Está en la página 1de 22

Fortuny Marsal, Mariano Nacionalidad: Espaa Reus 1838 - Roma 1874 Pintor Estilo: Eclecticismo Espaol Escuela: Nadie

cosechar tanto xito con los cuadros de gabinete como Mariano Fortuny i Marsal, no slo en Espaa sino tambin en Pars y Roma, alcanzando la fama y obteniendo una considerable fortuna que le permitir tener varias casas abiertas en diferentes ciudades. Por desgracia, su temprana muerte no le facilit el ocupar un puesto destacado entre los grandes maestros de la pintura espaola, que le corresponde sin ninguna duda. Mariano naci en Reus (Tarragona) el 11 de julio de 1838, en el seno de una modesta familia que tendr tres hijos ms. Su padre, tambin llamado Mariano, era propietario de un pequeo taller de carpintera mientras que su esposa, Teresa, se dedicaba a cuidar de la familia. La epidemia de clera que asol Catalua en la dcada de 1840 le dej hurfano de madre a los once aos, siendo recogido - tras emigrar el padre a Barcelona - por su abuelo, llamado "Marianet de les Figures", hbil ebanista que posea un teatrillo con el que se ganaba la vida por los pueblos de la comarca. La relacin entre abuelo y nieto fue muy estrecha, existiendo entre ambos una qumica especial. El abuelo se entusiasm con los dibujos del pequeo, que ya haba despuntado como un mal escolar, sintiendo Fortuny gran aficin por el dibujo y la pintura. Marianet consider que su nieto deba completar su formacin artstica - llevaba acudiendo a la Escuela de Dibujo de Reus desde los nueve aos - por lo que le envi al taller de Domingo Soberano, quien le ense el manejo del leo y la acuarela. Tambin aprende con un platero miniaturista llamado Antonio Bassa, que le ensear la minuciosidad que caracteriza su pintura, trabajando en un amplio nmero de exvotos. La enseanza artstica se compaginaba con el estudio de las primeras letras en la escuela de don Simn Fort. El abuelo es consciente de que la formacin del pequeo ha tocado techo en Reus; piensa que en Barcelona puede recibir una educacin artstica ms completa y sin dudarlo emprenden el viaje. Al carecer de recursos econmicos tuvieron que realizar el trayecto a pie, posiblemente ganndose la vida como titiriteros con los muecos y los platillos. En el mes de septiembre de 1852 llegan a la Ciudad Condal, donde es protegido por el escultor Domingo Tallarn, colaborando en la ejecucin de obras religiosas, familiarizndose con el dibujo y el empleo del leo. El propio Tallarn,

contento con los avances del joven, le gestiona una pequea pensin de la Obra Pa y la matrcula gratuita en la Escuela de Bellas Artes de La Lonja, donde recibir por primera vez formacin oficial. Sus maestros en la Escuela sern Pablo Mil i Fontanals, Luis Rigalt y Claudio Lorenzale, miembros del llamado Nazarenismo Cataln que tena puesta la mirada en la historia de Catalua y en el Quattrocento italiano. Acudir tambin al estudio particular de Lorenzale, siendo este maestro el que ms marque al joven artista. Durante los cinco cursos que permaneci Mariano en la Escuela aprendi un riguroso dibujo, una soberbia ejecucin compositiva y las cuestiones relacionadas con el oficio. Trabajaba incesantemente, realizando croquis, caricaturas, dibujos, ayudndose econmicamente con la elaboracin de xilografas y litografas devocionales, dibujando en el campo junto a su amigo Jos Tapir e ilustrando algunas novelas como "El mendigo hipcrita" de Dumas o el "Quijote". Tanto trabaj que cay enfermo, siendo trasladado a Berga por su abuelo para que se recuperara. Los trabajos de este primer periodo estn dedicados a la temtica histrica, sagrada o mitolgica, manifestando una acentuada influencia de los nazarenos, especialmente Lorenzale. Gracias al cuadro sobre Ramn Berenguer III en el castillo de Foix consigue una pensin de la Diputacin de Barcelona para trasladarse a Roma. Obtiene 8.000 reales anuales para completar su formacin artstica durante un periodo de dos aos, teniendo que enviar a cambio algunos trabajos para mostrar sus progresos a la entidad. El 19 de marzo de 1858 llega a la Ciudad Eterna, siendo su primera impresin absolutamente negativa; escribir que "Roma me ha producido el efecto de un vasto cementerio visitado por extranjeros". Acude habitualmente la Academia Giggi donde se dibuja del natural, coincidiendo con Eduardo Rosales y Discoro de la Puebla, animndose algo ms. Los tres frecuentarn el Caf Greco y visitarn las iglesias, palacios y museos romanos. Fortuny sentir una especial admiracin por la pintura de Rafael, maravillndose con el Inocencio X de Velzquez. Pero tambin se interesa por las novedades como los macchiaioli florentinos - interesados por la pintura al aire libre rechazando temas acadmicos - o los paisajistas napolitanos. Mariano trabaja infatigablemente, estudiando del natural, dibujando, elaborando acuarelas. Sus trabajos empiezan a ser considerados en el ambiente romano, vendiendo algunas obras con bastante facilidad, sin olvidar los trabajos que debe enviar peridicamente a la Diputacin que le pensiona. En octubre de 1859 estalla la guerra entre Espaa y el sultn de Marruecos. En los desiertos africanos uno de los principales protagonistas militares es el general Juan Prim, oriundo tambin de Reus, que est obteniendo importantes xitos al mando de los voluntarios catalanes. La Diputacin de Barcelona piensa en Fortuny como el cronista que capte las hazaas de los soldados catalanes, cubriendo la institucin todos los gastos de la estancia tanto de l como su ayudante, Jaime Escriu. A Mariano le debi entusiasmar el encargo ya que en pocos das hizo los preparativos necesarios para emprender el viaje. El 12 de febrero de 1860 llegan a las playas de Tetun, sin oportunidad de presenciar las batallas de los Castillejos y Tetun. Mariano s llega a tiempo de contemplar la batalla de Wad-Ras realizando un buen nmero de apuntes, bocetos y notas cuyo objetivo ser ejecutar una serie de grandes lienzos donde deje constancia de las victorias espaolas. frica va a suponer un nuevo aire para Fortuny, al sentirse encandilado con los ambientes, las luces y los personajes,

llegando a aprender el rabe para integrarse mejor. Se libera de convenciones y academicismos sintindose atrado intensamente por lo oriental, enlazando con las obras del francs Delacroix. Al firmarse la paz entre Espaa y Marruecos (1860), tras dos meses y medio de estancia en tierras marroques, Fortuny vuelve a Barcelona, pasando por Madrid donde visita el Museo del Prado, interesndose por Velzquez, Ribera y Goya. Durante este tiempo que pas en la capital de Espaa conocer a Federico de Madrazo y a su hija Cecilia, su futura esposa. A su regreso a Barcelona presenta los diversos estudios para los cuadros de batallas a la Diputacin de Barcelona, obteniendo un xito insospechado, de tal manera que se piensa en dotarle de una pensin para que viaje por Europa y estudie las obras de los ms insignes pintores de batallas. En esta coyuntura viaja a Pars donde contempla las obras de los museos del Louvre, Versalles y Luxemburgo, interesndose por Horace Vernet, Eugne Fromentin, AlexandreGabriel Decamps y especialmente Eugne Delacroix, ampliando sus conocimientos y abrindose un nuevo periodo en la pintura de Fortuny. Atrs queda el periodo de formacin. Desde 1860 Mariano se abre camino en los circuitos comerciales aumentando rpidamente su prestigio. En 1861 est de nuevo en Roma, donde empieza a cosechar un importante triunfo con acuarelas y cuadritos, relacionndose con los "macchiaioli" y trabajando en la Batalla de Tetun por encargo de la Diputacin. Los cuadros de batallas - que deban ser seis en total - se le atragantan y regresa a Marruecos en 1862 para reavivar sus impresiones. En tierras africanas permanecer dos meses, vistindose como un rabe y aprendiendo la lengua para poder desenvolverse mejor en la zona. Las sensaciones que le emocionaron dos aos atrs vuelven al espritu del maestro, aunque no se inspir lo suficiente para ejecutar los cuadros encargados. Se inicia ahora una poca de continuos viajes entre Roma, Pars, Barcelona y Madrid conociendo a diversos artistas: Domenico Morelli, Martn Rico, Paul Delaroche, Germe, firmando un contrato con el marchante Adolphe Goupil para vender los cuadros que elaborase el joven artista, tomando una temtica orientalista junto a cuadros de "casacn" o gabinete, siguiendo a los franceses Antoine Watteau y Ernest Meissonier y al alemn Adolf Menzel cuyos trabajos estaban alcanzando elevados precios en Europa. Con estos cuadritos - llamados "tableautin" en Francia - de asuntos intranscendentes, realizados con un estilo minucioso y detallista, interesado por la luz, el dibujo y el color, Fortuny arrasar en el mercado europeo. Su fortuna crece a medida que le llueven los encargos. En Madrid entablar relacin con Cecilia Madrazo, belleza rubia que encandilar al artista desde el primer momento, contrayendo la pareja matrimonio en la madrilea iglesia de San Gins el 27 de noviembre de 1867. Las frecuentes visitas al templo le servirn de inspiracin para realizar La vicara, su obra maestra. El viaje de novios les lleva a Granada, donde se siente hechizado por la luz y el ambiente musulmn de la ciudad. La pareja vivir a caballo entre Roma y Pars, coleccionando cermicas, cuadros y objetos metlicos. Durante 1868 se instalan en Granada pero pronto abandonan la ciudad andaluza debido al estallido de la Revolucin contra Isabel II. Roma ser la ciudad elegida para vivir, abriendo un estudio al que acudan todos los artistas romanos y extranjeros mientras Fortuny pinta incansablemente cuadritos y acuarelas que se vendan con suma facilidad y aumentaban su fortuna. En el estudio iba acumulando una esplndida coleccin de armas, tapices,

cermicas, vidrios y mil caprichosos objetos debido a su faceta de coleccionista, animado por la moda de la poca. En 1869 tiene su primer acceso de malaria, ao en el que el marchante Goupil le hace un sensacional ofrecimiento: la construccin de un gran taller en Pars a cambio de establecerse en la capital francesa. Mariano acept el reto y se traslada con su familia a Pars en julio de 1869. En la Ciudad de la Luz todos los literatos, artistas y aristcratas se disputan su amistad, llegando a decir su cuado Raimundo de Madrazo: "Nada exagero si afirmo que la reputacin creciente de Fortuny se hizo asunto de moda, y no haba jams primado ni ministro que haya tenido a su puerta ms carruajes de pretendientes y admiradores". En la primavera de 1870 se inaugura una exposicin en la Galera Goupil que servir para confirmar su xito sintiendo el agasajo de la capital donde se marcaban las pautas del gusto de la poca. Antes de estallar la Guerra Franco-Prusiana los Fortuny regresan a Espaa pasando por Madrid y Sevilla para instalarse en Granada donde nace Mariano, su segundo hijo, en mayo de 1871. Durante dos aos el pintor residir casi permanentemente en Granada, sintindose tremendamente feliz. All pinta, hace cermica, adquiere numerosos objetos para sus colecciones, admirando la luz y el color andaluz. Durante estos momentos se manifiesta por primera vez el debate artstico que definir sus ltimos aos: Fortuny se encuentra metido en un increble negocio que le resta mucha libertad creativa, cindole a un determinado tipo de pintura sin problemas y de xito fcil, deseando salir de ese crculo vicioso pero el nivel de vida alcanzado le impide romper con el estilo que tanto xito le trae. Por eso, en sus ltimos aos cae en una depresin que motiva la realizacin de obras como el Corral o el Paisaje, que suponen para l una va de escape. Fortuny deseaba abrir nuevos caminos con su pintura pero los encargos que le hacen son obras de "casacn" y l necesita dinero para vivir. Se encuentra en un callejn sin salida. En el otoo de 1871 regresa a Marruecos acompaado por su amigo Tapir y en mayo de 1872 vuelve a Roma con la intencin de terminar sus encargos e instalarse definitivamente en Granada; dar los ltimos toques a La vicara, la Eleccin de la modelo o el Ensayo en el jardn de los poetas Arcades - destruido en la Guerra Civil Espaola - alcanzando en la venta de cada uno de ellos precios jams obtenidos por un pintor moderno, llegndose a pagar 90.000 francos por la ltima obra. Durante el tiempo pasado en la Ciudad Eterna, en la Villa Martinori, recibe la admiracin y adulacin de todos; cualquiera de sus apuntes alcanza altsimos precios en el mercado. Pero Fortuny iba cayendo progresivamente en un abismo de hasto y tristeza del que slo sale pintando. Cada vez se asla ms llegando a decir de l un personaje romano: "Es una lstima que el seor Fortuny, que tanto talento ha derrochado en sus cuadros, no haya reservado un poco para la conversacin". Mariano haba cado en la depresin porque no estaba contento consigo mismo, porque tena sensacin de fracaso al sacrificar el genio que apuntaba en sus esbozos marroques y en sus paisajes granadinos para satisfacer el gusto de los burgueses. Intentando animarle un poco, su amigo el barn Charles Davillier le prepara un viaje a Londres donde visitarn numerosas colecciones, museos y talleres entre ellos los de Alma-Tadema y Millais. El verano de 1874 lo pasar en la villa napolitana de Portici animado por su paisaje marino y la luz mediterrnea. Los trabajos elaborados en estos meses se llenan de alegra, enlazando casi con el Impresionismo como se aprecia en el Desnudo en la playa. En octubre

regresa la familia Fortuny a Roma cayendo enfermo el 14 de noviembre; Fortuny fallecer en Roma el 21 de noviembre de 1874, vctima posiblemente de la malaria, complicada con una dolencia gstrica motivada por el vicio de chupar los pinceles de la acuarela. Su entierro fue una autntica apoteosis siendo sepultado en el cementerio romano de San Lorenzo Extramuros con su paleta, sus pinceles y su ltimo dibujo. En el cortejo se pudo ver a una multitud de artistas llegados de todas partes; los directores de las Academias de Francia y Npoles y el embajador de Espaa acompaaron el cadver, siendo reproducido el momento en las mejores revistas ilustradas de la poca. En abril de 1875 los tesoros que Fortuny haba reunido fueron subastados en el Hotel Drouot de Pars, alcanzando precios desorbitados. A pesar de sus 36 aos, su estilo y su obra le definen como un autntico genio que pudo revolucionar la pintura espaola. Como bien dice E. Lafuente Ferrari, la culpa de que no lo hiciera "no slo fue de l, sino de la sociedad de su tiempo". Y de la muerte, por supuesto.

http://www.artehistoria.jcyl.es/genios/pintores/1954.htm

Espiritualidad del ser humano

Photo Credit: Annuska El ser humano siempre ha buscado la espiritualidad como mtodo para dar una explicacin lgica a las cosas que ocurren en el mundo y su vida, tambin para dar respuestas a cosas que no la tienen. De dnde venimos? Por qu somos cmo somos? Por qu no nos hace feliz nuestras vidas? Por qu nos sentimos mal? Todas estas preguntas pretenden ser resueltas con la espiritualidad. As que desde que el ser humano tiene vida ha existido la espiritualidad del ser humano, tanto divina como interior. El ser humano vive una vida llena de experiencias y problemas complejos que por si solo es difcil que pueda afrontar. Por eso buscas la espiritualidad, porque para ti es una especie de gua que te calma y ayuda. Es la diferencia entre vivir calmado y en paz o vivir atormentado preguntndote: Por qu? Espiritualidad del ser humano Divina Aos atrs, desde que el ser humano tiene inteligencia ha existido la espiritualidad divina. Normalmente siempre han sido aprovechados que viendo que la gente buscaba respuestas aprovechaban para inventarse falsos Dioses para as calmar la angustia de las personas y de paso lucrarse o dominar a las personas.

Cuando una persona llegaba y preguntaba: Por qu se ha muerto mi hijo? El chaman de turno le deca que el Dios del fuego se lo ha llevado y qu ahora vive en paz con nosotros. La espiritualidad del ser humano divina cumple dos funciones bsicas. La primera es calmar nuestro dolor y hacernos pensar que nuestros seres muertos siguen vivos y felices en algn lugar. La segunda es calmarnos a nosotros del dolor que nos produce el saber que moriremos algn da. Para un ser humano como t es imposible admitir que cuando morimos no hay nada ms, ah se acaba, as que aqu entra en juego la espiritualidad divina. Sin embargo, debido a los avances de la ciencia y el aumento de longevidad y riqueza del ser humano hacen que cada vez se crean menos este tipo de espiritualidad y cada vez, sobretodo en Europa se extiende ms la des-espiritualizacin divina. Esto es debida a una buena calidad de vida y alta longevidad. Al no vivir rodeados de problemas graves pueden olvidarse estas preguntas, en cambio las regiones ms pobres y devastadas para no torturarse tienen que aferrarse a esta espiritualidad del ser humano divina. Espiritualidad del ser humano Interior La espiritualidad interior es una nueva evolucin de la espiritualidad y es porque, conforme se ha modernizado la sociedad han surgido otros nuevos problemas que solamente pueden ser calmados con la espiritualidad interior. La espiritualidad interior es aquella que busca en el ser humano la mejor forma de vivir en paz consigo mismo y normalmente con los dems. La principal corriente de espiritualidad interior proviene de Asia en modo de enseanzas de lucha, religin y otros mtodos. En la lucha tendramos Ai Kido, en religin El Budismo, que no solo se centra en el ms all (la reencarnacin) sino que presta especial importancia en como la gente vive consigo misma y con los dems. En otros mtodos tendramos el Yoga. Y hay otras mil metodologas de espiritualidad interior que provienen de Asia. Sin embargo la espiritualidad del ser humano interior ha sido normalmente cogida de forma errnea. Dado que hay personas que llevan niveles de vida muy estresantes y contaminantes al final terminan tan hartos que en vez de ver la culpa en si mismos culpan a la sociedad y todo lo que les rodea convirtindose en radicales y cambiando completamente su forma de vivir, de 0 a 100.

Como debe ser la espiritualidad del ser humano El ser humano vive en la sociedad de la informacin. Ahora tenemos ms derechos e inteligencia que nunca. Hace 5000 aos vena un tipo con un bastn y poda engaar a ms de 10.000 personas inventndose un falso dios del viento, amenazando de que si no hacan donativos propagara enfermedades mortales.

El desconocimiento en esa poca era tan grande que muchos picaban, hoy en da es ms difcil que eso pase y por lo tanto, sobretodo gracias a internet, la espiritualidad interior es la que est triunfando y la que se vuelve cada vez ms positiva y responsable. Para tener una excelente vida y ser feliz jams debes coger aquella espiritualidad que te dice que cambies radicalmente tu vida y menos que te obligue a hacer cosas raras o que t no quieres hacer. T vida no se volver mejor por ser vegetariano, pero ciertas corrientes espirituales as lo creen. Tampoco se volver mejor porque dejes tu trabajo y vayas en tnica todo el da meditando y leyendo espiritual oriental. La verdadera espiritualidad del ser humano es aquella que te permite tener una vida sana y feliz con tu ritmo de vida actual. Aquella que te motiva para mejorar. Y el primer paso es deshacerte de la idea de que la espiritualidad es una iluminacin explosiva que te ensea cosas sorprendentes y te hace cambiar del da a la maana. El principal problema del ser humano es su propio egosmo y el ser excesivamente dependiente de su ego. Mentir para alardear y llevar una vida que no quieres llevar solamente porque es lo correcto o porque quieres que los dems crean que tu vida es perfecta. La espiritualidad del ser humano ms poderosa llega de ser capaz de controlar tu ego, de sobreponerte a la presin social y vivir la vida que realmente quieres. Si por ejemplo por el solo hecho de practicar cualquier tipo de espiritualidad ya te crees que eres mejor que los dems, tienes un problema muy grande con tu ego que te impide ser espiritual de verdad. No es cuestin de dejar tu trabajo y todo para empezar de cero. Hay veces en que realmente te hace falta eso pero en realidad ocurre pocas veces. La mayora de las veces los problemas que te corroen por dentro se solucionan con unos cuantos arreglos en tu vida y cambiar la forma en como ves el mundo. Es normal que alguien que solo persigue el dinero fcil se sienta vaco y miserable a la larga y sea incapaz de dormirse cada noche sin sentir que le falta algo. Para esa persona la solucin no es tirarlo todo por la borda sino pararse a pensar por tan solo un segundo que si haciendo algo que le gusta ms, aunque no le diera tanto dinero, si le hara ms feliz. Esa pregunta me la hice yo al crear Verdadera Seduccin. Conozco miles de emprendedores que su nico fin es ganar un montn de dinero para luego tener tiempo libre y hacer lo que ms les gusta. No es ms inteligente hacer de lo que ms te gusta tu sustento para vivir? La espiritualidad del ser humano es aquella optimizada y que te permitir vivir tu vida de la mejor manera, con plena felicidad. Si quieres aprender la verdadera espiritualidad del ser humano COMPRA AHORA nuestro videocurso que te ensear paso a paso la mejor espiritualidad que existe: Informtica humana

(Recuerda que puedes comprar el producto desde cualquier parte del mundo dado que es descargable, aceptamos paypal (tarjeta), transferencia bancaria, Western Union y Contrareembolso (Solo Espaa este ltimo) http://harmoniamacrocosmica.wordpress.com/tag/viernes/page/17/ http://tarot.lapipadelindio.com/mitologia/la-historia-de-venus-en-la-mitologia-griega File:Flix Trutat - Nude Girl on a Panther Skin - WGA23101.jpg [x] Wikimedia Commons est disponible en Espaol From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository Jump to: navigation, search

File File history File usage on Commons

Download all sizes on the web on a wiki to this file about reusing Use this file Use this file Email a link Information

Amedeo Modigliani From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2012) Amedeo Modigliani

Birth name Born

Amedeo Clemente Modigliani 12 July 1884 Livorno, Italy 24 January 1920 (aged 35) Paris, France Italian Painting, Sculpture Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence Nude Sitting on a Divan Madame Pompadour Jeanne Hbuterne in Red Shawl

Died Nationality Field Training

Works

Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (Italian pronunciation: [a:mede:o mo:dia:ni]; July 12, 1884 January 24, 1920) was an Italian painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France. Primarily a figurative artist, he became known for paintings and sculptures in a modern style characterized by mask-like faces and elongation of form. He died in Paris of tubercular meningitis, exacerbated by poverty, overwork and addiction to alcohol and narcotics.

Contents [hide]

1 Family and early life 2 Art student years o 2.1 Micheli and the Macchiaioli o 2.2 Early literary influences 3 Paris o 3.1 Arrival o 3.2 Transformation o 3.3 Output 4 Gallery of works 5 Sculpture 6 Friends and Influences 7 The war years 8 The 1917 Paris Show 9 Jeanne Hbuterne 10 Nice 11 Death 12 Legacy 13 Critical reactions 14 Cinema 15 Selected works o 15.1 Paintings o 15.2 Sculptures 16 See also 17 References 18 External links

[edit] Family and early life

Modigliani birthplace in Livorno

Modigliani was born into a Jewish family in Livorno, Italy. A port city, Livorno had long served as a refuge for those persecuted for their religion, and was home to a large Jewish community. His maternal great-great-grandfather, Solomon Garsin, had immigrated to Livorno in the 18th century as a refugee.[1] Modigliani's mother (Eugnie Garsin) who was born and grew up in Marseille, was descended from an intellectual, scholarly family of Sephardic Jews, generations of whom had resided along the Mediterranean coastline. Her ancestors were learned people, fluent in many languages, known authorities on sacred Jewish texts and founders of a school of Talmudic studies. Family legend traced the Garsins' lineage to the 17th-century Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The family business was believed to be a credit agency with branches in Livorno, Marseille, Tunis, and London. Their financial fortunes ebbed and flowed. At times they enjoyed affluence, at other times they were subject to dire financial crises and reduced circumstances.[2] Modiglianis father, Flaminio, hailed from a family of successful businessmen and entrepreneurs. While not as culturally sophisticated as the Garsins, they knew how to invest into and develop thriving business endeavors. Their wealth was derived from mining the metals abundant in the area of Sardinia and Tuscany and extracting and exporting the ores. When the Garsin and Modigliani families announced the engagement of their children, Flaminio was a wealthy young mining engineer. He managed the mine in Sardinia and oversaw the almost 30,000 acres of timberland the family owned. He also was expert in both forestry and farming management.[3] A reversal in fortune occurred to this prosperous family in 1883. An economic downturn in the price of metal plunged the Modiglianis into bankruptcy. Ever resourceful, Modiglianis mother used her social contacts to establish a school and, along with her two sisters, made the school into a successful enterprise.[4] Modigliani was the fourth child, whose birth coincided with the disastrous financial collapse of his father's business interests. Amedeo's birth saved the family from ruin; according to an ancient law, creditors could not seize the bed of a pregnant woman or a mother with a newborn child. The bailiffs entered the family's home just as Eugenia went into labour; the family protected their most valuable assets by piling them on top of her. Modigliani had a close relationship with his mother, who taught him at home until he was 10. Beset with health problems after an attack of pleurisy when he was about 11, a few years later he developed a case of typhoid fever. When he was 16 he was taken ill again and contracted the tuberculosis which would later claim his life. After Modigliani recovered from the second bout of pleurisy, his mother took him on a tour of southern Italy: Naples, Capri, Rome and Amalfi, then north to Florence and Venice.[5][6][7] His mother was, in many ways, instrumental in his ability to pursue art as a vocation. When he was 11 years of age, she had noted in her diary:

The child's character is still so unformed that I cannot say what I think of it. He behaves like a spoiled child, but he does not lack intelligence. We shall have to wait and see what is inside this chrysalis. Perhaps an

artist?[8]

[edit] Art student years Modigliani is known to have drawn and painted from a very early age, and thought himself "already a painter", his mother wrote,[9] even before beginning formal studies. Despite her misgivings that launching him on a course of studying art would impinge upon his other studies, his mother indulged the young Modigliani's passion for the subject. At the age of fourteen, while sick with typhoid fever, he raved in his delirium that he wanted, above all else, to see the paintings in the Palazzo Pitti and the Uffizi in Florence. As Livorno's local museum housed only a sparse few paintings by the Italian Renaissance masters, the tales he had heard about the great works held in Florence intrigued him, and it was a source of considerable despair to him, in his sickened state, that he might never get the chance to view them in person. His mother promised that she would take him to Florence herself, the moment he was recovered. Not only did she fulfil this promise, but she also undertook to enroll him with the best painting master in Livorno, Guglielmo Micheli. [edit] Micheli and the Macchiaioli Modigliani worked in Micheli's Art School from 1898 to 1900. Here his earliest formal artistic instruction took place in an atmosphere steeped in a study of the styles and themes of 19th-century Italian art. In his earliest Parisian work, traces of this influence, and that of his studies of Renaissance art, can still be seen. His nascent work was shaped as much by such artists as Giovanni Boldini as by Toulouse-Lautrec. Modigliani showed great promise while with Micheli, and ceased his studies only when he was forced to, by the onset of tuberculosis. In 1901, whilst in Rome, Modigliani admired the work of Domenico Morelli, a painter of melodramatic religious and literary scenes. Morelli had served as an inspiration for a group of iconoclasts who were known by the title "the Macchiaioli" (from macchia "dash of colour", or, more derogatively, "stain"), and Modigliani had already been exposed to the influences of the Macchiaioli. This localized landscape movement reacted against the bourgeois stylings of the academic genre painters. While sympathetically connected to (and actually pre-dating) the French Impressionists, the Macchiaioli did not make the same impact upon international art culture as did the contemporaries and followers of Monet, and are today largely forgotten outside of Italy. Modigliani's connection with the movement was through Guglielmo Micheli, his first art teacher. Micheli was not only a Macchiaiolo himself, but had been a pupil of the famous Giovanni Fattori, a founder of the movement. Micheli's work, however, was so fashionable and the genre so commonplace that the young Modigliani reacted against it, preferring to ignore the obsession with landscape that, as with French Impressionism, characterized the movement. Micheli also tried to encourage his pupils to paint en plein air, but Modigliani never really got a taste for this style of working, sketching in cafs,

but preferring to paint indoors, and especially in his own studio. Even when compelled to paint landscapes (three are known to exist),[10] Modigliani chose a proto-Cubist palette more akin to Czanne than to the Macchiaioli. While with Micheli, Modigliani studied not only landscape, but also portraiture, still life, and the nude. His fellow students recall that the last was where he displayed his greatest talent, and apparently this was not an entirely academic pursuit for the teenager: when not painting nudes, he was occupied with seducing the household maid.[9] Despite his rejection of the Macchiaioli approach, Modigliani nonetheless found favour with his teacher, who referred to him as "Superman", a pet name reflecting the fact that Modigliani was not only quite adept at his art, but also that he regularly quoted from Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Fattori himself would often visit the studio, and approved of the young artist's innovations.[11] In 1902, Modigliani continued what was to be a lifelong infatuation with life drawing, enrolling in the Accademia di Belle Arti (Scuola Libera di Nudo, or "Free School of Nude Studies") in Florence. A year later while still suffering from tuberculosis, he moved to Venice, where he registered to study at the Istituto di Belle Arti. It is in Venice that he first smoked hashish and, rather than studying, began to spend time frequenting disreputable parts of the city. The impact of these lifestyle choices upon his developing artistic style is open to conjecture, although these choices do seem to be more than simple teenage rebellion, or the cliched hedonism and bohemianism that was almost expected of artists of the time; his pursuit of the seedier side of life appears to have roots in his appreciation of radical philosophies, including those of Nietzsche. [edit] Early literary influences Having been exposed to erudite philosophical literature as a young boy under the tutelage of Isaco Garsin, his maternal grandfather, he continued to read and be influenced through his art studies by the writings of Nietzsche, Baudelaire, Carducci, Comte de Lautramont, and others, and developed the belief that the only route to true creativity was through defiance and disorder. Letters that he wrote from his 'sabbatical' in Capri in 1901 clearly indicate that he is being more and more influenced by the thinking of Nietzsche. In these letters, he advised friend Oscar Ghiglia;

(hold sacred all) which can exalt and excite your intelligence... (and) ... seek to provoke ... and to perpetuate ... these fertile stimuli, because they can push the intelligence to its maximum creative power.[12]

The work of Lautramont was equally influential at this time. This doomed poet's Les Chants de Maldoror became the seminal work for the Parisian Surrealists of Modigliani's generation, and the book became Modigliani's favourite to the extent that

he learnt it by heart.[11] The poetry of Lautramont is characterized by the juxtaposition of fantastical elements, and by sadistic imagery; the fact that Modigliani was so taken by this text in his early teens gives a good indication of his developing tastes. Baudelaire and D'Annunzio similarly appealed to the young artist, with their interest in corrupted beauty, and the expression of that insight through Symbolist imagery. Modigliani wrote to Ghiglia extensively from Capri, where his mother had taken him to assist in his recovery from tuberculosis. These letters are a sounding board for the developing ideas brewing in Modigliani's mind. Ghiglia was seven years Modigliani's senior, and it is likely that it was he who showed the young man the limits of his horizons in Livorno. Like all precocious teenagers, Modigliani preferred the company of older companions, and Ghiglia's role in his adolescence was to be a sympathetic ear as he worked himself out, principally in the convoluted letters that he regularly sent, and which survive today.[13]

Dear friend I write to pour myself out to you and to affirm myself to myself. I am the prey of great powers that surge forth and then disintegrate... A bourgeois told me todayinsulted methat I or at least my brain was lazy. It did me good. I should like such a warning every morning upon awakening: but they cannot understand us nor can they understand life...[14]

[edit] Paris [edit] Arrival

Le Bateau-Lavoir. In 1906, Modigliani moved to Paris, then the focal point of the avant-garde. In fact, his arrival at the centre of artistic experimentation coincided with the arrival of two other foreigners who were also to leave their marks upon the art world: Gino Severini and Juan Gris.

He settled in Le Bateau-Lavoir, a commune for penniless artists in Montmartre, renting himself a studio in Rue Caulaincourt. Even though this artists' quarter of Montmartre was characterized by generalized poverty, Modigliani himself presentedinitially, at leastas one would expect the son of a family trying to maintain the appearances of its lost financial standing to present: his wardrobe was dapper without ostentation, and the studio he rented was appointed in a style appropriate to someone with a finely attuned taste in plush drapery and Renaissance reproductions. He soon made efforts to assume the guise of the bohemian artist, but, even in his brown corduroys, scarlet scarf and large black hat, he continued to appear as if he were slumming it, having fallen upon harder times.[12] When he first arrived in Paris, he wrote home regularly to his mother, he sketched his nudes at the Acadmie Colarossi, and he drank wine in moderation. He was at that time considered by those who knew him as a bit reserved, verging on the asocial.[12] He is noted to have commented, upon meeting Picasso who, at the time, was wearing his trademark workmen's clothes, that even though the man was a genius, that did not excuse his uncouth appearance.[12] [edit] Transformation

Portrait of Chaim Soutine, 1916

Portrait of Pablo Picasso, 1915 Within a year of arriving in Paris, however, his demeanour and reputation had changed dramatically. He transformed himself from a dapper academician artist into a sort of prince of vagabonds. The poet and journalist Louis Latourette, upon visiting the artist's previously wellappointed studio after his transformation, discovered the place in upheaval, the Renaissance reproductions discarded from the walls, the plush drapes in disarray. Modigliani was already an alcoholic and a drug addict by this time, and his studio reflected this. Modigliani's behaviour at this time sheds some light upon his developing style as an artist, in that the studio had become almost a sacrificial effigy for all that he resented about the academic art that had marked his life and his training up to that point. Not only did he remove all the trappings of his bourgeois heritage from his studio, but he also set about destroying practically all of his own early work. He explained this extraordinary course of actions to his astonished neighbours thus: Childish baubles, done when I was a dirty bourgeois.[15]

The motivation for this violent rejection of his earlier self is the subject of considerable speculation. From the time of his arrival in Paris, Modigliani consciously crafted a charade persona for himself and cultivated his reputation of hopeless drunk and voracious drug user. His escalating intake of drugs and alcohol may have been a means by which Modigliani masked his tuberculosis from his acquaintances, few of whom knew of his condition.[16] Tuberculosisthe leading cause of death in France by 1900[17]was highly communicable, there was no cure, and those who had it were feared, ostracized, and pitied. Modigliani thrived on camaraderie and would not let himself be isolated as an invalid; he sought to suppress his coughing bouts and any other recognizable signs of the disease that was slowly consuming him. Modigliani used

drink and drugs to self-medicate, to serve as palliatives to ease his physical pain, helping him to maintain a facade of vitality and allowing him to continue to create his art.[18] Modigliani's use of drink and drugs intensified from about 1914 onward. After years of remission and recurrence, this was the period in when the symptoms of his tuberculosis worsened, signaling that the disease had reached an advanced stage.[19] He sought the company of artists such as Utrillo and Soutine, seeking acceptance and validation for his work from his colleagues.[15] Modigliani's behavior stood out even in these Bohemian surroundings: he carried on frequent affairs, drank heavily, and used absinthe and hashish. While drunk, he would sometimes strip himself naked at social gatherings.[20] He became the epitome of the tragic artist, creating a posthumous legend almost as well known as that of Vincent van Gogh. During the 1920s, in the wake of Modigliani's career and spurred on by comments by Andr Salmon crediting hashish and absinthe with the genesis of Modigliani's style, many hopefuls tried to emulate his "success" by embarking on a path of substance abuse and bohemian excess. Salmon claimederroneouslythat whereas Modigliani was a totally pedestrian artist when sober,

...from the day that he abandoned himself to certain forms of debauchery, an unexpected light came upon him, transforming his art. From that day on, he became one who must be counted among the masters of living art.[21]

While this propaganda served as a rallying cry to those with a romantic longing to be a tragic, doomed artist, these strategies did not produce unique artistic insights or techniques in those who did not already have them.

Portrait of Juan Gris, 1915 In fact, art historians suggest[21] that it is entirely possible that Modigliani would have achieved even greater artistic heights had he not been immured in, and destroyed by, his own self-indulgences. We can only speculate as to what he might have accomplished had he emerged intact from his self-destructive explorations. [edit] Output During his early years in Paris, Modigliani worked at a furious pace. He was constantly sketching, making as many as a hundred drawings a day. However, many of his works were lostdestroyed by him as inferior, left behind in his frequent changes of address, or given to girlfriends who did not keep them.[20] He was first influenced by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, but around 1907 he became fascinated with the work of Paul Czanne. Eventually he developed his own unique style, one that cannot be adequately categorized with those of other artists. He met the first serious love of his life, Russian poet Anna Akhmatova, in 1910, when he was 26. They had studios in the same building, and although 21-year-old Anna was recently married, they began an affair.[citation needed] Anna was tall (as Modigliani was only 5 foot 5 inches) with dark hair (like Modigliani's), pale skin and grey-green eyes, she embodied Modigliani's aesthetic ideal and the pair became engrossed in each other. After a year, however, Anna returned to her husband. [edit] Gallery of works

Portrait of Maude Abrantes, 1907

Paul Guillaume, Novo Pilota, 1915

Bride and Groom, 1915

Jacques and Berthe Lipchitz, 1916

Portrait of Beatrice Hastings, 1916

Portrait of Moise Kisling, 1915

Madame Kisling, 1917

Nude Sitting on a Divan ("La Belle Romaine"), 1917

Seated Nude, 1918, Honolulu Museum of Art

Dedie Hayden, 1918, Centre Georges Pompidou

Self-portrait, 1919, oil on canvas, Museum of Contemporary Art, So Paulo, Brazil

Gypsy Woman with Baby, 1919, National Gallery of Art

The little peasant, 1918, Tate Modern, London [edit] Sculpture

Female Head, 1911/1912, Tate In 1909, Modigliani returned home to Livorno, sickly and tired from his wild lifestyle. Soon he was back in Paris, this time renting a studio in Montparnasse. He originally saw himself as a sculptor rather than a painter, and was encouraged to continue after Paul Guillaume, an ambitious young art dealer, took an interest in his work and introduced

him to sculptor Constantin Brncui. He was Constantin Brncui's disciple for one year. Although a series of Modigliani's sculptures were exhibited in the Salon d'Automne of 1912, by 1914 he abandoned sculpting and focused solely on his painting, a move precipitated by the difficulty in acquiring sculptural materials due to the outbreak of war, and by Modigliani's physical debilitation.[22] In June 2010 Modigliani's Tte, a limestone carving of a woman's head, became the second most expensive sculpture ever sold. [edit] Friends and Influences Modigliani painted a series of portraits of contemporary artists and friends in Montparnasse: Chaim Soutine, Moise Kisling, Pablo Picasso, Diego Rivera, Marie "Marevna" Vorobyev-Stebeslka, Juan Gris, Max Jacob, Blaise Cendrars, and Jean Cocteau, all sat for stylized renditions.

Intereses relacionados