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CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I

X L V LU TR FILM X-QUANG
I.Phng ti
Li vo v mu.
Phng ti cn gn v tr film c chp. Phng c chiu sng hon ton t
pha trn, do vy ca ra vo c thit k sao cho nh sng khng th lt vo trong.
Thng thng, ca c thit k theo mu ca xoay(mt ca sau ca cn li) hoc
theo kt cu m cung .

Hnh 1.Cu trc ca xoay-m cung


Trong thc t, m hnh m cung c xc nh l tt nht vi yu cu ca
phng ti mc d theo cch ny s tn din tch khng gian hn. Cc on tng c
sn mu en m v mt sc mu trng rng khong 10cm chy dc theo bc tng ti
v tr ngang vi tm mt ch dn. Bn trong phng ti, cc bc tng c sn
mu sng nhm mc ch phn x nh sng yu trong phng.
nh sng trong phng ti.
Phim X-quang c x l tt nht trong iu kin nh sng trong phng ti l
-cam hoc mu xanh l cy. Khong cch gia film v v ngun sng trong phng
ti cn c tnh ton cn thn ph thuc vo nhy ca film v thi gian ra film.

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


"an ton nh sng" ca nh sng trong phng ti c th c kim tra bng cch
bao ph mt na film trc khi tip xc(mt 2) theo chiu dc v nh vy trong
5 pht, sau ra film bnh thng, s khc bit v mt khng c vt qu 0,1.
Mt phng php khc cng c s dng kim tra an ton nh sng
trong phng ti, t tm film cha c chiu sng trn khu vc lm vic v ph ln
trn tm film mt tm ba cng, sau dn b dn tm ba theo cc hng khc nhau.
Film c ra bnh thng s cho kt qu v an ton nh sng trong phng v thi
gian tm film c th tip xc vi nh sng trc khi c s khc bit v mt ti a
0,1.
Sp t phng ti
Phng ti c thit k thnh mt bn kh v mt bn t. Pha kh s c s
dng lp v tho film ra khi hp film, lp film vo khung ra, l tt c cng
vic khng cho php b gy m t.
pha t cc film s c x l trong cc b dung dch ha cht khc nhau.
Nhit trong phng nn c iu khin t ng m bo qu trnh x l film t
hiu qu v cht lng film thnh phm ng u.
B ha cht.
Qu trnh x l film trong cc b ha cht l cc cng on c thc hin trong
qu trnh ra film thng thng, cc tm film c gi theo chiu dc khung hnh. Cc
b c lm t thp khng g hoc t nha. Kch thc ca b phi ph hp vi kch
thc v s lng film c x l. Phi c khng gian ti thiu l 1,5cm gia cc tm
film v film phi cc b mt ha cht khong 2cm.
Pha t ca phng ti s bao gm 5 b c sp xp theo trnh t sau:
1. B trng film.
2. B gi.
3. B hm(fixer tank).
4. B ra cui.
5. B dung dch lm t.

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


II. Ha cht v quy trnh ra film
Ngy nay, ha cht c s dng l cc cht dng c c ph hp vi tng loi
kiu film. Cc ha cht s c ha vi nc to thnh dung dch dng trong qu
trnh ra film vi ch rng: vi mi cht c ha trc tip trong b hoc gin tip
qua cc x nha th dng c ch nn s dng cho cht m khng nn dng thm
ha dung dch cho cht khc.
Thuc ra.
Qu trnh lm hin nh bao gm cc vt m, cc ht v tng phn ca nh
ph thuc vo thuc ra film. Thuc ra nh thng c s dng ph hp vi loi
film c dng.
Vi thuc ra nh thng thng, cch pha ch dung dch thuc ra tun theo t
l 1 phn cht ra c c v 4 phn nc. V d nh cht G128 c sn xut bi Agfa
th vi mt b th tch 25 lt, ta s 5 lt cht ra nh trn vo b ri sau thm vo
20 lt nc. Thuc ra G128 cng c s dng nh mt cht lm y, khi t l pha
lc ny s l 1 phn cht ra film v 3 phn nc.
Cht hm(Fixer).
Cht hm c s dng thng l cht G328 v c pha ging vi cch pha
dung dch thuc ra film.
Thi gian ra film v nhit b ra.
Thi gian ra film c tnh ngay sau khi film b ngp trong cht ra film, thi
gian trong phng ti c thit lp vi yu cu s pht tng ng. Thi gian ra film
ti u l thi im m tng phn vt m t c. lch nh t thi gian phi
sng chnh xc c th c b tr bng cch iu chnh thi gian ra film.
Theo khuyn co v thi gian ra film i vi cc film ca Agfa trong cht ra
film thng thng G128 l 5 pht nhit 20C. Trong quy trnh ra film t ng s
dng cht ra film G135, thi gian ra film l 100s ti 28C. Sai lch v thi gian ra
film gia cc ln v nhit trong b ra s lm gim nh (v d tng ht th).

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


Tng nhit b ra s lm tng tc ra film, tuy nhin cht ra film s b
oxi ha nhanh hn. Nn nhit trong b khng c vt qu 20C, thi gian ra
film c tham kho trong bng di c p dng i vi film li D.
Nhit ca thuc ra film khng bo gi c thp hn 10C, nhng tt nht
l cao hn 18C c c nh c tng phn ti u. Tt nht l lun duy tr cc
iu kin trong qu trnh ra film nh nhau, khi nh thu c c s thng nht.

Bng 1.Nhit -thi gian ra film b thuc ra


Trn film
ngn chn bong bng kh hnh thnh trn b mt nh tng ca film(l
nguyn nhn gy ra vt m trn film thnh phm) v m bo rng cht ra nh
thm nhp vo tt c cc khu vc nh tng mt cch ng u, cc tm film c gi
di chuyn trong 30s u trong cht ra film. Sau film vn c th c o ngn
chn li trn film nh li dng hoc vt.
Lm y, b sung.
Khi t ti 400ml cht lng trn mi m2 ca tm film th tm film c th c di
chuyn qua cc b ra tip theo. Trong qu trnh ra th cc khung film c s dng
c nh film trong b ra, do nn film khong 2-3s ngoi b thuc ra
nh bt cht lng.
C sau mi m2 film c ra, 600ml cht n s c thm vo khng ph
thuc vo s lng cht ra b mt i t cc b cha. Cht b sung c th ln ti ti a
l 4 lt cho mi lt cht ra film trong b. Qu trnh thm cht n c dng li v
thay th hon ton thuc ra film khi tng s cht n c thm vo bng 3 ln tng
s cht ra film ban u. Tuy nhin, trong mi trng hp sau 8 tun thuc ra film
phi thay th hon ton m khng ph thuc vo s lng film X-quang c ra.
B gi.

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


Trc khi film c chuyn ti b hm (fixer tank) n c t trong b
gi(dung dch trong b gi bao gm 30ml axit axetic dng bng trong 1 lt nc) trong
30s ngn nh b hin qu nhanh bi cht ra film v cc vt sc hoc m hnh
thnh trn film.
Nu film khng c a qua b hm th n phi c ra di nc mt vi
ln trong vi pht ngay sau khi ri khi b thuc ra.
C nh nh(fixing)
C nh nh l lm cho nh c hnh thnh trong quy trnh ra film gm nhiu
cng on, bng cch loi b cc mui bc halogen cha c ra t cc nh tng.
Khi cc tm film c ly ra t b gi, trn film xut hin cc vt trng di, cc vt ny
s thay i trong qu trnh c nh film v cc khu vc sng ca film s tr nn trong
sut. Tm film tip theo cn thi gian c nh gp i thi gian cn thit c nh
tm film trc n. Thi gian c nh film (trong ln u khong 3 pht) bng hai ln
thi gian lm sch. Ngay sau khi thi gian c nh mt tm film gp i thi gian
lm sch mt tm film trong cht G328 20C th dung dch trong b c nh nh cn
phi c thay th.
Ch rng, mi lt dung dch trong b c nh film tng ng vi mt m2 film
c x l. Cc tm film phi c gi chuyn ng lin tc trong 30s u trong b.
B ra cui.
Qu trnh ra cui cng c thit k loi b cht hm cn li v cc hp
cht bc tan trong nh tng m nu khng c a ra ngoi s lm gim thi gian s
dng film. Qu trnh ra tt nht nn c thc hin vi nc sinh hot v phi m
bo rng tt c cc phn ca tm film phi c ra bng nc sch. Thi gian ra ca
ln ra cui cng ph thuc vo nhit ca nc. Ch rng, nhit nc ra
khng nn vt qu 25C.

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I

Bng 2.Nhit -thi gian ra film b ra cui


Sy kh trong t sy.
Khi mt tm film c a ra khi mt nc, do sc cng b mt, trn film to
thnh cc git nc vi kch thc khc nhau. Do tm film s kh khng u, gy
ra hin tng im kh. V l do ny nn film c nhng trong cht ngm thm vi t
l 5-10 ml cht ngm thm trong 1 lt nc. Cht ngm thm c tc dng lm gim sc
cng b mt ca nc, do sau khi tm film c ngm trong cht ngm thm s
tr nn t u, film s kh u v khng c ri do v im kh. Cc tm film nn
c treo khong 2 pht gio nc trc khi chng c a vo trong t sy.
Qa trnh lm kh nn c thc hin trong t sy hoc ti ni phng kh gio v
khng c bi. Film sau khi c sy kh s khng c b dnh t do iu ny s
gy ra cc im nh du trn film. Do cc film t lun c treo bn di cc
film kh.
Thi gian kh ph thuc vo nhit , s lu thng khng kh v m tng
i ca khng kh trong t. Cc tm film u tin a vo t sy s nhanh kh hn do
m trong t lc ny thp.
Trc khi tm film c ly ra t t sy, chng c kim tra cc gc v cc
cnh nhm m bo film kh hon ton. Nhit trong t sy khng nn vt qu
40C bi nhit cao hn c th gy ra im kh xu.
Trong t sy phi m bo khng kh lu thng t do gia cc tm film nhm
m bo tm film c kh u c hai mt, ngc li chng c th b cong hoc mo
do tnh kh khng ng u.
My sy ln.

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


My sy cng nghip c th c s dng lm kh cc tm film mt cch
nhanh chng v ng u sau khi film c ra. Qu trnh sy kh ny ch mt vi
pht. My sy ln nh gn trn th trng c kh nng sy 15cm film trong 1s v mt
khng gian t hn so vi t sy thng thng.
III.Khuyn ngh cho cc phng ti.
Lm sch cc b.
Bt c khi no quy trnh x l film c thay i khi cc b ra cn phi
c lm sch vi nc nng v x phng. Nu s dng nc nng v x phng cha
lm sch c trit b c th c lm sch bng cch s dng dung dch thuc ty
(100-200ml trn 1 lt nc) hoc dung dch axit axetic (50ml trn 1 lt nc). Cc b
c lm t thp khng g c th c lm sch bng dung dch axit nitric(10ml trn 1
lt c) hoc axit axetic(50ml trn 1 lt nc). Ch rng axit hydocloric khng bao
gi c s dng i vi b c lm t thp khng g.
Cc cht ty ra cng nghip trn th trng (v d Devclean v cht thn thin
mi trng Fixclean) c s dng c bit lm sch phng ti.
Lm sch vt bn ha cht ra film trn tay.
Cc vt bn trn tay c th trnh c bng cch ra tay trong nc bt c khi
no khng tip xc vi cht ra film na. Trong trng hp tay b nhum mu nn
c ngm trong dung dch c pha ch gm:
1. 1 lt nc.
2. 2 gr - Kali Permannagat,
3. 10 ml dung dch axit sunfuric m c.
Tip theo tay c ra trong cht hm v cui cng ra sch bng nc v x
phng.
Phn nc.
Trong qu trnh x l film c th xy ra tnh trng tn ng vt trng trn film
sau khi ra khng ha tan trong nc. Hin tng ny xy ra do cc mui canxi tn ti
trong nc m c th l mui cacbonat v mui sunfat. ngn chn tnh trng ny c

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


th s dng mt b lc c bit loi b bt cc mui trn hoc tin hnh un nc
si ngui trc khi s dng.
Phc hi bc.
Cc mui halogen bc trong nh tng cn li s c ha tan trong cht hm.
Bc c th c hi phc t cht hm vi mc ch l gi li bc.
Bc c th c phc hi thng qua qu trnh in phn v c thm vo h
thng in phn l thit b thu hi bc chuyn dng.
IV.X l film t ng.
B x l film NDT-U.
Trong cc nm gn y, cc b x l film t ng c pht trin mnh x l
film X-quang cng nghip. Hiu qu ca h thng ra film t ng bao gm qu trnh
x l din ra nhanh hn, hiu qu hn, mt khc do tnh thng nht gia cc quy trnh
nn cht lng nh cng c ci thin. Tng thi gian x l film t 1,5-12 pht(thng
thng l 8 pht) ngn hn so vi x l th cng ng k. Trong 8 pht, tm film c
ra ch trong 100s, c gi l thi gian ngm. Thi gian x l ngn hn t c
do s dng cc ha cht c bit(G135 v G335), v bi nhit c s dng x l
film cao hn 28C thay cho 20C.
Thi gian x l film ngn nht l 1,5 pht ch yu cho cc qu trnh x l film
c bit c dng trn tm lay-barges, khi cc kt qu s cho ra mt cch nhanh
chng.
Cc ha cht c s dng hot ng tt hn nhit cao.Nhit cao hn
lm cho cc lp nh tng cng ra, kt qu l cht lng khuch tn nhanh hn thng
qua cc lp v do hot ng ca cc cht ha hc xy ra nhanh hn.
Tuy nhin, do lp nh tng ph ngoi c cng ra s gy ra nhc im l n
s nh hn v do d b tn thng hn. Do vy, phi m bo hi ha gia unhc im ca vic tng nhit x l nh bng cch s dng thch hp cc thnh
phn ng vi cht hm. Ha cht s dng trong b x l film t ng cng c b
xung ph gia c ch qu trnh oxy ha v s hnh thnh cc vt m trn film nh
tng.

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


X l film t ng khng ch cho kt qu nhanh chng, quy trnh ny cng
chun ha qu trnh ra film(ci thin kh nng ti to/thng nht). iu ny lm tng
tin cy ca nh chp X-quang.
Cng ngh kim tra GE cung cp h thng tch hp Agfa, ni cc film X-quang,
cc cht ha hc v cc thit b x l u ph hp vi nhau. Thng qua cc c im
thng nht ca cc tm film, ha cht c a vo theo cng thc c tnh ton k
lng, khuy lin tc v t ng b sung, iu khin nhit chnh xc trong cc b
x l.
B x l Agfa NDT-U c trang b mt my sy film hng ngoi c iu
khin bng mt b vi x l. Thi gian x l c a vo ph thuc vo thi gian chu
trnh yu cu(iu chnh trong khong t 1,5-12 pht) v kch thc film. My c th
thc hin sy kh cho c film cun v tt c cc film c kch thc thng thng. Khi
mt chu trnh 8 pht c thit lp(thi gian ngm l 100s), vi 100 tm film kch
thc 10x48cm c x l trong 1h.
B x film NDT-E.
hn ch cc tc ng c hi ti mi trng, Agfa pht trin cc b x l
"Eco"(sinh thi v kinh t). Trong b x l ny cc thit b v cht ha hc c kt
hp mt cch cn thn, chnh xc m bo tun th cc yu cu sinh thi kht khe nh
ti a 50mg bc trn mi m2 c x l, cho qu trnh x l nc ra film. S lng
bc ny thp hn so vi cc h thng ra film thng thng t nht 15 ln. iu ny t
c thng qua vic ci thin ng k qu trnh hm, kt qu l mt lng ln bc hi
phc c b sung vo. Hn na, cc bin php x l film c thc hin tit kim
nng lng, ha cht v cch dng nc, do lm cho khong sinh thi ca b x l
film thn thin vi mi trng.

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I

Hnh 2.My ra film t ng S-eco

1. Khay cp film.

7. T sy hng ngoi.

2. Thit b qut b mt film.

8. Ca ra film.

3. B thuc ra.

9. Khay nhn film.

4. B gi.

10. My bm thuc hm.

5. B hm(5a-5b).

11. My bm thuc th.

6. B ra cui.

12. Bo v nhit .

V.Kim tra qu trnh ra film v cc thuc tnh lu tr trn film.


Bn cnh k thut phi sng, nhiu kha cnh nh hng n cht lng cui
cng ca film X-quang, mt yu t quan trng nh hng ti l h thng ra film.
Gim st v nh lng ng chc nng ca mt h thng ra film l mt phn thit
yu trong quy trnh qun l cht lng, v d nh mt film X-quang c chiu sng
chnh xc c th b h nu qu trnh x l sau c thc hin khng chnh xc. i

10

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


vi vic gim st qa trnh ra film v tnh cht lu tr trn film X-quang, Agfa a ra
hai phng php: Phng php PMC-trips v Thio-Test.
Hai phng php trn u tun theo tiu chun quc t ISO 11699 v tiu chun
chu u EN 584, trong m t qu trnh ra film chun v cc phng tin kim
sot qu trnh thc hin.
Phng php PCM-trips kim tra qu trnh ra film.
to iu kin kim sot cht lng ang din ra v m bo tun th cc tiu
chun hin hnh v phn loi h thng. PMC-trips c s dng theo di qu trnh
ra film. PMC ngha l iu khin gim st qu trnh x l(Processing Monitoring
Control).
Mc ch ca phng php PMC-trips:
Chng minh s ph hp ca h thng c kim tra ph hp nh m t
trong tiu chun ISO 11699 hoc EN 584.
Gim st v thc y tnh thng nht gia cc h thng ra film.
Bt u qu trnh khc phc kp thi nu xy ra sai lch.
PCM-trips l cc di film c tip xc trc mt cch c quy tc theo quy
nh ca nh cung cp di iu kin c bit v trong phm vi sai hp cho php
nhng cha c ra.
Trong h thng ra film c kim tra, mt PCM-trips c ra thng xuyn
theo cch m mt film X-quang thng thng c ra. Cui cng, s khc nhau v
mt c o bng my o m.
Mi PCM_trips lun phi c s dng bt c khi no cc ha cht trong mt
h thng ra film t ng hoc thng thng c b sung hoc thay th. PMC-trips
nn c s dng thng xuyn mi thng mt ln kim tra thng xuyn h thng
ra film.

11

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I

Hnh 3. Di mu PCM-trips

Tiu chun o m c c hiu chnh:


D0: Vt m v mt c s( 0,3).
D3: Mt bc 3.
D7: Mt bc 7.
Sau , ta thc hin cc tnh ton sau(trong Sr v Cr l cc ch s theo chun
nh km):
Ch s nhy: Sx= D3-D0;
Ch s tng phn: Cx = (D7-D3).Sr/Sx
H thng c chng minh l tiu chun nu p ng tt c cc tiu chun
sau:
Ch s nhy: D0 0,3.
Sx = 10%Sr.
Cr-10% Cx Cr + 15%.
Phng php Thio-Test c s dng kim tra thuc tnh lu tr trn film.
Thuc tnh lu tr ca nh X-quang phi c xc nh ph hp vi tiu chun
ISO v EN bng cch phn tch s lng Thiosulphate cn li trong lp nh tng ca
film. S lng ny ph thuc vo qu trnh hm v ra film.
lu tr khong 100 nm, cho php 100g/m2; trong khong thi gian 10 nm
con s ny tng gp i.

12

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


Thio-Test c pht trin vi Agfa l phng php hu ch v nhanh chng xc
nh c thuc tnh film trong thc t.

Bng 3.Tui th film


Di PCM-trips chiu sng mu c s dng kim tra trong phng php
Thio-Test. thc hin Thio-Test cn chun b:
Mn Thio-Test.
Bnh nh git cha thuc th.
Thuc th gm 1% bc nitrat trong nc khong tinh khit.
Cc bc kim tra:
1. Nh thuc th xung phn cha phi sng, cha ra film, sy kh phim.
2. Ngm thm khong 2 pht 15s.
3. Loi b cht lng d tha vi giy thm.
4. Tip tc kh khong 1 pht trc khi chuyn sang mt sau.
5. Thc hin li cc bc trn i vi mt cn li ca film, ch v tr
yu cu cn chnh xc ti cng v tr vi vt th mt trc.
nh gi php th trong khong thi gian 3 pht:
1. Khu vc th nghim film c t tng phn vi mu trng.
2. Di mu Thio-Test c t ln film, cng gn v tr th cng tt.
3. Bc mu ca qu trnh nm tng t nh mu ca vng th nghim gn
nht c xem nh tui th cui cng c tnh.
Mt Thio-Test thng xuyn c kim th s cung cp cc pht hin sm
nhng thiu st trong qu trnh ra film. V d trong b hm cht hm b kit, cung

13

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


cp thng xuyn hoc khng nc ra v ngn chn film c x l lu tr
km.
VI.Lu tr film.
Cch thc film X-quang c x l v lu tr ng vai tr trong vic gi tnh
cht ca film. Cc film phi c gi trong thi gian di hn thi gian yu cu trong
iu kin tng t mi trng xung quanh nh i vi mt film cha c phi sng
mi. iu kin mi trng lu tr film yu cu:
1. Nhit mi trng xung quanh di 24C.
2. m tng i di 60%.
3. Film nn c xp chng trn cc cnh.

14

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I

NHN THC KHIM KHUYN V CHT LNG NH


Ba yu t chi phi s nhn thc khim khuyt trong mt film X-quang
1. Hiu ng hnh hc.
Kch thc ca ngun.
Khong cch t ngun ti i tng.
Hn ch khong cch ti tm film.
2. Tnh cht film.
Tnh cht ht.
tng phn.
Vt m.
Tnh khng sc nt vn c.
3. Cht lng bc x c s dng.
I.Tnh khng sc nt(tnh nhe).
Nhe hnh hc.
ng tia X v cc ngun phng x lun to ra tia X-quang vi s lng nht nh
cc im m-"nhe hnh hc" Ug nguyn nhn l do kch thc hu hn ca tiu im
hay kch thc ngun.
nhe Ug c tnh theo cng thc:

Ug =
Trong :
S: Kch thc tiu im hiu dng(hoc ngun).
F: Khong cch t tiu im ti film(hoc t ngun ti film).
a: Khong cch t im khim khuyt ti film.
Gi tr ln nht ca Ug lin quan ti mt khuyt im nm khong cch ti a
ti film(a=t) c th c tnh theo cng thc:
Ugmax =

15

(t: dy i tng)

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I

Hnh 4. Nhiu hnh hc


Do , Ug c th gim n bt k gi tr cn thit bng cch tng khong cch t
ngun ti film. Tuy nhin, theo quy lut nghch o khong cch ny c th khng
c tng ln khng gii hn do thi gian pht tia s rt di. Cng thc ch ra rng
nhiu hnh hc gi quan trng hn v quan trng hn na l khong cch gia khuyt
im ti film tng.
Trong trng hp ng tia X tiu im nh so vi tiu c c kch thc t 1050m, nh c th c phng i theo mong mun bng cch s dng khong cch
ngn t ngun pht ti vt mu v khong cch ln t vt mu ti film nhng lun

16

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


m bo gi gi tr Ug chp nhn c. u im ca phng php l phng i i
tng, khi tnh ht lun hin din trong bc nh t hn so vi nhn t gy nhiu.

Hnh 5.Kt qu nh ca khim khuyt trong nhiu hnh hc


Trong hnh cho thy kt qu nhiu hnh hc trn mt khuyt im nh hn kch
thc tiu im. Trong trng hp ny, nhng nh khng sc nt trn hai cnh ca
khim khuyt c th chng cho ln nhau. Kt qu l nh C khng nhng khng sc
nt m cn b suy gim mt phn so vi nh A c thc hin vi mt tiu im ngun
v nh B c thc hin t mt ngun tng i nh.
Nhiu t nhin.
Khng ch c cc tinh th halogen bc trc tip tip xc vi bc x tia X c
hnh thnh vo ht bc m cn c khu vc bao quanh nh tng. Din tch mt ct ny
i din cho nhiu t nhin-nhiu film Uf.

17

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


V vy, ngay c trong trng hp khng c nhiu hnh hc, nu nng lng bc
x cao, nhiu trn film c th xy ra c gi l nhiu t nhin. Nu mt tm thp
th vi dy chuyn i tng ng c chp X-quang vi chm tia X nng lng
cao, s c mt qu trnh chuyn i dn mt ca film qua nh ca cc bc t A>B.
Nu khng c nhiu t nhin, tm film s cho nh chuyn i sc nt gia hai
mt :

Hnh 6.Nhiu t nhin vi tia X v tia gammma.


Thc t mt thay i trn nh trong hnh l ng b,c,d . Chiu rng ca khu
vc chuyn tip -Uf biu din n v mm, l phm vi ca nhiu t nhin ca film.

18

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


Hnh di cho bit cc gi tr thc t c xc nh ca nhiu trn film vn c
cho tm film tip xc cc mc nng lng khc nhau.

Hnh 7. Uf ph thuc mc nng lng ngun bc x


Nhng gi tr ny da trn vic s dng cc b lc v mn hnh tng cng ch
mng, gi tr dy mn nh cao hn mt cht so vi mn hnh sn xut. Nu mn
hnh ch khng c s dng, Uf c gi tr t 1,5-2 ln. Uf b nh hng ch yu bi
cng bc x v cc loi mn hnh tng cng c s dng, loi film hu nh
khng nh hng.
Khong cch gia film v mn hnh tng cng rt quan trng ti gi tr Uf .
Khong cch gia film v mn hnh tng cng c th t c theo yu cu bng
cch ng gi chn khng v mn hnh tng cng cng nhau. Nh vy, Uf tng
mc nng lng bc x Tng nhiu t nhin.cao hn.
Tng nhiu t nhin Ut c xc nh bng cng thc:
Ut =
Nhn chung, nu mt gi tr ca nhiu t nhin(Ug hoc Uf) ln gp 2 ln gi tr
cn li, tng nhiu t nhin bng vi gi tr ln nht, nu c hai gi tr ngang bng
nhau th tng nhiu t nhin c gi tr khong = 1,4 ln mi gi tr.
Nu cn thit, Ug c th c gim bng cch tng khong cch t tiu im ti
film, iu ny ch thc hin c mc hn ch bi v, do nh lut nghch o, khi

19

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


thi gian chiu tia cc k di. cn bng khong cch ti u t ngun pht ti film
l khi Ug = Uf.
II.La chn khong cch t ngun ti film.
c c mt film X-quang sc nt nht c th, hin th c cc chi tit ti
a th tng nhiu t nhin cn c gim ti mc ti thiu. La chn mc nng lng
tia X ph hp cn xc nh r b dy ca i tng vt cht c chp X-quang do nh
hng ti nhiu film t nhin Uf.
Vi mc ch lm cho gi tr Ug = Uf, khong cch t ngun ti film c th
c tnh theo cng thc:
F=
Thay v tnh ton F, ta c th suy ra t biu vi khong cch ngn nht(Fmin).
Hnh di biu din ton c bn ca chun EN 145 vi khong cch ti thiu ti
ngun pht.

Hnh 8.Mi lin h gia Ut vi F


III.nh hng khc vi khong cch t ngun ti film.
Lut nghch o.

20

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


Tc dng ca Ug c gim bng cch tng khong cch t ngun pht ti
film(F).
Mt trong nhng c tnh ca bc x in t l cng ca n t l nghch vi
bnh phng khong cch(lut nghch o).
Cng bc x trn mt n v din tch ca film t l nghch vi bnh
phng khong cch t ngun ti film.

Hnh 9.Quy lut nghch o khong cch


Ti khong cch 2F t ngun, chm tia c din tch b gp 4 ln din tch a c
li F. Do , cng trn mt n v din tch b mt b ch bng 1/4 gi tr ti b mt
a. iu ny c ngha l tt c cc thng s khc khng i, thi gian pht tia ti khong
cch 2F phi nhn ln 4 c c mt cng film.
Nguyn tc ny c nhng hn ch(v kinh t v thc t), khong cch t ngun
ti film c gia tng ln l khng kh thi.
La chn nng lng bc x.

21

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


Mt khi khong cch t ngun ti film c chn thch hp, in p chnh xc
c xc nh t biu pht tia. Tm quan trng ca vic la chn in p thay i
ng k vi phm vi in p c xem xt.Trong chp X-quang gii hn in p
thng l 150 kV hoc nh hn. in p c p dng theo tiu chun quy nh EN.

Bng 4. Gi tr thc nghim gia vt cht mu th vi mc nng lng


La chn ngun gamma.
Do khng th thay i mc nng lng phng x c pht ra bi mt ngun
tia gamma, iu ny cn thit xc nh dy c th c xem xt tha ng vi
mi loi ng v.
Gii hn trn c xc nh bng ln bc x ca ngun v thi gian pht tia
ti c th chp nhn c: gii hn di c xc nh bi s st gim tng phn
v lin quan ti cht lng hnh nh.Do , mc thp hn ph thuc vo mc
cn nhn r khim khuyt. Khi ngun c la chn tc ng khng so vi mong
mun th mt ng v khc cung cp bc x nng lng yu hn s c b sung.
Bng di dy c khuyn dng cho cc ngun gamma khc nhau.Bng c p
dng i vi vt liu thp.
Ch rng, trong mt s trng hp tia gamma c s dng trn mu vt
mng cng c th c coi nh tia X nhng cn hiu rng kt qu chp X-quang s
km hn so vi trng hp chp bng tia X-quang.

22

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I

Bng 5.Mi quan h dy ca thp vi ngun gamma.


IV. cng bc x v tng phn film.
Khi bc x tng cng, dy na gi tr(HVT) cng tng. l l do ti sao
i vi i tng chp c dy khng ng u, tng phn ca nh s gim khi
tnh cng ca tia X tng.

Hnh 10. nh X-quang bc nm in p 150kV-80kV


Pha bn tri ca hnh c pht tia X vi ngun 150V v pha bn phi hnh
c pht tia X vi ngun 80V. Pha bn phi cho thy s tng phn tt hn gia hai
bc nm, trong khi bn tri s thay i tnh tng phn l ln nht.

23

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


V. Tm tt cc yu t nh hng ti cht lng nh.
Cc yu t nh hng ti cht lng nh:
tng phn.
nhe.
Tnh ht.
tng phn ph thuc vo:
Bc x nng lng( cng).
S khc nhau v dy.
Phng v mn sau.
Kt hp gia film v mn.
Tip xc gia film v mn.
V tr khuyt, su cng nh nh hng.
nhe ph thuc vo:
Kch thc tiu im.
dy ca i tng.
Nng lng bc x.
Kt hp film vi mn.
Khong cch gia film v mn.
Tnh ht ph thuc vo:
Loi film.
Loi mn hnh.
Qu trnh x l film.
Nng lng bc x.

24

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I

BIN DNG NH V CHIU DI FILM HU CH.


I.Bin dng nh.
Trong chp X-quang, mt i tng 3 chiu c tri trn mt phng 2 chiu.
S xut hin c i tng v khim khuyt ph thuc vo nh hng ca bc x ti
i tng.

Hnh 11.Bin dnh nh


Hnh trn l nh ca mt khoang kh trong cng mt thi im c th trn hay
ko di ty thuc v nh hng chm tia.
Nhn chung, cc tia bc x nn t vung gc vi tm film v vt mu bt c
khi no trn mt phng t film.
Tuy nhin, trong mt vi trng hp nh gc c bit ng vai tr hu ch.
Hnh di cho thy tnh hung trong pht hin s thiu bn trong ca mi hn ch

25

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


V khng c thc hin ti u. Bc x gc() thch hp hn lm l mi hn b
khuyt.

Hnh 12. Bc x gc
II.Chiu di film hu ch.
Khi chp cc i tng cong, v d nh mi hn trn trong mt ng ng cho
thy nh kt qu s b mo, thay i v mt cng s xy ra. Do s un cong ng
ng c dy t, dy vt liu xuyn c tng ln T, khi mt film s thp hn
hai u so vi gia. Hn na, trong trng hp khuyt tt ca i tng gn im
cui ca film hn, s bin dng ca khuyt tt s tr nn tt hn khi chiu di film
thch hp, do chiu di film b gii hn. c gi l chiu di hu ch, ty thuc
vo tnh cht cng vic c nh ngha trong EN 1435.
K thut kim tra n thnh ng i khi khng khng t c kt qu mong
mun. t c kt qu kim tra 100%, k thut hai thnh ng c thc

26

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


hin.Trong trng hp ny, vi php chiu X-quang s c thc hin vi khong cch
bng nhau xung quanh v tr cn kim tra. S lng tia X-quang ph thuc vo tiu
chun hoc quy lut c tun theo.

Hnh 13. Mo nh do tnh cong ca i tng


Trong quy lut, chiu di film hu ch c xc nh bng t l ca dy thm
c th b ph v trong mi quan h vi dy danh ngha "t" ca ng ng. T l %
l 10, 20 hoc 30 c s dng ph bin, trong 20% l gi tr thc t c la chn
s dng nhiu nht, khi khu vc sng nht ca film s c mt t nht l 2.

27

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


S lng cc tia X-quang cn thit kim tra 100% mi hn c xc nh
thng qua tnh ton theo quy lut. Quy trnh xc nh s lng tia X rt quan trng cho
nh bi v qu nhiu tia X s khng kinh t v ngc li, qu t tia X s dn n khng
m bo cht lng ca quy trnh kim tra.
S lng ti thiu tia X-quang cn thit cho cc ng c ng knh khc nhau
vi dy thnh ng khc nhau ti v tr ngun c xc nh da vo biu di.

Hnh 14.S lng tia X ti thiu vi dy gii hn tng thm 20%.


Biu c p dng cho k thut kim tra mt thnh ng v k thut kim tra
hai thnh ng, ti a dy c tng b ph v l 20% theo chun EN 1435A.
V d: Mt ng tia X vi ng knh ngoi 300mm c s dng kim tra
mt vng trn hn trong mt ng ng ng knh De = 200mm v dy t = 10mm.

28

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I


Khong cch gia tiu im v bn ngoi ng tia:

= 150.

F = na ng knh ng X-quang + De = 150+200 = 350.


t/De = 10/200 = 0,05.
De/F = 200/350 = 0,57.
Giao im ca ta (0,05 v 0,57) trong phm vi n = 5, do s lng tia Xquang ti thiu l 5.

29

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I

DANH MC BNG
Bng 1.Nhit -thi gian ra film b thuc ra ............................................................. 4
Bng 2.Nhit -thi gian ra film b ra cui ............................................................... 6
Bng 3.Tui th film ...................................................................................................... 13
Bng 4. Gi tr thc nghim gia vt cht mu th vi mc nng lng ..................... 22
Bng 5.Mi quan h dy ca thp vi ngun gamma. .............................................. 23

30

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I

DANH MC HNH
Hnh 1.Cu trc ca xoay-m cung.................................................................................. 1
Hnh 2.My ra film t ng S-eco ............................................................................... 10
Hnh 3. Di mu PCM-trips ........................................................................................... 12
Hnh 4. Nhiu hnh hc .................................................................................................. 16
Hnh 5.Kt qu nh ca khim khuyt trong nhiu hnh hc......................................... 17
Hnh 6.Nhiu t nhin vi tia X v tia gammma. .......................................................... 18
Hnh 7. Uf ph thuc mc nng lng ngun bc x .................................................... 19
Hnh 8.Mi lin h gia Ut vi F ................................................................................... 20
Hnh 9.Quy lut nghch o khong cch ...................................................................... 21
Hnh 10. nh X-quang bc nm in p 150kV-80kV ............................................ 23
Hnh 11.Bin dnh nh ................................................................................................... 25
Hnh 12. Bc x gc .................................................................................................... 26
Hnh 13. Mo nh do tnh cong ca i tng .............................................................. 27
Hnh 14.S lng tia X ti thiu vi dy gii hn tng thm 20%. ......................... 28

31

CNG NGH CHUN ON HNH NH I

MC LC
X L V LU TR FILM X-QUANG ....................................................................... 1
I.Phng ti .................................................................................................................... 1
II. Ha cht v quy trnh ra film ................................................................................ 3
III.Khuyn ngh cho cc phng ti............................................................................... 7
IV.X l film t ng. .................................................................................................. 8
V.Kim tra qu trnh ra film v cc thuc tnh lu tr trn film. ............................ 10
VI.Lu tr film. .......................................................................................................... 14
NHN THC KHIM KHUYN V CHT LNG NH .................................... 15
I.Tnh khng sc nt(tnh nhe). ................................................................................ 15
II.La chn khong cch t ngun ti film. .............................................................. 20
III.nh hng khc vi khong cch t ngun ti film. ........................................... 20
IV. cng bc x v tng phn film. ............................................................... 23
V. Tm tt cc yu t nh hng ti cht lng nh. ................................................ 24
BIN DNG NH V CHIU DI FILM HU CH. ............................................... 25
I.Bin dng nh. ......................................................................................................... 25
II.Chiu di film hu ch. ........................................................................................... 26
DANH MC BNG ...................................................................................................... 30
DANH MC HNH ....................................................................................................... 31
MC LC ...................................................................................................................... 32

32