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Grimm, Jacob - Teutonic Mythology Vol 1

Grimm, Jacob - Teutonic Mythology Vol 1

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01/23/2013

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Isis (p. 257) in Tacitus, whose name even is not unlike Cisa, Zisa,

if we make allowance for the mere dropping of the initial, an

omission which the Eoman might be prompted to make by the

similarity of the Isis that he knew. But even if Zisa be totally

dififerent from Isis, she can with all the better right be placed by

the side of our Zio, in whom also was displayed a thoroughly

Swabian deity (p. 199) ; nay, together with our supposed feminine

Ziu (p. 203) there may have been a collateral form Zisa, so tliat her

Zisunherg would exactly correspond to the god's Ziewesberg, Zisberg

(see Suppl.). Shall I bring forward a reason for this guess, which

shall be anything but far-fetched ? The ]\Iid. Dutch name for the

third day of the week had the curious form Disendach (p. 125), which

being of course a corruption of Tiscndach brings us at once to Tise

= Zisa. It is a matter for further researches to demonstrate,^ but

1

DoAvn in the Riess between the rivers Lefh and Wertach, in the niiilst of

Siieves^ at a time suimosed to be before even the Romans settled in the region,

miKKA. FROUWA.

299

that three divinities, Zio, Zisa and Isis, are assigned to the Suevi, is

ah'eady abundantly clear,

8. Frikka (Frigg). Frouwa (Freyja).

Our inquiry turns at length to the goddesses of the Norse

religious system, of whom unequivocal traces are forthcoming in

the rest of Teutondom.

Foremost of these are Frigg tlie wife of OSinn, and Freyja the

sister of Freyr, a pair easy to confound and often confounded

because of their similar names. I mean to try if a stricter etymo-

logy can part them and keep them asunder.

The name of Freyja seems the easier : it is motived no doubt

by the masculine Freyr (Gramm. 3, 335). Now as we recognised

Freyr in the Gothic frauja (p. 209), Freyja leads us to expect a

Gothic fraujo, gen. fraujons, both in the general sense of domina

mistress, and in the special one of a proper name FrcUijo. The

notion of mistress, lady, never occurs in Ulphilas. To make up

for it, our OHG. remains express it very frequently, by fruwd,

froicd; the 'MUG. frouive,frou and our modern/ra?6 have preserved

themselves purely as common nouns, while the masc. fro has

vanished altogether. In meaning, frouwe and frau correspond

exactly to herre, herr, and are used like it both in addressing and

.otherwise.^ Our minnesiingers are divided as to the respective

superiority of frouwe (domina) and wip (femina),^ wip expressing

more the sex, and frouwe the dignity ; to this day we feel frau to

be nobler than weib, though the French femme includes a good deal

of what is in our frau. It seems worthy of notice, that the poets

no Slav f^ods need be looked for ; neither does the Slav mythology know any-

thing,' at all certain aliout a Ziza, allcfjed to he Ceres nianimosa (Boh. cic, cec,

Pol. eye, Russ. titi, niannna), in sujtport of whom forsooth our Cisa must be

wronged ; see Hanusch 278. It were better to think of the MHG. name for

the zeisig (zeis-chen, siskin) diu 'Jse. ein kleiniu ztse, Ms. 1, 191''. AVh. 275,

30 ; which can scarcely have arisen from cicindela (glow-worm, Graff 5, 711) ;

however, no connexion has come to light between the goddess and the form of

a bird, though some little birds, the woodj^ecker, the titmouse, were held

sacred.

1

Like our fr6, the Fr. dame (dominus) is now lost ; dame (domina)

remains, like our /raw.. The Span, keejis both doji and doua, the Ital. only

donna. The Romance tongues express the masc. notion by two other M'ords,

sire, sicur (p. 27) and seigneur, signore, sehor, i.e., senior, out of which an Ital.

signora, a !>pan. senora have sprouted, but no Fr. feminine.

2

Walth. 48-9. 57. Amgb. 45'' 4^''. IMs. 2, 182*' 210^ Docen misc. 2,

'^".'^-9.

frouwe unde \\\p, Parz. 302. 7 (see Supjil.).

300

GODDESSES.

harp on the connexion of fmu with froh glad (fro-lic) and freude

joy ; conf. Fridank 106, 5—8. Tit. 15, o5.

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