceded. IDENTIFICATIONS: Hinton Helper: The Impending Crisis of the South: a Southern critic of slavery during the 1850s who wrote a book entitled The Impending Crisis of The South The book put forth the notion that slavery hurt the economic prospects of non-slaveholders, and was an impediment to the growth of the entire region of the South. George Fitzhugh: American social theorist who published racial and slavery-based sociological theories in the antebellum era. Argued that slaves needed the economic and social protection of slavery John Brown: An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory Charles Sumner: A leader of the Radical republicans along with Thaddeus Stevens. He was from Massachusetts and was in the senate. His two main goals were breaking the power of wealthy planters and ensuring that freedmen could vote Dred Scott: A black slave, had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. Backed by interested abolitionists, he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. The ruling on the case was that He was a black slave and not a citizen, so he had no rights. Abraham Lincoln: 16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)

John Crittenden: created amendment that slavery was to be protected everywhere south of the 36 30 line, even in new territories Bleeding Kansas: A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent. American or Know-Nothing Party: Party that disdained foreigners, like the Irish and German immigrants Panic of 1857: Financial crisis resulting from inflation caused by the inpouring of California gold, speculation in land and railroads, and overstimulation of the growing of grain to meet the demands of the Crimean War; the north was most hardest hit by the panic, with the cotton-growing southern remaining stable; another factor in the panic was this tariff which had reduced duties significantly, a response to pressure from the south, which dramatically affected the north. Lincoln-Douglas Debates: During the race to become Senator Lincoln asked to have multiple debates with Douglas. Certain topics of these debates were slavery, how to deal with slavery, and where slavery should be allowed. Although Lincoln lost the election to Douglas, he was known throughout the country because of the debates. Freeport Doctrine: Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election. Harper's Ferry Raid: John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged Constitutional Union Party: Party consisting of former Whigs and Know-Nothings and elected John Bell as their candidate. GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: Stowe and Helper: Literary Incendiaries Know: Harriet Beecher Stowe, Hinton Helper 1. Which book, Uncle Tom's Cabin or The Impending Crisis of the South was more important? Explain. 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' had a much more dramatic effect upon public opinion than Helper. Stowe really went for the emotions and stirred up the citizens both North and South in great numbers. Helper was significant but more on the intellectual and political side. The North-South Contest for Kansas

Know: Beecher's Bibles, Border Ruffians 2. What went wrong with popular sovereignty in Kansas?

Popular sovereignty was written into the proposal so that the voters of the moment would decide whether slavery would be allowed. The result was that pro- and anti-slavery elements flooded into Kansas with the goal of voting slavery up or down, leading to a bloody civil war there. Know: John Brown, Pottawatomie Creek, Lecompton Constitution 3. What was the effect of "Bleeding Kansas" on the Democratic Party?

In what is considered part of the Bleeding Kansas incidents, Democratic representative Preston Brooks attacked Charles Sumner in the U.S. Senate in 1856. Summer was later regarded as a martyr of the antislavery movement, a blow to the Democrats. "Bully" Brooks and His Bludgeon Know: Charles Sumner, Preston Brooks 5. What was the consequence of Brook's beating of Sumner in the North? The South?

The beating drew a sharply polarized response from the American public in the context of the expansion of slavery in the United States, and it has been considered symbolic of the "breakdown of reasoned discourse"[1] that eventually led to the American Civil War. "Old Buck" versus "The Pathfinder" Know: James Buchanan, John C. Fremont, The American Party 6. Assess the candidates in the 1856 election.

The Democrats chose Buchanan because he was not influenced by Bleeding Kansas and had no enemies, but he was mediocre, irresolute, and confused. He supported popular sovereignty. The Republicans chose Fremont because he wasnt influenced by Kansas, even though he had no political experience. The Republicans were against slavery. The Know-Nothing Party was alarmed by the immigrants and chose Fillmore. The Wigs helped the Know-Nothings. The Electoral Fruits of 1856 7. Interpret the results of the election of 1856.

The United States Presidential Election of 1856 showed that the nation was very divided & fears of Civil War were well founded. Many Northerners had been threatened and intimidated into voting for the Southern Buchanan. The Dred Scott Bombshell

Know: Dred Scott, Roger B. Taney 8 Why was the Dred Scott decision so divisive?

The decision by the supreme court to deny Dred Scott his freedom proved that the Supreme Court invalidated a major piece of federal legislation. White people did not care about black people and this made it known and hastened the civil war. The Financial Crash of 1857 8 How did the Panic of 1857 make Civil War more likely?

The panic gave the south false hope and overconfidence in their agrarian economy to be able to withstand a possible secession from the US. Since the South was hurt the least in the panic, they falsely concluded that the superiority of their economic system had been vindicated. 10. Describe Abraham Lincoln's background.

He was born on the Kentucky frontier. As a kid, he lived in Indiana and Illinois. He was very smart and taught himself how to read, even though he only spent a year in school. After he left home, he opened a store in Illinois. There he studied law on his own and launched a career in politics. He served eight years in the state legislature and one in Congress, bitterly opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act, he decided to run for the Senate in 1858. The Great Debate: Lincoln versus Douglas Know: Freeport Doctrine 11. What long term results occurred because of the Lincoln-Douglas debates?

In the long run, the debates were favorable to Lincoln and fatal to Douglas. Lincoln gained national stature from his performance and became a serious Presidential contender, while Douglas was viewed as an outcast. John Brown: Murderer or Martyr Know: Harper's Ferry, Robert E. Lee 12. Why were the actions of one (crazy?) man so important in the growing conflict between North and South? Both sides used John Brown as a powerful symbol; the South to represent Northern savagery, and the North to represent Southern cruelty for hanging a martyr. They used there interpretations of him to fuel their anger and tensions with each other. The Disruption of the Democrats Know: John C. Breckenridge, John Bell

13. What happened when the Democratic Party attempted to choose a candidate for the presidency in 1860? The southern Democrats did not trust Douglas so they seceded from the political party and chose Breckinridge as their candidate. A Rail-Splitter Splits the Union 14. Why was Lincoln chosen as the Republican candidate instead of Seward?

At the Republican National Convention it was revealed that Lincoln's competition for the nomination Seward, Chase, and Bates had each alienated factions of the Republican Party. Lincoln had a national reputation from his debates and speeches as the most articulate moderate, he won the party's nomination on May 18, 1860. The Electoral Upheaval of 1860 15. Did the South have any power in the national government after Lincolns election, or were they helpless? They were not badly off at all. They still had a five-to-four majority in the Supreme Court, the government could not take away slavery in slave-states, and there were 15 slave states. The Secessionist Exodus Know: Secession, Jefferson Davis 16.. What did President Buchanan do when the South seceded? Why?

James Buchanan being very learned in constitutional law, maintained that no state had the right to secede, but in the end had no control over the seceding states. The Collapse of Compromise 17. What was the Crittendon Compromise and why did it fail?

It was seen as giving too many political concessions to the South. Lincoln voiced his opposition to it, as he had been elected on a no extension of slavery platform. Farewell to Union 18. What advantages did southerners see in secession? Who did they compare themselves to?

They thought that secession would allow them to continue with slavery and allow them to govern their states as they liked.