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2
Resistencia y Propulsion del Buque
Objetivos
Prediccin de la energa del barco
- Sistema de transmisin de la potencia del motor en el agua y el
concepto
- La resistencia del buque y sus componentes
Resistencia a la friccin
Resistencia por formacin de olas y remolinos
otros
- La expansin Froude
- Clculo de la potencia del efectivo
Teora Propela
- Componentes de hlice y definiciones
- Teora de la hlice
- cavitacin
3
Potencia de una Instalacin Propulsora
Sistema de transmisin del Buque
Motor
Caja
reductora
Chumacera
de empuje
Sello
Helice
Strut
BHP SHP DHP
THP
EHP
IHP
4
Motor
Caja
reductora
Chumacera
de empuje
Sello
s
Helice
Strut
SHP
DHP
THP
IHP
EHP
BHP
Potencia Indicada (IHP)
- Potencia que efectua la mquina en el interior de los
cilindros
Potencia de Mquinas
Potencia de una Instalacin Propulsora
Potencia al Freno(BHP)
- Potencia de salida en el eje que sale del motor antes
los engranajes de reduccin. Potencia real de la mquina
Motor
Caja
reductora
Chumacera
de empuje
Sello
s
Helice
Strut
SHP DHP
THP
BHP
EHP
IHP
Potencia de Mquinas
Potencia de una Instalacin Propulsora
5
6
Engine
Reduction
Gear
Bearing
Seals
Screw
Strut
BHP
SHP
DHP
THP
EHP
Potencia en el Eje(SHP)
- Potencia de salida despus de los reductores
- SHP = BHP - prdidas de engranaje de reduccin
IHP
Potencia de Mquinas
Potencia de una Instalacin Propulsora
7
Engine
Reduction
Gear
Bearing
Seals
Screw
Strut
BHP
SHP
DHP
THP
EHP
IHP
Potencia de Mquinas
Potencia de una Instalacin Propulsora
Potencia Entregada(DHP)
- Entrega de potencia a la hlice
- DHP = SHP - Prdidas en ejes, cojinetes y sellos
8
Potencia de Mquinas
Potencia de una Instalacin Propulsora
Engine
Reduction
Gear
Bearing
Seals
Screw
Strut
BHP
SHP
DHP
THP
EHP
Potencia de Empuje del Propulsor (THP)
- Energa creada por el tornillo / hlice
- THP = DHP - Prdidas de hlice
THP es el resultado final de todas las prdidas de HP a lo largo de
la cadena cinemtica
Relative Magnitudes
BHP > SHP > DHP > THP > EHP
E/G R/G
BHP SHP
Shaft
Bearing
Prop.
DHP THP
EHP
Hull
La relacin inversa NUNCA puede ser verdad porque no
SIEMPRE hay cierta prdida de potencia debido al calor, la
friccin, y el sonido
Potencia de una Instalacin Propulsora
9
10
Potencia Efectiva(EHP)
V
Tanque de Remolque
Carro de Remolque
Measured EHP
EHP: La potencia necesaria para mover el casco del barco en un
momento dado velocidad en ausencia de accin hlice
EHP no est relacionado con el sistema de tren de potencia
EHP puede determinarse a partir de los experimentos en el tanque de
remolque a distintas velocidades de la nave modelo.

EHP del modelo de barco se convierte en EHP de la escala completa
derminada por la ley de Froude.
11
0
200
400
600
800
1000
E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e

H
o
r
s
e
p
o
w
e
r
,

E
H
P

(
H
P
)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Ship Speed, Vs (Knots)
POWER CURVE
YARD PATROL CRAFT
Curva tpica de EHP YP
La EHP requerida variar dependiendo de la velocidad del barco
Potencia Efectiva(EHP)
12
La prdida de HP a lo largo de la cadena cinemtica se puede
relacionar en trminos de
Potencia Efectiva(EHP)
RENDIMIENTO, o q
1. Efeciencia de Engranajes
q
gear
= SHP
BHP
Potencia en el Eje
Potencia al Freno
Destaca la prdida de potencia desde el motor hasta el eje, como resultado
de los engranajes de reduccin

SHP es siempre menor que BHP
Eficiencia
13
2. Eficiencia en el eje de transmisin
q
shaft
= DHP
SHP
- La prdida de potencia de los engranajes de reduccin de la hlice
debido a la rodamientos y sellos que apoyan y sellan el eje de
transmisin

- La prdida de la energa se convierte en calor y el sonido debido a la
friccin

Potencia Entregada
Potencia en el Eje
Potencia Efectiva(EHP)
14
Potencia Efectiva(EHP)
Eficiencia del Casco
THP
EHP
H
= q
- La eficiencia del Casco cambia debido a las interacciones del casco -hlice.
- Barco bien diseado:
- Barco mal diseado:
1
H
q
1
H
q
Well-designed
Poorly-designed
- Flujo no es suave.
- THP se reduce.
- Se necesita alta THP
para una velocidad de diseo

Potencia Efectiva
Potencia de Empuje
- Relaciona el empuje HP requerido de la hlice al HP efectiva necesaria para
remolcar el barco a travs del agua
- La prdida de poder ser una funcin del diseo del casco
15
Screw
Potencia Efectiva(EHP)
Eficiencia de la Helice

DHP
THP
propeller
= q
SHP
DHP
THP
EHP
Combina las prdidas debido a los rodamientos, guas, y la eficiencia de la
hlice
Compara la salida de los engranajes de reduccin para el remolque HP requerida
Comnmente rangos de 55 a 75%
Una vez que HP se encuentra, puede probar diferentes centrales elctricas,
engranajes, y la eficiencia de combustible
16
Potencia Efectiva(EHP)
Coeficiente de Propulsion (PC)
SHP
EHP
p
= q
0,65 a 0,60 helice) (1 0,60, a 0,55 helices) (2 carga
0,65 a 0,60 helice) (1 0,55, a 0,50 helices) (2 ico Trasatlnt
propeller designed for well 0.6
p
= =
= =
~
Coeficiente de propulsin o rendimiento general de la instalacin,
que es el producto del rendimiento mecnico por el
rendimiento a la transmisin de la lnea de eje por el
rendimiento de propulsin ( helice) por el rendimiento de
carena
Tomando los valores medios el valor de Kp = es variable
para cada tipo de maquina y velocidad.
IHP
BHP
m
= q
p t m
q q q , ,
i
q
SHP
DHP
BHP
SHP
t
= = q
17
Ejemplo:

Ensayo con modelo ha determinado que un buque tiene un
EHP de 30.000 HP a una velocidad de 19 nudos. Asumiendo
una eficiencia de propulsin de 70%, lo SHP se requiere para
ser instalado para alcanzar 19 nudos?
Potencia Efectiva(EHP)
SHP
EHP
p
= q
Ejemplo:

A travs de modelos de diseo de un barco, se encuentra que el
remolque caballos de fuerza requerida para mantener una velocidad
de 20 nudos es 23.500 HP. Suponiendo una eficiencia de propulsin
del 68%, cul es la potencia requerida esperada de los engranajes de
reduccin (caballos de fuerza del eje)?
18
Resistencia al Avance
Resistencia Total del Casco(R
T
)
La fuerza que experimenta el buque, opuesta al movimiento de
del mismo mientras se mueve.
Clculo EHP
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
P
S T
P
s H
f t lb
s
f t
V (lb) R
) EHP(H
550
buque del velocidad V
casco al total a resistenci
S
=
=
T
R
( )
P
S T
H atts
Watts
s
J
s
f t lb
s
f t
lb V R
550 / 1 W 1
:
=
= =

=
|
.
|

\
|
Power
19
Potencia Efectiva(EHP)
Tipo de buque Velocidad
M
Eslora
m
Desplazamiento
Tm
rea Secc.
Maestra
m2
C
Rpido 17 10 17480 138 236
Pasaje 11 131 12400 115 204
Carga 11 105 7985 90 214
Carga 10,5 98 4590 83 264
Valores aproximado de las constante para hallar la potencia indicada
20
Consumo de Combustible es:
Maquinas propulsoras
Alternativas. consumo.280 a 300 gr/BHP
Motores diesel grandes a medianoconsumo155 a
165 gr/BHP
Turbinas a vapor grandes a medianasconsumo160
gr / BHP

Capacidad de Volumen de Combustibles y Autonoma:
Combustible a base de carbn, Volumen = 1 Autonoma
=1
Combustible Diesel o Fuel-oil, Volumen 0,33
Autonoma=4
Combustible Fuel-oil caldera, volumen 0,33 y
Autonoma 2,75

Potencia Efectiva(EHP)
21
Ejemplo .

La potencia indica del buque tipo E, cargado hasta la lina de
verano, para la velocidad de 14 nudos IHP=4500 CV. El
rendimiento mecnico orgnico de la mquina es de 80%, la
perdida en la lnea de ejes es del 4% y el coeficiente propulsivo
es el 60%. Se pide:
a. La resistencia total del buque a la marcha
b. Potencia al freno y potencia en el eje PHP
c. Cul es el coeficiente de almirantazgo para la potencia
indicada y efectiva.
d. Si el consumo horario es 165 gr/BHP/hora, cuntas
toneladas de combustible deben embarcarse para navegar
2000 millas con un margen del 20% de reserva.
e. Cual es la Autonoma del buque en combustible embarcado

Potencia Efectiva(EHP)
22
3. Dado los siguientes datos:
L=9 m
D=1,5m
T=0,76m
B=3 m
Curvas Hibrostaticas
Desp= 7,978 tm
Vs=7,775 m3
Cb= 0,398
V=18 nudos
Buque de 1 helice, con caja reductora

Calcular la EHP ,Rt, los rendimientos de la cadena cinemtica
del sistema de propulsin, IHP, BHP,SHP,DHP




Potencia Efectiva(EHP)
23
Resistencia al Avance (cont)
Coeficiente de Resistencia total del casco
- Valor adimensional de resistencia total

5 . 0
2
S V
R
C
s
T
T

=
sumergido casco del mojada superficie la de area
Buque del Velocidad
Fluido del Densidad
casco del total as Resistenci
casco del total a Resistenci de e Coeficient
=
=
=
=
=
S
V
R
C
S
T
T

dimension - non
lb

2
2
4
2
:
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

f t
s
f t
f t
s lb
24
Resistencia al Avance(cont)
Coeficiente de Resistencia total del casco (cont)
-Resistencia Total del buque a escala completa se puede
determinar usando

S T
V S C , , and
T S T
C SV lb R =
2
5 . 0 ) (
completa escala a buque del velocidad
forma de curvas de partir a obtenido
agua del s propiedade de tabala la en disponible
modelo del prueba la por o determinad
:
:
:
:
S
T
V
S
C

25
Resistencia al Avance (cont)
Relacin del coeficiente de resistencia total y la velocidad
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
T
o
t
a
l

R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
,

R
t

(
l
b
)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Ship Speed, Vs (knots)
TOTAL RESISTANCE CURVE
YARD PATROL CRAFT
alta velocidad a 5 a
baja velocidad a 2

2
=

~
n
V
V C R
n
S
S T T
alta velocidad a 6
baja velocidad a 3

2
=

~ ~
n
V
V V C V R EHP
n
S
S S T S T
26
Componentes de la Resistencia Total
Resistencia total
A W V T
R R R R + + =
d Viscocida la a a Resistenci : R
V
Ola la de a Resistenci : R
W
Aire al a Resistenci : R
A
Resistencia a la Viscosidad
- Resistencia debido a la viscocidad que ejerce el fluido sobre
el casco. (Debido a la friccin del agua contra la superficie del
buque)
- Viscosidad, la velocidad del barco, la superficie mojada del
barco generalmente afectar a la resistencia viscosa.
27
Components of Total Resistance
Resistencia de la Ola
- Resistencia causada por las olas generadas por el movimiento
de la nave
- La resistencia de la Ola afectada por la relacin manga-eslora,
desplazamiento, la forma del casco, el nmero de Froude (Eslora y
velocidad)
Resistencia del aire
- Resistencia causada por el flujo de aire sobre el buque sin
viento presente.
- La resistencia del aire afectada por el rea proyectada, la
forma del buque por encima de la lnea de agua, velocidad y
direccin del viento.
- Tpicamente 4 ~ 8% de la resistencia total
28
Components of Total Hull Resistance
La resistencia total y la magnitud relativa de los componentes
- Velocidad baja: Viscocidad R
- Alta Velocidad: Formacin de Olas R
- Hump (Hollow) : Ubicacin es en funcin de la Eslora y velocidad
del barco.
Viscocidad
Resistencia al Aire
Formacion de Olas
Speed (kts)
Hump
Hollow
29
Why is a Golf Ball Dimpled?
Lets look at a Baseball (because thats what I have
numbers for)
At the velocities of 50 to 130 mph dominant in baseball the air
passes over a smooth ball in a highly resistant flow.
Turbulent flow does not occur until nearly 200 mph for a smooth
ball
A rough ball (say one with raised stitches like a baseball) induces
turbulent flow





A baseball batted 400 feet would only travel 300 feet if it was
smooth.
A non-dimpled golf ball would really hamper Tiger Woods long
game
30
Coefficient of Viscous Resistance
Viscous Flow around a ship
Real ship : Turbulent flow exists near the bow.
Model ship : Studs or sand strips are attached at the bow
to create the turbulent flow.
31
Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)
Coefficients of Viscous Resistance
- Non-dimensional quantity of viscous resistance
- It consists of tangential and normal components.
F F
KC C + = + =
normal tangential V
C C C
Tangential Component :
- Tangential stress is parallel to ships hull and causes
a net force opposing the motion ; Skin Friction
- It is assumed can be obtained from the experimental
data of flat plate.

F
C
flow
ship
bow
stern
F
C
32
Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)
v
S
n
n
F
F V
LV
R
R
C
C C
=

=
=

) 2 (log
075 . 0


2
10
of Component Tangential
Semi-empirical
equation
water salt for
water fresh for






/s ft 10 1.2791
/s ft 10 1.2260
/s) (ft Viscosity Kinematic
) Speed(ft/s Ship
(ft) L
Number Reynolds
2 5 -
2 5 -
2
pp
=
=
=
=
=
=
v
S
n
V
L
R
33
Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)
Tangential Component (contd)
- Relation between viscous flow and Reynolds number
Laminar flow : I n laminar flow, the fluid flows in layers
in an orderly fashion. The layers do not mix transversely
but slide over one another.
Turbulent flow : I n turbulent flow, the flow is chaotic and
mixed transversely.
Laminar Flow
Turbulent Flow
Flow over
flat plate
5
10 5 < about R
n
5
10 5 > about R
n
34
Normal Component
- Normal component causes a pressure distribution along the
underwater hull form of ship
- A high pressure is formed in the forward direction opposing
the motion and a lower pressure is formed aft.
- Normal component generates the eddy behind the hull.
- It is affected by hull shape.
Fuller shape ship has larger normal component than slender
ship.
Full ship
Slender ship
large eddy
Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)
small eddy
35
Normal Component (contd)
- It is calculated by the product of Skin Friction with Form Factor.
2
3
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) (ft
19 K
K


|
|
.
|

\
| V
=
=
=
=
f t L
f t B
f t T f t B f t L
C
C K C
F
F v
Factor Form
Coeff. Friction Skin
of Component Normal
Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)
36
2
3
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) (ft
19 K
|
|
.
|

\
| V
=
f t L
f t B
f t T f t B f t L
F F
C K C + = + =
normal tangential V
C C C
2
10
) 2 (log
075 . 0

=
n
F
R
C
Summary of Viscous Resistance Coefficient
water salt for
water fresh for


/s ft 10 1.2791
/s ft 10 1.2260
/s) (ft Viscosity Kinematic
) Speed(ft/s Ship
(ft) L
Number Reynolds
2 5 -
2 5 -
2
pp
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
v
v
S
n
S
n
V
L
R
LV
R K= Form Factor
37
Reducing the Viscous Resistance Coeff.
- Method :
I ncrease L while keeping the submerged volume constant
1) Form Factor K + Normal component KC
F
+
Slender hull is favorable. ( Slender hull form will create
a smaller pressure difference between bow and stern.)
2) Reynolds No. Rn | CF + KC
F
+

Summary of Viscous Resistance Coefficient
38
Wave-Making Resistance
Typical Wave Pattern
Bow divergent wave Bow divergent wave
Transverse wave
L
Wave Length
Stern divergent wave
39
40
Wave-Making Resistance
Transverse wave System
It travels at approximately the same speed as the ship.
At slow speed, several crests exist along the ship length
because the wave lengths are smaller than the ship length.
As the ship speeds up, the length of the transverse wave
increases.
When the transverse wave length approaches the ship length,
the wave making resistance increases very rapidly.
This is the main reason for the dramatic increase in
Total Resistance as speed increases.
41
Wave-Making Resistance (cont)
Transverse wave System
Wave Length
Wave
Length
Slow
Speed
High
Speed


Vs < Hull Speed
Vs ~ Hull Speed
Hull Speed : speed at which the transverse wave length equals
the ship length.
(Wavemaking resistance drastically increases above hull speed)
42
Divergent Wave System
It consists of Bow and Stern Waves.
Interaction of the bow and stern waves create the Hollow or
Hump on the resistance curve.
Hump : When the bow and stern waves are in phase,
the crests are added up so that larger divergent wave systems
are generated.
Hollow : When the bow and stern waves are out of phase,
the crests matches the trough so that smaller divergent wave
systems are generated.
Wave-Making Resistance (cont)
43
Calculation of Wave-Making Resistance Coeff.
Wave-making resistance is affected by
- beam to length ratio
- displacement
- hull shape
- Froude number
The calculation of the coefficient is far difficult and inaccurate
from any theoretical or empirical equation.
(Because mathematical modeling of the flow around ship
is very complex since there exists fluid-air boundary,
wave-body interaction)
Therefore model test in the towing tank and Froude expansion
are needed to calculate the Cw of the real ship.
Wave-Making Resistance (cont)
44
Reducing Wave Making Resistance
1) I ncreasing ship length to reduce the transverse wave
- Hull speed will increase.
- Therefore increment of wave-making resistance of longer
ship will be small until the ship reaches to the hull speed.
- EX :
FFG7 : ship length 408 ft Which ship requires more
hull speed 27 KTS horse power at 35 KTS?
CVN65 : ship length 1040 ft
hull speed 43 KTS
Wave-Making Resistance (cont)
45
Reducing Wave Making Resistance (contd)
2) Attaching Bulbous Bow to reduce the bow divergent wave
- Bulbous bow generates the second bow waves .
- Then the waves interact with the bow wave resulting in
ideally no waves, practically smaller bow divergent waves.
- EX :
DDG 51 : 7 % reduction in fuel consumption at cruise speed
3% reduction at max speed.
design &retrofit cost : less than $30 million
life cycle fuel cost saving for all the ship : $250 mil.
Tankers & Containers : adopting the Bulbous bow
Wave-Making Resistance (cont)
46
Bulbous Bow
Wave-Making Resistance (cont)
47
Coefficient of Total Resistance
Allowance n Correlatio
1
: C
C C K) ( C
C C C C
A
A W F
A W V T
+ + + =
+ + =
Coefficient of total hull resistance
Correlation Allowance
It accounts for hull resistance due to surface roughness,
paint roughness, corrosion, and fouling of the hull surface.
It is only used when a full-scale ship prediction of EHP is made
from model test results.
For model,
For ship, empirical formulas can be used.
. 0 smooth is surface model Since =
A
C
48
Other Type of Resistances
Appendage Resistance
- Frictional resistance caused by the underwater appendages
such as rudder, propeller shaft, bilge keels and struts
- 2~24% of the total resistance in naval ship.
Steering Resistance
- Resistance caused by the rudder motion.
- Small in warships but troublesome in sail boats
Added Resistance
- Resistance due to sea waves which will cause the ship
motions (pitching, rolling, heaving, yawing).

49
Other Resistances
Increased Resistance in Shallow Water
- Resistance caused by shallow water effect
- Flow velocities under the hull increases in shallow water.
: Increment of frictional resistance due to the velocities
: Pressure drop, suction, increment of wetted surface area
Increases frictional resistance
- The waves created in shallow water take more energy from
the ship than they do in deep water for the same speed.
Increases wave making resistance
50
Basic Theory Behind Ship Modeling
Modeling a ship
- It is not possible to measure the resistance of the full-scale ship
- The ship needs to be scaled down to test in the tank but
the scaled ship (model) must behave in exactly same way
as the real ship.
- How do we scale the prototype ship ?
- Geometric and Dynamic similarity must be achieved.
?
Dimension
Speed
Force
prototype
Model
prototype ship
model ship
51
Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling
Geometric Similarity
- Geometric similarity exists between model and
prototype if the ratios of all characteristic dimensions
in model and prototype are equal.
- The ratio of the ship length to the model length is typically
used to define the scale factor.
Volume :
Area :
:






Factor Scale
3
3
3
2
2
2
) (f t
) (f t
) (f t S
) (f t S
(f t) L
(f t) L

M
S
M
S
M
S
V
V
=
=
=
=

Length
Model M
shi scale full S
:
p :
52
Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling
Dynamic Similarity
- Dynamic Similarity exists between model and prototype
if the ratios of all forces in model and prototype are the
same.
- Total Resistance : Frictional Resistance+ Wave Making+Others
S
M
S M
M
S
S
M
S M
M
M
S
S
M
M M
S
S S
nM nS nM nS
n W n V
L
L
V V
L
L
v
v
V V
gL
V
gL
V
v
V L
v
V L
F F R R
F f C R f C
= =
= =
= =
= =
,
,

) ( ), (
,
53
Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling
Dynamic Similarity (contd)
- Both Geometric and Dynamic similarity cannot be achieved
at same time in the model test because making both Rn and
Fn the same for the model and ship is not physically possible.
) ( 1
100
10
) ( 10

kts
f t
f t
kts
L
L
V V
S
M
S M
=
=
=
) ( 100
) (assume
10
100
) ( 10
kts
v v
f t
f t
kts
L
L
v
v
V V
S M
M
S
S
M
S M
=
= =
=
Example
Ship Length=100ft, Ship Speed=10kts, Model Length=10ft
Model speed to satisfy both geometric and dynamic similitude?
54
Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling
Dynamic Similarity (contd)
- Choice ?
Make Fn the same for the model.
Have Rn different
Incomplete dynamic similarity
- However partial dynamic similarity can be achieved by
towing the model at the corresponding speed
- Due to the partial dynamic similarity, the following
relations in forces are established.
WS WM
C C =
VS VM
C C =
55
Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling
Corresponding Speeds
M
M
S
S
nM nS
gL
V
gL
V
F F = = ,
- Example :
Ship length = 200 ft, Model length : 10 ft
Ship speed = 20 kts, Model speed towed ?
kts kts V
L L
V
L
L
V V
S
M S
S
S
M
S M
47 . 4
20
1
20
1

/
1
= = =
= =

(ft) L
(ft/s) V
(ft) L
(ft/s) V
M
M
S
S
=
1kt.=1.688 ft/s
56
Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling
Modeling Summary
A W F A W V T
C C K C C C C C + + + = + + = ) 1 (
AM WM M FM TM
C C K C C + + + = ) 1 (
) 5 . 0 * (
550
) (
) 1 (
2
s S S TS TS
S TS
AS WS S FS TS
V S C R
V R
hp EHP
C C K C C
=

=
+ + + =
AM FM TM WM
C K C C C + =

) 1 (
Froude
Expansion
Measured in tank
) calculated or (given, 0
smooth) is Model ( 0
) given or Calculated . factor scale to due (
d) (calculate ,
) / / V , (
S
=
=
=
= = =
AS
AM
M S
FS FM
M M S nM nS WM WS
C
C
K K
C C
gL V gL F F C C

1)
2)
3)