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eee) —————— SRR Ca) Mathematics .. ‘The aim ef this publication is © supply information ken from souves believed wo be Valid and reliable. This is not an atiempt to render any type of professional advice or analysis, nr isit tobe treated as such, White much care ‘has been taken to ensure the veracity and currency of the information presented within, neither the publisher nor itseuthors bear any esponsibility or axy damage arising {om inadvertent emissions, negligence oF (ypographical or factual) that may have found their way ito this book. Copyright © 2010 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. ‘This book is sold subject o the condition tha it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hited out, ‘or otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior written consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which itis published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subse- {quent purchaser and without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored ino introduced into. retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otberwise), without the prior writen permission of both the copyright owner and the above-mentioned publisher ofthis book. ISBN: 978-81-317-2363-0, First Impression Published by Dorling Kindersiey (India) Pvt Ltd, ficensees of Pearson Education in South Asia Head Office: 7th Floor, Knowiedge Boulevard, A-8(A), Sector62, Noida 201309, UP, India Registered Office: 14 Local Shopping Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi 110017, India. ‘Typeset by Tantla Compositions Services Put. Ltd., Chandigark Printed in India by Saurabh Printers Pvt Lid. CONTENTS Preface to Third Edition v Preface vi L_Eunctions 1 2_Limits . 43 3. Continuity and Differentiability 5 4. Differentiation 107, 5. Applications of Derivatives 137 6. Indefinite Integration 189 1. Definite Integral and Area 21 8._ Differential Equations ” 305 9, Coordinates and Straight Lines 325 10, Pair of Straight Lines 371 1L_Cireles : 388 12._Conic Sections 443 13. Complex Numbers. sis 14, Sequences and Series 365 15. Quadratic Equations and Inequations 621 16 Permutations and Combinations 665 12. Binomial Theorem 695 18. Exponential and Logarithmic Series 29 19. Matrices 739 20_Determinants 163 .21._Trigonometric Ratios and Identities 793 22. Trigonometric Equations 829 23. Inverse Trigonometric Functions ‘847 24, Properties and Solutions Triangles 366 25. Heights and Distances 892 26. Probability 904 22_Statistics 949 28_Vectors 969 29. Three Dimensional Geometry 1021 30._Statics 1047 ‘31_Dynamics 1086 +32._Set Theory HB ‘3,_Numerical Methods 1128 ‘34. Linear Programming 1139 35. Hyperbolic Functions 1146 Model Test Papers 11st Solutions ta Model Test Papers 1187 Copyrighted material Functions oe fl CHAPTER Function or Mapping Let X and Y be any two non-empty sets and there be corres- ponience or association between the elements of X and Y such that for every element x € X, there exists a unique element ¥ € Y, written as y= f(x). Then we say that fis « mapping or function from X to Y, and is writen as FX WY such that y=/l),xe Xy € Y. x x Real Function If: X > Y be « function from a non-empty set X to anoth- ‘er non-empty set Y, where X, Y c R (set of all real numbers), then we say that /is a real valued function or in short a real function. Features of a Mapping f: X > ¥ (For cach clement x €X, there exist is unique element yey. (i) The elementy ¢ ¥ is called the image of x under the map- ping f- (iii) If tere isan element in X which has more than one image in Y, then /:X ¢ Y isnot a function But distinct elements of X may be associated to the same clement of ¥. (iv) If there is an element in X which does not have 2n image in Y, then f:X — ¥ is nota function. ‘Throughout this chapter a ‘function’ will mean a “real func- tion’. Value of a Function ‘The value of a function y= f(x) atx = a is denoted by fla). It is obtained by putting x = a in f(x). Domain and Range of a Function Iff:X — Y be a function, then the set X is said to be the domain offand range of ¢ SUMMARY OF CONCEPTS set of all image points in ¥ under the map / =f00= LG) fle) © Ysx eX} The set Y is also called the co-domain of f Clearly FH sy¥. Y Intervals in R ‘The set of all real numbers lying between two given real num- bers is called an interval in R. Leta and b be any two real numbers such that a < 6, then ‘we define the following types of intervals Closed Interval The set of all real numbers x such that a < x ¥ {Q is said to be one-one or injective if distinct elements of X have '& distinct images in Y. f SoneweuTeW enIDe| x Y Many-One Function A function /: XY i seid to be rmary-ore if there exists atleast two distint elements in X whose images ere same i x Y Rule for checking whether the function f: X—> Yis one-one or ‘many-one 1. (a) Consider any two poins.x.y © X. (b) Put) =f(0) and solve the equition. (0) Ifwe gt x=yonly, then fis one-one, alberwise itis many-one lf function is either strictly increasing or strictly decreasing inthe whole domain (r equivalently ()> O orf" (x)< 0, x €X), then itis one-one, otherwise it mary-one, 1 i.any straight line parallel to x-axis intersects the graph ofthe fune- tion stmast at one point, then the function is ore-one, otherwise it is many-ove (de. i inteseets the graph of the function in atleast wo points) Any contimous function fiz) which hus atleast one local maxima or Jocal minima is many-one, 5. All even fanctions are many-one. All polynomials of even degree defined on R have atleast one local ‘maxima orminima and hesce are mary one on the domain R. Poly somials of odd éegree canbe ore-one or many-one. Note: If X and Y are any two finite sets having m ard m elements respectively, then the aumber of one-one functions from X to ¥ would be ‘Onto or Surjective Function A function /: X—» Y is said to be onto or surjective if every clement of ¥ is the image of "P,. ifm2m 0 ifn ¥ is an into function if it is not an onto function. x y 1, If X and ¥ are any two finite sets having m and n elements respectively, where I Ys ento er inte (@ Find the range ofthe function then fis onto, otherwise it is into, frange af f Bijective Function A function: XY is said to be bijec- tive, iffis both one-one and onto, x ¥ L IX and ¥ are any two finite sets having the same number of cclements, say 7, then the number of bijective functions from X toY isn! Some Important Functions Constant Function A function /: R > R defined as f)=c,~.x € R, where cis a constant, is called a constant func tion, Its domain is R and range is singleton set {c}. ‘The greph of @ constant function ise stright line parallel to axis when x is the independent variable, ‘some element of X under the mapf: @) | sere Identity Function The funetion Sf: RR defined as fl) = x, axe R, iscalled the identity function, Hts domain is R and range isalsoR. ‘Thegraph of the identity fanetion isa straight line passing through origin and inctined at an angle of 45° with x-axis, fe=x ase Modulus Function or Absolute Value Function The function f: RR; defined as x Ifo 0, ifx=0 nx, ifx<0 £Q)=|x1= is called the absolute value function or modulus function Its domain is R and its range is {0, «). The graph of the modulus function is 2 shown in the adjoining figure, Greatest Integer (Step_or Integral) Function The function f: R + R defined as f(x) = (x] is called the greaicst integer function, where [x] integral part of x or greatest integer not grester than x or greatest integer less than or equal tox £0) =n, where n Sx R defined as f(x) =x—[x] or f(a) = {x}, where (x} denotes the fractional part of x, is called the fractional-part function. Its domain is R and range is {0, 1). The graph of the fractional pert function is Note: (a) If is en integer, then x = [x] => {x} =0=> {[x]} = 0 @ {1-0 (0st <1 @ bh +b ee eee Lif xe imeger Signum Function The function /: R > R definedas, LEI for ee0 f@= 0 forx=0 is called the signum function. Its domain is R and range is the set {- 1, 0, 1}.The graph of the signum function is as shown below: Reciprocal Function The function f: RI(0} -> R defined by f(@) = +, is called the reciprocal function. Its domain as ‘well as range is R\{0}. The graph of the reciprocal function is as shown below: Functions