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nOrJIE,IJ;HH MHIDJhEILA

Mp Jonana MUJIyTUIlOHUh
<PIIJI030<pCKII <pa KyJ1'l'CT
HOBII CaA
37.014.5
UDK: 371
I1pCrJICAHII 'IJIaHaK
I1pIIMJhCH: 1. XII 2005.
BIBLID: 0553-4569,51 (2005),9-10, p 694-704
IJ;HJhEBHOEPA30BAILA
H KOHIJ;EnIJ;HJE KYPHKYJIYMA
PC3UMC
Y iieaaiouucoj nuiiiepaiuypu tcoja ce Gaeu pasoojeu tcyputcy.ayua y<IUl-bCHU
cy pasnu-uuiiu iiotcyucaiu ananusoeatea u naciuputcocan.a paenuuuiiiux iioeneaa
na l(IUbCaC otipaeoeatea UYLICl-ba, U oaiocapajytucx ouueiiuuja tcyputcy.ayua. Katco
6u ce ciuekao yeuo y CJlOJICCHC OgHOCC U3MCby iipoucnociuu, caaauueociiiu U 6ygyh-
uociiiu y iiietcciiiy ce uciiipascyjy iiipu ZJlaaHC ouueiiuuje tcyputcy.nyua: ClpCgMcUlHU
/atcaaeuctcu/ xyputcy.ayu, xyputcy.ayu yCMCpCH tea opyuuiiey U xypuicy.ayu yCMCpcH
teaYLICfIUKY. 3a coatcy tcouueiiuujy tcypuxynyua, uciiuiuyjy ce paenuuuiiia MUUUbC-
I-bay iiaineoy uunseea otipasooan.a UYLICl-ba U ogzoaapajyhux 06pa30aHUx caopsca-
ja. 3aKJby
Llyjc
cc ga je ceaxa tcouueiiuuja tcyputcy.nyua oapebena uun.eeusca otipa-
eocatea U y-ietea, a uaeje 0 uunseeu.ua otipaeocau.a U tcyputcy.ay.ua yeetc iipousuna-
ac II jaen.ajy CC y OgpCbCHOM opytuiiieenosc II ucuiopujctcou KOHUlcKClUy. Coatca og
aouunauiuuux uaeja uspascaea nauuu ua oju je OgHOC U3MCby apyiuiiica II otipa-
soeatea 6uo uuiiiepiipeiiiupau y OgpCbCHO apCMC, y OgpCbCHUM OKOJlHOC1UUMa U
MCCUlY' u ceatca otiyxeaiiia CClU Mcbyc06HO iioeesauux 06pa30aHUX iipunuuiia KOjU
ooae u360p U opeanueauujy caapucaja tcypuxy.ayua U ueiiioae sa iuixoeo llpCHOUlC-
I-bC U iipouen.uean.e. 3aUlo, iipouena eanuiiieiiia KypllKyJlyMa saeucu og uaeja,
epeanociiiu U iioeneaa KOjC Jbygu yHOCC Y llpOUCC iipocyhueatea, II oa KOHKpCtllHC
cuiiiyauuje y ojoj he CC oapehenu KypUKyJlyM opuciuuiiiu. Bpeouociiiu tcyputcy-
JlyMO A10ZY CC tUOKO caineoaeaiuu 113 cuiue OpCgHOCHllX iiozuuuja, pasnunuiuux
i.neauuiiua, 3aaUCHO og ouiiietcciiia II y aC3U ca tuupusc COl(ujaJlHUM, cjJUJl030-
CKUMII 06pa30aHllM iioeneauua.
KJbYLIHC PCLIU: uua.eou otipasoean.a, KypUKyJlyM, onueiiuuje tcypuxy.ny.ua
I10jMy "KypIIKyJIyM" npanajc cc pa3JIWIlITO aaanen,e y pa3JIWIlITliM KOHTeK-
CTIIMa, 're IIOCTOjII 6pOjHOCT IherOBIIX AeeplIHIII\IIja II CXBaTaIha. Bynyha na rJIaBHII
694
Mp JOBaHa MMnyTMHOBMh: IJ,l1JbEBl1 OEPA30BAlbA 11KOHIJ,ETIIJ,l1JE KYPl1KYJIYMA
aKTcpII y oopasonau.y npencrann.ajy pa3JIWIIITOCT BPCgHOCTII II IIcKycTBa, BCOMa
je TCrnKO nocrnha IlIlIpOKy, janny II npOepCCIIOHaJIHy ycarJIamCHOCT II npnxaaran.e
geepIIHIIqIIjC ('EJOp!)CBIIh 2003). Y aHrJIOCaKCOHCKIIM 3CMJI,aMa KOPIICTII ce y)KC
aaaserse KypIIKyJIyMa xoje ooyxsara npooneue canpacaja HaCTaBHIIX nporpaxra,
gOKje y HOBIIjC apeve OBa npoumpena TaKOna yxn.y-ryje II uan.ese
y'IeH,a, MeToge HaCTaBe II ynen.a, canpzcaj, nponenype nponeu.naaa,a II opraaasa-
unjy, '3a HCKe TeopCTwrape KypIIKyJIyM npencraan.a canpscaj noy-raaan.a, gOK aa
npyre OH ooyxnara CBC 06pa30BHe aKTIIBHOCTII. Taxohe, HeKII KypIIKyJIyM CXBaTa-
jy xao rrponacaan nnan y-ren,a, I\OKra gpyrii noncrosehyjy ca yKyrrHIIM IICKyCTBOM
y<rCHI1Ka y OKBIIPY 06pa30BHC yxn.y-ryjyha II OHa IIcKycTBa xoja HIICY
nJIaH11paHa, IIJIII xoja cy Hcpa3YMJI,IIBa (IIIapaHOBIIh-OO)KaHOBIIh, MIIJIaHOBIIh-Ha-
xon 2004). KypIIKyJIyM ce TaKOnocxrarpa xao rlOKyMCHT KOj11 yxn.y-ryje canpzcaj II
orrnc upenue'ra KOjII ce noyraaajy, KOjIIM ce nponncyje canpxcaj II MCTOnC paga ca
y'rcHIIqIIMa IIJIII xao rlOKyMCHT KOjIIM ce caxro qIIlliCBII 11 npyxca OIlIIITII
rrnaa (3IIHgoBIIh-BYKagIIHoBIIh 1996).
KypIIKyJIyM jc ys CBC aenope-renocra, TCOpIIjCKII II MCTOp(OJIOIIIK11 aajnoy-
snanaja OKOCH11qa npexo KOjC ce npenaxrajy rOTOBO CBa aaa-rajnnja nrrran-a caBpc-
MCHor oopasouaa,a (MIIjaToBIIh 1996). Eynyha ria ce nanac 0 KypIIKyJIyMy HC pa-
3MIIlIIllia rrpCTC)KHO xao 0 HaCTaBHIIX nporpaxra aa nojennaauae npegMcTe
(Beh ce OH nocxrarpa II xao Ha'IIIH aa aHaJIII3IIpaIhe npoueca HaCTaBC II y-ren,a),
IhIIMe ce HC ooyxnarajy caxro mrran,a canpscaja noy-ranaa,a, seh II mrran,a KaKO ce
npenaje II 360r <rer'a (lJ1KOJle U KOaJlUlUeUi, 1998). Taxo, Ha'IIIH gcepIIHIICarf>a, UJIa-
HIIpaH,a II KypIIKyJIyMa CYIIITIIHCKII yrn-re na KBaJIIITCT 06pa30BaIha.
I10C'fOjC pa3JIWIIITII Ha<IIIHII na xoje ce KypIIKyJIyM MO)KC IIHTcpnpcTIIpaTII
II rrpIIMClbIIBaTII y npaxca, oPOjHII ayTopli onIIcrrBaJIII cy pa3JIWIIITC xoanennaje
KypIIKyJIyMa KOjC 6II MOrJIC nOCJIY)KIITII xao B0rlWr sa lbcrOBO IICTpa)KIIBaIhCIIJIII
ycaepanan,e. V. E. Herrick (prema: Short 1986, 3) cMaTpa na xouuennnja KypIIKyJIy-
Ma IIMa cpymcuajy ria npy)l(1I uowoh npii CCJICKToBaIhY II opraHII30BaIhY acxycrana
y'rclba II na nasaa-ra yJIorc y-rennxa II HaCTaBHIIKa y nnaanpan.y II passojy KypII-
KyJIyMa. To sna-ra na xonnernnrja KypIIKyJIyMa gCepIIHIIHlC 6IITHCKOMnOHCHTC IIJIII
acnCKTC KypIIKyJIyMa II gCTcpMIIHIIrnc oopasan lbIIXOBIIXMc!)yc06HIIX onnoca.
Pa3JIWIIITC xoanenunje KypIIKyJIyMa npcncrann.ajy II3pa3 pa3JIWIIITOr no-
rnena na JbYl\CKY npIIpogy II na nnran.a onnoca nojenaana II npynrrna. KOHqcnqII-
ja KypIIKyJIyMa oojannsasa KOjC HaqCJIO ce Y3IIMa xao TeMCJl>HO rrOJIa3IIrnTC y H,C-
rosoj napann. TpagIIqIIoHaJIHO cy nosaara Tpii TaKBa nOJIa3IIHlTa: snatee, npa <re-
My CC ronopn 0 <IOnCKoBoj opraHII30BaHIIX 3HaH,a na Ha<IIIH na CC no-
JIa3II og nonpy-rja (MaTCMaTIIKa, nayxa 0 rpa!)aHCKIIM npaaana, CTpaHII jC3IIqII,
npnponae HayKC), crpyxrypa, xomtemnrja, rCHCpaJIII3aqIIja HaCTaBHIIX srerona
IIJIII Ha<IIIHa caananan.a; opyuuiioo (rrpOHlJIO, canaunse, 6ygyhc), rrpii 'rcMy ce cno-
MIIlbC CKoHoMIIja, pan, JIOKaJIHII IIJIII IIHTCpCCII, PogIITCJl>CKa o<rCKII-
saa,a II xao II g06ap )KIInOT, rsyncxa npnpona, epIIJI030epCKC OpIIjCUTa-
qIIjC II CJIWIHO; II y-cenutc, npa 'rcMy ce ronopa 0 nerera IIJIII onpacrror 'ro-
BCKa, u,crOBIIM I1UTCpCCIIMa IIJII1 norpeoaua 11 0 IIugI1BIIl\yaJIHIIM pa3JIIIKaMa (Nij-
hof 1987, 74).
Bynyhn xonncrnraja KypIIKyJIyMa pCepJICKTyjC I1360pc KOjII cy Ha<HlH,CUI1
y norneny II OIlIlITI1XqIIJbCBa oopasonaa,a II y-ren,a, y nenaronrxoj JIII-
695
ITE;:J;AfOlliKA CTBAPHOCT, LI, 9-10 (2005), HOBl! Call
TepaTypIl xoja ce 6aBII paaaojesr xypaxynysra y'-II1IbeHII cy pa3JIWIIITII noxymaja
aHaJIII30BaIba II xnacarpaxosaa,a pa3JIWIIITIIX nornena na U;I1JheBe 06pa30BaIba II
y-rersa, II onroaapajyhnx xonnennaja xypaxynyua. Y ca TpIl
na rrOJIa3I1IIITa y xypaxynyva rraj-reurhe ce cnosraa.y: KypIlKyJIyM ycsrepea
xa enatey I1JIII iipeoueiiiuu latcaaeucxul KypIlKyJIyM, KypIlKyJIyM ycraepen xa gpy-
tuiiiey II KypIlKyJIyM ycuepea xa yuenuicy, OBy nonerry yneo je R. Tyler
1949. (npesra: Marsh 1994), a xacnaje je OHa 6I1JIa nopahasana crpane
6POjHIIXayropa na Ha<II1H KaKO je TOnpnxaaano y Ta6eJIII.
IIpIlKa3 1: Konnerntaje xypaxynyna
I1 J KI J L hATh" 2004 8 3BOp: ep, etsc ert, 1]S ,
R. Tyler
E. Eisner & E. Vallance(1974) H. M. Kliebard (1986)
D. F. Walker & J. F. Soltis
(1949) (1986)
npeznrer
AKaj1eMCKa opajearannja Ilpenouren.e xynrypnor Ilpeuomen,e II ycsajan,e
Kormrrnana ooaienrauaia nacneha 3nan.a
J],pYIllTBeHa opnjcirraunja
J],PYIllTBeHll uan.ena
npanpeva aalKliBOT Y
-rtpnrtpeua salKliBOT Y
J1PYIllTBO -rrpanpeaa salKliBOT YJ1PYlllTBY
J1PYIIlTBY
ztpyurray
-ycaaptuanan,e J1pYIllTBa
-ycaapuranarse J1PYLUTBa
ycanpmanan,e J1pYLUTBa
yqeHllK cauoaxrvanaaanaia paanoi yqeHllKa casroncrtvisen,e
TeXHOJIOlllKa opnjearaunja
Ynyrap rrpBor xroryher rrOJIa3I1IIITa aspane xypnxynyxra, E. Eisner II E. Val-
lance (npexra: Vallance 1986), xao II 6POjHII ayropn, pa3JIIIKyjy
paU;I10HaJmCTII<JKY opajenrauajy (06pa30BaIbe xao cpencrso TpaHcMIIcIIje I1HTe-
JIeKTyaJIHOr nacneha II KOrHIITIIBHO-rrpou;ecHY opajenranajy (oopa-
30BaIbe xao cpencrso passoja KOrHIITIIBHIIX nponeca). Yayrap npyror rrOJIa3I1IIITa
pa3JIIIKe ce aajseurhe rrpaBe I13Me.t)y 06pa30BaIba xao npanpesre aa )KIIBOT y rro-
crojehexr II 06pa30BaIba xao cpencrsa I1HIIU;IIpaIba cOU;I1jaJIHIIX perpop-
MIl. Y OKBIIPY KypIlKyJIyMa ycsreperror xa y<JeHIIKy rrOJIa3I1 ce rora na 06pa30-
naa.e Tpe6a na osroryha nornya passoj CBIIX noreanajana csaxor y-reaaxa, rrpIl
'-reMy je KypIlKyJIyM sa rpopvapaa.e ne-rjer E. Eisner II E.
Vallance rOBope jOIII II 0 TeXHOJIOIIIKoj opajerrranaja. IIpIlCTaJIIIu;e OBe opajerrra-
U;I1je csrarpajy na je OHa aeyrpanna II y OKBIIPY Ibe fiase ce I1CTpa)KIIBa-
IbeM I1HCTPYKU;I10HIIX CIlCTeMa xypaxynapnor passoja KOjIl CC Mory rrpIlMeHIITII na
CBaKII canpscaj II 6I1TII cnaxoj CBpCII. Bynyha na OBaopajenranaja HIIje
yresren.ena na KpajIbIlM U;I1JheBIIMa 06pa30BaIba II ynea,a, seh aa cpencray oopa-
30BaIba, OHa je npyraxaje rrpnpone xoauemraja xypnxynyaa (npe-
Ma: Vallance 1986).
Kaxo 6I1 ce crexao y CJIO)KeHe onaoce I13Me.t)y rrpOIIIJIOCTII,
CTII II nan.e he ce I1CTpa)KIITII TpII rrrasne xoanermaje xypaxynysra:
npemreraa KypIlKyJIyM, KypIlKyJIyM ycuepen xa II KypIlKy-
JIyM yCMepeH xa y<reHIIKY. 3a cnaxy KOHu;enU;I1jy KypIIKyJIyMa I1CTpa)KIIhe ce pa-
3JIII'lIlTa MIIIIIJheIba y norneny U;I1JheBa 06pa30BaIba II ynen,a II onroaapajyhax
06pa30BHIIx canpscaja.
696
Mp JOBana MHJlyTHHOBHh: U11JbEB11 OEPA30BAlhA 11KOHUErrU11JE KYP11KYJIYMA
KOPCHll axanencxor /npenjseraor/ xypnxynyaa HaCTaJIll cy JOIII y Tpxxoj y IV
sexy rr. H. c. II noriery JOIII on IIJIaToHa. IIJIaToH je npennozcao HOBy nnejy y 06pa30-
BaI-bY xojy je OCTaBllO y aacnehe cnenehaa reaepanajana. OH jc nocnarpao npouec
06pa30BaI-ba xao norpary sa llCTllHOM 0 pCaJIHOCTII. KypIIKyJIyM Ha3HaQCH y Peiiy-
6JlUl(U rrJIaHIIpaH je TaKO na oopasyje '-IOBCKa KOjII 6II 6IIO cnocoriaa na paaysre 06JIII-
KC crnapaocra xoja JIC:lKC II3a rrpOMCHJhIIBIIX nojaaa y CBaKogHcBHOM CBcTy (npeua:
IIIapaHoBIIh-Eo:IKaHoBIIh, MIIJIaHOBIIh-Haxog 2004, 33). To jc nyrorpajan rrocao KO-
JII HIIjc aa csaxor, jep 3aXTCBa nanopan pag TOKOM nyror HII3a romnra KaKO 6ll ce pa-
3BIIO yM. Bynyha na ce y OKBIIpy axanesscxe xoanenuaje KypIIKyJIyMa
3agp:IKaJIO CXBaTaI-bC na je xyrrrypa aacnehe cavo onaopane HCKOJIII-
axanexrcxo oonapenax, a HC CBIIX, osaj KypIIKyJIyM ce 03Ha'-IaBa II xao "CJIIITII-
CTII<rKII" (M. Skilbeck, npesra: lllxone U xeanuiiieiu, 1998,80).
06pa30BaI-bC, npesra aacryrraanmra OBC xonuennaje, npnssapno cr3IIcTIIpa
KaKO 6II 06c36cgllJIO npenoc axyxrynnpanor saaa,a csaxoj HOBOj renepanaja II
npanpexry aa I-bCrOBO 060rahIIBaI-bc. Hneja xoja cc HaJIa3II y OCHOBII oaor KypIIKy-
JIyMa jecre aneja axyrrrypannje, rne ce KyJITypa nocnarpa xao peaepsoap snan,a,
paayveaan,a, BpcgHOCTII xoje 06pa30BaI-bCM rpeoa npeaern II TOOgpCl)CHIIM peno-
CJIcgOM '-IIIMC ce 06c36cl)yjc cTa6IIJIHOCT II KyJITypHII KOHTIIHyIITCT npy-
IIITBa (Silberman-Keller 2004). ce CTaBJha na crnnaa,e saaa,a II3paCJIOr II3
llHTCJICKTyaJIHC rpananaje II KyJITypHC TpaHcMllclljC. OUIIITII 06pa30BaI-ba
jecy na ce nyrexr KYJITllBllCaI-ba llHTCJICKTa npanpeun llHTCJICKTyaJIHa emrra KOjOj
je rrOCTaBJhCH sanarax onyaan,a TcKOBIIHa nasnmraarurje. KypIIKyJIyM nparonan 3a
ony CJIIITy (ll llCKJhy'-IIIBO sa I-bY) npanapao je rpoxycnpaa na nepnaaem'ae spen-
HOCTll npOnIJIOCTll - KyJITypHO nacnebe, rne rpannuaonamra llJIll 6a3wIHll npen-
MCTll (KJIaCWIHa KI-bII:lKCnHOCT, acropnja, MaTCMaTllKa, rpavaraxa) gOMllHIIpajy,
gOK ce "MOgcpHll" rrpenuera xao nITO cy aayxa II TCXHOJIOrIIja y nerraxoj MCpll 3a-
nocrasrsajy (Carr 1998, 327). Canpzcaja noy-rasaa,a nevajy nCJIllKY npaxrnnay
npenaocr, seh rpetia na oxroryhe 60Jhc paayxreaaa,e CBCTa. Orpora ce-
ce 3aXTCBa KaKO6ll ce 06c36cgIIJIll craanapnn "aKagcMcKc ll3BPCHOCTll" II
on HaCTaBHllKa ce Tpa:IKII na 6ygc notiap axanearcxax nncmmnaaa KO-
jc Tpc6a na noy-raaa na OpMaJIaH, II gllgaKTwIKll Ha'-IIIH (Hero,
1998). Y'-ICI-bC je CllCTCMaTWIHO, II 6a3IIpaHo na npoy-ranan.y Be-
JIllKIIX KI-bIIfa. Ilponena ycnemnocra y'-ICI-ba BpIIIII ce nyren OpMaJIHllX IIcnIITa
nnsajaapaaax TaKOna recrnpajy yCBOjcHOCT ancrpaxrnor snan.a II CTcnCH pasao-
ja xormrrnnaax senrrmra.
OHII xoja sacrynajy OBy xonnenuajy aajseurhe nonpacasajy oopa-
30BaH,a II ynen.a xao IIITO cy: paasoj 6a3wIHllx BCIIITllHa, CaBJIaAaBaI-bC OCHOBHIIX
II TcopIIja y npcAMcTIIMa, passoj xparanxor MllIIIJhC-
a.a, pCIIIaBaI-bC rrp06JICMa, pasaoj pammx HaBIIKa, :lKCJha aa y<rCI-bCM.
npcAMcTHC xoanernmje xypaxynysra nocxiarpajy otipaaosan,a II YQCI-ba
xoja HIICy 6JIllCKO nOBC3aHll ca HaBCAcHllMa (xao na rrpllMcp: 3ApaBcTBcHO 06pa30-
BaI-bC, rrpoCCllOHaJIHO 06pa30BaI-bC, pasaoj BCIIITllHa, nCpCOHaJIHO II
ycaspuraaan,e) xao OHC xoja oxre'rajy ocrsapanaa.e rrpllMapHc
je ornnrer oopasonan,a - TpaHcMIIcIIjc CCJICKTOBaHIIX snaa,a ll3 YTCMCJhCHllX nays-
HIIX (Walker, Soltis 1997,34). Crora, 3ajcI\HWIKO jesrpo KypllKyJIyMa
KapaKTcpllIIIC rrpcAMcTHll KypIIKyJIyM: OAPcl)cHII KyJITypHll PCCPCHTHll OKBllp
697
flEJ],AfOlliKA CTBAPHOCT, LI, 9-10 (2005), HOlmCall
06e36el)yje COJIHiWY OCHOBy aa ncrryn.aaaa.e 6y):lylmx ynora y ):Ipy-
IIITBy snaa.a.
HaCTaBHH nporpasra rHMHa3Hja (grammar school) y EHrJIeCKoj, (Iycee)
y <ppaHIwcKoj HJIH rHMHa3Hje (gymnasium) y Hcxra-ncoj H ):IpyrHM enponcxm-r 3C-
MJhaMa - CBe ):10 ortpebeaor CTenCHa ):IeJIe OBy 6C3 063Hpa na TOUITO
KOHTHHeHTaJIHC pa3JIWIHTOCTH HMajy TCH):ICHIJ;Hjy na 6y):ly BHIIIC CHIJ;HKJIOne):lHjcKc
aero IIITO je TO cnynaj xana je y nHTaIbY CHrJICCKa sepsnja (ll1Jw.fle U eanuiueiic,
1998, 80). OBy xonnernrajy KypIIKyJIyMa, ynpKoc MHOrHM6HTHHM pa3JIHKaMa, aJIH
H CJIWIHOCTHMa ca nJIaTOHCKOM CJIHKOM oopaaonan,a sacryna II BCJIHKH 6poj ca-
BpCMCHHX HJI030a 06pa30BaIba. Taxo, E. D. Hirsch Jr. (1992) roaopn 0 "KyJITyp-
HOj nHcMcHoCTH", 0 .jesrpaua" snaa.a KOjC 6H CBaKa oopasonaaa ocooa rpcoano
na nosnaje. KaKO 6H ce npeBa3IIlIlJIC HenpaBH'IHocTH y npYIlITBY, npeua IhCMy, HC-
OnXO):lHO jc 1\a CBaKO ):ICTC TOKOM IIIKOJIOBalba ycaojn yHHBep3aJIHa Cp:>KHa aaau,a.
KypHKyJIyM rpeoa na 6y):lc opraHH30BaH OKO JIHCTC uaryna, KIbHra
H norahaja y CBPXY npanpene aa y'ICCTBOBaIbC y :>KHBOTy. Hirsch TBp-
nH na osaj xopnyc saaa.a IIOCTaBJha sajenna-nca cKyn KyJITypHHX perpepenrnax 'ra-
-raxa KOjC oxroryhaaajy Jhy):lHMa na KOMyHHIJ;Hpajy erpnxacaaje, najyhn HM sajcn-
HH'IKy 3aJIHxy JIHKOBa, IJ;HTaTa H npyrnx anysnja na KOjCce Mory n03H-
BaTHy KOHBcp3aqHjH (npexra: Burbules 2002).
Haxo Mcl)y 3acTyIIHIIqHMa OBC KOHIJ;CnIJ;IIje KypIIKyJIyMa, nocroja ueycarna-
IlIeHOCTOKO onronopa na rnrraa.a: xoja cy saaa,a najxopacnnja H KOjH cy aajerpex-
THBHHjH Ha'IHHH npCHOIIICIba snan,a, CBH CC CJIa:>Ky na jc onIIITH IJ;HJh oopasoaan,a
npeHOUICH,C 6a3WIHHX aaan.a (Walker, Soltis 1997).
KOPCHH npyre rro'rnsty raxohe JOUI H3 aHTWIKC fp'IKC. Crrapra
npCnCTaBJLa najjacaajn npIIMCp KOpIIIIIhclba 06pa30BaH,a y CBPXY 06JIlIKOnaIba JLY-
):IH npesra rrorpeoaaa UIHpcr ):IpYIlITBa. Crraprancxa npxcana je HaA3HpaJIa CBaKH
acnexr 06pa30BaH,a MJIa):lHX JI,y):lII, yxn.y-ryjyha paao onaajan.e nene 01\ pO):lIITCJLa,
06aBc3Hy BOjHy 06yKy H crpora orpaan-rea.a y npIIBaTHOM )KIIBOTy.
06pa30BHII CIICTCM y Crraprn 6HOje opraHH30BaH KaKO 611 ce n01\p:>KaJIII IbCHII BOj-
HWIKII l\IIJhCBH. TOKoM acropnje 6pOjHII cy 06pa30BHII CIICTCMH 6HJIH YCTaHOBJI,CHII
KaKO 611 01\p:>KaJIII II ycaBpIlIHJIH l\06p06IIT ):IpyIIITBa, 6C3 06311pa ira OCTBapCHC
CCKTCira nCpCOH<:WHII pasnoj nojemraana IIJIII npeneceay CyMy 3HaH,a.
Hneja xojace HaJIa3H y OCHOBH lIpynITBClIO opajenracanor KypHKyJIyMa jCCTC
na ACTC rpeoa na 6YAc 06JIHKOBaHo y CKJIaAY ca HopMaMa, BpCnHOCTHMa H neposa-
IbHMa ApyIIITBa O):lpaCJIHX. J];aKJIC, y OCHOBIi OBe KOHI\CnIJ;IIjc HaJIa3H ce aneja conaja-
JIII3aIJ;IIje xojy cy ):IpyIIITBa HaCJICnllJIa JOIII 113 OpaJIHllX KyJITypa (Egan
1999). Y OKBHpy OBe xypaxynyua l\pYIIITBeHe crpyxrype II H,IIXOBe
YHKIJ;Hje nocrasn.ajy ce y npBH nJIaH. Jbyncxa rrpHpOna ):ICHHIIIlIC ce CCTOM COIJ;II-
jannax yrrora KOjC rsyncxa 611ha rpeoa na ncrryne y llHCTIITYIJ;IIjaMa npyurraa, IIPIi
TOMC je ):ICIIHIICaIbc coqIIjaJIHIIX yrrora 06WIHO 1I3BC):ICHO H3 nocrojeher lIPYlIlTBa,
TaKOna snan,a xoja ce rrpenoce 06pa30BaIbcM npC):ICTaBJI,ajy CyMy nocrojehax 3Ha-
Iba II BCUITHHa xoja cy ce seh nOTBp):lHJIa xao CcKTHBHa y npanpexran.y nojennaana
aa ycneumo 06aBJLaIbC):IPYIIITBCHllX YHKIJ;Hja (Silberman-Keller 2004).
J];aKJIe, y OKBIIpy OBC KOHI\CnIJ;lIjc I\IIJh 06pa30BaIba jc rrpnnpesra yqCHHKa
sa ncuyn.anan.e OIWCl)CHHX yrrora y ):IpyIIITBy. HOpMC H npaxca npynITBa rpetia na
onpene KaKaB 611 KypHKyJIyM rpeoano na 6y):lc. OBa aneja y 06pa30BaIby npcno-
698
Mp ]OBaHaMIIJIYTIlIIOBllh: IJ,I1JbEBI1 OEPA30BAlhA 11KOHIJ,EDIJ,I1JE KYPI1KYJIYMA
saaje CC xana CC nporpaxor y KypMKyJIyMy orrpaanasajy ua 6a3MIhMXOBC 6YAyhc co-
IJ;MjaJIHC yTMJIMTapHOCTM. 3HaIha M BeIlITMHe KOjC rpeoa na 6ygy CTC'JCHC TOKOM
06pa30BaIha rpeoa na MMajy npaxra-ray npMMCHJhMBOCT y npyurrny, 3HaqajHo MC-
CTO KOjCCC Y KypMKyJIyMy npnnaje 6a3M'IHMM 3HaIhMMa, BCIlITMHaMa'IMTaIha, JIMCa-
Iha, pa'JyHaIha, cCKcyaJIHOM 06pa30BaIhy MCKOHOMMjM onpaanaaa CC I-hMXOBOM KO-
pMCHOIlIhy aa HCKOra KOTpc6a na nOCTaHC nooap rpahanaa. KypMKyJIyM CC nasaj-
napa KaKO 6M 06JIMKOBaO noope rpahaae KOjM he yCBOjMTM gOMMHaHTHC BPCgHO-
CTM MBCpOBaIha OgpCI)CHC APyUITBCHC rpynannje M KOjM he 6MTM OnpCMJhCHM BC-
IIlTMHaMa KOjC3aXTCBaCaBpCMeHa CKoHoMMja.
YOnIlITC y3CB, y OKBMpy gpYIIlTBCHO OpMjcHTMcaHOr KypMKyJIyMa aKIJ;CHTyjC
CC jesrpo KypMKyJIyMa KOjC rperia na osrot-yha CBIIM Y'ICHIIIJ;IIMa cannananan,e
IICTOr 06pa30BHOr nporpaxra KaKO 6II CC YCllCnIHO npIInpCMIIJIII na ncnyae csoje
yJIOrC y APyIlITBy. Taxo je, ua npIIMCp, y neaernaecroxr BCKy y AMC-
PWIKIIM nO'ICJIOUIIIpCIhC 06aBC3HIIX IllKOJIa KaKO 6II CC CnpCQIIJIa no-
jasa MaJIOJICTHWIKC gCJIIIKBCHIJ;IIjC, KOHTpOJIIICaO KpMMMHaJI II 06JIIIKOBaJIM npo-
IWKTIIBHM pagHMIJ;M. AaJhc, nOQCTKOM /.\BaACcCTOr BCKa, npOrpCCMBHM nenarosa cy
KpIITHKOBaJIM axanexscxa KypHKyJIyM 11 rpoxycapann CC na COIJ;l1jaJIHY yJIOry o6pa-
30BaIha. Ilporpecasacra cy cPaBOpII30BaJIH TaKBC IJ;HJhCBC KaO IIITO cy: pasnoj rpa-
l)aHcKc onroaopaocra, npOcPCCMOHaJIHa npnnpexra, pasnoj gCMoKpaTCKHXCTaBOBa,
MOpamlO H 3/.\paBCTBCHO 06pa30BaH,C, nCpCOHaJIHO H ycaapuranaa,c,
6pllra sa noopooor npyrnx (Walker, Soltis 1997, 35). OCllM rora, pCKOHCTpyKIJ;IIO-
HHCTWIKC aneje cy jom on Ilpyror CBCTCKor para 6IIJIC gOMIIHaHTHC y BchIIHH 3C-
MaJha OECD-a (llIKOlle U eanuuieiii, 1998, 81). OBa KOHIJ;CnIJ;Hja KypIIKyJlyMa jc H
nanac BCOMa aKTyCJIHa. Y BchIIHH 3CMaJha ce IIOCJIcgIhIIX HCKOJIIIKO gCIJ;cHIIjaripen
llIKOJIy nocrann.ajy 6pOjHM 3aXTeBII: npIInpcMa aa npenoanaaan,e II cy-
npOTCTaBJhaH,C npCBJIaCTII TOTaJIMTapHYIX cTyKTypa, uparrpesra sa pan y IIHAY-
CTpIIjcKOM, a nOTOM II nocrnanycrpajcxou APYllITBY, npanpeva sa rJI06aJIHy CKO-
HOMCKy KOMnCTMIJ;Mjy, HHTcrpaIJ;IIjc pa3JIWIIITHX pacHIIx, CKOHOMCKHX
H COIJ;HjaJIHHX rpyna II CJIIl'IHO(Walker, Soltis 1997).
AaKJIC, npesra OBOj KypIIKyJIyMa, norpeoe APYllITBa HCKJhy'IMBO
KypMKyJIyM, M oripaaonan,e ce 'ICCTO nocxrarpa xao xpajn,e cpen-
CTBO pCHIaBaH,a APYIlITBCHHX np06JICMa. EpOjHM TCOpCTWWpli HCTpa)KMBaJIII cy
KapaKTcpIICTllKC noopor APYIlITBa II npennarana KypIIKyJIyM AII3ajHHpaH paua
CTII3aH,a nO)KCJhHHX IJ;HlliCBa. Y ACJIHMa I1JIaTOHa II Iljyna Mory cc yO'IMTII CJIC-
MCHTli OBC KypIIKyJIyMa. Hnax, MCl)y 3acTynHMIJ;IIMa OBC
llOCTOjC sna-rajae pa3JIHKC. EYAyhH lIa pa3JIWIHTC rpync ca pa3JIWIMTIIM
IIOJIIITWIKMMJIOrJICIIHMa 0 6ygyhcM 06JIHKy 11 yCMcpCIhy npynma lIMajy pa3JIWIHTC
nornene na canpxcaj II opraaasauajy KypIIKyJIyMa, nOJIIITliKa II npaxca KypIIKyJIy-
Ma yBCK cy npCAMCT HCCJIaraIha II KOHcPJIliKaTa yayrap II H3MCI)y pa3JIWIHTIIX rpy-
nannja xoje IIMajy npyra-mje nOrJICIlCna npnpony APYIlITBa II ynory 06pa30BaIha y
a.eroeoj HJIII MCIhaIhY. Taxo, HCKH aacrynajy yTIIJIHTapIICTWIKlI
npIIcTyn cvarpajyha na y'lCHIIIJ;IIMa Tpc6a llPY)KHTII opyha KaKO 6II YCllCIlIHO cPYH-
KIJ;IIOHliCaJIM y nocrojehesr IIPYIlITBY, 'lIIMe 6II ce 3aAp)KaJIe nocrojehe COIJ;MjaJIHC
CTpyKTypC H OAHOCII, AOKAPyrH sacrynajy KpliTWIKII npncryn, TCcxrarpajy rra y'JC-
HIIIJ;HMa rpeoa lIaTII MoryhHocT na KpIITIIKyjy II ynanpene npYIlITBO (Klep, Letsc-
hert, Thijs 2004).
699
I1EJ],ArOlliKA CTBAPHOCT, LI, 9-10 (2005), HOBl1 Carl
Flpesra TOMC, MCl)y 3acTynHlUJ;HKypHKyJIyMa ycxrepenor xa )J;pyUITBy IIOCTO-
je aaaxajae pa3JIHKe OKO onrosopa aa mITaIbC: UITa je O)J; najsehe BPC)J;HOCTH aa
)J;pyUITBO y O)J;pCl)CHOM MOMCHTy. Hax H OHH KOjH npenopy-ryjy pCKOHCTpyKIJ;HOHH-
CTWIKC H)J;CjC cHrypHo HHCy yBCK CarJIaCHH ca CBHM aCIICKTHMa nnanapan.a xypa-
KyJIyMa; CTaBOBH 0 TOMe KaKBO )J;pyUITBO rpeoa KpCHpaTH H KaKO 06pa30BalbC MO-
)Ke y6p3aTH raj npOIJ;CC 06HQHO cy 3aOUITpCHH Mel)y lbHMa. Hnax, HaKO Mel)y sa-
CTYIIHHIJ;HMa )J;pyUITBeHo opajearacaae KOHIJ;enIJ;Hjc KypHKyJIyMa IIOCTOjC fipojaa
rrecnaraa,a OKOonronopa na IIHTalbC: UITa je )J;o6po6HT )J;pyUITBaH KOjH cy najoo-
JbH 06pa30BHH nOCTYIIIJ;H aa )J;OCTH3albe "H)J;caJIHOr" )J;pyUITBa, CBH CC CJIa)Ky na
06pa30BalbC Tpc6a na CJIy)KH oncranxy H yCIICUIHOM cPYHKIJ;HOHHcalbY )J;pyUITBa.
Y OKBHpy KOHIJ;CIIIJ;HjC KypHKyJIyMa yCMCpCHOM xa YQCHHKY, HH KyJITypHC
BPC)J;HOCTH HH COIJ;HjaJIHC ynore CC HC Y3HMajy xao IIOJIa3He OCHOBC 06pa30BHor
IIpOIJ;CCa, seh cy TO cnooona H pasnoj HH)J;HBH)J;yaJIHOCTH. PyCOOBC pOMaHTWlapCKC
H)J;CjC 6HJIC cy O)J; rrocetinor sua-raja sa paanoj OBe H)J;cje y oopaaosan.y. CJIo6o)J;a
xao nojaxr, BH3Hja oopaaosaa.a OCJI06ol)cHor O)J; aYTopHTapH3Ma H 06aBC-
3HOCTH, O)J; KOHcPopMH3Ma H PHrH)J;HOCTH saoxynn.ane cy MHCJIH 6pOjHHX rCHCpaIJ;H-
ja 06pa30BHHX perpopuaropa. IIpHcTaJIHIJ;e OBe KOHIJ;CIIIJ;HjC KypHKyJIyMa TC)Ke IJ;H-
JbeBHMa xao UITO cy: caMOpCaJIH3aIJ;Hja, castorrourroaan,e, CMOIJ;HOHaJIHa cTa6HJI-
HOCT H MCHTaJIHO 3)J;paBJbC, KpeaTHBHO aapaacasaa,e, aeronaa,e IIepCOHaJIHHX Ta-
JIeHaTa H aarepeca, pa360pHTa ynorpeoa CJI060)J;Hor npenena, IIpHIIpeMa sa ca-
BpCMCHH )KHBOT, 3)J;paBJbC H carypaocr (Walker, Soltis 1997, 36). JJ:aKJIC, BCJIHKH
aKIJ;CHaT CTaBJba ce na HH)J;HBH)J;yaJIHa npana, passoj nojenaaa-nnrx TaJICHaTa, IICp-
COHaJIHO ncnya.eu,e, norpary sa CPChOM H HH)J;HBH)J;yaJIHH, CKOHOMCKH H HHTCJICK-
TyaJIHH aanpenax,
Otipasoaaa,e CC, rrpexra OBOj KOHIJ;CIIIJ;HjH, O)J;HOCH na oxpaopnaaa,e H IIO)J;-
CTHIJ;albC IIpHpO)J;Hor pacra H paasoja Jby)J;CKor opraaaaxra, H THMC pCaJIH30BalbC
nynor noreanajana csaxor nojenanor YQCHHKa. Oopasoaaa.esr Tpe6a nouoha no-
jC)J;HHIJ;y na CC npHpo)J;HOpasaaja, npa ce rperia yCMCpHTHna paasoj OHHX BC-
UITHHa KOjC he My oxroryhara na orxpnje H pasnaja BJIaCTHTC cnoco6HOCTH. IJ:HJ:r,
06pa30Balba TaKO paIJ;HOHaJIHa ayToHoMHja H HH)J;HBH)J;yaJIHa cJIo6o)J;a
(Carr 1998, 327). KypHKyJIyM pCcPJICKTyje pasaojae norpetie, npe Hero KyJI-
Typy )J;pyUITBa. Taxo je canpscaj oopaaosarsa y BCJIHKOj MepH )J;CTCpMHHHcaH ysre-
HWIKHM norperiava H narepecaua. AKIJ;eHaT ce CTaBJba na rronpynja ysen,a xoja
)J;onpHHocc COIJ;HO-CMOIJ;HOHaJIHOM pasaojy, a BCJIHKH npocrop ce OTBa-
pa aa pCcPJICKCHjy 0 BJIaCTHTHM HCKycTBHMa, sa KpcaTHBHy excrrpecnjy H pasaoj
HMarHHaIJ;Hje (Klep, Letschert, Thijs 2004). AKa)J;cMcKH npemrern 3aY3HMajy MaJIH
npocrop y KypHKyJIyMy, a naCHBHO npenonren,e )J;pyIIITBCHO aKyMyJIHCaHOr snaa,a
nonpebeno je aKTHBHOMpaasojy yqCHWIKor paayvenan,a. OCHM rora, 3acTynHHIJ;H
KypHKyJIyMa yCMcpcHor xa onoauyjy H)J;Cjy ycnajaa.a cnon.a HaMcTHyTHx
HOpMH H npaxca )J;pyUITBa, jcp nepyjy na )J;pyUITBO nocroja 360r )J;o6po6HTH noje-
)J;HHIJ;a, a HC 06pHyTO. Iloy-raaaa,e ce TWIC CTHMyJIHCalba ypOl)CHC pane-
3HaJIOCTH H oxparipasaa,e lberOBor BJIaCTHTOr ncrpaxcusan.a, )J;OK je HaCTaBHHK
IIpHMapHo onaj KOjH BO)J;H, a HCayTopHTapHH HHCTpyKTOp.
KypHKyJIyM yCMCpCH xa jc KJIaCHqaHnpaxrep rnrran.a KOjCje, qHHH
ce, ocyheno aa TOna CC ncpMaHeHTHO 06HaBJba, He pa-ryaajyha paanja nojaan.nsa-
n,a xoja CC Mory 3aXBaJIHTHnacrojaa.aua Pycoa, IIccTaJIoIJ;Hja H npyrnx. Taxo cy,
700
Mp JOBaHa MMIlY'I'MHOBMh: UI1JbEBT1OEPA30BAlhA T1 KOHUEITUT1JE KYPI1KYJIYMA
na npasrep, nO'IeTKOM nsaneceror sexa ne):\arOIIIKII crpy-ra.amr y Cje):\lllheHIIM
AMepll'IKIIM L!:p:>KaBaMa na HOB Ha'IIIH yCMepllJm nocrynxe oxpenyre ):\elW (Marsh
1994). Iljya je aaroaapao nexy BpCTy oopasoaan,a ycxrepenor na nere, y xojeu 611
nenje rrpaxrn-me aKTIIBHOCTII MOrJIe 611Tll opnjenrncaae xa ):\pYIlITBeHIIM norpe-
6aMa. KypllKyJIyMII yCMepeHII xa nOHOBO cy ce rrojaanna y nynoj CHa311
1967. ronnae y IIJIolh):\cHoBoM 113BeIlITajy, onaj nyr y BeJIIIKoj Bparaaaja. Y TOM
113BeIlITajy mmre: "IIIKOJIa je sajennana y KOjOj njena ysre :>KIIBjeTII npBeHCTBCHO
xao njeua, a TeK OHJ(a xao 6yJ(yhli OJ(paCJIll II rperiann 611CMO pasaoj nje-
JIOBIITe JIWlHOCTII njeue, y):\OBOJhllTII n.axonoj paJ(03HaJIOCTII II pa3BIITII IIM caxro-
noysnan.e, nocrojanocr II 6y):\HOCT" (Plowden, prema: Marsh 1994,220).
Caspexteno otipasoaan.e 3aJ(p:>KaJIo je 6pojHe xapaxrepacrnxe OBe nneje y
oopasoaaa.y. Kpyra Ka3Ha II crpax 3aMelheHII cy n0311TIIBHlljIlM Me-
TOJ(aMa yxrsy-ryjyha npnjarerscxe onnoce II pecnexr npeMa y'IeHIIKy. Parnnaa ar-
Mocepepa II epII311'IKO oxpyzceise nacroje ce 3aMeHIITII CJI060):\HlljllM II npajaraajau
ypehen.en. YMecToryIIIeILa nesjax aecounjanasoaaaax naroaa, y IIIKOJIaMa ce ca-
na nacrojn excnpecaja nenjax ocehaa.a na npIIXBaTJhllB aa-
L!:aKJIe, na 6pojHe Ha'IIIHe OBa xoanennnja xapaxrepmne caspeveao 06pa30-
sarse.
Hnax, OBa xonnemnrja KypllKyJIyMa MO:>Ke na BpJIO pa3JIWIIITe
crnapn, D. Tanner II L. N. Tanner (rrpeva: Marsh 1994, 219) csrarpajy J(a ce xypnxy-
JIyM yCMepeH xa y'IeHIIKy MO:>Ke OJ(HOCIITII na:
nojenana-nro noysaaan.e,
- Kp03 npaxcy llJIll panehn;
laissez faire - yOIIIIITe nena opranaaonannx KypllKyJIyMa, Hero ce CBe 6a-
311pa na OHOMe IlITO neuy 3aHIIMa;
- CTBapaJIa'lKO caMOll3pa:>KaBalhe y'IeHIIKa;
- rrpaxra-me aKTIIBHOCTII ycsrepeae na norpeoe J(pyIIITBa;
3ajeJ(HWIKII Ha311B xoja ce O):\HOCII na onoauanan,e y-ren,a xoje je ycsrepe-
HO na noynaaaa.e OCJI06ai)aILe OJ( HaCfaBHIIKOBe rrpennacrn, oCJI06ai)a-
n.e OJ\ crera npernre'ra, ocnotiahaa,e OJ( uan.ena xypaxyrryxra xoja naue-
hy OJ\paCJIll.
L!:aJhe, pa3JIWIIITII ayropn cMaTpajy na ce oopaaosaa,e MO:>Ke na pa3JIWIIITe
Ha'IIIHe opr-aaasonara KaKO 611 oxroryhano nepCOIlaJIHII pasaoj, TaKO na Hll Mei)y
aacrynanmoaa one xomiernnrje He nocroja nOTnyHa CarJIaCHOCT. HeKII TBp):\e na
06pa30BHe canpxcaje Tpe6a opramraonara OKO TeMa (Noddings
1993), J\pyrrr sacrynajy HapaTIIBHIl npllC'fyn (Egan 1999), a HeKII aarosapajy nOTIIy-
uy CJIo6oJ(y (Pyco 1989; POI,Iepc 1985). Hrrax, aaxo ce aacrymnnra OBIIX
He CJIa)KY OKO Tora KaKO CC norennajann Mory IIJ(CHTllepIlKOBa-
Tll II xoja he npcra oopasosaa,a aajoon,e oMoryhllTII IbllXOB passoj, caa ce CJIa:>Ky
na je npllMapaH oopasoaan,a II ynea.a ocruapen,e OnTIIMaJIHOr passoja canx
noremtajana nojenaae JhYJ\cKe jemraxe.
YOIlIIITe Y3eB, CBaKa xoanernnrja xypuxynyua onpebena je o6pa-
aonarsa II ysren,a, a IIJ(CjC 0 oopaaosaa,a II KypIIKyJIyMy ynex npOII3IIJIa3e
II jasn.ajy ce YOJ\PCi)CHOM iWYIlITBCHOM II llCTOpIIjCKOM KOHTCKCTy. Taxo, onpeheno
BpCMC 11 OKOJIHOCT11 aaxresajy onpehene npOMCHC Kyp11KyJIyMa. Cnaxa OJ( HanCJ\C-
701
ITEAAfOlliKA CTBAPHOCT, LI, 9-10 (2005), Houa Call
HHX aneja H3p<DKaBa HaqHH na KOjH jc O,!:\HOC H3MclW ,!:\pYlIITBa H 06pa30BalLa 6HO HH-
repnperapan y O,!:\PCl)CHO BpCMC, Y O,!:\PCl)CHHM OKOJIHOCTHMa H MCCTy, H CBaKa 06y-
XBaTa CCT Mcl)yc06HO nOBC3aHHX 06pa30BHHX npanmma KOjH BO,!:\CH360p H opramr-
samrjy canpscaja KypHKyJIyMa H MCTO,!:\C sa lLHXOBO npenomen.e H npouen.aaaa.e.
TIPC,!:\MCTHH laKa,!:\CMCKHI KypHKyJIyM npaaapao je yCMCpCH na nHTalLC KOjH he
MCTH ,!:\onpHHCTH HHTCJICKTyaJIHOM passojy yqCHHKa, KypHKyJIyM yCMCpCH xa y'IcHH-
xy BHIlIC CC 6pHHC 0 nCpCOHaJIHOM passojy y'IcHHKa, a KypHKyJIyM yCMCpCH xa ,!:\py-
lIITBy 3aXTCBa rrpnnpeny yqCHHKa KaKO 6H ycnernno acrrynao O,!:\PCl)CHY ynory y npy-
lIITBY. JJ:aKJIC, TaMO rne ce rJIaBHH 06pa30BalLa H ysren.a ,!:\CHHHlIIC xao npeno-
lIICI-hC aKyMyJIHpaHC My,!:\pOCTH ca jC,!:\HC reaepannje na ,(Ipyry, jacao jc na he xypaxy-
JIyM 6wI'H OCJIOlLCH na ynorpeoy n<DKJhHBO onaopanax KlLHra. AKo cy otipa-
30BalLa H ysen,a opnjearacaaa rrpesra CJI060,(lH H nCpCOHaJIHOM pacry H passojy y'IC-
HHKa, KypHKyJIyM he 6HTH yCMCpCH aa "y'IClLC ,(ICJIOBalLCM" H "y'IClLC H3 HCKycTBa".
JJ:PYlIITBCHO opajerrracaaa QHJhCBH oxparipnhe HaCTaBHHKC na cOQHjaJIH3yjy y'ICHH-
KC Y ,!:\PYlIITBCHO nO)l{CJhHOM pa,(lY
Taxo cc KOHKpcTHa mrraa,a CBaKO,(lHcBHHQC IIIKOJICTBa "npc06pahajy y 6HT-
na rmraa,a, nHTalLC 0 BpHjC,(IHOCHOj OCHOBH no KOjOj ,(IjCJIyjcMO, rnrraa,e 0 TOMC
lIITO ,(IP)l{HMO 06pa30BHHM H,(ICaJIOM, xojy BpHjC,(IHOCT H CBPXY npnnajeuo 06pa30-
BalLY" (MapHHKoBHh 1981, 11). Pa3JIHKC y MHlIIJhClLHMa 0 KypHKyJIyMy npOH3HJIa-
3C H3 ,(Iy6JI,HX 3aMHCJIH H npernocranxn 0 npaponn 3HaH,a H yxea,a, ,(Ipy-
IlITBa, xao H 0,(1 r,HJhCBa KOjC 06pa30BalLcM H Y'IClLCM rpeoa ,!:\ocTHrHyTH. TIPH TO-
MC ce 06pa30BHH QHJhCBH rpernpajy na pa3JIWIHTC HaqHHC, a y 3aBHCHOCTH 0,(1
BPC,(IHOCTH HJIH npernocraaxa na xojaua CC TCMCJhC nposraurrsan,a rrO)l{CJhHC JIH'I-
HOCTH Y nO)l{CJhHOM ,(IpyUITBy. Ha raj HaqHH, nponena KBaJIHTCTa KypHKyJIyMa sa-
BHCH 0,(1 nneja, BpC,(IHOCTH H nornena KOjC Jhy,(lH ynoce y npouec npocybasaa,a, H
0,(1 KOHKpCTHC caryamrje y KOjOj hc CC OAPcl)CHH KypHKyJIyM KOpHCTHTH. Kypnxy-
JIyM KOjH CC 'IHHH Haj60JI,H ca acnexra CMalLHBalLa cOl\HjaJIHHX aejenaaxocrn, ne-
he H3rJIc,(IaTH najnpmaepemrja ca acnexra AOCTH3alha aKanCMCKC H3BpCHOCTII.
BPC,(IHOCTH KypHKyJIyMa Mory ce TaKO carneuanarn H3 BIIIlIC BpC,(IHOCHHX
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Jovana Milutinovic, M. A., Novi Sad
EDUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES AND CURRICULUM CONCEPTS
Summary
Different educational and teaching objectives have been analyzed and classified
along with some curriculum concepts in pedagogical literature. While trying to obtain a
profound insight into the complex relations of past, present and future, the paper focus
upon three major curriculum concepts: subject/academic, social-centred, and pupil-cen-
tred curriculum. Different reflections about educational and teaching objectives and ap-
propriate educational contents have been investigated for each concept. The author has
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come to the conclusion that each concept has been determinated by educational and teac-
hing goals, and that the ideas of educational objectives and curriculum always originate
from certain social and historical context. The prevailing idea suggests the meaning and
purpose of the relation between society and education in a defined period of time, cir-
cumstances and place as well, so each of them comprise a set of mutually connected edu-
cational principles which determine the organisation and choice of curriculum contents as
well as the methods of their application and evaluation. Therefore, evaluating the quality
of curriculum depends on reflections, values and attitudes, as well as the situation it has
been designed for. The quality of curriculum could be fully assessed from different aspec-
ts and standpoints depending on the context and broader social, philosophycal and educa-
tional belifs.
Key words: educational goals, curriculum, curriculum concepts
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