Está en la página 1de 79

.

)32/: (

. :
-1 Cognitive Operations


.
.
"
" ) ( Meeker, 1969
" " ) ).( Feuerstein, 1980
(
-2 Metacognitive Operations


.
Thinking about Thinking

" " ) ( Lipman, 1991 "
"). (
-3 Languaga and Symbolic Manipulation

.


" " ) .( Caillot, 1991
) (
-4 Heuristic Oriented Learning



). (
:
. .
" " Covington
( et al, 1974
). (
-5 Formal Thinking
.



.
1


). (
:
)33/ 1-1 (

-1 Osborn's Creative Problem Solving
-2 Tabas Thinking Skills
-3 (Guilford's Structure of Intellect ( SOLI
-4 ( de Bonos Congnitive Research Trust ( CoRT
-5 Williams Cognitive-Affective
Interactive Program
Lipmans Philosophy for
-6
Children
-7 Feuersteins Instructional
Enrichment Program


"
"). (
de Bono Thinking Program
)( CoRT ) :/34 (



).( ( De Bono, 1984, 1986
(

: )34/: (
CoRT
Cognitive Research Trust :
-1
.

). (

-2

). (
-3

). (
-4
).
(
-5
). (
-6
). (
-7
). (

-8 45


45). (
-9
). (
-10
). (
: )35/: (
" " CoRT

35 .
8 22 .
:
: )35/: (


.
). (
:)35/: (

). (
:)35/: (
). (
:)35/: (
).
(
: )35/: (
). (
:)36/: (

). (

:
: ))PMI):/36
(
) ( PIus, Minus, & Interest

). (
: ))CAF):/36 (
) ( Consider ALL Factors

). (
: )Rules :/36 (
) PMI .( CAF
) (
: ))C&S):/36 (
) ( Consequences & Sequel


). (
: ))AGO):/36 (
) ( Aims, Goals, & Objectives
).
(
: ))Planning):/36 (
) ( AGO ) C
).( & S (
: ))FIP)36 (
) ( FIsrst Important Priorties
.
) (
: ) )APC ):/37
(
) ( Alternatives, Possibilities, & Choices

). (
: ) )Decisions ):/37 (
) (APC ) (FIP ).
(
: ))OPV):/37 (
) ( Other Point of View


). (
)43/: (


: .
.

) ( Barell, 1991 .
) (




.

:
Analytical Thinking
/
Holistic Thinking
Concrete
Abstract Thinking
Thinking
Creative Thinking
Effective Thinking
Deductive
Inductive
Thinking
Thinking
Divergent Thinking
Convergent

Thinking
Critical Thinking
Productive Thinking

Impulsive Thinking
Ineffective
Thinking
Logical Thinking
Metacognitive
Thinking
Scientific Thinking

Leteral Thinking
Reflective Thinking
/ Practical
Thinking
Mathematical
Thinking
Cognitive Thinking

Verbal Thinking

/ Vertical
Thinking
:
-1 ) (
) (
). (
-2 ). (
-3 ) ().
(

:

Metacognitive

Cognitive

)Metacognitive Thinking:/51 (

: )51/: (
"


) ;Brown & DeLoache, 1978; Butterfield & Belmont, `977
( Flavell, 1979

.





).
(

"
" . :



)
Sternberg, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1992

) ( Flavell & Wellman 1977
) ( Bruer, 1995

) ( Resnick, 1987; Ryle, 1979

" "

"
"
:
"



"). (
) ( Sternberg, 1985
.
:
Meta-Ccomponents
Performance Components
Knowledge Acquisiton Components



) (Flavell, 1979
" "
" " White Collar Process-es
) " Blue Col-
Iar Processes
) .( Sternberg, 1988



). (
: )53/: (
" "

.


.
:
-1


.
) (
-2
.
[


) Beown, Campione, & Day, 1981; Sternberg, 1984
( .



). (

.



.
.



) .( Barell, 1991; Brown, 1989
) (
)54/: (


.
:
-1 )54/: (
Defining Problems
:Setting Goals
-2 )54/: (
:Observing

:Questioning

-3 )54/: (
:Encoding
:Recalling
) ( Gallagher & Courtright, 1986
:
-1

). (
-2
. :
.
)
( Freeman, 1991

) Gardner,
).( 1993 (

) .( Bloom et al, 1956

). (
-4 )55/: (
:Comparing
:Classifying

:Ordering

-5 )55/: (
:Indentifying Attributes and Components

:Identifying Relationship and Patterns

-6 /)55/: (
:Inferring

:Predicting

:Elaborating

:Resenting
) (
-7 )56/: (
:Summarizing

Restructuring

-8 )56/: (
:Establishing Criteria

:Verifying
:Identifying Errors


)56/: (



. ( ( Stern-berg, 1985, 1988
: .
) (

:
-1 )Planning:/57 (






-2 )Monitoring & Controlling:/57 (







-3 )Assessment:/57 (





2-2
.
Bloom
:

). (
)58 /2-2 (


.

.


). (
)58/: (
) ( Bloom et al, 1956


.



.
/ ).
(

10



.


.
-
.
2-2

). (






). (
)60/ 2-2 (





/

-1





-2














-3


-4



11

-5





-6









) ( Bloom, et al, 1956
) (
" " .
:
.
:








12




.
). (
2-3



). (
)62/ 2-3 (

)65/: (
" " ) (
) ( 425 " "
) ( ) 1985

13

.( 982 :
). (


.
) ( " :
" ) Dewey, 1982
( . )
( Meyer, 1991 :




) ( Isaksen & Treffinger, 1985 ) Feldhusen,
).( 1989 (
Critical
Criti-cus Kritikos
). (


.

. De
( Bono, 1994 " :

:
" .



). (


" "
.
:



) & Davis
).( Rimm, 1989 (

:
) & Moore, McCann,
( McCann, 1985

) ( Udall & Daniels, 1991

14



) ( En-nis, 1985

)
( Polette, 1982


) ( Lipman, 1991


:

-1

). (
) ( Ennis, 1962

" :
"
" : " .




. ) ( Beyer, 1985
:













.

). (
-2 .
) (
-3
). (
-4
). (
15

)68/: (



) ( Ennis, 1962, 1985; Har-nadek, 1976



" " "
"














:
:

:




). (
) ( Harnadek, 1976, 1979



.
.

.

.

.


.

16

) ( Meyer, 1991
:
-1
). (
-2 :



)70/: (


:













) ( Ennis, 1985
:
-1 ). (
-2 ). (
-3 ). (
) ( Udall & Danies, 1991
:
-1 ). Inductive Thinking Skills (


.

" :
"

). (


.
" "

17

.
) (


.

.
.


.


.
:

-1

). (
-2
.


). (

.

.

.



). (

:

Open-Ended
Analogical Reasoning

.



.

. :
-1 )73/:
(

18


.


). (
-2 /:
)74 (
:
29 33 11 15 5 9 3
- )74/:
(
.
)
( :
)3/74-1 (

)(1

)(

)(2

)(

)(3

)(4

) (

)(

)74/: (
Nine-Dot Problem -3-2-
Insightful Problems
.



) ).( Weisberg, 1993 (
3-2- - )75/ (

19



.


.

3-2: 3-2- )75/ (

-2 )Deductive Thinking Skills :/75


(


.

.

. :
/
.


.



.

.

.

). (


.

20


:
/
) (
.

) (
.

) (
.



.

).
(

Hypothetical Syllogism
.
) (
:
- :
/
.

-
:
/
.

.
:
-
:

.

). (
-2
:

/
.

.
21

.

). (

.
:
/
.

.

.
). (




.
:




-3 )Evaluative Thinking Skills:/79 (

. ) ( Meeker, 1969
" "
.

Guilford
Structure of Intellect )
( Meeker, 1969 ) Feldhusen, Houtz
( & Ringenbach, 1972 ) .( Runco & Smith, 1992
) (
:
- /:
)79 (





). (
- )79/: (

22


:








). (
-
)80/: (



)80/: (



.

.



.


. ) & Elder
( Paul, 1996 :
-1 )Clarity:/81 (

.

.

. :



" " ....
-2 )Accuracy:/81 (
.
" :
"

23

.
:




-3 )Precision:/81 (

.
" "
.
. "
" " "
). (
:
) :
(" "1

) .( 1992
) (
:
) (

) (.

) (
-4 )Relevance:/82 (

.


:



.
) (
-5 )Depth:/82 (

.
) (

. "
"


). (
-6 )Breadth:/83 (

24


.
:



-7 )Logic:/83 (
.
" "
. " "

.
:



)83/: (

.

.
" "
" " Productive " "
Divergent " " ) Lateral).( 1998 (
)84/: (

) ( Tor-rance, 1966 ) ( Guilford, 1967
:

: )Fluency:/84 (


.
.
.
:
- )84/:: (
" "
" "
" :
"
"
"
-3 )84:: (
" "

..

48
25

- )84/: (

:

:
)3/85-3 (

:)85/: (

.

). (
:
.
:


).
(
: )Originality:/85 (


.
:



.
). (
: )Elaboration:/86 (

26


). (
: )Sensitivity to Problems:/86 (

). (

.

.

" :
" " ) ..
(

"). (
)86/: (

.


.
) ( Isaksen & Treffinger, 1985
:

: )87/: (
-1 :

). (
-2 :Conformity

). (
-5 :


). (
-8 :Saturation

. Incubation
). (
- :

.Habit-Bound Thinking
) .( Isaksen & Treffinger, 1985


) .( 3-4

.

). (
)3/88-4 (

27

) ( Birch & Rabinowitz, 1951, pp. 121-125


:
.


.
. )
).( 3-5 (
)3/88-5 (


.

.
). (


) ( Duncker, 1945

" " " " ).Functional Fixed-ness
(
-27 )89/: (

.
28



). (
-11 )89/: (


.

.

.
). (
.

). (
-6 )89/: (


. " :
" " ".
) (
: )90/: (

. :
- )90/: (



:



- )90/: (

.
.
).
(
- )90/: (

. [

).
(
)91/: (



). (
29


.
:


Divergent
Convergent

Creative Breakthrough
.

.
.

). (
)95/: (
" "


.
) ( Krulih & Rudnick, 1980 " "



.
) ( Schunk, 1991
" "
). (
)100/: (

.


.

:
-1
) (
). (
-2 ).
(

30

-5
). (
-8 ). (
- ).

(
) ( Sternberg, 1992 "
"


.
" " :
-1 ). (
-2 ). (
-3
). (
-4 ). (
-5 ). (
-6 ). (
-7
). (
-8
). (
) ( Hayes, 1981
:
-1 )101/: (






-2 )101/:
(



-3 )102/: (

:





-4 )102/: (

31



-5 )102/: (


-6 ) ( :


)102/: (
) ( Whimbey & Lochhead, 1982
.

.

.
:
-1 )103/: (

.


).
(
-2 )103/: (


.
) (
-3 )103/: (


). (
-4 )103/: (


.

). (
-5 )103/: (




). (

:

32

)104/: (

:
-1 : .
) (
-2 : .
) (
-5 :

). (
:
)4/104-1 (

)(1

)(2

)(1

)(3

)(2

)(3

) : ()104/: (
)(1




) ()105/: (

) ()105/: (
) (1 )(3
)105/: (

. ) ( Reitman, 1965

:

-1 /:
)105 (
120
" 5 8 3
"

. " " "


" " " "
" "
" ) 4 (
" "

33

-2
)105/: (
200


.

).
(

.

-3
)106/: (

" :

"). (
-4 )106/:
(



). (
-5 :Insightful Problems



)106/: (
4-2 .

)4/106-2 (

10 5
4
4
.
.
15

:
-1
). (

34

-2
). (
-5
). (
-8
). (
-

). (
) ( Greeno, 1978
) ( Greeno & Simon, 1988
:
-1 Transformation :




).Reitman (
-2 Arrangement )107/: (



)
( ) (
-3 Inductive )107/: (




) (
-4 Deductive )108/: (



) (
)108/: (
) ( Whimbey & Lochhead, 1982
:
-1 )108/: (






-2 )108/: (

35









-3 )109/: (








.
) (
-4 )109/: (





-5 )109/: (

)Greayive Problem Solving:/109 (

.


.
) ( Osborn, 1963


Byffalo 1953
) Parnes,
( 1992 .
)
( Guilford, 1959 ) ( Taylor, 1964 ) & Torrance
( Myers, 1970 .


). (

36

)110/: (
) ( Guilford, 1986
"
" ." Structure of In-tellect Problem Solving Model
) ( 4 3


). (



Filtering

.



" "). (



.

.



). (


). (




). (




). (
)112/ 4-3 (

37


:
.
!!!
.

.




.

) ).( Guilford, 1986 (



.



.




). (
)113/: (



38


.
Osbrn 1938
.
" "

.

:
)113/: (

). (
)113/: (



). (
)1134/: (
-1

). (
-2
.
) (

-3

). (
-4
).
(


.

.




).
(
) ( Bouchard, 1972

). (
.


15 20

.

39


). (

.

.



).
(

:
-1
). (
-2
).
(
-5
). (



). (
)115/: (



.

) & Udall
).( Daniels, 1991 (



.

.
) Moore, McCann, & McCann,
).( 1985 (
" "

.
:
-1 ). (
-2 ). (
-5
:

40



-8
). (
-

.
) (
-
). (

:




" : " .



.

.
) (
)117/: (



). (






.


). (
) ( Hayes, 1981; Pietrofesa & Splete, 1973
:
-1
). (
-2
). (
-3
). (

41

-4


). (


:
-1
). (

-2 ).
(
-
.
-

). (

.



" "
). (

:





) ).( de Bono, 1994 (

.


.

). (
)119/: (



.


.
:


42







)155/: (
-1 Observing:/155

) (
.

.

). (


.
-2 )Comparing:/161 (

.


.


.

). (




. " :
" .
). (
-3 )Classifying:/164 (


.


.



). (

.

43


.

" " " , ".

).
(
-4 )Ordering:/171 (


.




). (



). (

).
(
-5 )Organizing Data:/173 (


). (

.

.
.

). (
)183/: (
.1 )Applying:/183 (

.


.


). (
-2 )Interpreting:/187 (

.

44

.


.

.


). (
-3 )Summarizing /195 (

.
.
.

.


). (



.


). (
)247/: (
.1 )Fluenct/247 (


). (

.
. Thurstone
Guilford

.Divergent Production



.
:
.1 )247/: (
""
""
" :
"

45

}
""
.2 )247/: (
" "

..

48
. )248/: (

:

:

-1 )Flexibility/248 (




.

) ( Torrance, 1974 )
( Guilford, 1986

). (
) ( de Bono, 1994; Mayer, 1992; Van Tassel Baska et al, 1988
de Bono

.
.

.

.
).
(


46


. Guilford

:
.1 )249/: (


). (
.2 )249/: (


:

. )250/: (
.



" " " : "). (
. )250/: (

.
)
(). (


Transformathon
). (



.


). (

Metacognitive


.

47




.

). (


)
( .
:

" :
"

.
:









" "


:

:
" " ZNOVSHBT
:

B, S, O

T, H, N

T, H, Z

H, N, Z

V, N, Z

V, N, Z

" "
:

48

) (
.

2
1
3
.2 Hypothesizing Finding Assumptions:/253
" "

.



.

). (
.


.
)
:( Moore, McCann< & McCann, 1985
-1 .
-2 .
-5
.

).
(

:

.

).
(
49

:
.1
.
.2
.
.5 .

). (


) (
) :(Moore, McCann, 1985, pp.53-62

.
:
.1 .
.2 1144
.
.3 .
.4 .727



.



. Deductive Inference



). (

:
.1 .
.2 .
.5 .
.8 .

.




.

). (

" :

50

"


) (8 :
. .

) (8
)
)
). (
:


). (
):
)
.9 .

) .
)

:
" " 1144
.
)
)
:
.27 .
.11 .
:
.5 :
).
(
.10 .
)(
). (
)( " :
" .

:
.11
.
)(
:
.12
.

:
.13 .

:
.6 .

51



). (
Finding Assumptions

.
" " " "

Deductive
Inductive ).Experimental (


.

). (
" "

:



20 = 3 60 :
). (

. " "


. " :
"). (

" :
"). (
:
180


). (
=
60 = 3 180 :
). (

). (

:
: 31 63
31
:

:

52

" "
31 63 " "
31 ).63 (

:
......

:
180

60 /
:
90 /
:
/
:
4 . 1
14
:
4/1
:
4 1
:


. " :
" . :
" " " "). (


" " " " " .


. :
: "" "" "" ""
"" ""
25 = 10 + 15 : "" "". : ) (
: : "" ""
"" "" ""

.4 )Predicting / Extrapolating:/262 (


:
-1)263/: (


). (
-2)263/: (

53



). (
-5 )263/: (

.

). (


. ) Bloom
( et al, 1956
:













). (





) .( 1991


.







.



.

54

"
" .

). (




1992 :1996
)265/ 8 2 (

) ( 1995 - 1992

/
30,121
1,352
24,975
3,794
1992
29,777
648
24,757
4,372
1993
29,911
1,074
24,826
4,011
1994
34,364
941
28,475
4,948
1995
12,173
4,015
103,033
17,125

31,043
1,003
250,758
4,281

) : 1996
(


1996
1996



). (
:

%3
1994


1995
1996

) (
1996

1992


1996

55


). (

1996
:

1,298
31,724
4,971
)
) )
(1995
(1995
(1995
)269/: (
.1 )Critizing/269 (


.


.
:
.1 .
.2


.
.5

.



......


.



).
(
:



" "


). (


.
56


).
(


" : "
). (

:
" "
" : ! " " :
! "). (


:
" -1
: .

: ). (
-2

.
). (
-3
.
.

. .

). (
-4

....
). (
-5 ). (
-6

.

).
(
-7 .
.



").
(

57

) : /
1998 ( 45-46

.

:


) (




:
.1)272/: (
: " " "
" " " " "
" "
" " " " "
" " " .
.2 )272/: (
: " " . "".
""
. " "
: " "
" "

"
" .
.

"
" .

.5)273/: (

.

.)273/: (


.


" " ......
.
"
" .
58

:
-1 " : ").
(
-2 " :
"). (
-3 " : "). (
-4 ...... " :
"). (
.2 )274/: (
.1 )274/: (


.


.


" : " "
" " ...... "). (


.


:

)

(

:

1967

:


.2 )275/: (




).
(

59


). (
:
.


130

:
) :(1
). (
) :(2
). (
!!!

.
) (1 ) (2
). (
(2) : :
) :(2
130). (
:

.

.



). (



). (





.
:1998/1/22
)277/ (


) (3090 1993/2/17
1997/2/25 )
(250,000 ) (300,000
) (400,000 .
).

60

(
/
) 1998 1402 ( 7




:

"

.

"). (

.


). (

.
:

) ( .
) (
). (

). (
)
(
" " ) 1996 :( 96
" .



1983

"). (



.

). (
:
" Ahmed is a butcher who always sells stale bread. One morning last week as he
was busy working in his office , a lady came in and ordered six loaves and four
apples . Ahmed had never had such a large order befor and he suggested
bringing the cakes and sandwiches to her house in his van . So, at 10 a.m. after a
hard days work , Ahmed put on his overcoat and scarf and stepped out into the

61

sunny June evening . As he approached his customers tent, Ahmed took the
goods from the basket of his bicycle and walked up the front path to hand over
& the vegetables to the lady wait-ing in the reception hall " ( Frank, Rinvolucri
( Berer, 1982, p.33


:



) (

) (







:
" Many different kinds of fish live in the ocean. Some fish have heads that make
them look like alligators, and some fish have heads that make them look like
cats. Fish live in different parts of the ocean. Some fish live near the surface of
the water, but some fish live way down at the bottom of the ocean. There is
absolutely no light at the bottom of the ocean. Some fish that live at the bottom of
.the ocean know their food by ist col-or. They will only eat red fungus



.Fungus


.5 )280/: (

.



.




.

62


).
(

386





:
25



" .

). (
:

98,287
.
%48




). (





:
......







/
.

). (
. )282/: (

63



). (
:
.1
:

.2 :

.3
:

.

.4 :


.5 :



)287/ (
)287/: (


.
"
" :






) Albert & Runco , 1986; Gallagher & Courtright, 1986; Global Encyclopedia,
).( 1991; The New Encyclopedia Britannica, 1992 (
) ( Beyer , 1987


)
(
:
. )

64

( )
).( Moore, McCann, & McCann 1985 (
) ( Nickerson, 1986 )) (1
:
/ /


.

Ceystalized Intelligence
/ (Fluid Intelligence

.
:





.
:
)288/: (
Rationalization



). (


.
:








)289/: (



.
:
.1

) Beyer, 1987

65

( .
:
.1
). (
.2
). (
.5 :
:

). (
: ).
(

). (
.2
: ) & Udall
.( Daniels, 1991


). (
)290/: (


.

.



). (

:
" " " "
" " " "
" :
"
. : "
" ..
" " "
"). (
)291/: (
.


:

.

.
.

66


.

.

. :





.

). (
)292/: (

.

:
.2 :Deductive Reasoning
.

.
.
.
.2 :Inductive Reasoning
.


....
.
.3 :Analogical Reasoning
.

). (


.




.

.
.

67


). (
)293/: (
) ( Nickerson, 1986 .


.

). (

.

). (
:


.



Deductive Reasoning:/294

: )294/: (
" "
" " " "
. " "

.

). (



.

.




). (






:
68

.1
" "
" "). (
.2
" "). (


" " .

). (
" " "
" " " " " .
" " " " ) (
" " ) (
). (

" "
" " :
/

/
.
"
" " " :
/
"" ""
/
"" ""
/
"" "".

" "
" " :
/



/

/ .

:
" " " "
" :
").
(



:


/




/


69



"
"
" "

. " "

" " .
). (




). (


.
) (
:
) (1 )(2
) (2 ) / (3
) (1 ) / (3






). (
: )Forms of Deductive Reasoning:/297
(
:
Conditional or
.1
)Hypothetical Reasoning :/297 (


.
:
.
.

" .... " .... .
:



70


" " ) ( " "
" " ) ( " "
" .... )." .... (
" " "
" " " .

" " .
).
(



). (
:
.1 " " Affirming the
)Antecedent:/298 (

Valid
True :

) (
) (.

.

.
" "
.
) ( " ".
) (
.2 " " Denying the
)Antecedent:/299 (
Invalid
False:

) (
) (.

.

.
" "
" "
.

). (
.3 " " Affirming the
)Consequent of the Major Premis:/ 199 (
In-valid:

) (
) (.

.

71

" "
" "

" "

). (
.4 " " Conseqeut of the
)Major Premise Deny-ing:/300 (
Valid:

) (
) (.

.
.

" "

" " .
" "
" " " " .
). (

:
.1 " "
" "
). (
.2 " "
" "). (
. )Categorical Reasoing:/300 (
) (
" "
" " " " .
) (
" " " :
"). (
" " "
" " " " " . :
.1 " " " "
) . ( .:
.

). (
.2 " " "
) . ( .:
.

). (
.3 " " " "
) . ( .:
.

72


). (
.4 " " " "
) . ( .:
.

). (
: Validity of Deducitve
)Reasoning:/304 (


.


.
.

). (




.
:
.1 :
.
.
.
) (
.2 :
.
.
.
)
(
.5 :
.
.
.
) (




.
.
:


73

.
.


" " .


). (
: )306/: (
.1 )306/: (


. "
" " "

. ) ( Mayer, 1992
" " Biconditional
Relation
:
.
.

:
) (
) (

.
" " .


" " " "
.


). (
.2 )307/: (


:
) ( ) (

.

" "
). (

74

.
) (
)Inductive Reasoning:/207 (

: )207/: (
.


/


). (




" :

) (
"
.


. " :


"


.



.

). (

:
.1 )308/: (


). (
"
"
). (
.2 )309/: (

.

75

.
). (



.



.

). (




.
" :
" .
.
) (
: )309/: (

) (

.

.
:
.1 )310/: (


.



:

-1



.
) (
-2
.


.

76


). (
-3

.


). (
.2 /:
)310 (
-1
.
:

.


.

). (
-2


.



%70 %30
). (
" "

Tversky & Kahneman, 1973> ,td


) (
) Tversky & Kahneman,
).( 1974 (

.

).
(
. )312/: (

.
) ( Nickerson, Perkins, & Smith, 1985

:
.1
.

77



.


.
:

.

.


.

.

.

.
.2



). (
/:
)313 (



.

.


.


.

:
)10/314 3 (



.1
.1
.2
.2


.3
.3


.4
.4
78



.
.5

.
.6
.
.7 .
.8




.5


.6

.7
.8
)314/: (



) Polya, 1973:
.( Sternberg, 1977




.



.


). (



.
Gordon " " Synectice


). (



). (


.
) (

79