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Pigmentos

Pigmentos

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Publicado porMarco Giannotti
Uma análise histórica dos pigmentos na pintura
Uma análise histórica dos pigmentos na pintura

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Published by: Marco Giannotti on Nov 01, 2013
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Técnicas da Pintura

Pigmentos

•! “A pergunta pela origem da arte da pintura é incerta e não faz parte do projeto deste trabalho. Os Egípcios declararam que ela foi inventada por eles há cerca de seis mil anos, antes de ser levada à Grécia – o que certamente é uma asserção um tanto questionável.Quanto aos gregos, alguns dizem que foi descoberta em Sycon, outros em Corinto.Concordam em afirmar que ela surgiu ao se traçar um contorno sobre a sombra projetada de um homem e assim foi feita originalmente; já num segundo estágios e inventou um método mais elaborado feito a partir de uma única cor chamada monocromo, método utilizado até hoje.” Plinio

The Earliest Use of Pigments Circa 400,000 BCE – 350,000 BCE

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Naturally occurring pigments such as ochres and iron oxides were used as colorants since prehistoric times. Archaeologists uncovered evidence that early humans used paint for aesthetic purposes such as body decoration. Pigments and paint grinding equipment believed to be between 350,000 and 400,000 years old were reported in a cave at Twin Rivers, near Lusaka,

Zambia.

It is likely that the stone age inhabitants used the colours, which range from yellow to purple, to paint their bodies during hunting rituals, ceremonies and other social events.
Archaeologists in Zambia have uncovered evidence that early humans used paint for aesthetic purposes far earlier than previously thought. The team found pigments and paint grinding equipment believed to be between 350,000 and 400,000 years old. The oldest pigments previously found were 120,000 years old and the oldest known paintings are just 35,000 years old

. Tuesday, 2

May, 2000, 17:12 GMT 1

Pigmentos
Nota-se ausência de pigmentos orgânicos

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Silício Manganês Osso Madeira Óxidos metálicos Ocre – oxido de Ferro(Fe2o3)

Blocos de pigmentos encontrados caverna

Scientists claim to have the first persuasive evidence that Neanderthals wore "body paint" 50,000 years ago

•! The shells were coated with residues of mixed pigments

nizio In tilizzo < 1300 “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “

Pigmento Asfalto, idrocarburi Azzurrite, 2CuCO3!Cu(OH)2 Azzurrite + Giallo Piombo o Giallo Stagno Azzurrite + Giallo Ocra Bitume, idrocarburi Blu verditer, 2CuCO3!Cu(OH)2 Bianco osso, Ca3(PO4)2 Nero osso, Ca3(PO4)2 Nerofumo, carbone Calcite, CaCO3 (dal terreno) Carbone di legna, carbone Cinabro (Vermiglio), HgS Rame resinato, sali di Cu in balsamo Blu Egiziano, CaCuSi4O10 Gamboge, resina gommosa Terra Verde, silicato di Fe, Mg, Al e K Gesso, CaSO4!2H2O Indaco, C16H10N2O2

Fine utilizzo 1825 “ “

Inizio utilizzo < 1300 “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “

Pigmento Terre Ferrose, Fe2O3!xH2O Giallo Piombo-Stagno Bianco Piombo, 2PbCO3!Pb(OH)2 Litargirio, PbO Robbia, 1,2-diidrossiantrachinone!Al(OH)3 Malachite, CuCo3!Cu(OH)2 Massicot, PbO Minio (Rosso Piombo), Pb3O4 Oro Mosaico, SnS2 Orpimento, As2S3 Realgar, As2S2 Rosso Piombo, Pb3O4 Zafferano, colorante organico senza mordente Terra Verde, silicati di Fe, Mg, Al e K Ultramarino (naturale), silicato di Na, S e Al Verdigris, Cu(C2H3O2)2!Cu(OH)2 Vermiglio (Cinabro), HgS

Fine utilizzo 1750

1825

1900

1860

Inizio utilizzo 1400 1500 1549 1550 1565 1600 1610 1700 1700 1778 1781 1788 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1802 1805 1809 1810 1817 1824 1825 1825 1826 1825 1836 1834 1840

Pigmento Terre d’ombra Bianco Bismuto Cocciniglia, colorante organico con mordente Smalto, vetro a base di silicato di Co e K Grafite Marrone Van Dike, carbone Giallo Napoli, Pb3(SbO4)2 Blu di Prussia, Fe4(Fe(CN)6)3 Blu di Prussia + Giallo Ocra (Fe2O3!xH2O) Verde Scheele, CuHAsO3 Giallo Turner, PbOCl2 Verde Smeraldo, Cu(C2H3O2)2!3Cu(AsO2)2 Bario Solfato, BaSO4 Giallo Cromo, PbCrO4 Rosso Cromo, PbCrO4!Pb(OH)2 Giallo Indiano, Ca o Mg euxantato Verde Cromo (Blu di Prussia + Giallo Cromo) Blu Cobalto, CoO!Al2O3 vetroso Blu Ceruleo, CoO!nSnO2 Bario Cromato, BaCrO4 Calcio Carbonato, CaCO3 Giallo Cadmio, CdS Ultramarino (sintetico), silicato di Na, S e Al Rosso Cromo, PbCrO4!Pb(OH)2 Viridiana, Cr2O3!2H2O Alizarina (naturale), 1,2-diidrossiantrachinone Bianco Zinco, ZnO Giallo Stronzio, SrCrO4 Verde Cobalto, CoO!xZnO Bario Solfato, BaSO4

Fine utilizzo

1625

Inizio utilizzo 1842 1847 1850 1850 1850 1850 1850 1854 1856 1861 1862 1864 1868 1871 1874 1886 1890 1900 1910 1916 1920 1926 1927 1930 1935 1935 1938 1950 1956

Pigmento Vermiglio Antimonio, Sb2S3 Giallo Zinco, ZnCrO4 Blu di Prussia + Giallo Cadmio, vedi formule Blu Cobalto + Giallo Napoli, vedi formule Blu Cobalto + Giallo Cadmio, vedi formule Giallo Cobalto, CoK3(NO2)6!H2O Ossidi di Ferro Verde Ultramarino Carbone-Pece (Malva) Violetto Cobalto, Co3(AsO4)2 Cromo Ossido, Cr2O3 Nerofumo Alizarina (sintetica), 1,2-didrossiantrachinone Nero Manganese, MnO Litofono, ZnS + BaSO4 Polvere di Alluminio, Al Violetto Manganese, Mn(NH4)2(P2O7)2 Bario Solfato, BaSO4 Rosso Cadmio, Cd(S, Se)4 Bianco Titanio, TiO2 Bianco Antimonio, Sb2O3 Rosso Cadmio, CdS + BaSO4 Giallo Cadmio, CdS + BaSO4 Arancio Molibdeno, 7PbCrO4!2PbSO4!PbMoO4 Blu Manganese, Ba(MnO4)2!BaSO4 Blu Ftalocianina, Cu ftalocianina Verde Ftalocianina, Cu ftalocianina clorinata Blu Manganese, Ba(MnO4)2 + BaSO4 Arancio Mercadiano

Alquimia
Mixing color was perceived as diabolical and was therefore prohibited. Moreover, the dyer’s craft was strictly compartmentalized by corporatist rules, and the workshops that had mastered red dyes and those that worked with blue were kept separate.
Varichon 142

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Em relação a classificação dos pigmentos quanto ao seu grau de fugitividade (ligthtfastness) segundo a ASTM (American Society of Testing and Materials) convenciona a categoria "1" Excelente - para os pigmentos sem nenhuma tendência fugitiva, ou seja, sua cor não se altera quando exposto à luz, passando a "2" o pigmento cujo comportamento quando exposto à luz é considerado "Muito Bom", "3" seria uma qualificação regular e finalmente "4" para os fugitivos. Como alguns fabricantes de tintas classificam o grau de fugitividade por estrelas (*) ou mesmo outro símbolo, pode ocorrer uma inversão de valores àqueles com menor familiaridade com os pigmentos. Assim, independente da marca da tinta, se o pigmento utilizado for um vermelho de cádmio verdadeiro (PR-108) este terá uma excelente resistência a luz, ou seja, não irá "desbotar" com o tempo, e dependendo do fabricante, terá no rótulo a classificação "1" se este utilizar o padrão da ASTM ou **** se ele convencionar que 4 (quatro) estrelas significa "excelente" resistência a luz.

•! Vale observar que o nome técnico, o índice de cor nome, o grau de fugitividade, o grau de opacidade e a toxicidade são informações obrigatórias nos rótulos das tintas comercializadas nos EUA. Infelizmente, as tintas nacionais não se preocupam em fornecer explicitamente estas informações aos artistas.

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Pigmentos Brancos "reflexão total" da luz. Pigmento: Branco de Titânio - PW-6 Resistência a luz: ASTM - excelente Trata-se de um pigmento sintético inorgânico, extremamente opaco e de maior poder tintorial entre os brancos. Compatível com praticamente todos os veículos, como o óleo de linhaça, alquídico, acrílico, aquarela, guache, têmpera, caseína, encáustica, afresco e pastel. Não é considerado tóxico e também é considerado como dióxido de titânio. Pigmento: Branco de Chumbo - PW-1 Resistência a luz: ASTM - excelente Mistura de carbonato de chumbo e hidróxido de chumbo, portanto um sintético orgânico. É um dos pigmentos fabricados artificialmente mais antigos que se tem conhecimento. Pode-se considerar a única cor a óleo branca utilizada até a metade do século XIX. Possui propriedades extremamente desejáveis quando triturado em óleo e sua única porém considerável - desvantagem é o fato de ser extremamente tóxico.In antiquity people produced by exposing slivers of lead to the compound action of vinegar and animal dung ( varichon, p.36)

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Zinc white: Zinc has been known as a mineral since antiquity when it was melted with copper to form brass. It was also known then, as it is today, as a medicinal ointment. Sources differ on who first isolated the element. Harley and Wehlte claim it was Henkel in 1421 who first produced metallic zinc. Gettens and Stout maintain it was the German chemist, Margraaf in 1746. Historians agree, however, that in 1782, zinc oxide was suggested as a white pigment. Guyton de Morveau at L'Académie de Dijon, France, reported on white pigments and the raw materials which might serve as white pigments, including zinc oxide in that year. He suggested zinc oxide as a substitute for white lead. Metallic zinc had originally come from China and the East Indies. When zinc ore was found in Europe, large-scale production of the extracted metallic zinc began. In 1794 and 1796 patents were issued for the manufacture of zinc oxide to the English colormaker John Atkinson of Harrington Near Liverpool.

The French method of manufacturing, known as the 'indirect process' used the zinc smoke derived from molten zinc, which was heated to 150°C and collected in a series of chamber

Branco de Titânio

Several industrial methods based on both minerals anatase and rutile. The ore is chemically broken down with concentrated sulphuric acid. The result is a deposit of iron and titanium sulphate, which is then dissolved in water and boiled to result in the precipitation of the titanium as metatitanic acid and its separation from the iron. Barium carbonate is added to the precipitate to neutralize the acid after which it is calcined. Titanium oxide is usually manufactured with approximately 30% titanium oxide and 70% barium sulphate.

Industrial manufacture of titanium white Oven at Kronos Titan Sample of titanium dioxide from the oven

Titanium White is truly the white of the 20th century. The titanium pigment, titanium dioxide was discovered in 1821 but it was not until 1921 that a titanium white oil color suitable for artistic purposes was introduced by an American manufacturer. In 1916, the Titanium Pigment Corporation of Niagara Falls, New York and the Titan Co. AS, of Norway simultaneously began commercial production of this new white pigment. Then, the principal white pigments used in paints were white lead, zinc white and lithopone.

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Kasimir Malievich,White on White, 1913

Pigmentos Amarelos •! Da antiguidade e a era Medieval, a função principal dos amarelos era imitar o OURO. Eram produzidos através da bílis de peixe e outros animais, pedras e extratos vegetais, todos, porém, com grande tendência fugitiva. Como curiosidade, o genuíno amarelo indiano era obtido através da mistura de urina de vaca com lama. Hoje em dia, o pigmentos amarelos mais usados são: Arylide Entre Yellow 10G; (PY3); Grau de fugitividade pela ASTM = 2 (muito bom); O amarelo de arilido é pigmento sintético, orgânico, também conhecido como Hansa Yellow Light ou (Mono) Azo Yellow. Produz um efeito transparente esverdeado brilhante. Maior brilho, poder tintorial e croma do que o equivalente cobalto inorgânico. Diarylide Yellow HR70; (PY83); Grau de fugitividade pela ASTM = 1 (excelente); O amarelo de diarilido é um pigmento sintético, orgânico, mais avermelhado, transparente e resistente à luz que os inorgânicos e arilidos. Cadmium Yellow Light; (PY35); Grau de fugitividade pela ASTM = 1 (excelente); O amarelo de cádmio-zinco é sintético orgânico. Os de melhor qualidade são livre de bário, apesar da ASTM permitir até 15% de adição de sulfato de bário. Considerado tóxico. Também chamado de amarelo limão. Possui um equivalente econômico (PY 35:1), a base de litopônios de cádmio

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Pigmento: Amarelo Ocre (PY-42) do grego OKHRA ovo Resistência a luz: ASTM "1" - excelente Também conhecido como amarelo de marte, ou amarelo óxido, por se tratar de um óxido de ferro, sintético inorgânico, de boa opacidade, além de econômico.

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Red and yellow ochre pigments abound at the surface in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Pigments like these were readily made into paints by prehistoric peoples (such as the nearby Santana do Riacho, Lago a Santa) who would then paint with their fingers or with vegetable paint brushe

. O açafrão - za’ faran ( amarelo em arabe) é extraído dos estigmas de flores de uma variedade de Crocus sativus, uma planta da família das Iridáceas Egyptians used saffron to dye textiles and bandages for mummies like the ones wrapped around tutankhamon 1343 b.c Most plants contain pigments that dye things yellow Varichon 59
Flor de açafrão, ao anoitecer, com carpelos vermelhos visíveis

How Indian yellow is made: Origin: animal Derived from urine of cows that had been fed mango leaves

the cow urine was evaporated and the resultant dry matter formed into balls by hand. The urine was "heated in order to precipate the yellow matter, then strained, pressed into lumps by hand and dried." It's the mango not the urine that's crucial to the color: "The colourant is a calcium or magnesium salt of an organic acid released by the mango."3 By the early twentieth century the pigment was no longer available, although you can find modern substitutes sold under the name "Indian yellow". Indeed, the cows were extremely undernourished, as mango leaves did not supply the cattle with sufficient nutrients, and they lived for only a very short time. The process was considered inhumane and, since 1908, Indian Yellow pigment has been prohibited from the market. Since ancient times in the Far East, Indian yellow was introduced into India from Persia in the fifteenth century. The amateur painter, Roger Dewhurst, recorded the use of Indian yellow in 1786.

bindheimite

antimonate). Artificial variety of pigment Calcination of a lead compound (oxide, nitrate or lead white) with an antimony compound (oxide, sulfide or potassium

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Pigmento: Amarelo de Nápolis (PY-41) Resistência a luz: ASTM "1" - excelente O verdadeiro amarelo de nápolis é um pigmento semi-opaco, sintético inorgânico fabricado artificialmente desde o século XV. Devido ao seu elevado custo e por ser altamente tóxico, a maioria dos fabricantes de tintas utiliza misturas de óxidos de zinco, amarelo ocre e outros para obter um efeito final similar (Hue). Pigmento: Amarelo de titânio-niquel (PY-53) Resistência a luz: ASTM "1" - excelente Desenvolvido na década de 60, trata-se de um pigmento de grande estabilidade química e além de grande resistência a luz, também às condições atmosféricas e ao calor. Lead antimonate yellow is one of the oldest synthetically produced pigments known. This antimonial yellow has been known from very early times as an enamel colour. It has been found upon Babylonian bricks at least 2,500 years old. Persian pottery as early as the thirteenth century of our era is occasionally decorated with antimonial yellow. Although it is was used in enamels it was used in paintings only from the renaissance.

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Chrome yellow: Chromium was discovered as a Siberian mineral, called crocoite in the eighteenth century. The mineral is deep orange, a natural form of lead chromate. It was analysed in the late 1790s by the eminent French chemist Nicolas Louis Vauquelin, who identified the new element chromium as the source of the colour. Vauquelin studied the compounds of chromium, and found that he could make bright yellow and rich orange versions of lead chromate, both of which he proposed as potential pigments. The chromium colours did not become widespread, however, until the discovery of chromiumcontaining mineral deposits in France, USA and Britain. The preparation of chromates of lead, specifically chrome yellow was published by Vauquelin in the Annales de Chimie IXX in 1809.

Origin: artificiall Minerals: greenockite and hawleyite (at Mineralogy Database). Those natural minerals though known in nature were not used for pigments.

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History of Cadmium yellow/red: Stromeyer discovered metallic cadmium in 1817 but production of the cadmium pigments was delayed until about 1820 because of the scarcity of the metal. A natural mineral, greenochite, is known in nature but was not used for pigments. Cadmium sulfide was prepared with an acid solution of cadmium salt (either chloride or sulfate) which was heated with hydrogen sulfide gas until a powder was formed. Hues ranging from a lemon yellow to a deep orange were made in this way. The deeper varieties of cadmium yellow and orange were the most permanent. The paler varieties were known to fade on exposure to sunlight. All of the cadmiums were brilliant and the deeper shades had the greatest tinting strength. Field claimed that the best cadmiums were those produced without an excess of sulfur and that the permanence of a carefully made cadmium was improved when mixed with lead white using only an ivory knife. They were used in both oil and watercolor but could not be mixed with copper-based pigments. A cadmium red was available as a commercial product from 1919. Cadmium pigments were used sparingly due to the scarcity of cadmium metal and therefore because was more expansive.

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llustration of the process: Solutions of cadmium(II) nitrate and sodium sulfide heating the solution,s precipitation reaction heating the solutions precipitation reaction stirring the precipitate Filtration of the product

Wolfgang Laib, pólen, 1977

Anish Kapoor White Sand, Red Millet, Many Flowers Wood, cement & pigment. Installation, dimensions variable, 1982

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Pigmentos Vermelhos

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Genus caesaolpina

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A natureza fornece-nos matérias-primas tais como flores, madeiras, raízes, sementes, barros, pedras e até mesmo insetos que proporcionam a fabricação dos pigmentos vermelhos. O pau-brasil, nome de um tipo de madeira muito encontrado em nosso país durante sua descoberta e colonização, é um desses elementos, que também entra na História do país por acabar levando seu nome. O "mínium", ou zarcão, foi largamente utilizado na era Medieval •! na The first us e of ilustração de livros e pinturas em painéis. the term Brazil or Brezil was in 1190 Varichon 126

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Short History of Red Pigments The oldest pigment was probably red ochre, which was used in cave art. The ancient world had red madder lake, artificially-made red lead, and vermilion (natural mineral cinnabar). Artificially-made vermilion was the most prominent red pigment until the manufacture of cadmium red in 1907. Red is one of the subtractive primary colors. Red is light of the longest wavelengths discernible by the human eye, in the wavelength range of roughly 630–740 nm. Longer wavelengths constitute infrared light and cannot be seen by the naked eye.

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In the Paleolithic era around 40.000.B.C our ancient ancestors heated yellow in order to redden it, achieving the first chemical tranformations in human history. ( 118) Red is seen best by the human eye because, of all the rays in the humam spectrum, this color refracts most rapidly on the retina (90) During ancient Roman celebrations of certain pagan rites – particularly the complex cult rutuals of the Dionysian Mysteries – scarlet garments were worn by the inniatiates as weel as the officiants to protect them agaisnt maleficient powers. (99) Until the 12th century red was the most prestigious color in the medieval europe(111)

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Anne Varichon Colors.What they mean and how to make them . Abrahams, 2006

Ocre vermelho

An Australian Aboriginal rock art may depict a giant bird that is thought to have become extinct some 40,000 years ago, thereby making it the oldest rock painting on the island continent.

•! Red ocher was the first pigment used by humankind. Fragments of red ocher and basalt pestle ere discovered near Nazarethian in an ancient sepulcher dating from 90.000 b.c
•! Varichon 129

um dos primeiros pigmentos vermelhos foi o Cinabre, produzido a partir de uma dura pedra vermelha formada nas minas de mercúrio

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Cinábrio, cinabre ou cinabarita é o nome usado para o sulfeto de mercúrio (II) (HgS), o minério de mercúrio comum. O nome vem do grego, usado por Teofrasto e provavelmente foi aplicado a muitas substâncias diferentes.

The Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii ( 110 B.c) was decorated with frescoes notablefor their use of cinnabar, one of the most precious pigments of the era. It was imported from the mercury mines in Almadén, Spain, the purified and tunes into a fine powder in Roman workshps. Varichon. 112 Prisoners were forced to extract cinnabar from mercury mines without proper ventilation or protection, so they would die after a few years of constant exposure to the heavy metal Pigments

Garança (Rubia tinctorium) é uma espécie de erva da família das rubiáceas, originária da região do Mediterrâneo, atinge até 90cm de altura. Suas folhas são ásperas e repleta de espinhos e suas flores são amarelas ou azuladas. As raízes fornecem substâncias corantes vermelhas como a purpurina e a alizarina.
Roots of the madder plant are dried, crushed, hulled, boiled in weak acid to dissolve the dye, and fermented to hydrolyze anthraquinones from the glycosides. The extracted dye is made into a pigment by dissolving the dye in hot alum (aluminum potassium sulphate; AlK(SO4)2 ! 12 H2O) solution, and precipitating pigment with soda or borax. Madder is the only plant that provides a true red. The pigments in its roos are so powerfullll that mader can tint the milk and even the bones of the animals that feed on I . The mummy bandages wrapped around Tuttankhamon were dyed red with madder Varicon ( 122)

Illustration of the process: making alizarin in the laboratory: The solution of sodium carbonate is poured into the solution of aluminum sulfate Precipitate of aluminum hydroxide alizarin mixed with castor oil The solution of sodium carbonate is poured into the solution of aluminum sulfate Precipitate of aluminum hydroxide alizarin mixed with castor oil alizarin is added to the aluminum hydroxide Reaction mixture after heating for one hour

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History of Carmine lake: Cochineal lake Cochineal, native to the New World, was used by the Aztecs for dyeing and painting and was brought to Europe in the sixteenth century following the Spanish conquest. When Cortez and his conquistadors entered the Mexican capital, with its great market place, they found bales of finely-woven cotton and of delicate yarns spun from rabbit fur, dyed a thrilling carmine. Included in the tribute paid by each conquered state to Montezuma, emperor of the Aztecs, were many bags each containing millions of the dried bodies of a tiny red insect -the cochineal bug that lives in colonies among tattered white tents of silk and wax spun on the pads of the prickly-pear cactus. Killed in ovens, then dried in the sun, these produced the "silver cochineal' from which the finest dye was made, but it was more than a century before Europeans discovered the only chemical, tin oxide, that would deposit the pigment on wool or other fiber so that it would not wash off. Eventually the bugs were imported and grown in Spain, Italy, North Africa and other countries where the cactus can be grown. They are still grown in Mexico and India to furnish the permanent brilliant carmine for foods. drinks, cosmetics and artists' colors. Kermes lake In Asia and Europe, the ancient craftsmen understood the secrets of making several shades of red dye. One of the finest and most ancient was "kermes, ' and source of our word "crimson" and the Arabic name for a wingless insect living on certain species of European live oaks. These insects were scratched from the twigs with the fingernails and produced a powerful permanent scarlet dye believed to be that obtained from the Phoenicians by the Hebrews to dye the curtains of their tabernacle.Kermes carmine was used as a dye and a laked pigment in ancient Egypt, Greece and the near East and is one of the oldest organic pigments;

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•! As indústrias fenícias distinguem-se em tudo. o seus tecidos de lá sao célebres ; não o são menos extraídos de um molusco Murex Trunculus ou Murex Brandaris, as tintas cujos tons iam do rosa ao púrpura e ao roxo. Todavia essa indústria essencial instalavase longe das cidad, pois era preciso deixar que a carne dos moluscos se decompusessem durante certo tempo ao ar livre, num recinto de odor abominavel. quantidades enormes de murex assinalam numerosas oficinas de tinturaria, tanto no território fenicio como nas colonias ocidentais.
Fernand Braudel. Memórias do mediterrâneo p. 210

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Natural mineral consisting of silica and clay owing its color to iron oxide. It is found throughout the world, in many shades, in hues from yellow to brown, and faint blue. The best brown ochre comes from Cyprus. The pigment has good hiding power and excellent permanence in all media.

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Cochineal insects on a prickly pear cactus stem (Lanzarote Island, Spain); details of clusters of cochineal insects The insects are harvested by hand (Canary Islands, Spain); Handful of cochineal insects

Anthony van Dyck, who was born in 1599 and died in 1641.

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How Van Dyke brown is made: Origin: natural earth The minerals composing Van Dyke brown, are pyrolusite and goethite, both considered to be among the most permanent pigments, and mainly lignite. Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, used as a fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat. Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%, a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%, and an ash content ranging from 6% to 19%. Derived from earth compounds such as soil and peat, similar in composition to lignite brown or coal. Generally it has over 90% constituent organic matter with small amounts of iron, alumina or silica. It is prepared first by heating to drive off excess moisture and then by the common process for earth pigments. The natural earth is dried and homogenized. Positively identified in paintings since 17th century. Originally obtained from the Cologne and Kassel regions of Germany, and later obtained elsewhere, the pigment from each locality can vary slightly in color and composition, leading to confusion in the precise qualities of this color. It is suggested that the brown 'lignite' colours came into use in the late XVII and XVIII Century when brown backgrounds and dark decor became popular in Europe. Extensively used in the 19th Century in both oils and water colour. Partially transparent in oil and as a result, has been used for staining woods and glazing in pictures.

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Helio 0iticica.Bólide, decada de 60

Vergara
•! Em 1989, ocorre uma mudança importante em sua pintura. O artista passa a trabalhar com pigmentos naturais e minérios a partir dos quais realiza a base para trabalhos em superfícies diversas. Estes se tornam resultantes de um processo de impressão e impregnação de diferentes “matrizes”, como a própria boca dos fornos numa pequena fábrica de pigmentos de óxido de ferro em Rio Acima (MG), e de uma posterior intervenção do artista.

Purpura color oficialis

Caligula (12- 41 a.d) had the king f Maurithania assasinated for dressimg in a purple robe more beautiful tnan his own an Nero condemned to death who dares to wear imperial purple ( varichon 137, 141) Pope paul II ( 1417- 1471) decreed that cardinals would wear purple n emulatn of Roman and Byzantine emperors

Cobalt(II) chloride and sodium hydrogenphosphate Solutions of both salts

The remarkable range of pigments that could be produced with cobalt included cobalt violet, is known since 1859. Salvetat first described the preparation of cobalt violet in Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences XLVIII in an article titled, "Matieres minerales colorantes vertes et violettes.”

Malachite from Madagascar, and other places Commonly prepared in the Middle Ages in Europe the essence of its production is to add potash, lime and sal ammoniac to a soluble copper salt such as copper sulphate or sulphite. Reaction of copper(II) sulfate with sodium carbonate.

Mineral malachite occurs in egyptian tomb paintings since the Fourth dynasty, in european paintings it seems to have been of importance mainly in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Verdigris:
Used often, from antiquity through the Middle Ages, Renaissance and Baroque. Verdigris was the most vibrant green available until the 19th century. Often mixed with, or glazed over lead white or lead-tin yellow because of its transparency. Often seen in illuminations, book illustrations and maps where it fell in and out of favour due to its fugitive nature. Later it can be seen in the palettes of the followers of Van Dyke •! Especially prepared in wine-growing areas, because acetic acid is a byproduct of winemaking. Copper plates are covered with winemarc and allowed to stand, the resulting acetic acid reacts with the copper, forming a blue to blue-green crust which is scraped off and ground. Many historical recipes for its manufacture can be found, as the one by Pliny who described exposing copper to the vapours of fermenting grapes or in closed casks over vinegar.

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Paolo Veronese (Caliari) : The Marriage Feast at Cana, detail of banqueting table with man in a green robe and dwarf with a parrot, c.1562

Green earth: It has been in painting since ancient times. Although this material is naturally available in the Mediterranean world, it was used just in late Greek-Egyptian art. Used frequently in medieval painting for underpainting of flesh tones, its use declined after the Renaissance. The word glauconite is derived from the Greek word glaucos, originally meaning gleaming, later bluish green, and then silvery or gray.

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Glauconite has a micaceous structure. It is characteristically formed on submarine elevations of ancient seabeds ranging in depth from 30 to 1,000 meters (100 to 3,300 feet) below sea level, and in the sedimentary rocks of different geological systems. Natural variety of pigment The pigment is produced by grinding the natural material glauconite and celadonite. Indeed, green earth is primarily composed of the minerals celadonite and glauconite which different percentage presence produces colors that vary from cold bluish greens to warmer yellow and olive hues. The most famous deposit of green earth was found near Verona, Italy, and this mine was active until World War II. Other mines produced variations in color and texture of the pigment: Baltic states, Bohemia, Cypress, France, Hungary, Poland, Saxony, Tyrol, and the Mendip hills of England. Our green earth is from from open mines near Mt. Baldo, Italy.

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Schweinfurt green or emerald green was developed in an attempt to improve Scheele's green. This copper aceto-arsenite pigment was first produced commercially by the firm of Wilhelm Sattler at Schweinfurt, Germany in 1814. Justus Von Liebig and Andre Bracconot separately published papers on its method of manufacture. Von Liebig's paper "Sur une couleur verte" was published in 1823 in Annales de chimie XXIII (pp. 412-3). Verdigris (or acetic acid) was dissolved in vinegar and warmed. A watery solution of white arsenic was added to it so that a dirty green solution was formed. To correct the color, fresh vinegar was added to dissolve the solid particles. The solution was then boiled and bright blue-green sediment was obtained. It was then separated from the liquid, washed and dried on low heat and ground in thirty- percent linseed oil. The pigment was considered a good drier.

•! Verde cor presente na natureza – clorofila- orgânica mas que só pode ser utilizada em pigmentos minerais

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Pigmentos Azuis Os artistas de hoje podem contar com uma seleção diversificada, brilhante e confiável de azuis. Um dos mais antigos pigmentos azuis, o "azurite", proveniente de um mineral azulado foi utilizado no Egito antigo, China e Japão e se tornou marcante na arte Européia a partir do século XV.

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Pigmento: Azul de Ftalocianina (PB-15) Resistência a luz: ASTM "1" - excelente Inventado na Inglaterra em 1935, é um pigmento semi-transparente, sintético orgânico, de grande poder tintorial e características semelhantes ao azul da prússia, com a vantagem de ser mais permanente.

The blue material used (known as Egyptian blue) is possibly the earliest artificial pigment ever produced. It first appeared in Egypt and Mesopotamia around 2500 BC and then spread throughout the Mediterranean world where it was widely used until around AD 800. It is a bright blue crystalline material, made by mixing sand, lime and copper or copper ore and heating them to around 850-1000°C. Research by British Museum staff has found that Egyptian blue has a very unusual property. When red light is shone onto it, it gives off infrared light; this property is called luminescence. This luminescence cannot be seen by the naked eye, but can be recorded using a device which is sensitive to infrared light (such as a night vision camera). The luminescence can be most clearly detected when other sources of visible and infrared light are excluded, for example by working in a darkened room. Extensive testing of other blue/purple pigments has found that only two others, Han blue and Han purple, share this property. We know that the Han colours, which are chemically very similar to Egyptian blue, were only ever used in China and only during a very restricted time period, so they are unlikely ever to be confused with Egyptian blue.

Azurite
Origin: mineral and artificial Natural mineral found in many parts of the world in the upper oxidized portions of copper deposits lazhuhad in Persian

Also used prolifically in the East, azurite can be found in wall paintings in Central China from the Ming and Sung Dynasties, as well as cave paintings at Tun Huang in Western China. There are records of its use also in Japan and Ancient Egypt. Replaced when "Prussian blue" is discovered in the 18th century, azurite was the most important blue pigment in European painting throughout the middle ages and Renaissance. It was made artificially from the 17th century.

•! Azul de Cobalto
•! Resistência a luz: ASTM "1" - excelente Descoberto na França em 1802, mas utilizado em pintura artística a partir de 1820-1830. É um pigmento sintético, orgânico, formado pela calcinação de óxido de cobalto e de alumínio. O verdadeiro azul de cobalto é uma das cores mais caras, sendo muitas vezes substituído por um tom do ultramar. É considerado um pigmento tóxico.

Ultramarine is made: Origin: natural and artificial Lapis lazuli is a complex rock mixture containing the mineral Lazurite, Main mine deposits in Afghanistan

History of Ultramarine: Natural Ultramarine Ultramarine is famous for having been the most expensive pigment. It was more expensive than gold during the Renaissance. First used in 6th century Afghanistan, the pigment found its most extensive use in 14th and 15th century illuminated manuscripts and Italian panel paintings, often reserved for the cloaks of Christ and the Virgin. It's use as a pigment among ancient mediterranean cultures is very rare. It was imported to Europe by way of Venice. ULTRAMARINUS

Synthetic Ultramarine

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Synthetic ultramarine is one of the best-documented pigments of the nineteenth century probably because its invention was requested of chemists and not the result of their independent research. Ultramarine, genuine made from the semi-precious gem lapis lazuli was so costly in the nineteent century that artists infrequently used it. The hue is a necessary component in a balanced palette o warm and cool colors; without it a cool, deep blue is lacking. The beginning of the development of ultramarine blue, artificial was known from Goethe. In about 1787, he observed the blue deposits on the walls of lime kilns near Palermo in Italy. He was awar of the use of these glassy deposits as a substitute for lapis lazuli in decorative applications. He did not, however, mention if it was suitable to grind for a pigment.

Yves klein, Sculpture éponge bleu
•! •! Pure pigment and synthetic resin1959, 28 x 18 x 11 cm

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Yves Klein French, 1928-1962 Untitled Anthropometry, 1960 Dry pigment and synthetic resin on paper mounted on canvas

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Pigmento: Azul da Prússia (PB-27) Resistência a luz: ASTM "1" - excelente Descoberto e desenvolvido entre 1704 - 1724, trata-se de um pigmento transparente, sintético inorgânico, também é conhecido como azul de paris, azul de ferro, azul da china e azul-bronze.
History of Prussian blue: The first modern, artificially manufactured color was Prussian blue. It was made by the colormaker Diesbach of Berlin in about 1704. Diesbach accidentally formed the blue pigment when experimenting with the oxidation of iron. The pigment was available to artists by 1724 and was extremely popular throghout the three centuries since its discovery. When was Prussian blue used? Discovery Used until 1724 continues in use Use of Prussian blue among paintings in the SchackGallery, Munich:

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Plants: woad (Isatis tinctoria L/ Pastel.), Indigofera tinctoria L. and others The most typical source of indigo is woad, shown in this field. Today, indigo is also produced by the bacterium E. coli through genetic engineering:

Indigo is most commonly used as a dye for fabrics,
as this woman is doing (Podor, Senegal). To make painting pigments, the dye is "fixed" to a ground white material, in a processed called "laking.
Indian indigo was probably used as a painting pigment by ancient Greeks and Romans. Marco Polo (13th century) was the first to report on the preparation of indigo in India. Indigo was quite often used in European easel painting since the Middle Ages. Increasingly, analysis has identified indigo present not only in underpaint, but also in top paint.

Not only did ancient Europe disparage dyer’s woad, but it associated the color blue with the enemy- Celtic and Germanic barbarians" These ethnic groups were blue eyed considered ignominious in Rome; in theater, such features were the objects of caricature. Arichon 175 At the beginning of 12th century an evolution of taste ( blue) began, driven by the growing adoration of the Virgin Mary, By the end of the middle ages, the hierarch of colors that reigned in western culture thought was entirely reorganized, and blue now dominate,idem,180 British derives from the word brith which means woad in celtic 184
Piero della Francesca Madonna del parto 1467. Detached fresco 206 x 203 cm. Santa Maria a Nomentana, Monterchi.

Pigmentos pretos. Absorção total da luz
•! •! Pigmento: Negro de Marte - PBK-9 Resistência a luz: ASTM "1" - excelente Também conhecido como Preto de "Ivory", do inglês, "marfim" ou negro-de-osso, pois são feitos de ossos carbonizados, é um dos negros mais utilizados em pintura artística. Não é recomendável a pintura sobre este pigmento em potência máxima (puro) pois terá forte tendência a rachar.

•! Preto: Do latim prettu vindo de pressus, significando denso, apertado •! Negro : do latim niger, -gra, -grum •! Dans les sociétés anciennes, on utilisait deux mots pour le qualifier: en latin, niger, qui désigne le noir brillant (il a donné le français «noir»), et ater (d'où vient «atrabilaire», qualifiant la bile noire), qui signifie noir mat, noir inquiétant.

Bone black is prepared by charring bones, horns etc. in the absence of air. It is the deepest black but it was not used as widely as charcoal black. Fragments or turnings of ivory, or of the osseous parts of animals are put into a crucible surrounded by burning coals and covered. The ivory or bones, by exposure to the heat, were reduced to charcoal. •! •! History of Bone black: Numerous identifications of bone black are reported in literature. Bone black has been identified in prehistoric paintings and found in Egyptian, Greek and Roman art. It is found throughout European medieval and Renaissance art and later in both oil and watercolor paintings until modern times. Many old masters used bone black in their work. In Rembrandt's paintings, the dark-colored umbers night have been almost enough for the background shadows, but the black clothing worn by his sitters called for an intense black pigment

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The name carbon black is generally used as a generic name for those blacks that are made from the partial burning or carbonizing of oil, wood, vegetables and other organic matter. Best prepared from vine clippings, fruit pits, or small twigs, which are partially burned, and then ground. Most charcoal black contains various minerals and tarry plant hydrocarbons. Produces slow-drying paint.

Used throughout history, carbon black is easy to prepare and has excellent hiding power. Since carbon absorbs light so well, it often appears dark with infrared imaging, revealing an artist's charcoal sketch under the painting. The name carbon black is generally used as a generic name for those blacks that are made from the partial burning or carbonizing of natural gas, oil, wood, vegetables and other organic matter. In 1864, a process was developed in America for a black more suitable for watercolor

Soulages - Processus de création - 1981 Adam MontmartreAdam Montmartre! 128 vídeos

•! http://youtu.be/TfinJkJltiI

O que difere a tinta de um pigmento, é o fato deste último estar fixado por uma espécie de cola. Quando o pigmento em pó é misturado com algum veículo aglutinante suas características cromáticas são alteradas pela opacidade e pela refração ótica comum a esse material, dando mais ou menos a sensação de profundidade no plano em que é aplicada. Cada um desses veículos dá à cor uma particularidade visual, tornando-a mais brilhante ou mais acetinada, ou mais ou menos espessas, proporcionando faturas diferenciadas e apreciáveis na variação de suas qualidades visuais, e ganhando assim,muitas vezes, qualidades táteis. Eurico lopes

Pintura

Cor – como fixar um pigmento

Bibliografia
http://www.webexhibits.org/ pigments/indiv/recipe/ titaniumwhite.html http://www.historyofscience.com/G2I/timeline/ http://www.culture.gouv.fr/ culture/arcnat/lascaux/en/
http://www.fumdham.org.br/pinturas.as phttp://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/articles/a/ ancient_colour_on_parthenon.aspx

•! http://www.itaucultural.org.br/ aplicexternas/enciclopedia_ic/index.cfm •! http://www.itaucultural.org.br/ aplicexternas/enciclopedia_ic/index.cfm

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