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Chapter #14: Forging the National Economy Big Picture Themes 1.

. A wave of immigration came over starting in the 1840s, headed up by hungry Irish and Germans seeking a better life. Both of these groups were looked upon with suspicion, but they were hard workers and did well for themselves. 2. The factory system was in its infancy, led by Eli Whitneys interchangeable parts Cyrus McCormicks mechanical reaping machine paved the way for modern agriculture. 3. Changes were foreshadowed including women beginning to work outside the home. 4. The nation became smaller and tied together more closely thanks to (a) railroads being built, (b) canals such as the Erie, (c) steamships, and (d) the Pony Express. IDENTIFICATIONS: American Industrial Revolution: A period in time of great industrialization, innovation, and invention in America that led to expansion of manufacturing, cotton, and transportation Nativism: They were anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant. Some nativities formed this party in New York called the "Order of the Star Spangled Banner". The members refused to identify themselves and would say they know nothing. They were an anti-Catholic group, until it subsided and slavery became the focal issue. Canal Age: Canals became the most efficient form of transportation in America before the railroad, causing great expansion and building of canals across America. It began with the Eerie Canal and expanded even all the way to Michigan Samuel Slater: Father of factory system. He memorized the way that the British made machines and he brought the idea to America. He made our first cotton spinning machine. Eli Whitney/Cotton Gin: an American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged Elias Howe: United States inventor who built early sewing machines and won suits for patent infringement against other manufacturers Lowell/Waltham System: labor and production model employed in the United States, particularly in New England, during the early years of the American textile industry in the early 19th Century. Used domestic labor, often referred to as mill girls, who came to the new textile centers from rural towns to earn more money than was possible at home, and to live a cultured life in "the city". As competition in the domestic textile industry increased and wages subsequently fell, strikes began to occur, and with the introduction of cheaper imported foreign workers by mid-century, the system proved unprofitable and declined.

Commonwealth v. Hunt: A Massachusetts Supreme Court case regarding the issue of worker unions; it ruled that unions were not illegal conspiracies provided that their actions were honorable and peaceful. Legalized strikes if the unions were in bad practice. Erie Canal: Governor Dewitt Clinton made a canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West. GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: The Westward Movement Know: "Self-Reliance" 1. What were settlers of the frontier like?

Life on the frontier was actually really awful. The settlers were perpetual victims of disease, depression and premature death. They were haunted by unbearable loneliness. Women were cut off from human contact. Shaping the Western Landscape Know: Kentucky Bluegrass, Rendezvous, Bison, George Catlin 2. "The westward movement also molded the physical environment." Explain.

Pioneers exhausted the land in tobacco regions and moved on leaving behind barren and rain-gutted fields. Settlers burned off cane and made "kentucky blue grass" Buffalo robes flourished, leading to total annihilation of massive bison herds that covered the prairies. Sea-otter pelts near extinction "ecological imperialism" The March of the Millions Know: Chicago, Irish and Germans, America Letters 3. How and why did American demographics change from 1820 to 1860?

It filled with a lot of Irish immigrants, especially after the potato famine in the late 1840s. Most of these people located in the North, giving the North an increasing population advantage. That made it possible, by 1860, to win the presidency by capturing slightly only 4 states: New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. Lincoln was not even on the ballot in most of the South; he got 0 votes there and won with only 40 per cent of the popular vote. No third party before or since has been able to accomplish what the Republicans accomplished, largely because of this anomaly in the demographic spectrum. The Emerald Isle Moves West

Know: Molly Maguires, Tammany Hall, Paddy Wagons, Twisting the British Lion's Tail 4. After reading this section, does it seem logical or unbelievable that an Irish-American became president in 1960? Explain. I find it unbelievable that an Irish-American became president because of how poorly they were treated in the past. It just shows how much America grew from then to now. The German Forty-Eighters Know: Carl Schurz, Conestoga Wagon, Kindergarten, Beer 5. Did the Germans make as large a contribution to America as the Irish did? Explain.

The Germans brought with them many things like the Conestoga wagon, Kentucky rifle and the Christmas tree. They were better educated than the Americans and warmly supported kindergarten. They kept their culture and introduced beer to the Americans. They brought many contributions (more than the Irish did) but politically, they were weak because they were widely spread out throughout the west. Flare-Ups of Antiforeignism Know: Nativists, Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, American (Know-Nothing) Party 6. Why were immigrants from Germany and Ireland feared and hated? The Americans saw themselves as nativists. They disliked the German and Irish immigrants because they thought they would outbreed, outvote, and overwhelm the old "native" stock. They took jobs from the nativists and were roman Catholics. Order of the Star - Spangled Banner established in 1849 soon became the formidable American, or "know nothing" party. They wrote fake stories where the authored posed themselves as escaped nuns, and said that they had a secret burial of babies. Creeping Mechanization Know: Factory System, Industrial Revolution 8. What barriers stood in the way of the industrial Revolution in the United States?

Machine for mass production of textiles ushered in the modern factory system. Land was cheap in America so people didn't want to work in factories when they could work in the outdoors. The labor was scarce. Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine Know: Samuel Slater, Eli Whitney, Cotton Gin, King Cotton 9. Samuel Slater and Eli Whitney caused the North and South to develop in opposite directions. Explain.

Cotton became highly profitable overnight. The south depended on cotton while the north couldn't produce cotton so they relied on machines. Marvels in Manufacturing Know: Interchangeable Parts, Isaac Singer, Limited Liability, Free Incorporation Laws, Samuel F. B. Morse 10. Which were more important in Antebellum America, new inventions or changes in business forms and legal status? Explain. Samuel F.B. Morse secured $30,000 to support his experiment with "talking wires". he strung a wire 40 miles from Washington to Baltimore. New inventions were more Morse's important because each momentous new invention seemed to stimulate sill more imaginative inventions. Samuel Morse's invention brought him fortune and fame because it became such a big part to society. Workers and "Wage Slaves" Know: Wage Slaves, Strikebreakers (Scabs), Commonwealth v. Hunt 11. What demands did labor have in the 1830's and 1840's?

Labor demanded higher wages, 10-hour days and the right to smoke on the job. The employer could resort to importing strikebreakers (scabs or rats) fresh off the boat from the old world. Women and the Economy Know: Lowell Mills, Catherine Beecher, Cult of Domesticity, Fertility Rate, Child-centered Homes 12. What types of work were done by women in Antebellum America? (Be careful on this one.)

Farm women and girls spun yarn, wove cloth and made candles, soap, butter and cheese. Most women started having fewer children which meant they could have child-centered families. They were also able to marry from love and were not forced by their parents. Western Farmers Reap a Revolution in the Fields Know: Corn, John Deere, Steel Plow, Cyrus McCormick, Mechanical Mower-reaper, Cash-crop Agriculture 13. What factors led to increased productivity for farmers?

John Deere's steel plow broke the soil. Cyrus McCormick's mechanical mower-reaper also increased productivity of crops. A husbandman could do the work of 5 men with sickles and scythes. Highways and Steamboats Know: Lancaster Turnpike, National (Cumberland) Road, Robert Fulton


Why were turnpikes and steamboats important?

They were safer and faster. Turnpikes attracted a rich trade to Philadelphia and stimulated western development. Steamboats played a vital in the opening of the west and south. not only could they float their produce out to market but they could ship in their shoes, hardware, and other manufactured necessities at low costs. "Clinton's Big Ditch" in New York Know: Erie Canal 15. The Erie Canal brought revolutionary change to two regions. Explain.

In the years after its completion in 1825, the cost of transporting goods between the Midwest and New York City fell precipitously, in some cases by 95 percent. Between 1825 and 1857, New York built eight canals that, like the Champlain Canal. The Iron Horse 16. Name some of the advantages and disadvantages of early railroads.

Advantages of the railroads was that they could travel farther, they were much faster, and were not restricted to certain seasons like canals, which froze in the winter. However, one of the greatest disadvantages was that the railroads were dangerous. They were vulnerable to accidents and explosions, resulting in many deaths. Also, it was difficult to establish time schedules of the trains, and the brakes always malfunctioned, taking an extra 10 minutes for the train to finally stop at the platform. Cables, Clippers, and Pony Riders Know: Trans-Atlantic Cable, Clipper Ships, Stagecoaches, Pony Express 17. The clipper ship, stagecoach and Pony Express ultimately failed because they were not forward looking. Explain. The clipper ship failed because although it was fast, it was inefficient and had a small storage capacity. The stagecoach failed due to the rise of canals, steamboats, and trains. Once the telegraph was invented, the Pony Expresss quick deliveries were useless and slow compared to the instant messages. The Transport Web Binds the Union Know: Division of Labor 18. Explain the effects of division of labor on a national and personal basis.

Division of labor is the specialization of cooperative labor in specific, circumscribed tasks and like roles. On a national basis division of labor is associated with a capitalistic system and allows people to have

hope to move up the ladder. On a national basis division of labor creates job for everybody and on a personal level it allows one to rise up economically. The Market Revolution Know: John Jacob Astor, Social Mobility 19. War? To what extent was social mobility possible in the United States in the years before the Civil

In the US because of the belief in individual freedom, there was not the same 'caste' system where a person born poor stayed poor. Anyone willing to work hard was able to accumulate wealth and move up in society. Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner were the first to call the years after the Civil War the "gilded age." The restructuring of workthe subdivision of labor into its unskilled partsleft many workers with few marketable skills and little hope for occupational or social mobility. Social mobility was pretty much not playing in everyday life. Chapter #15: The Ferment of Reform and Culture Big Picture Themes 1. The "Second Great Awakening" began in the 1830s. It's purpose was to wake people from lackluster religion and, like the First Great Awakening, was led by passionate and emotional preachers. 2. The Mormons emerged from these beginnings and wandered westward to the Great Salt Lake. 3. Free public schools began in large measure. 4. There was push to ban alcohol called "temperance." This was led by the ladies; they felt the way to save the family was to ban alcohol. 5. The first women's rights convention was held at Seneca Falls, NY. They asserted that all men, and women were created equal. 6. Many "utopia experiments" began. The overall mission was to perfect society and create true equality. Most simply failed and none of them succeeded in the ways envisioned. IDENTIFICATIONS: Second Great Awakening: one of the most momentous episodes in the history of American religion. Resulted in many converted souls, shattered and reorganized churches, and numerous new sects. It encouraged evangelicalism that resulted in prison reform, the temperance cause, the women's movement and the crusade to abolish slavery. Shakers: led by Mother Ann Lee, wanted to set up a score of religious communities, prohibit marriage and sexual relations.

Mormons: Religion founded by Joseph Smith . Practiced polygamy and had beliefs that conflicted with other denominations. They were persecuted so they moved far West where Brigham Young continued to preach it. Brigham Young: Became the leader of the Mormons after Smith was killed. He led them west in search of a place where they would be free from persecution. Founded the Salt Lake City. Transcendentalists: resulted from a liberalizing of the Puritan theology. It also owed to foreign influences. The transcendentalists rejected the theory that all knowledge comes to the mind through the senses. Truth, rather, transcends the senses and can't be found just by observation. Associated traits included self-reliance, self-culture, and self-discipline. Ralph Waldo Emerson: transcendentalist poet and philosopher; urged American writers to forget European traditions and write about American interests. Henry David Thoreau: transcendentalist who believed that one should reduce his bodily wants so as to gain time for a pursuit of truth through study and meditation. Utopia: Between 1830s and 40s hopes for social perfection - utopia - were widespread among evangelical Christians as well as secular humanists. These hopes found expression in various utopian communities and spiritual movements. Brook Farm: This transcendentalist commune, founded in Massachusettes in 1841, attracted many leading creative figures during its breif existence. New Harmony: communal society of about 1,000, ends in contradiction and confusion when more radicals show up than hard working individual Oneida Community: practiced free love, birth control and the eugenic selection to of parents to produce superior offspring flourished because of silver making Temperance Crusade: Temperance (moderation or abstention in the use of alcholic beverages) attracted many advocates in the early 1800s. This grew out of the Second Great Awakening and was a powerful social and political force. Seneca Falls Convention: 1848, in New York, where a group of determined women met, and made a statement following that of the Declaration of Independence, but was titled the "Declaration of Sentiments," and stated that "all men AND women are created equal, and another resolution demanded ladies' representation on the ballot. this conference inspired the modern women's rights movement. American Colonization Society: Founded in 1817, this abolitionist group hoped to provide a mechanism by which slavery could gradually be eliminated. It adovocated the relocation of blacks to Liberia. William Lloyd Garrison: was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, and was one of the founders of

the American Anti-Slavery Society. He promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. Garrison was also a prominent voice for the woman suffrage movement. David Walker: was an outspoken African-American abolitionist and anti-slavery activist. In 1829, while living in Boston, Massachusetts, he published An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World,[3] a call for black unity and self-help in the fight against oppression and injustice. Hudson River School: a mid 19th century American Art Movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influened by romance GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: Reviving Religion Know: Alexis de Tocqueville, The Age of Reason, Deism, Unitarians, Second Great Awakening, Camp Meetings, Charles Grandison Finney 1. In what ways did religion in the United States become more liberal and more conservative in the early decades of the 19th century? Founding Fathers embraced the liberal doctrines of Deism that Paine promoted; Christian religion still had great influence over the souls of men in America. Denominational Diversity Know: Burned-Over-District, Millerites (Adventists) 2. What effect did the Second Great Awakening have on organized religion?

This tidal wave of spiritual fervor left in its wake countless converted souls, many shattered and reorganized churches, and numerous new sects; also encouraged effervescent evangelicalism that bubbled up into innumerable areas of American life. A Desert Zion in Utah (Website if interest:

Know: Joseph Smith, Book of Mormon, Brigham Young 3. What characteristics of the Mormons caused them to be persecuted by their neighbors?

This cooperative sect antagonized rank-and-file Americans, who were individualistic and dedicated to free enterprise. The Mormons aroused further anger by voting as a unit and by openly but understandingly drilling their militia for defensive purposes. Free Schools for a Free People Know: Three R's, Horace Mann, Noah Webster, McGuffey's Readers 4. What advances were made in the field of education from 1820 to 1850?

Horace Mann campaigned effectively for more and better schoolhouses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum. Higher Goals for Higher Learning Know: University of Virginia, Oberlin College, Mary Lyon, Lyceum, Magazines 5. In what ways did higher education become more modern in the antebellum years?

The religious zeal of the Second Great Awakening led to the planting of many small, denominational, liberal arts colleges; adults could expand knowledge at libraries; through traveling lecturers, lyceums, magazines. An Age of Reform Know: Sylvester Graham, Penitentiaries, Dorthea Dix 6. How and why did Dorthea Dix participate in the reform movements?

She traveled some 60,000 miles in 8 years and assembled her damning reports on insanity and asylums from firsthand observations Demon Rum--The "Old Deluder" Know: American Temperance Society, Neil S. Dow, Maine Law of 1851 7. Assess the successfulness of the temperance reformers.

Within a few years, about a thousand local groups sprang into existence; prior to the Civil War, there was much less drinking among women and much less per capita consumption of hard liquor. Women in Revolt Know: Spinsters, Alexis de Tocqueville, Cult of Domesticity, Catherine Beecher, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Blackwell, Margaret Fuller, Sarah and Angelina Grimke, Amelia Bloomer, Seneca Falls, Declaration of Sentiments 8. Describe the status of women in the first half of the 19th century.

In the 19th century, a wife was supposed to immerse herself to her lord and master; she could not vote; could legally be beaten by husband; could not retain title to her property once married. Wilderness Utopias Know: Utopias, New Harmony, Brook Farm, Oneida Community, Complex Marriage, Shakers 9. In what ways were utopian communities different from mainstream America?

The communistic experiments were in competition with democratic free enterprise and free land; sank into a morass of contradiction and confusion. The Dawn of Scientific Achievement Know: Benjamin Silliman, John J. Audubon 10. Was the United States a leader in the world in scientific pursuits? Explain.

American writers promoted safety, speed, and economy, but as far as basic science was concerned, Americans were best known for borrowing and adapting the findings of Europeans. Makers of America: The Oneida Community Know: John Humphrey Noyes, Bible Communism, Mutual Criticism 11. The word "utopia" is a word that is "derived from Greek that slyly combines the meanings of `a good place' and `no such place'." Does the Oneida Community fit this definition? Explain. That sunny thought was shared by many early 19th century utopians, but Noyes added some wrinkles of his own: the key to happiness is the suppression of selfishness; Christians shouldn't own property or indulge in relationships. Artistic Achievements Know: Thomas Jefferson, Gilbert Stuart, Charles Wilson Peale, John Trumball, Hudson River School, Daguerreotype, Stephen C. Foster 12. "The antebellum period was a time in which American art began to come of age." Assess.

During the nationalistic upsurge of the War of 1812, American painters of portraits turned increasingly from human landscapes to romantic mirrorings of local landscapes. The Blossoming of a National Literature Know: Knickerbocker Group, Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, William Cullen Bryant 13. In the early 1800's American writers emerged, who were recognized world-wide for their ability. What made them uniquely American? English as well as American themes were used, combining a pleasing style with delicate charm and quiet humor. Trumpeters of Transcendentalism Know: Transcendentalism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Walden: Or Life in the Woods, On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, Walt Whitman

14. Which of the transcendentalists mentioned here best illustrated the theory in his life and writings? Explain. Ralph Waldo Emerson was a practical philosopher who through fresh and vibrant essays enriched thousands of humdrum lives. Catching the individualistic mood of the Republic, he stressed self-reliance, self-improvement, self-confidence, optimism, and freedom. Glowing Literary Lights Know: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Louisa May Alcott, Emily Dickinson 15. Name six important American writers and explain the significance of each.

Professor Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was one of the most popular poets every produced in America; John Greenleaf Whittier was the uncrowned poet laureate of the anti-slavery crusade, was important in influencing social action; James Russell Lowell was a distinguished poet, essayist, literary critic, editor, and diplomat -- tampered his poetical output; Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes shone among a group of literary lights of Boston; Louisa May Alcott wrote Little Women, which is still enormously popular; Emily Dickinson created her own original world through precious gems of poetry; William Gillmore Sims wrote 82 books Literary Individualists and Dissenters Know: Edgar Allan Poe <3, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville 16. Why do you think Poe and Melville were not appreciated as much in America at the time as they were in other times and places? The south was so concerned with agriculture -- farming meant relevance; Poe and Melville came from non-farming families; people at the time were accustomed to more straightforward and upbeat prose. And in Poes case, Americans just werent ready for that much awesome. Portrayers of the Past Know: George Bancroft, William H. Prescott, Francis Parkman 17. How did the geographic background of early historians affect the history they wrote?

Early American historians of prominence were New Englanders; these writers numbered abolitionists and hence were disposed to view unsympathetically the South and slavery.