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Mc lc
Mc lc.............................................................................................................................1
Danh mc mt s t vit tt .............................................................................................3
Danh mc hnh v ............................................................................................................5
Chng I. M u ............................................................................................................6
1.1. L do chn ti...................................................................................................6
1.2. Mc ch ca lun vn ..........................................................................................8
1.3. i tng v phm vi nghin cu.........................................................................8
1.4. ngha khoa hc v thc tin ca ti ..............................................................9
1.5. Ni dung ca lun vn...........................................................................................9
Chng II. Tng quan v mng cc b khng dy........................................................10
2.1. Khi nim v mng cc b khng dy (WLAN) ................................................10
2.2. Mt s c im chnh v u nhc im ca mng cc b khng dy ............11
2.2.1. c im ......................................................................................................11
2.2.2. u im........................................................................................................12
2.2.3. Nhc im..................................................................................................12
2.3. Lch s pht trin ca mng cc b khng dy...................................................14
2.4. Ch hot ng ca h thng mng cc b khng dy: ..................................21
2.4.1. Ch lm vic ngang hng Ad-hoc mode ..............................................21
2.4.2. Ch lm vic c s h tng Infrastructure mode..................................22
Chng III. K thut nh gi cht lng dch v mng truyn thng..........................24
3.1. Khi nim v cht lng dch v (QoS) .............................................................24
3.2. Nhng tiu ch nh gi cht lng dch v .......................................................28
3.2.1. Tr ................................................................................................................29
3.2.2. Bin thin tr ................................................................................................30
3.2.3. Tn tht gi tin .............................................................................................32
3.3. Cc ng dng i hi phi m bo cht lng dch v ....................................33
3.4. Cc c ch m bo cht lng dch v .............................................................33
Chng IV. Tng quan v chun IEEE 802.11 v vn nh gi cht lng dch v
mng cc b khng dy..................................................................................................35
4.1. Tng quan v chun IEEE 802.11 ......................................................................35
4.1.1. Cc chun con trong 802.11.........................................................................37
4.1.1.1. IEEE 802.11b ........................................................................................39
4.1.1.2. IEEE 802.11a ........................................................................................39
4.1.1.3. IEEE 802.11g ........................................................................................40
4.1.1.3. IEEE 802.11i .........................................................................................41
4.1.1.4. Cc chun khc ca IEEE 802.11 .........................................................41
4.1.2. Vn v phn chia knh v tng tch trn phm vi quc t ....................41
4.2. C ch h tr cht lng dch v ban u ca b giao thc IEEE 802.11 .........43
4.2.1. Hm iu phi phn tn (DCF)....................................................................43
4.2.2. Hm iu phi im (PCF) ..........................................................................43
4.3. C ch h tr cht lng dch v ci tin 802.11e .............................................44
4.3.1. Hm iu phi phn tn ci tin (EDCF).....................................................44
Bi Ngc Anh Lp Cao hc CNTT 2004 - 2006

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4.3.2. Hm iu phi qun l truy cp knh (HCCA) ...........................................45


4.4. Cc c t khc ca 802.11e ...............................................................................45
4.4.1. APSD............................................................................................................46
4.4.2. BA ................................................................................................................46
4.4.3. DLS ..............................................................................................................46
Chng V. Cc k thut nh gi cht lng dch v mng cc b khng dy.............47
5.1. C ch h tr cht lng dch v mng khng dy ban u ca b chun IEEE
802.11.........................................................................................................................47
5.1.1. DCF ..............................................................................................................48
5.1.2. PCF...............................................................................................................51
5.2. Cc hn ch v h tr cht lng dch v ca 802.11 MAC ..............................54
5.2.1. Hn ch v h tr cht lng dch v ca DCF...........................................55
5.2.2. Hn ch v h tr cht lng dch v ca PCF ...........................................58
5.3. Cc lc h tr cht lng dch v ci tin cho 802.11 MAC ......................59
5.3.1. Lc ci tin da trn s phn loi dch v............................................60
5.3.1.1. Cc loi lc phn loi dch v da trn trm .................................61
5.3.1.1.1. Lc AC....................................................................................61
5.3.1.1.2. Lc DFS..................................................................................63
5.3.1.1.3. Lc VMAC .............................................................................64
5.3.1.1.4. Lc Blackburst........................................................................65
5.3.1.1.5. Lc DC....................................................................................66
5.3.1.1.6. Bng so snh gia cc lc .......................................................68
5.3.1.2. Lc phn loi dch v da trn trm s dng PCF ci tin ...........70
5.3.1.3. Lc phn loi dch v da trn hng i s dng DCF ci tin
trn mi lung ....................................................................................................70
5.3.1.3.1. Lc EDCF ...............................................................................71
5.3.1.3.2. Lc AEDCF ............................................................................72
5.3.1.4. Lc phn loi dch v da trn hng i s dng HCF.................72
5.3.2. Cc lc ci tin da trn qun l li .....................................................73
5.3.2.1. C ch t ng lp li yu cu (ARQ)..................................................73
5.3.2.2. C ch sa li da trn s chuyn tip (FEC) ......................................75
5.3.2.3. Lc lai FEC-ARQ ..........................................................................75
5.4. Chun cht lng dch v ci tin IEEE 802.11e ...............................................76
5.4.1. Hm iu phi lai (HCF) .............................................................................76
5.4.1.1. Hm iu phi phn tn ci tin (EDCF)..............................................77
5.4.1.2. HCF iu khin truy cp knh ..............................................................80
5.4.2. Giao thc lin kt trc tip (DLP) ...............................................................83
5.4.3. Xc nhn khi (BlockAck) ..........................................................................83
Chng VI. nh gi th nghim, kt lun v nhng xut trong tng lai .............85
6.1. nh gi cc c ch h tr cht lng dch v mng khng dy da trn ng
dng m phng ns-2...................................................................................................85
6.2. Nhn xt v tnh hung p dng cc c ch h tr cht lng dch v..............92
6.3. Kt lun v cc xut kin ngh trong tng lai ..............................................98
Ti liu tham kho........................................................................................................100
Bi Ngc Anh Lp Cao hc CNTT 2004 - 2006

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Danh mc mt s t vit tt
BCVT (Bu chnh vin thng)
Backoff Factor : h s truyn li
BSS (Basic Service Set)
BSA (Basic Service Area)
CFP (Contention Free Period) : khong khng xung t
CNTT (Cng ngh thng tin)
CP (Contention Period) : khong xung t
CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance): a truy
cp cm nhn sng mang c x l xung t
CTS (Clear To Send)
CW (Contention Window) : di tranh chp / ca s tranh chp
DCF (Distributed Coordination Function): hm iu phi phn tn
DFS (Distributed Fair Scheduling)
DiffServ (Differention Service)
DIFS (Distributed InterFrame Space) : khong khng lin khung phn tn
EDCA (Enhanced Distributed Channel Access)
FIFO (First-In/First-Out)
HCCA (HCF Controlled Channel Access)
IFS (InterFrame Space) : khong khng lin khung
IntServ (Intergrated Service)
ISM band (Industrial, Scientific and Medical band) : bng tn dnh ring cho cc
lnh vc cng nghip, khoa hc v y t

Bi Ngc Anh Lp Cao hc CNTT 2004 - 2006

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Jitter : bin thin tr


MAC (Medium Access Control): qun l truy cp ng truyn
MDQ (Modified Dual Queue)
NRT (Non-Real-Time) : phi thi gian thc
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing) : mt k thut truyn ti
da trn tng multiplexing theo tn s (Frequency-Division Multiplexing FDM). Trong k thut FDM, nhiu tn hiu c gi i cng mt lc nhng trn
nhng tn s khc nhau. Cn trong k thut OFDM, ch c mt thit b truyn tn
hiu trn nhiu tn s c lp (t vi chc cho n vi ngn)
PC (Point Coordinator) : im iu phi
PCF (Point Coordination Function): hm iu phi im
PIFS (PCF InterFrame Space)
QoS (Quality of Service) : cht lng dch v
RT (Real-Time) : thi gian thc
RTS (Request To Send )
RRP (Round-Robin Polling) : kim sot vng lun chuyn
VoIP (Voice Over IP)
WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network): mng cc b khng dy
Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) : Tn thng mi cho cc b tiu chun v tnh tng
thch ca sn phm s dng cho mng ni b khng dy. N cho php cc thit b
di ng nh my tnh xch tay v PDA kt ni vi mng ni b, nhng hin
thng c s dng truy cp Internet, gi in thoi VoIP khng dy.
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) : WiMAX tng
t nh Wi-Fi v khi nim nhng c mt s ci tin nhm nng cao hiu sut v
cho php kt ni nhng khong cch xa hn.
Bi Ngc Anh Lp Cao hc CNTT 2004 - 2006

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Danh mc hnh v
Hnh 1. Mt on qung co cho ng dng in bo khng dy ..................................15
Hnh 2. Thit b lin lc khng dy s dng sng radio ca cnh st vo nm 1925....16
Hnh 3. Thit b in thoi di ng cm tay u tin ca hng Ericsson gii thiu nm
1987................................................................................................................................18
Hnh 4. Ch ad-hoc trong cc h thng mng cc b khng dy .............................22
Hnh 5. Ch infrastructure trong cc h thng mng cc b khng dy...................23
Hnh 6. Xu hng hi t v cng ngh truyn dn da trn nn IP v vn v QoS .25
Hnh 7. Cc kha cnh khc nhau trong nh ngha cht lng dch v ........................26
Hnh 8. nh x gia IEEE 802.11 v m hnh OSI 7 tng............................................36
Hnh 9. Cc giao thc s dng trong h thng mng cc b khng dy da trn chun
IEEE 802.11 ca tng vt l (PHY layer) v tng con iu khin truy cp mi trng
truyn (MAC layer)........................................................................................................37
Hnh 10. Lc iu khin truy cp c bn DCF ca CSMA/CA. ............................49
Hnh 11. Lc truy cp RTS/CTS. ...........................................................................50
Hnh 12. Chu trnh PCF v DCF....................................................................................52
Hnh 13. Thng lng v hiu nng tr ca DCF..........................................................57
Hnh 14. S phn loi dch v ca cc lc da trn s phn loi...........................61
Hnh 15. EDCF xut bi 802.11e..............................................................................78
Hnh 16. Mi quan h gia EDCF v truy cp knh IFS...............................................79
Hnh 17. Mt mc chu k 802.11e HCF thng thng. ................................................81
Hnh 18. So snh cc lc h tr cht lng dch v khc nhau s dng trong
mng cc b khng dy da trn cc tiu ch: thng lng , s dng mi trng lan
truyn, tr truy cp trung bnh........................................................................................88
Hnh 19. T l va chm ca cc c ch..........................................................................89
Hnh 20. Phn phi tr tch lu. .....................................................................................91
Hnh 21. Hiu nng v thng lng v tr ca lc EDCF......................................94
Hnh 22. So snh tng goodput gia EDCF v DCF .....................................................95
Hnh 23. Tr trung bnh ca m thanh, CBR video gia EDCF v HCF ......................97
Bi Ngc Anh Lp Cao hc CNTT 2004 - 2006

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Chng I. M u
1.1. L do chn ti
Cng vi s pht trin ca nn cng ngh thng tin, nhu cu v nng cao cht
lng dch v cho cc h thng mng, c bit l cc h thng mng cc b khng
dy (Wireless LAN WLAN) ngy cng c quan tm. Mng khng dy vi nhiu
u im nh kh nng trin khai d dng, thun tin, tit kim thi gian v tin bc
ang c cc t chc v doanh nghip quan tm. Cc im truy cp Internet khng
dy n r Vit Nam khng ch trong cc tp on, tng cng ty, doanh nghip ln
m ta c th d dng tm thy c trong nhng qun cafe Wi-Fi, nh hng, khch sn
chng t tnh u vit ca n so vi cc h thng mng c dy truyn thng.
Mng cc b khng dy (WLAN), cn gi l mng Wi-Fi, khng cn l lnh
a ring cho my tnh xch tay hay thit b tr gip c nhn s (PDA) na. Vi s
pht trin nhanh chng v cng ngh, gi y ngi dng ti Vit Nam c th kt ni
Internet min ph bng TD, Pocket PC v cc thit b tr gip c nhn thng qua
Wi-Fi. y l mt lnh vc y tim nng v c d bo s tng trng cao trong
cc nm ti. Theo tp ch TechWorld (M), th trng Wi-Fi s tng gp ba trong 4
nm ti. Lng chipset dng cho mng cc b khng dy c xut xng s tng t
140 triu nm 2005 ln 430 triu vo 2009. Theo hng nghin cu In-Stat, ng lc
chnh cho s tng trng ny l nhu cu dng my tnh di ng, b nh tuyn khng
dy v cc cng kt ni gia nh.
"Trong 5 nm qua, th trng thit b mng khng dy cc b c thc y
ch yu bi cc sn phm truyn thng v tnh nng Wi-Fi nhng trong my tnh di
ng", Gemma Tedesco, chuyn gia phn tch ca In-Stat, cho bit. "Tuy nhin, thc
t ang c s chuyn bin mnh m vi s xut hin ngy cng nhiu cc loi sn
phm mi nh my chi game dng console hoc dng b ti, in thoi v my in di
ng".
Bi Ngc Anh Lp Cao hc CNTT 2004 - 2006

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Tng doanh s chipset mng khng dy nm ngoi c c tnh t khong


1 t USD vi ba nh cung cp hng u l Broadcom, Atheros v Intel. In-Stat cho
rng, trong nm 2007 v 2008, mng th trng in thoi di ng s tng trng
mnh nh xu hng tch hp tnh nng Wi-Fi trong cc sn phm ny.
Tuy nhin, h thng mng khng dy cc b cng c nhng c im khch
quan khin cho vic m bo cht lng cho dch v gp nhiu kh khn hn so vi
cc h thng mng c dy truyn thng. S x hi ha cng ngh thng tin cng
khin cc cc dch v trc y tng nh xa x cng dn tr nn ph bin v c
trin khai i tr, nht l nhng dch v i hi truyn thi gian thc nh voice,
audio, video, VoIP...
Nh vy bn cnh xu hng x hi ho ng dng ca cng ngh thng tin v
ng dng cng ngh thng tin vo mi mt ca cuc sng, mt yu cu tt yu ny
sinh l phi lm sao kim sot v m bo c cht lng dch v mng cung
cp. Theo thng tin trn tp ch Bu chnh vin thng s 22 nm 2006 ng ti ti a
ch: http://www.vnpost.mpt.gov.vn/bao_2006/so22/thoisu/t2b3.htm, B Bu chnh
Vin thng (BBCVT) v Cng ngh thng tin (CNTT) cng b mt s loi dch
v vin thng bt buc phi qun l cht lng bao gm: dch v in thoi trn
mng in thoi cng cng; dch v in thoi di ng mt t cng cng; dch v
truy nhp Internet gin tip qua mng in thoi cng cng; dch v kt ni Internet;
dch v truy nhp Internet ADSL; dch v in thoi trn mng v tuyn ni th cng
cng PHS. Su loi hnh dch v trn bt buc phi qun l cht lng theo D tho
quy nh v qun l cht lng dch v, mng vin thng thay th cho Quyt nh s
177/2003/Q-BBCVT ang c B BCVT son tho.
Chnh do nhng nhn nh trn, vic nghin cu tm hiu cc c ch m bo
cht lng dch v cng nh cc c ch gim st nh gi cht lng dch v va l
yu cu va l ng lc ti quyt nh la chn ti Nghin cu phng php
Bi Ngc Anh Lp Cao hc CNTT 2004 - 2006

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phn tch v nh gi cht lng dch v cho mng khng dy cc b da trn chun
IEEE 802.11.

1.2. Mc ch ca lun vn
Nghin cu lch s pht trin ca mng cc b khng dy. Tm hiu cc c
ch h tr cht lng dch v cho cc h thng mng khng dy t a ra c
cc u nhc im ca tng c ch. T cc nhn nh v mt l thuyt nu trn, tin
hnh kim nghim li bng cch s dng phn mm ns-2 m phng hot ng h tr
cht lng dch v. p dng cc kt qu thu c t thc nghim t a ra cc
chin lc s dng cc c ch h tr cht lng dch v ph hp cho cc h thng
mng khng dy trong cc tnh hung khc nhau.

1.3. i tng v phm vi nghin cu


i tng nghin cu l cc c ch h tr cht lng dch v ca cc h thng
mng cc b khng dy bao gm DCF, PCF, EDCF, Blackburst. Sau khi tm hiu,
ti nhn thy rng i vi cc h thng mng cc b khng dy, ch c hai tng di
cng trong m hnh 7 tng OSI l c s khc bit so vi cc h thng mng cc b
dng dy (Ethernet). Ngay c trong tng lin kt d liu (Data Link), ch c tng con
qun l truy cp mi trng lan truyn (MAC) l c s thay i, tng LLC (Logical
Link Control) vn c gi nguyn. T tng mng tr ln trong m hnh 7 tng OSI,
cc c ch v giao thc vn c gi nguyn nh i vi Ethernet. Bn thn hai tng
di cng li c nh hng rt nhiu n cht lng dch v mng cc b khng dy
v thc t ch yu cc nghin cu m bo cht lng dch v ca h thng mng
cc b khng dy u tp trung nghin cu cc c ch thc thi trn hai tng ny. Do
vy, d ti l nghin cu cc phng php m bo v nh gi cht lng dch
v cho mng cc b khng dy nhng thc cht l nghin cu v nh gi cc c ch
h tr cht lng dch v cho cc h thng mng cc b khng dy thc hin trn
tng con qun l truy cp mi trng lan truyn (MAC) ca tng lin kt d liu
(Data Link).
Bi Ngc Anh Lp Cao hc CNTT 2004 - 2006

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1.4. ngha khoa hc v thc tin ca ti


Nghin cu v xut phng php phn tch v nh gi cht lng dch v
thch hp ca cc h thng mng cc b khng dy da trn chun 802.11. Vi mi
phng php nu ra cc c im, u nhc im v cc tnh hung nn p dng
c hiu qu nht.
Kt qu nghin cu c th p dng vo vic nh gi cht lng dch v ca
cc h thng mng cc b khng dy ca cc t chc, doanh nghip c trin khai h
thng WLAN.

1.5. Ni dung ca lun vn


Bn lun vn gm 6 chng:
Chng I. M u
Chng II. Tng quan v mng cc b khng dy
Chng III. K thut nh gi cht lng dch v mng truyn thng
Chng IV. Tng quan v chun 802.11 v vn nh gi cht lng dch v
mng cc b khng dy
Chng V. Cc k thut nh gi cht lng dch v mng cc b khng dy
Chng VI. nh gi th nghim, kt lun v nhng xut trong tng lai

Bi Ngc Anh Lp Cao hc CNTT 2004 - 2006