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INSTRUCTOR’S SOLUTIONS MANUAL FOR Glover and Sarma’s Power System ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Mulukutla S. Sarma J. Duncan Glover Tom Overbye INSTRUCTOR’S SOLUTIONS MANUAL FOR Glover and Sarma’s Power System ANALYSIS AND DESIGN THIRD EDITION Mulukutla S. Sarma J. Duncan Glover Tom Overbye, PowerWord Problems THOMSON ‘Australia + Canada * Mexico + Singapore + Spain + United Kingdom + United States COPYRIGHT © 2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of ‘Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Instructors of classes adopting Power System Analysis and Design, Third Edition, by J, Duncan Glover and Mulukutla S. 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Mexico Spain Paraninfo Thomson Learning Calle/Magallanes, 25 28015 Madrid, Spain Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 CONTENTS Fundamentals Power Transformers ‘Transmission-Line Parameters Transmission Lines: Steady-State Operation Power Flows. ‘Symmetrical Faults Symmetrical Components ‘Unsymmetrical Faults System Protection Power-System Controls ‘Transmission Lines: Transient Operation Transient Stability 25 70 93 143 186 2 247 321 355 383 409 CHAPTER 2 Rye Slee = S [ened +f pincd] = 254d 438 Bas -B-jaz J A416 [4a Bays Ryn Ba 2(2.64 54:30) 4 (Odd ade ed adeasmosan/iaes Bg Bi Ba 2G L50°) C5 2232-13") 25 /ansavsa-pat ~522.98 : a2agas La Ve 4 . 3233.3” 3 o.s basse ce Ag RBar 506 [5 fasert (a Le do0f-30 = 346.4-j200 tw) ACE): 5 Aim Cook #187) 2 Bon (ERIS 90") = 5 ces (ok 15°) Ls G/ay Loe 3.506 Loe 5 Cs Le Gay L30 +5 15 + 449 agh aia) + (294 -54-03) = B43 -h6.244 = 7.28 (2 54.06" 0-418 -4 3.415 CO Vmax © STEBV 5 Tray = 2004 Vs 678-8 /2 2 AROV > Vez 480 /-08" ¥ 5 Le 200e/@ =14gd > Wag LoS A ww F ~3¢ caw 7 =o ee eaa Braye —56 a 5 1-90 EA, 2 efe-t5 Law = 10447-52125 (BeRTA Vos TaCod6) 2 G25 facet ) 6A): 75 (253.197 v Bia contd. (we? (not Te SCALE) bd ie < oy Wk)= 277F clot ead) = parr ca Cat #3) NV HI we « ¥[ze = 13-35 LS A ice) = \aese cnn Cue tad) A cer Be Jul = dG eoy Conse) = a Lae 0 q. ¥/% > @un Be) [Galas ) = 1840 Leet LCR = TRAC AB ces Cut = Ce) = 034 en (ust -6o) A (a 2s - 428 ge 0 [2 > Cartdes) [@s bre d= wee Las a LCs Woes IP Ca Cok viact) = 15°67 cn Ck e120" A con Ve Goole) 23° 70-7 e365 Go DUS Het AFPEAS IN TE puswan, (er UC E)s Vee LE cw Cob 2c) 5 wim @:3T, ult) = ava co € anit +20") 2:6 conta. ce) KeAlx; BeB/P 3 G+ BB ete atabo: FRlLee* ] THE RESULTANT WAS THE SAME FREaUENET CO, (0d THR Cigeurt DIAGRAM IS SHOWN BELOW: ae jaa 00 2 34 (> ke Baja-dae ede 5 LS a Es (too Le") /(5 Lo) = 20 L-5at & Tut connent LAGS TE seuRce wLTAKE BY SBA © Powee Factor + Cet SBC 2 67S LAGGING cay peed = WED ACED = [678-B cra Cart - 105" YUL aco en Cut- 891 = 4 188) (200) [anwe + on Cant = word fee nade tome Gete8 xi0t cos (amt — no) Ww (ey Pe Vi en (S-B) = 480% laa Gn (-105'4 5") en \anawiot Wh ABtentee 2b lita kw peniveree > Qe Vi Am (S-B) = 480» Lat Asn Ct00"> 2 = G.CBSxloy VAR ABsoRBED 2 + G6-85 \evaz Deuvceed, CAD TE Punson content (ED > tara Las ise = 14a Caves" a LEAVES TMt PoSitiVE TERMMAL OF THIS GENERATOR , THE GtnesAToR Pewee FACTOR IS THEW Clos 4185") = er \TSE LAGGING 2a can PEED= BLED ACED = BAUT ® 19-58 eet Cut~20) a otecs wie* C4) Liver Caaksety] epee nth & BBEanw en Caak ot) W pe Vice CS-p> = 2s ees ca ot = 3.336 kw el ee Chet ee source pauce factor > Co C5-P2* an C2d-ad) 7 0 Cey pce? = VCR) ACR) =» BAT od. Cer Cock 43d > cr Cost - 60") whee wet C4) Lon ae = or caak-28>) ences niet Con (2b 3d ps via (§-p> = 27 43-46 Cr (264607) 20 Ww aq: v3 Ava CE BPoe 21T* 73-46 mW 2 20-35 VAR pS + en Ci-pds 0 LAGAN cer PEED = WEED ACED= BWA 15:61 Cer Casta 0") Cor Cots 2) Bete en Ca) oman ae Cack+ ise) 2 B0C4 wid Ge Crak #19 ww Ps VE CEP) = 27 \wog On C20'- 120") 20 Ww Qe VE Aw CEB = 21TH HOB ArH Cac) = -B.0GTKVAR ABseREED = + B.0GAKVAR Dativertn PS = eo C§-p) = cm Ga) zo LEADING 20 (> Pale): 67BS x GT BS ca’ Cak+as*) a Acces viet CL) Cie cn Cast +a) = 2A x 4 2.d04 na Cn (aut +90) W a BAS aio” Cor Coke aS?) Cor Cork 13st) = RAB xto* (hy Loo C90) + Cn Cac + 180°) 8.2 w to? as C2ect +180 > > a FBI to” Atm 2k we Cer Pe VER = EEBNRT [ro + a-r0a mio WW rdscter (oo Qe Vt/x + Corte /a 5/25 = 4.215% 10 VAR DELIVERED ce Cpe8) = tes" C@/PD = tax! PS = cn CE-BD = Gr C= 288) = 0928S beaming (ay Be BAX slogans 2603 /-68.t 2 ACkY= (678-2 / 26.93) en C uk as’4 68-2) 2 2Se2ren Cote wee) A Pa Ck d= [25-21 cn Cat = a2") L2sa-t an Costs 3.279] 2 GiBS5 xo” ent Cok +327) eet WIP we Bate Me Com (ae + 220K" (b> Ce) = [2521 on Cat + 103-2? 9] [ 620.2 Cn Got +i32'-a¢ J} < 744a xo? Am[2 Coteus) W ces Pe x#R = (2520/@Y Cred = 3.118 kw Assenser wo Qe tx = (25-2 / SEY (25) = Tase kvak Devverse © pss ool bow (Q/PI = Co Lee" Crenae [308 y) 2 OSTA LEADING wo Lalo ka a LLrrrC— =e Vt) = B12 en Cot-ast) kv pukd= wey Cer: (BE en Cat-aso] Lae coat] = GA CA) [ en Gast) + on C2ot-asd] = 22-63 432 ea (aat-as"> MW (> Pe View (d-pp= 8% 4 a (-4s'-0') = 22-63 MW Devvered wo Qe VL ARC Spd: Bra Am(-48hOV 2 = = 22.63 MVAR DELWERED : 422-63 MvAR ABSORBED car PS 2 Cn CE-BD = em Co ast0") 2 0-707 LEADING 243 @> Es (lay eel] (alas) = Bee ACky = 200 Cub oD A Wim Gs BIT nadls, peed = wk aCe) = A Lona’ + on Camb ao") 2 BAG + hen Carat wae) WwW Wd -UCED, LACED, amd PCL ane plated below: Csee ment paged (6d The inatartemesns Pousen Aor an average valne of 3.46 W) and the Preyaeney oo Luce trek of bee weltage A Curnent , “QAB contp, “0 40 20 00) -80 10) (0.000 005 0006 O009 OO1T OOIS DOTS GOR OGzK 0077 030 (a) Ze lovjizomx om 2 toad IN Ven (56-87 phe On 56.0" 2 0.553 LAcaNG > Ye 20 Ley TWe connent SUrfLUD BY ME Bence 15 5s Gee Le >/Qas L368) 2 eas Lose" TW REAL Ponce ABSORBED BY THE LEAD 13 iin BY Pe nen 663% On Séal 2 aaow wuren cau ge cwecxen BY E7R2(GEBD 10 = Ado WW AE REACTIVE FoWER ABSERBED BY ME LOAD 1S Qe 120% CCR Am BEA = COB VAR (ed PEAK MAGNENC ENERGY 2 Ws LED = ovo Ceeay 2 es Qe GWe BIKE = COB VAR Is SATISFIED, 258 a.5%* “a - fay 8: VE" = (so Low) (5/30) = 750 Leo = Bb +4 cans Be ReC Sd = 375 W Aesenser, Qz In (5): 649-5 VAR Assenees THE PowEL TRIAHGLE IS Given Belen: S T5ONA / | Gans VAR LN Pe BH (> PS = Cw Gos oS LAGENG ] Qs = Pes 6 = BTS baw Cen o-8) 2 18\.62 var, Qe = QL~ Ag = SAWS -181-62 = 467-88 VAR 246 \__ 0.05 [=3d s 0-043B-j0-025 = G,-3B, 20Lae oo 2 eoter Las : 2.05 450:05>6, +48, vay [= 48 2 FG, + (loc) ©0433 2 ABS We ABSOROLD FS e028 2 250 VAR ABSeRBED = Boo ABSORBED 2 Boo VAR Deuvcrer Poo Reh > I3sW Tow lq,zS00 165-4 2150 VAR VAR. BELvEeED -O- 247 * -. e ce Ge G2 Coeds 4557 P kaw d= leootan(s-57 ) ZV Ne |E | Seer Fz toe kw a: Cotes 25d Qgz Par Qs = tose ten(as-aat) = 404-3 kvar Qet B-Q_ t Mte2 = 4843s FBSA kvar Set Qe = 535.4 kva Go) Srncunomeus Meter ABEeRES Pla werent 2 B28-akw awd QL, zo kvan Sovact PS = cn [ ban’ F leze2. * kv AR = 0873 LA Going Pg Pa Ps lene 828.9 » \sze.a kw et = ONS Ba-04" 58a / 54.04" . = 408824 feta Ss Wet zh sens zw Pe vanes; vafFo [rams 5 = —— (G,+0.> (e-08824 4001) = \oB.0Bv P= VG, = (lescad Coostzed= ABT-GW Ps VEG, = (edc8) Cond: 1062-6u (> Yeu = Ye¥n + 01882-Jotaat = o2a8q /-38-00" I 3 = VYeq = (\ed-08) (2288972 24.636 2 Wao Le") C25 (-30") = 2598. = dos0 /-30° = 4 S00 Pe ReCS) = 2598-1 w Dervered Q= Im C3) = — S00 VAR DELIVERED = + ISOOVAR ABsonnED 220 B+ Rada, = torso Ble to Fe 34.359 (Seo coe “93 29.238 (1B s BTN 4 2.885 Sy 2 5+ Be 5, + 27-7a4b4t4 = 27.92 /304 Py > Re CS) = 27-78 kw Qe IR CS) = Vata ran Sg a | Sy\ = 27-82 ka aasalesa Gye VATA kvaR, Te kw 2.21 REE* = rR «God 3 = 1200 +Jo Lt = 48 Goy = 0+ 4az00 =)Xett = -j4 (20)"= 0-5 boo S25, 2000 VA Fowte TRIANGLE: COMPLER Powe DELIVERED BY THE SeuReE 1s : i 1aeoH Ssoenc, = VI" = (oo Ze" (20 L-53-"Y 5 2000 (83 Mt conriex Fowee DELWERED BY THE SevECE 1S EQUAL TD THE THTAL contian Powee ABSORBED BY THE LeAD. ~10- 222 COD THE PROBLEM 1s MODELED AS Shoum in FIGURE BELOW: byon z Retackw YS, 20-85 tacoma OL = On o8s= aaa PeWER TRIANGLE FoR TAL LeAD® S kaw Corned Th Bea Kwan Be Red acs varie /aina’ kva “4 Pz ie kw ae [ve anc/ are 2 2aq3 A Rene ee tree ere veaen 2 tine, = 2943) 1 = Bo. siz RVAR REACTIVE POWERLESS Iw ELIE IS Qyye = I7K By Cg rday = 20 45 (14.3644 0512) = 200-7 (50-28 leva TWE Infur WALTAGE 1S Given BY Vg = Sg [tz 6B2-AV Cams) TWE Pewee FACTOR AT mE RET IS Ged SB-28 2 O-G LAGING Gey Areucing KVL, Uy 480 Loh + dbo C2aans (e200) = GBS +5250 = Garg (2-57 V Camay (es), = ce Cansty maa) = 06 LAana THE CAREUIT DIAGRAM 1S Sewn BELoH: 220/orv 2:23 conrad. Bisa = Boece + 537500 Cyne Cartoaszisia® | Sis See00 +5 ecce tan Cia-ia’) = Sec0e +416 430 wee Boys S, wer — Sain = -J2ne70 vA oar aes 55 me (art) C220 ” “Whe Problem 2.24 Qcap=6MVR minimizes the real power line losses (0.36 MW) If Qcap has a value of 6.5 or 7 MVR the MVA power flow is minimized with a value of 12.36 MVA. Problem 2.25 Problem 2.26 Qcap=8MVR ; -\3- 2-27 : Vg erfcueas A VPP SEAT 9b (Admittance valves are shown) SEYCHYISC}+I(o-Lon-yascy — GA50-J4.20) ] [Me] flac 2.09 ~G Miso -34.450) “Bile 450) HAfo-14a Viol [1-461 E22? Oe +33-am | -o.4ag04)4as0 ee |: [ive ee] ~oensorivaso| o.entis.nn} LMo. 12461 [-78.67° 2.28 NOTE THAT TWERE ARE Twe BUSES PLUS THC REFERENCE BUS AnD ONG@ LINE FoR THIS PROBLEM AFTER ConvERTING THE VOLTAGE SOURCES WW FIG.2-23 To CURRENT SoURCES, THE EQUIVALENT Sounel IMPEDANCES ARE: Bs) = Rea = CO dog) (sons) = Oartio-s) (-s84) On+I30,5 -10-7 = (0.5099 (78-699) (0,1 /- 907) (onsen Lissa") (001 Lo18) oniaay l= Rea? 0-413 L98-96° = 0,00S8ga-Jos TWE REST IS LEFT AS ANExEeRCISE To mE STUDENT. “We Agter Converting impedance valves mm Raure 2-24 4p adrmittance Valves, tre bus admittance meatrie ise ° - Cy) writs nodal equations by Mspedtont 1 a ° ° Mo | [rl -1 Qow-T) ossssthi) -0.25 Vo |-| © © (ro3as3ei1) (0.3333-Joas) ~ Jonas V5 ° } 0.25 =So.urs (0.25- 10.0838) Vuo| (2132. “16 ae ~91.25 320 iy 32.5 7 C m2 ; Ne 4 3 Xu Se Ta a as tee 5 Yar Man Vas Yau oo ed ous | tar Yan Yas Yow || so se EERE Sar Yan an Vaal 4 os warren t B+ whe > Vee tae Ba tthe» tae? Bathe dee SLU Fa 5 Yan 2 Yo2* ~ thay Aw Yau > Yas > Fae 23h Ooo ar a Testa +e te % -% Vb (ey 48 8 a as N, ° . 8 “1 a 5 \7e ° s\ 4 - it a “BB 0 Ne Len" 2s 5 o -sal | y og (138° ot Se Pied cece -c.6Bet | celta S 7 i eas 0.142 06258 \ j | ercoua os teas etna in C307 0 TAS o-GBAO 0 BGO eiG1Ag 0 G2EB 9 S6GS 0, CRAM ws | wees V2 |S a | ‘e | us 62 cas | ery Cer) Gass oA 23h far Van = 228 Les Wot Lo’ Vv Cassunen as REFERENCED we ee ceo sces Ve ooo ne Leae 8 zy: Ye. vaotLe” spor Lae" = (on det © in ve Z=90° ro I [ae . Ge Faye TA Lae s 12. foadead = oe Looe & a. We, 2 7 ——_——- + 36-02 fac’ s (045 36.02) Tan Bora Lee Lees (Ors [3 wort: 2y “1 ae = BY, Lest Crs) = GZ zea nze (ese 2 Tinos wie? LB687 2 5. Ted ne 4d A323 10° Pog 2 CS, 3 Be F sade scaku , 2 I(3,,): 4.323 kvar Deuveseo 7 Ose ¢ +4) paetess 327.205 kv Cee Qs Asa koan P bnea hu 2.34 Ven = 22% feast 7 _ , . eS bre Se gage eS (pean Tie New 2 trot Jeaet Gal3d Seat 7 24-02 /-ceat’ a Bag = 3 Van B= (i208 £20") (24.02 266-47") = 8654/3687 2 GA2S45 SIND Pag = GAZE W ; Qag= SINT VAR ; Bem ABSORBED BY ME LeAD PE = CoC aear> ze-Blacanc, Sag \ Saa\s sesava (> ~18- 23! Coy TRANS FeRMING THE A- ConmfeTED LeAD Into AN E@uivatenT YY | THE ImpeDance PER PRASE Of Tm E@oiwALeHT Y 15 Go-445 Ze =@o- 415) Wire me puase vetrace Vz 22838 Lipo TAKEN AS A REFERENCE, ME PER-PUASE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT 1S Shown Bhiew + Tan jan + z20Le" TOTAL \MPEDAHCE VIEWED FROM THE INPUT TERMINALS 15, (B0+d40) (20-415) Gow naeds (20-415) Zs 24ga% Dag ae 22 ha 224 sslra THE THREE -PunsE comriex Powee supPiIED + 5=3Wi" = soo Pz Boo WW amd QzO VAR DELWERED BY THE Senin e-em SeURCE (oD PUASE VoLTAGE AT Leap Teemmuats V2 120 /o"— (2444) C5 Lo") = to-420 = weg (-10.2° Vv TME LINE VOLTAGE AGRI TUDE AT THE LOAD TERMINAL 15 Cvrene DL = LB we = WaBea CED THe CoRRenT PER PHASE IN THE Y—ComnfcTED LeaD AuD In THE Eeuiy.Y oF THE A-~Load; T\> 1-42 > 2-236/-63.4° A t a Aedus 4.72 226.50°A THE PHASE CURRENT MAGHITODE In THE ORI GIWAL A-ComwECTED LOAD fz > tn 2 S82 2 aseran Gea E Ta =19~ 2BBS conta, a THE TWREE-PHASE GonPlex PoutR ABSORBED BY EACH LoAD IS Br avik= asow ~ jeco var Beep a See Wace taco can THE THREE-PHASE ComeLer PowER ABSEREED BY THE LINE IS Sue BCR aK) 2723024367 TWE SUM of LoAD foweRs AMD Line Losses SOW + Seo vaR, 'S EQUAL me power DEWVERED FROM THE SorteY » S,+ S.+ S, 2 Geer severe 120 o~ 4 400) +(iS0 44B00 = \Beow + jo var -20- = 2208 3 2200V PASE VeLTAGE AT THE LoaD TERMINALS 1S VQ = TAKIN AS REF, TOTAL COMPLEX PeWER AT THE LOAD END oR RECRIVING EAD IS Sacagy = 560-1Co-t07 + hoot) #182 = 528 +306 sea (peer vem PuASe Vourace Up AS REFERENCE, = a* . Z 2 Sener | cerece £8081". joo /-3e87"A ay B Cazeo Lo") PHASE VeLTACE AT SEnDinG EMD 1S Givin BY Uy = arco Jo?» Co-asg a roo La 36.37") = 2401-7/4-58°V WE MAGNITUDE of THE LINE To LINE WLIAGE AT THE SEWDING EWD of TE Line is WOuL = BW = V8 ser) = seo (bb) THE THREE PHASE COMPLEX PowEe LORS IN THE LINK 1S @ivEN BY Sicagy = BRIT 4A BK 2 BCom GOo 4d 8 C27) Creed® = takwe ger kvar > THE Tne PaaS SENDING FowEe is, = BY E* = 3 Casein 24-88") Coo C36 -81° >) = Saokw + § 477 kyr Ss. 'SCae> eee Sse = Srevey + Sreser “Ue te WB JB (ase) (Co) Tut AMMETER READS ZERO, BECAUSE IN A BALANCED THRE PASE SYSTEM, THERE 1s Ho NEUTRAL CURRENT. 22 Io @ Be. G06 Lee s 2 3S using voutace pwistos . Uy = Vow Bala = gop 6001 Lect (2 19) Fane, N, . at ee = o ac’ Vv an? Tg Geavfer + (obeaeed rosa J 2-96 Leas veutact Van > JB 105-4 = 182-60 Cot? 25 -5 607 Zev : : 5 Bey 2G-c0r Let rll C-deee> Zeng t Bune wees 28 Taw = 2% ce LE los Y= vee 7 (2.88 Lis ya o8 +906 aay THE LoAD Line Hue Voltage ts Vas Bnaas 1981V -11- (eb) (> __texte® at Te (aco) (o-8) Gs Vor - Fumes For Load VotTAGe VF Eo. _Bexe® SB CS DES) pee ete tate Vor? W+ Bune Tar Geweaame 2 Lined = 2e-12 «10 iv zone on * 239 x Ser> >Var Far = apse /- sent" A 2 Cua edhe) Ca3seLze8T) ye NEUTRAL aiea Letae vy bwe enor FR o2re-a = BIBTV caat -agte® 2 87-63 [30-04 costes Lemac’ —2ase L-36-87" sata Lrarad’ & as + (o-Be ayy Gana 2 2a Lo = 2saq L-eeF vy suse vertaae Vg. = (asaq)> AAN.BV = Casan L-0-63") (Bae (Avast) Bane Bar + 11 & KvAR 5 Bem DewiveteD -23- Sy: 2693 Qs Qe, we > lakvae a—\ Re Rahs askew Cer PS s co Braz 2 a BSA LAaaing EY 2 : te 26-93 x10 > Ty a 5 3 KN sana “ JS Cate) aD > 5 > ' 2 « Ger Qe ence vee = BLY / Xe 2 Xe 2 BCarerh Aa3T Vax o> Ce tet Va fg > Ate/anan = ane 2 eee _ BBM Ie! neon VB Mu Sa a8 Ler A+ Bae Ze FORA BALANCED Y_LoAD Bg = Zam = Zee = Bea ERA BALANCED A-LOAD USING EQUATIONS WW FIG. 2-27 gta gtan gt 2,2 4x * 4y * 4 = u = 32, 4y 52 z Awe > S - 2a Za+ 2, + Ze 3 (b> _ Gio) C-3259 Bie +520 = 325 = json 52 Zn» Grol dred (4x0) C525) | 35 ? 35 _ =Jloe a -24- CHAPTER 3 ee) =. 34 aus Fe aw= Lele) ae VOO voits tool, “I ' -1 1 t= 6. ade. at coke So 4 = +t -50 ; rey eee CS rn Se EF a + a 2 Eas ane AV ‘Bacco 240 i w eo @o Gs Mts 1482 Carey s a200¥ 2 2? J cni'v.8 @ 8: Bi%s3, (%)- tone £6 tonu? Lode” 2 347-8 /-36.87° ae Zz &, 20 Zo" . Ze sh: - a . ame wt + Sepesear’ * © 6613 736.87 2 orS24egesar Gens £36.87 hy P= Py = BO(oB)>GAKW @, +O, + GA ten Go-eT'): AB kvar Wwe 33 —P, a Ze Br = 230/ v HSC NO Ex WN = [ateoo ee Se = (2 )(as0) = 2300.0 BLY shod : b) FE, s/s S = Cos 0.88 * G ) = Jwonve /ocee.85, = nee Aer A is ato Loe 7 ° z,- Es ————_—S = Wn gene [See Zz op4088 - Jo.rsd3 © = (eye loot = 48.09 1-31.79 =e (a\ RePL= (NO(o-)= 1S aw O12 QL = NO tan (-31.09)) 2-68-17 Qvars supplied fo primary winding a4 = a = z Tal + - z, Bs amle ea) (QM Franny vB ORs ape vy = - 3] (\ He Se recto) = S248 |eozoa) = 180.5 ag? - * A 7G 7 re 34 E,= 2 _: 2 P= ieo.s LSS-84° A = TL “conv. (<'30*)* = . . cae Eee FEE es sue pos.eye % zy fects a eee ‘loser Bie Bl = We SS46 Lows kHh (4) 3.23.2 se -cotlpa) = So [28-81 wa SC—————_=Ti =e —=_—— -21- ao Son 2 FoR MAXIMUM POWER TRANSEER Te THE LOAD | ORL TOR = Rg 2 ou Goats We on Ga miNs 2 \Seon i, ©) Br vermee awisin, fs fu , * ce BL e SRawky oR Atwrt ) Rye iteon Oe ens 259 Pay = LOO as 28 ae rat wet V800 Veo 3-6 — + WW acai ¥ Bred Vy = Craw wkd/2 2 Iam rol Vv Be kv = Brut v w+ us amt v Va CEY = = 2g = -Bacmvet v ~28- R= 2sw SREL=O.597A gh Zy= S-77A Hoe + DYD Neglecting the Series [mpedance + E, > ME, = MLV = (24) ayojo°= ayoole? v Set hee Ne CS) sole " ke = ANd = ters (38) (S-9)= 0.597 A 62 Rjet = 213 / God) = a = (Ne - Yo = a) /e, eS 0.897 /x400 = WHS X10 45 Bm= Vee *JGnesus (2.098 x158)* B= 12460 x16 %5 = . So = 2 Yo= Gem AB m= T.UEXIO = J ardox 157 = Sisredees) -29- f => Z =, 3-7 conta t Wot LO. Regy = % [AF nso | (20-8*) _ x,7 60[/G@o.)= 2286S R Xeqy 2 1 Beg) - Rig, = VG-BESTH (WF = 2-306 LNBH+ VAWEDE = 2.8e5 /$3-067 Fag = Rew + Axegy? (a Z, Reqije Sxepi le Dkegi/2 | Regi beREND 4 eB a MIR jisdR v, Gee BTID, = 1 By = I 2-40x Bis Equwalect T cireoit referred to Hah Valtiqe Side 33 5, x, + x a ovat SE oe BF Fewe CH per ve Taoo:2A0 USING VOLTAGE Division + E,> Gace Le) deeeo . aana.c LOV ‘4CGece+t) Va = En? GQ ke 234.96 ZV ~30- 34 ze — . [Jato vy akoos 24D i Se 3H 7 3 ~ a (z= Smet fres'laey 2 Sorte? fcodl(e.2) = 106-3] 73.0? « ae 7 ee B= MMs 10 (eyo coh) = awofP ~ = si = EL + (Reg tiXegi)E, ayooJ® + (1442-8) (20-83 £28487" ) = 1400 + $6,075 1312327" = WHA IAG = 244g. 0268" Vv E+ (Rjeutt iXpany* Regt Xepy) E) = roo Jor & (2-0 +4 4.5) (20.85 L34-87°) = root 102.57 (27.1687 = reg tisoe = 2A LEIsos? Vv (\ 3.2 % Ee = (2420 11S08°)(r0. es Lie-87°) = S185, [38.02 = 40,87 x10 +4 B1ASxI0> Pos RelS.) = to-87 Gw Z delivered to ~e Os = ERE) F = 3169S Avars | sewling enol of peeler -31- BAo (@) Fiz 20-e3 Lo? Y= rtoo Jo” + (1+ 42-8) (a0, 83 Le”) : = LYy.E + 56.095 JbE2199F = 214210. + 52-08 = 4ri/Ve132° > Vez whoo Lh (2-0 +54-8) (10. #3 10) . = Yoo + 1026589 (66-04% = 144121 4+I493.74 = 2443. AI y 8. RY = (24s L29P) (x0. 83/8) = 0 8%. 12177” = $0,869, + 41953. — }aevy ; Qs = 10453 Qyvars (e) E+ 20-83 387° A Hz hoo po? + (i+ das) (20-83 186-87") = roo + $6,078 105-07? = 2985.4 +5847 = 139d [tes vy Re f= 24vo Jo + (2-0414.8)(20-¥5 LSe-87? ) = a4oot lows Lordi? = 2397-1 +4100.0 RB as74, L2stoI? -v Me Et < (2377-24072 ) (20.83 34.37) 44,566, 234469 = YoReg- 428047, P= Yo. aw delwered Qs = ~ e805 Mevars delivered = +28.04 vars by Absorbed by seyiese “Source Note; Real ana reactive losces , on STRAW anol WAS Avars , absorbet by tre Geeder eu transformer, are tee sane in all cases. Miqnest epplerenes ocests for vain RF (eres Poos( Pe x1002 Go/so-en)X!00 = 1029 Yo -34- Jeans = 75.0 eo 2 ve xis ote = RetARED ve TL W=SIDE, THE ENEITING BRANEH CeNDUETANCE AND SUSCEPTANCE ARE GIVEN BY G[o%) 0-003 = Ghee) e003 = eed x15? S s fe Qfary eet = C/o) eer 2 02 mi AME EQUWALENT CIRCUIT REFERRED To THE BIGH-VOLTAGE SIDE 15 Shown Betows RyrosA 4x, 2aco: 240 IDEAL TRAN FoRHER an we omirred) ow Ri = Ri fot = c-c075 0 Koz x fats oor THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUrT REFERRED TO THE LoW-VOLTAGE SIDE 1S Stews BELOW; ' eo Rizosorsa Sxl: 2aoe. 240 WDEAL TRAN AFORMER (CAN BE OMITTED -33- Biz (0) NEGLECTING MME EXCITING CURRENT OF THE TRANSFORMER, THE EQuiVALENT cinco of THE TEAWSFORMER, REFERRED TO MME WIGHA VOLTAGE C PeMART) SIDE 1s SMown BELOW E208 [- 36-474 TE RATED (FULL) LeAD CURRENT, REF Te WV SIDE | 1S GIVEN OY (Soxte? ) [2a00 = 208A (= 20-8 (ocaet 2 20-8 (-364 2ace (or (20-8/= 36-9" )(vS+42) = 2450 Lo-38 Nv WIM A LAGGING PoUER FACTOR oF O68, usine KVL, (by THE ComRESPeNDING PHASER DIAATAM 19 SveHN BELoH: Ys 2480 Lesa’ v 13 Fxeyls nev rr — ze-s[/-ac-aA Using KVL, Sigs 2eo0ls' + (20-4 (=nea) (2454) = 2a8asle%'v PS Ac me stnome eur 1s cos (36.44 0-96) 0.19 Lagging ~34- 7 . -3 J s.gg0e 7 i t- GkDbAID' pe S § ross po Tipe SBase)= SOLVA Stagye.= SORVA Veaser = ae Veayer= 24O~ 3 Zaesey = Grog} /Soxw = NS. ae Using volteyo Aivision: y 3 sroes 7 aa ]oe Vigo: (10 le) S288 _____, = 0.9998 /0" yu ate C oo T(se0est8-680¢x155) le 2 = Vio Viewer > (0.2296 20°) (240) 234-45 1 7 -y =. . Baa Bebgogcio re ° ER Zapp =O /-seer7 7 st ‘Jap | Be vB ero Vipo ' _ Bonet y Zone D 1 ' = Sease= sohwA 1 VRace= MIO Veuel= 1YD0w Fraser = (2400) |soxic’ = VS.18 @ V+ hele’ + (eg0301624 3 arto xtd") (1-0 =34.€7° ) . aeer = ho 4 OcOrv3373 L338" = 1.019974 1 0,012187 = 1,020 10-6839 py ee (trove Lo-e82?) (24 00) = 2448.1 0.6639 -35- BAd comp. (6) Vague ole + Cunsermb™ +i 2.168 x10") (1, eLaea4) = WO+ Oe OFL74 7 LATER = VL OSTBR + 40-.020833 = 1-037 S [1e1S05° po Ve = Veg Vense 7 (129918 LLAS2S) (108) = aston Le tses? Vv . is Ree : (Pepe 10592 Meru ESe0 = (osm L1.1828°) (1.0 Or) = 10875 [8¢.02° = 0.817345 0.6390 fer une BF Cy re delivered Qs = (O.b810S2) = 31-98 Qvars do.omsapo Jo.reopy J0-10 py Zremtpe = Ve3grt 10.3028 Pu 1 Dope, = 2 > = Ms 1 ease, 1S N3.4A Zroadpr= CEO = 1.301 + J 0.3025 Xqippe 0-10 pe Mimers = jHee = O118e Pe uw Xaipe= (o-10)( 482 (33) = 0.071849 Pu =3b- Vspe i Cxmrpyt Xap d Xume) + Zroat pe 5 o- 1565 LO J (607289 F181 Dt 10) + (LBL. O28) = 0.4865 LO Weer +L oO-cert 0.9866 12° V.-S1Y 126-019 = 0.6316 Labor pe a hFrrC~——— (o-esre =ue0°) (173.4) = oI gee A = so. oO 216 Zap, Bere 20-2778 (ES? re + E,,,= +8 [-38. 7 Ea po Zrpu = 1778/40? ge Rase= (600) 5 IG@oxK lo a ee Fea = ———— = 96,234 leone “WF Gen) = a - Zope LSS. 0, 17Ng 18S po se eee ee ie ee as oes (6 Be Se —— pe COO -31- eer Zapp? aro 8 0-8 [-w&® ONT _ Bipot hy Po TP D o O.U7Ng /8S° + 277 40 - | EO 27S 0-8 [-30' _ 0-8 | -30° 215214) robo 22-9807 [43-76° Tapp = Ovresy [-"2.78° pe Fan Tue * Cron Ln) (1423) Te = 25.83/-73-78° 4 | Verruzts/ote ©) @ ees a mene Eye TIES HR 5 Iya. + SHEL ieosn 27 5 _ Betdie : 4 Zr eu = oe = bas + ods2 = 2.c6\ /18-43 PL Bay = 45297. gS jo saae bus Perceets Vsieu \ ire \| Zap (206i Jas) Cone [aaees) ieee creed ee ene (raeay 0082) 4 @-9T7S~Jo-543) = 2714 ata" pu Tye Tew Pease = W274 frztal) Crs-es) 2 22.99 Zita" A -38- Bis SELECT A Common BASE of looMVA ANd 22kVv Cnet aaky PR UNTED HARONGLT ON THE GEMERATER SIDE | ws THe TERt) BASE VeLTAGK AT BUSA 1s 2kvy THIS FIXES THE VOLTAGE BASES FoR THE REMAINING BUSES In ACCORDANCE WIM THE Using €@, B-BN, PER UNIT REACTANELS on THE SELECTED BASE ARE GIVEN BY wag Ty Ke ON CME): 02 ens Le ee CHY EOS G. xe ens Ce) Ty: x2 0-06 C 8) Ree eee ce aac Cea meoxs ms CR CRS oo For tint 1, Zonse Cas = ABA ABD KE saa °. FoR UINEZ, Zeggee MOL arm Avo X= ESAP roa Too THE LoaD coment we oo ae i. s 2 : LOAD comeuex fowet aT ec Lacane PF IS Si cggye ST /5a 187 Miva ei 2 = Porcrecy ne SCese 2 VAS ag SaBCT A 2 JME GASE ImpeDance Gra THE LOAD 1S CAD /toe 21 Veta 4 $ -53267 var F, LOAD IMEEDANCE IN PO eas 4) 2eer TE PRR LMT EQUIVALENT CrReuIT [5 SHOWN BELOW: 1 A jon Jon Jens Sone PER-UNIT LATEDANCE DIAGRAM -34- TRANSFORMER TURNS RATIOS. 34 Ca) TWE PRR. UNIT VOLTAGE AT BUS 4 , TAKEN AS REFERENCE, (S S. . 1eas Ng 2 (28S Lo AT 0.8 LEADING PF, THE otek APPARENT FoHER Se OES /oag.ert o.cas 3687" os [9° CURRENT DRAWH BX THE MotoR SE 2 a5 Le = OSG ejear curses paann er me ean is Fs Me. 28S ose inne By vasa yraect ToTAL CURRENT DRAWN FROM BUSA Is T=T +E: ©.42-j0-06 EQUIVALENT REACTANCE OF THE Two LINES Ty PARALLEL 13S CF ABKON eee Oe 28 oad nom Kea = GENERATOR TERMINAL VeLTAGE Ws THEN Vz 0a (ona der (0-92-5406) a2 [wat ky Gs once 4go-216 = vo /isav’ pu @) THE GenemaTOR INTERNAL EMF Is Given BY Ey = Wt Fy be once ajecre shez (oae-doee) = vesee Zas Prue aeean Jasuat ky THE MeToR TERMINAL ENE 1S Given OY Ean = Var 2a Taye 0-95 4450-40-28 (0-56 44042) z vee L756 rus Wat /-7-567 kv -Wo- @ HA We C a I ~ HAL 5m / ‘r cy m nei me ie 18! v4 MB mc! . Fy om, mpi — hei mi ay MAL xe we we a \ et aut g xa JN : xe xe wet rave Segvone water Diag penn For positwe sequence, Vai leads Vy, bg AP and Vy, lage Vey by 10% For negatwe Sepoence, Var lags Ver by 90% and Vy, leads Va by WW. 3:20 conto © @ Xel x 2) Fer ive sequence Vai leads Var by 0° and Var is tn phase with Via. For negative sejuerce Vir lags Var by 9° an Van ts ow frase with Wy + Note thet GQ A- tiq/tay transformer Can ce used to obtiin the aclvantaqes OF A A= transpermer without phase stipte wey HA Ha He Hel HB! For posstwe sequence, Vir lags Vay by x4 Har For neqative segvence , Van leads Var by 2e4%. ~42- . 8 a < & Lgl 1 e— yp on ¢ (a) me ie g wh ae | & (c') oroaglitesd gay es ca’) a ZX b¢c') ale!) -43- 3:22 Co Jer vast pose ‘sequence @ Per oait Postwe Sepp ence Ear a Yi | Vx : ers) en odete oF Vir Vx ~ ay. Three- phase ratings 2-1 NVA 13-8 OWT ponawva Simgle= pace rating? 2s on nva lf |x = 7a7ed $ Dev (b) three-phase rating? ae) MVA 1368 RW Ale savy Single pease mating $0.17 IVA vse8 [23 = i8/1m dv VE © Three -phare ratmgt 2.) HVA IBeV av [us avy Single-phase Tatings De HVA 7.97 | 133 OY (A) “three-phase puting? ae! HVA IRE OV a [save Single —phase rating? Oa" NVA re-8/2-2 dv 324 7 cle HYG B Nottase See Windinas bacweance\s Renistive wees Coad OPEN A TRARSFDANER Vie at Veg remem tee Some arter one, Steen ~phese transpormer 16 Tenoveds Therefore, en ey Gee) gee The lead voltages are ten balanced, Posimve-Segue ne. Selecting Van as reference? Van 3S p= mast o° ow Vy yt 7 167 (=a ~us- i 324 Vans 7-967 Lee” Gv SonrD = ‘ : = [ees seeker Vivir NZ (13-8008) Tyo tet Lee Eee eee ne” Qg © Mea vse Leese = ae 90" hv Transformer be delves $= UW. EX S.2 (13-8 90°) (1 edt) = as. ase Lae? MVA Suc = (ates+3ra.5)\x 108 Transformer ac delivers $4.5 Vac EX where Vac=- Vag = - 13-6 / rade gore 13-8 L230? by Sac = (13. s[- -20°)(1, 81210 eo) = 2S. (730° Ha See = (aes des.) xro8 The ofen-A transformer is not overloadedl, Rote thet trancforter bc delivers 11.5 Hvar and transeormer @e absorbs 12-5 hvars. Tee fetal reactiwe power delivered by tre Open-A transforner to the resistive load is therefore tery. ~4u- B28 noting TWAT JSS Caer) = GG, The RATING OF THE 3 PHASE TRanseenmen Dawe is TEMVA, GOY/SS\A kV. GaSe mreDance FR THE LeH-vorTAcE Sipe 1s GES. grass a 78 ow me toweveurace see, = RL SS aa ee orines Ms DASE IMPEDANCE ON HIGH VOLTAGE SIDE IS ee Bein 5 que gesistance REF. Te HY-swE 1s 6 (S42. ) = oe Bat \ oR RL = We. aaru SB 3.26 ww TIME SINGLE- LINE DIAGRAM AND THE PER-PHASE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT , le PER UNIT) ARE GIVEN BELOW! WT BLL PARAMETERS = cortenn surrues re Tus Leap is 282%". Go2-asa GB wzs0 Bast cusmeut AT THE LoAD IS — 100,000/( JBx2d0) 2 251024 SWE Pome FACTOR ANGLE OF THE LOAD CURREMT IS G2 Gn 'o-Az ZEBRLAG, fas REFERENCE , THE LIVE CURREMTS DRAWN BY THE LOAD ARE I Cu asa = 2m . 2SVBE & | | | | | | 4a 25.84 PER UNIT 3.26 cont, Eee 24 (casagand 2 2-4 /-148-84° peromr Tes 2a f-assdaid = 2.4 19416" PeRumT eo) Low -VOLTAGE Sipe CURRENTS FURTHER LAG BY Bo” BECAUSE OF PuASE Swit Tye 24 (-55-aa° @ ea (1IS-38 5 JME TRANSFIRMER REACTANCE MODIF/ED FR THE CHOSEN BASE IS ee 2a Leanc xe ©. x Coo] ase) TIME TERMINAL VeLTACE Of THE GENERATOR 45 re te men quve By Sa Lose w 4x5, C230 4 4 Ole) @ aL 55:347) 6-4322 <4 0.45512 tosra (= 26-02" TERMWAL VOLTAGE OF TE GENERATOR Pu Is 2axteatas 23.86 kv TUE REAL POUER SUPPLIED BX THE GENERATOR 19 Re LY FS] Vesta «24 on (-26-027 455-847) 22-16 PE Ane No WICH CORRESPoNDS Ts DIG MW ABSERBLD BY THE LOAD, Since THERE 17h Losses. > BL owirting WE PRASE SwIFT oF THE TRANSFORMER ALToCEMEE Recaccoranme Ve wa me reactance ACL) on me WIGH- VOLTAGE Sipe Foe THE STUDENT WILL FIND THE Same VaLUE Ne ae Vel. “4g. forte Sequence terrtee Sepeuns = was? lon) ss 2 Xovnew = (0209) (BS) ( HE)= 0.02755 tes Jo.027Ss 3-29, © S.01333 Je01G jor © 3601373 feos Suace = 100 HVA Maw y= Bookv in trancmisuen line zEws eee a tele preter | generates Bees. ~4Qe 3:29 mow lee - . - oy (o-2)( 28) (28) aoe eo O.OV33E_ fer oni Xma = (0.9) ( 322) Xp > Xt Xey = X= (o#0)( 22) (e-10)( 222) ©,01 333 ©, 006666 per oaite 1. Fevwe EO). asco. 2 Io 7 Kune yo = ‘te/asee = 0.016 peruart Xue 28 = 28/282 = 0.01 pervaie SG = AE Joe LUC © ——s—Ss—S—— Ty = pjree fetGa = 48.11 Laer? Ba V3) (12) (048) Tuasex = 102 = rete ha VE Qo) TZ, = NBM Leer Tag Trey CO 16667 1366879 per vat a ag Vane® Fane lx asea)t £ Ey Geese rar) : 4 f + 1es6n [aur (1\(s00ceue+ sonaseuut) = 6% + 0.30555] 126. 87° = o.m67 +5 0.2444 = 067572 Lig 8? po (0-7872) (26) = sy Gy -S0- forz * ny > bold Spare ag = SOMA Vienne k 2 66-4./3 usky : Tat Tay = 2 acaas Load ro CO Teen = 32 _ . otsceka 5 V 2125 B22.65ky : WS ya 3 Viewsex 3 Lhanex = 32 ee woe ka ess Ty = (8-3839 Cotsegy =: L2sska Ty = (8-333 CoB ) + 6.66GkKA Cb) basen = 21506 kA Vuenex = 12 5KV 3 I 5 — 2 .38eka bane % aS Ty + (8-333) 21506 + 1.255 kA CQ BBD 1-336 2 WSs kA oqo 0.505 +Josi0 = = 0/7273 10° Ute a Vay 2 1 OLO% fer vert = sQy Stase= HOMVA Measex = 12 v CV xg = (622 GB) = wae per eat © ee } Suse Ey V, 200s y \ % = _gp fs 7 lA =, Csrloesy eee! oe = o.gs22 Qa Th. eee SVE Ey = Ontos L 4 Sreenn Sut = Oo29B LE Ger wait Va = 10/0 + (0.00845 0-10) (0-1 273 /) = '0036 + J 0.07393 = tooky LEME? Jer oie Vane (eooes) (13a) = reas bv vole + (ores jaa) Co-te7e Lot) = Vaaen Landry Eq = Eq = Vaaen Ciszy= la-orkv ane (0063 24-148") Co cava le") F core [ainsi tus ocTaiaC ve) Laas = Bes Le 4s" tva = 80.24 MW +g S818 MVAR PE 2 Con Alas?) = O-AdT LAGGING -6L- 3.33 TWREL-PUASE RATING OF TRAWAFORMER T, IS Butoo = SoOMVA Aue WS Une-te-tine wotmce RAO IS (LE Cizt) 1 wz ok 22ertaaky, choo Sine A Common BASE OF BOOMVA FR TE SHSTEN, AnD seLecTiNG A Base of ZOKV Ww THE GENERATOR CIRCUIT, AWE VOLTAGE BASE In THE TRANSMISSION LINE (5, 2dokv AND THE VOLTAGE BASE IW THE Morar CIRCUIT 1S 230 (1e-2 Jaady=13-8kV TRANSFORMER REACTANCES ConVERTED ro TUE PROPER BASE ARE Given BY way ecoast 5 Tas OtC EE) oes Ty Xe ox Boe. 350 Awe FOR THE TRANSMIsSIOn Live 15 (20) /Be0 = 176-30 Base inven THE REACTANCE of TWE LINE IW PeRUMT IS THEN OBESE , 0W1615 Reactance XZ OF HeTHR Mt 0.2 (320 )( 1-2 y 2 o2T4S cTanes “pf moreR Mas sin (Be pet og SAY Reactance x", 5 2 (By (Bay NEGLECTING TRAMSFERMER PHASE SUIFS, THE PesitWE SEQUENCE REACTANCE DIAGRAM IS SMoun in FIGURE BELOW \ doeast g deis deoais ~53- 3-34 TWE MoTORS ToceTHER DRAW igo mW, oe Wo 2 Soo eG Po With PHASE-G VOLTAGE AT THE Morea TERMINALS AS REFERENCE, Ve 2 . oases Lo’ we 8 THE MotoR cuneeat 1s Giver BY Es 2:6 jot « 0.Ga73 Lo" eo cases REFERRING Te THE REACTANCE DIAGRAM In THE SeLutioN of PR. B-BB, PHASE PER-UMT VOLTAGES AT OTHER PoINTS OF TAE SYSTEM ARE atm: Va oases 06273 (4 oais)= 0-452 (2-a34" fu ATL. Va 0.9565 + 0.6273 do-0418 + Jo-tais) 20-9717 forse’ ru atk. Gs 29565 40.6278 (Jonoms +deiaiS+jooasr)s0.0r6/aa07 3 TWE VOLTAGE REGULATION oF THE LING IS Trew 2-9826 — 0-45 82 2-45 82 20-0258 MAcMITUDE oF THE VOLTAGE AT THE GenegareR TERMIWALS 15, 29826 x20 = \acszky NoTE MAT THE TRANSFORMER PHASE SHIFTS HAVE BEEW NECLECTED HERE, -S4- fer Gare poste (or negative) Sequewe metwoork Chose shigt Rot shuen) Po Priwary S- secondary a tertiary -6- (Q) xu = Oro per ont Xiy = Oeto per emit Sa = 0.09 (ae) OeIm per unit 1 X\= £(0.0% +0610 ~ Ona) = 0.03 per unit Xi 4 (0-08 +Oe12- O60) = 0-05 _ K3 = 4 (0-10 + O-n ~ 0.08) = O.07 fer vat Fer nie Tir dance. Magri : 2 Usms Page 3YMie lL ve & R = 1.08SFR = a= S82¥ 2 se Dw 2 = Gal. onuss 20 = 1.08% MOOT fer Rew soity = Yo per vwit a Bree = G2. gine Sues n -Sb- 3:37 NOTE PRINTING ERROR 5 FIG.3.30 SHOULD GE REPLACED BY Fila. 3-31. (ny Per Unit Positue Segvence (0-14 001- 0.7) = O05 per vat &) ee ei, ‘) fer Unie Pos\tue Seguence © Jowto eee y Ce ine, 31) Per Dit Ponte Segvexe 51 B38 Wau A BASE OF ISMVA Ane Gokv int Me TRIRARY ciRcuIT, TME BASE FoR StcoumaRs cincurT (SIS MVA AnD \B.2kV, AND THE OASE FoR TERTIARY creeuit IS ISMVA Aw 2BkW no . aan TE THAT Keg A> Xpq NEED WOT GE CHANCED. x gr 'S MODIFIED To THE NEM BASE AS Fettews: Ker z creda og ote ‘= 76 WITH THE BASES SPECIFIED , THE PER-UNIT REACTANCES OF THE PER- PHASE EQUIVALENT CimcurT ARE GIVEN BY 4 C jerot +je-09 -§ (2) = jeez ot + joniz = Jo-04) = Jo-05 ets fo.07 33a THE ConSrant VOLTAGE SouRcE IS REPRESENTED BY A GENERATOR WAVING No INTERMAL IMPEDANCE, ON 8 BASE OF SMYA, 2-BKV In THE TERTIARY, THE RESISTANCE Of THE LOAD 1S. (0 PUL EXPRESSED OM A ISMVA, 2-3kY toa Resisrawce 15 Re box B Base, me = 3.0 PU ON ABASE of ISHVA I3.2KV, THE REACTANCE Of HE Moree 15 on = 0.4 PU 7s TWE IMPEDANCE Diagram IS Given BELOW: NOTE THAT THE PMASE SIFT Thar occuES, Berwenn me Yo counters PRimaRy, Dup THE A- cemmecreD TERTIARY Cem Was Bern mectecren HERE. -58- Ty Ga. a 40 @\ 7 Eqs OBTSA - Eye aio Ce) = (ayoe)(Gee7ms) = 16S. Ava " Sy = (2640) (62-8) 16s, vas Sx SavA is Fransqormed by magnetic indoctione ISO. deve is temagornedd electneally © At rata vortaye t Core loses = oS Ww At Foil lak corresct + Sere losses = “330 W totk| leses = 1OS* BO = VSS W = O- 4s Bao (eerey(62-8)(O-8) = NSA aw Poe F =. 13a.4ss Sw Bat Poor + Poses Me eemeeney= (Eeut|) x00 = (Bs XI = 19067 % i =— & Eperrrs Her TROY A out A As @ Woreral , Single-phase) ree = Wo nats) “ETARSFET MED) rated 2 3 AWA, 220 [no Voy Xege On10 ROK parte Zesehora= Gre}/geeo = 16-135 2% -50- Say conap (we) AS a single - phase avtotransgorner rates: Sso(rBet) = 4. SO @wvA , Bse/ric Fsacetimes = ($30) /4So0= Wee Keg = (6010) ( 16:13?) = 6.0ceed per vad ea, = (Cn10)( ee) oper want Jo-oeeen =, = 0. Sscs /~3e-87° per Cai Te I %, = =) oc sr . 1 ee 1 Staseag = 13-5Qva Vey = NOV 1 3 VMenen = M74-5¥ ! gay = TESOL nog a 3 Novy Loney = suid 4N9.5 VE = 6256 A ecco Lae 39.36 1-34-87? ** Gou)en ~ x = SHE fmze-99 = Os SS6L73687° per oat "Oaks Ty = Ix = O.SSSS fer vart Ty = (0-S8SS)(le-186]= FOR A Vat IxegFx = bold + Go. o4e67) (-5955/ oy Va = 160 + O.o37O4 | S212° = 1,0222+ 1002963 | Va = leoare [166? fer Udig | | vas (o226)(4925) = Hoes v | = @D- BeAr RATED CURRENTS OF THE TWO-WINDING TRANSFORMER ARE By: S222 5 250A aur 2,2 S228. BoA Tao eee TWE AUTOTRANSFEEMER Connecrion IS Sheu BELOW. Y2son 3,3 2008 ago (Oy WE AuIOTRAUSFeRMEL SEconDARY CURRENT 1S TL 2 300A Aa\TH WINDINGS CARRYING RATED CURRENTS, THE AUTOTRANSERRUEE Barina 18 (i200) CBee) 167 = BeokvA ' (hy OPERATED AS A Twe-WwinbidG TRANSFORMER AT FULL-LOAD, O-B PF Goxe-k | ESScecency Ve = 0-4G Ceove 8 © Piss 480-996) aku o- 46 Phen wuicn THe Toray TRAnseoRmER Less Pag THE TOTAL AUTOTRANSFORMER LOSS 15 SANE AS THE TWO WINDING TRANSFORMER, SINCE THE WINDINGS ARE SUBTECTED 1 THE SAME bis DinG TRANS FORMER RATED VOLTAGES AWD CURRENTS AS THE TW Pc Beone-8 aie 2 ee at povete, GBeowed +2 ~bl- @ 1: 2 uasa 5 90.009. . 80 Vz sokv 5 Wt 120480 = 200 ky \W25 4180 2 1875S A (ey ntur kVA is cateucaTeD AS Bex 1815 = 180,ceokva Wuiew 18 Same as pureur kya 2 2608750 2 186, 060 Pernissiare kVA RANG OF THE AUTOTRANS FORMER 1S 150.000, Tue kvs TRANSFERRED BY THE MAGNETIC InDUCTION IS SANE AS THE RATING OF THE TWo- WINDING TRANSFORMER, WHICH IS Go,co0kva. -61- If JO-Le = 0486+ Io-SO Per uate Road t 1roaat = V! EiSou =cut) (roasts s-otset (a) No regulating transformer , Using corrent division; : = ‘ © per Eu * (ga oe (223-2 3h) = onsesb(230 AEE Rha one PL, tig = Vi EG = 0-sssb L+30" oye + Loans Bre Pat dOu™ ProastJ@oad)@ Ci t3@.) = onkootio.s)—Caeitseante) = o-3€4¢+ Lowrie per vat qa (b) Voiteqe magnitude requlating trausformer, C= 0-452 Using the admittance parameters fron Example 4.14 @ = [2 [fi TPS], [ito ies l ¥ | hole -Eusd! [Yar Ya] LY e-t10 ~ie-e] Lowe Selving “the Second equation above for V —boLsc® = Ge-so)¥ —U8-628)(i-cL0%) Seone [9d rOEs) ~2eeetleat 041 J&-%10 10 TL poll [Stat — 1018 _ oporsitig. ots. o.gass/-agt 3Oe20 Jone EX = 0523s Roy = onytis + Jor 80% Ole PAtIOL= (Prot! @road) -CPitl@ul= OeSTHS +lossias BSE -63- S44 Cowra The veitage magnitude requlating transformer increases “Che reactive power delivered by line IL 489% (From of2@Tt Yo O68 ITE) WI a relatively small change m the real power dehvered by bhe Lae (c) Phase angle regulating transformer , C= 1-0 3" eds Tay = -Oaort+ deta4s act Var= -it-o per Lat From Example 4.14 (6) t = TY VU! Fics _ (9-0) (1.019°) ~ 1.0 30° a =o.Lots +1 8TTS = reekQbo +140 96539 Laseut® = jogo Lsoerd” Per OeLOTS +3 SH TT YS Bot 2330 = [2060 [8742 ~ 01 _ ogoste+io.onm TRA Tae CS = Osueoe/- 35-87 per ont Puti@us ViES = osqooe/+38.27 = Peat dF (Peat *1@.red)—(Pat Soule Oe807T4 +i eratv0 The phase-augle requlatiag transpormer fncreaces tne real power delivered by bae be BG Go (FON OeBEYT to OF SOT4) Etre a relatively Small change the reactive pouwer delivered by Ine La- -64- Problem 3.45 A phase shift angle of 0° minimizes the system losses. f | | Problem 3.45 An LTC tap setting of 1.0 minimizes the real power losses to 13.489MW. Problem 3.46 3-47 Using (5-8-1) and (3-8-2) 13-8 . a,= 28 — = 0.02636 be 1-826 + s4s(1ey) aye 7 Ort ce Ce] = 0+ 03636 )0-04 = 0040V0F From Figure 3-25 Cd) * C Ye, = (0.90709) ( a Lr (V-c)Yeg = (00909) ag)= WU a Sie Per oat (te ¢)%eq = (0- 4264s 0.70701) (35-55) +3 1.68t1 bait The per-vart postive -Sequence Wetwork IS 7 Fx, ~Sieag =m en i Ties? Cer Unit acmrtbences are shoes) “06- | 3-48 A RADIAL Lime Waite TAR- CMANGING TRANSFORMERS AT Bom ENDS Ul amp Ane THE SUPPLY PHASE VELTAGE AeD WWE LeAD PRASE VOLTAGE, RESPLETIVELY, REFERRED TOME au. VOLTAGE SIDE. Vs AND Vg ARE mt PUASE VOLTAGES AT BOTMENDS cf ME Line, Eg AND Eg ARE THE TAP Serrims WW PER UNIT. THE IMPEDANCE Z INCLUDES THE LING IMPEDANCE PLUS THE REFERRED IMPEDANCES OF THE SENDING END AND TUL RECEWING EoD TRANSFORMERS To TWE WEM-VOLTAGE SIDE. AFTER DRAWING TAL VOLTAGE PHASOR DIAGRAM Fok me KL Ug: Xp ACReJOE , Negiecting METMASE SureT BetEEN Vy, Au Ug AS AM APPROXIMATION AND Nering TAT Vz LgV,) Anup Va = ty Ue, Wt CAN BE Shown THAT WHERE Py AwD a BRE THE LOAD REAL AND REACTIVE POWERS PER PHASE AnD Mis Assumes war Esty t. Hour preptem, Pg = (So no-BD = ao ML Aur @g > 4 (150x0-6) = So MVAR a \ = \! Be Ky \W\2\W\ = 2s v (ancand + Conese) (20/8) os pu = 0-926 PU ~61- Baa Wor THE TAP sting La eS) ave kote ood ey Tue cuRRewT setur BY AV 5 Le cincurares AmoumD THE LooP wim Swirew S oven ; wim S ciesen, eney A VERY SHALL FRACTION of THAT CURRENT Gets THROUGH THE LOAD IMPEDAUEE BECAUSE IT IS MUCH LARGER THAN ME TRANSFORMER IMPEDAWCE, So THE SUPERPESITION PRINCIPLE CANBE APPLIED Te AV Awe TE source veLtace From av Ate, Eo. = cos / dons ~ 4025 Wit AY SueR TED, THE CURRENT In EACH FATH 15 ONE WAKE THE LonD cuRRtuT. ko Loam cunnent is 2 0.8~ 06 reer SUPER PSITIN YiELDS Ty tee 50d —Cjezsds o-n-ger05 Tye Oh -ged © C= fens): 0-4-j0-55 » Somuat Si. 2 ead joes po awe Siz og a doss TUE TRANS FORMEE Wits THE WIGMER TAP SETTING 15 SUrFLTWE Mest oF TWE REACTIVE POWER To THE LOAD. THE REAL PewER IS DIVIDED eQuaLeY BELEN THE TRANS FORMERS, NoTE Aw EARER IN PRINTING | INTHE FFURTA LINE oF mE PROBLEM STATEMENT, FIRST Ty Step Be RERLACED BY Ta AuD woTHtN SRackers, T, susvip ee eercacen BY Ty. -68- 3:50 SAME PRoCEDURE AS IN FR-B-AA 1S FALLOWED, now ot: veo £3 \e [at -t dots 0.0524 945" ores za (5" cine = en Lae se ke + 02624 50.0064 o- ange — (02624500069) = #69) 0-662 - Se 2 ORR e}eBeT , 6a j oe jeret 5 Sls ocer jeans TME PHASE SuIFTING TRANSFORMER IS USEFUL To CONTROL THE Amount of REAL PewER Flow, BUT HAS LESS EFFECT ON THE REACTIVE PewER Flew, CHAPTER 4 aN —_—__— Sel, 171. 0) (1000 K 1.016) = (roe)(coa x1.016), 0-015S2 = WIS AICS === 1000! Rac sete oS oe, ( So+T)_ SO+22864 Baas = Mena (SEAT)= overssn/seestet) e, = [0.015 . = . = Rae core = (0-01852)(1-1202) = osoinz4 a Reowe sh 0095) Amt 0.095} Rac,see (6-01739 G8 1208) 6.078 The Go He edistene Ns 365% larger than the de resistane | due to Sem eppect. | 42 @ a4 Mens (484 x10 emil)) Asn seni rh \ (ase) mt , Tom rs eH 4.8 BY x1, mt (by Reoweruse ~ oun, nse = (e-on40) ( sere). (c-0740) (0.4010) = 90-0667 R/Qm TS From, Table A-y — e169 Fi = itr) Cems ts Per condoctor > o %y curr SLL —— Ce ee Serpent) R oe, = 2+0602_ a eowaysoe © SIRSAS 0.015) EE ter phase -T0- 77 AG TOTAL TRANSMISSION Lint Less Pls 2B (ines): acters MH zy esa NB C220 FRom = BUR, WE Liwe Resistance PER PHASE 13. Re AvTezs x to% Amero NO SBS 3 C500)" TWA Cowpucter CRoSs-SecTIONAL AREA 18 Given BY a -8 3 (a: 4x10 8) Cornice > w aanea nis 4 we @-35 As Je ds \:84a0m = O-1456 An = 556000 Cri “Tle 77 CO) FRM £e.(4 4.10) List = (087 2) (22) Gam i 0.05 mf km PER conpucteR, (b>) Fem £6.(4.5-2) Lxe Lys LX108, Tin (2 # Dio. ot Bear ee 2 Se xis rm bes Ly = ea QF 2x6 TL Oe * (2 oath = CEE) (spmn) * OLSEIT EH ber conctuctor © per cirevit Le Lx +ige ing mH 4 ‘0 =— —h AG COD Link + 6-05 mi /kem Per conpuctor Lasky: Bet Ral = eerrvvers Lia byebly 2 tot mh] ke tee erreur .) 1% 2 oasas MH/ hw PER Conbutron (> Langs 0:05 saul kw tan conpueron xt bys 2x07 he (2 os ) w' = 0:93.46 Hk Ex 5-BAL Kee Par Cowouc ror Con La tly = vrca wake ree crecut. Liang ‘Ss Inmerewpent of Ceupucton Diameren, TUE TeTAL Inductance Deceeases 4-1 % Ciweneases 57) AS ME couDvereR DiAmETER Inckeases 20% ( Decreases 20%), “The A From Be. (4.5-10) 2xXI07 Ly (3) ca D= 4 ft et 25 (Eee) L,= 2x “Ln (4__ ers =)(45,) “Teas xe 16228005* py 4s dor xis® t == rm X= WH QMo) (rors > YQreee) = ontiss ~a/q, Mn a3 @ Le axe’ £7 _A8 — ré (Boe) + rte 8 apm X= QL, = 2 (60) (risen 15%) Clove} = 04292 -2/ kn > Lys axe? hn (. ) = 057186 Ml +6225 x1 XK, + 2m (60) Cr057% 18%) Close) : 6-3986-2./ kw Ly And x, Inceease By 3.05% Cmecrease By 4:02% ) AS THE PUASE SPACING IwcRenses BY 20% (Decaeases By 20%). -3- FoR Tus CONDUCTOR , TABLE Ag LISTS Gme Ts BE 0.0217 FE, a anie’ dn 22 lon Jy FoR ont conoueroR, —L sna > THE Inouetwve ReAcTAwee Is THEN [Re Coo) Le] tt | oR 2-022 m1 > Cee An 2255 Bw = 0-828 RD lw FoR THE SwwcLe-PHASE Link, 2xo-8282 1656 [mi Ato Gy THETOTAL Line InoueraNce 15 Given BY F* Rw BI ven Ly > [axe & 2. wf Aap inl ee! 50-0209 ‘aK /wn f Co-77481D (0028) (ey) THe TeTAL LINE REACTANCE IS Gwen BY Xe 20 (60) an d* ky B = etsop Ay Bo a / km mf er 22426 ky Bon [ami a Se Kes etet [km ok | e206 [mt @ Lys Anwt fm 72, o.o2365 wim 2.7788 (025) DOUSUNG THE SEPARATION GeruEEN THE CONDUCTORS Causes omer ABeUT @ SZ Rise w inpuctance. -14- DeMN For Gath of Sik ovter conducts? rect Dyt T Fe r "A Dez Gras vif [G Diebwen FOr SL Cy outer co~wetor outer Condpetors - WU ayo, vk og aw CG ve = ena= r\/ ENG Vow eco" ea) “4 [Gunton an poe Gna = FV (€ +) OM aay (oy eet AAD Me — 1 Dy= De Dye RA SimLOE] pe ayere Ne Nu 4 M BeL= fd, Bas ines enya RE] -faonta -18- ANZ Using THE tr eretrie ident a . ince _ 1 Ny?) NE a {rs wy wt © kh he desired resol, Two conductor bundle NEED ka 4 A © “Q a=4 d= L(t or] = \psd Ee (6.19) rrr —_—— & % ae tas [Cay | 3 = \pd* 5 (4-6-20) Four -cowdbector bundle, Ny=4 A A= Ais. ae als = [Ps ye, = 1.0908 Dg z ba (4-6-1) O 4A3 4 @ ones VU(eE%)@nan] + wet = 4660S T Ve ~ T = WW em A/[(eFanune) LEMEN@NION] —_— a Disiawes For Gack Dis tences For each buter Cordvowr Mner condvctor G enns\/ (Es)mtator () = nasser © em= NENG TG M&A I « pede rece! Distances For each Corner Comdocer Cee *)er (eos) ray)” eutnide now corner Condveror x (EVAN we] Diutences Por he Center condoctor ge Gne= r. ex ay ir) *(e)' “ory GMR= acgt4r 11- 4 Deg = 2/8xaxtg = lorotim ten Fron TASLE Ava, Dg = ©0403 St) Sap trea Lys ane "Coola. amie Lon ~( Se 2) = 4 B42 x17 Blew %y 2 2M Cod Ly, = 2MCoo) 342 KIT oH 9! nIS222 20.06 tu] kom 4-15 7 ; 7 (ay Ly = 2x1 Rm (Ceraaet) LBEVK IO HI ota X= UN G60) BEI xT e Cove) = 0+ BV3 -A/ kw 79 x0°4 seas Xp x 2M Ceo) 1-a2rx 18% Creo) = oO 498 L/h s 2. —G Lys 2x Tan Ve B21 tS fae TWE PeSITIVE SEQUENCE INDUCTANCE Ly AUD INDUCTIVE REACTANCE X, Iwcnease LAY ( peceease 16%) AS THE PHASE SPACING Weasases 10% ( vecenases 10%), ANG Dey = Bfroxiox20 = 12-6 w From TASLE A-4, =D, = (ooa a5 $b) 20-013 d— amet Ky 2 OL, = 20 (eo) 2x17 Ro 6 ) hy teem aay ) ony vk = 385 an [kom ant (a) From Table A. * De = (c-04n4)( sie) 200014 py ke 3 . DsL = VO-O1Me)(o-4snyy = O14 mm xy + (2160) fs Ln mtey)xwoo = 04337 (v) De = (e.0341)( s4)= O,O1l4 mw 5 3 sl Vee. o11a)(-asnY.us) = Onis Hw Xie (2160) [ax18" Ln ( 162) x 000 = Oe S4L = Oo 36 -79- Ane APPLICATION of B@.CA-G-G) WIELDS TRE GEOMETRIC MEAN DISTANCE TWAT SAPERATES THE THe SuNDLES: Dag = 1/ Gad G2} Ce.) 66-05) C615) (6-28) FE -154 TWE GeonEtRic MEAN RADIUS OF THE EQUILATERAL ARRANGEMEAT of LINE A 18 CALCULATED USING Ea. (46.7); Rae Uf Grosse? (ot = 0.0538™ IN WHICH THE FIRST TERM BENEATH THE RADICAL 1S OBTAINED FROM ' Al oz e-TI BBA z o-118s (0-02): o-0ts sem JE Geomernic MEAN RADIUS OF THL LINE B IS CALCULATED BELOW AS PER ITS Conficuaanen : Ree A/ Gorsercy” Cory* Coad = 0.0628 THE ACTUAL CONFIAURANON Can Wow BE REPLACED BY THE THO EQUIVALENT Hottols ComnucTeRS EACH WITH ITS OMN GEOMETRIC MEAM RADIUS AwD SEPARATED AY THE GEOMETRIC MEAN DISTANCE AS Shown Bete. Raz c-0538m Ras occaaan bh 2g -60- 419 CO) THE Geometarc MEAN RADWS OF EACH PHASE IS CALCULATED AS a. a/ @S rst wwene A= =e OaIG™ A1E8x0.007% UL GEOMETRIC MEAN DISTANCE BETWEEN THE ConmucteRS oF PHASES A AuD B 1s Guan ex Dap S/ GF CoarcsD = 5.096 BG i sinnnate, Dag = A/a? Cosy Cs = 5AM EG AnD ee fea Ca eC) ae one ae AWE GMD GETUEN PHASES 19 GIVEN BY THE CUBE RocT OF THE PRODUCT Of THE THREE PHASE Sencinas. Des 2/ Ce cn i2 = 7.56m THE INDUCTANCE PER PUASE IS FrunD AS. Ls 02 de TEE 2 hoa mul kon reat on Leg Ween oat = heTd wan [ot (ey THE Line REACTAMEE FoR ENEH PHASE THEN BECOMES 3 Ke BRL 2 2m Cb) OTe P= OG st A [ms Pea Panse, 28.884 x10 '*) 7 ae itn iaeors = Wee ate 0.015 re \evrm | Va = dwC, = J (ate) (resaye xio") Sx 1000 tom im = . 6 Ya = M4994 X10" Sy wevtral = ss hn 4-2 @ ¢, 2 2NCets4 xe") VBBS RIO Elm to NeurRaL o5 am wp ‘ of = . —" ‘ o : 7 Groce) s 4 B:221x10” S[kwm Nn = 4 20 (60) VBBSx 10 Coo) > 4 een Gm al. BE Ceesanct) oe to Ely Te NEUTRAL as Geaccieue) Yn = 6 20 C60) 1-258x 10" Cieoo) s S4-142 x08 S/km To NéurRAL BeoTW ME CAPACITANCE Anup ADMITTANCE -Te- NEUTRAL, Wwentase 4.57 ( pecrease 51% ) As me ComDuctoR DiamereR incasases 20/, ( DECREASES 20%). “er 3M, _ _r(e.esyxid) ue 2 = 7 LOSE XID >) (steel. = tw, = 4 (eMe0) (1.088 x15" ) (1080) (® = Lsaet cio” 3 ee hy ro . ott = an(Bts4Ke?> 2 eed xt elm bo (Sapa saya) 4 2m Ceo? yorsxio" Clooe) + j 3-887 10° slim 7 zie 2 aw (8 -854%10 > eo osee "elm (a oa) . Y= 4 20 C60) \nos x tort Ctoood = jae tetnle 8 (lem punt CAPACITANCE AND THE Positive SERVENCE S 3.3% Cmenense prurtance Beh DECREASE Shunt e sracmG iwcReases BY 20% AB 7) AS THE Pas Crecetases BY 207% > -63- cer ered Equations Gu AD Ame (Aste) Arter, Foe A 2-Cenpucten Bunnie , me GMR Ds. = faa 2 e.0ATt THE GMD 1S Gwen & Dey = S/exeniz 2 756™ hence me Lint - A MEUTRAL CAPACITAMEE 18 GIVEN BY we c 2 (to) Twe carneuiva RUnetANCE AT GOHZ is CALCULATED AS an? Flom dn C Peyl Pse? i en _ 38-68 210645 aE | km i Ke Cr se/ooan) ' Quon ere.) i PR GoM wn loas = 11-62 WE/ mi Xe = 24.63 x0 Ry PV ime j BRC oy, Bsc = 206 Emo hy T8S 2 50,500 Ami aoa oR 43536 kw (2) WITH HE LINE LENGTH OF Loome , THE CAPACITIVE REACTAMCE 1S Foun AS see80e 1505 1/ Purse Deg = Bfexaxte = lect crom TACLE Aa, fez EINE an(CSBBEEY) 0: 01519 mm ane, 2m (e546 x07) BA) An (ES 15a 4.20 (60) B565 x 9 Cioao) = J 3-229 KITES) kw a2 B56Sx 10 Elm ice FoR A tookw LIne LENGTH YeMeng = GB 1224 09 Sn reo) (280/48) = 4:2 80e* ea] PURSE ” Leng @ Deg = Of BExE BATE = WOBA™ og ZU CB eBAR IED 2 Baar x1 Elm eres (Sareea) 2X Cye00) 2 J 318% 156 S| km se 7 ae = B83 x10 6x ooo (230/ fg) = 4-223 x10 RA (b> Deg = S/taxtantard = WGI = 4 RW Ceo} 8-442R 10" “85 ote ~ Cy 2M OR BSANED Latte Elm 3.064 & Gas Jy =f air Coop B01 15"? Cio0) 24 3.284x106 S/n 6 2 yj ge B2B4x1So neo (230/B)= 4 -BEIn 10 A Feng ) Puast Gl AND Leng DECREASE vs7, Ciwerease 7% ) AS THE PHASE Sfacing INCREASES 167, (DECREASES 10'/,). -@5- ey 427 Dey = S/wrwnx20 = Fiom TABLE Aa, As WEEE ay eset Dee = YAK 2 2ocregr(esye x oiler pie. oe aera De 275 nto" Fm An Dev | Bee Gae- ole Xie deed, 2 dancees varsaic” ae 8/km Qs VAY s(p00y 4. wets 212 mvar/ kan 4:28 CAD FRom TALE Ag, Ae St (9 -0254) 20 O1RI Deg x O/eorer (ost 2 0.1654m Go ANC8 54 x2) i Re Am (2 7) XY, = J 2m Caos C1284.» to") Goes) = J 4-842. x10 S/he ~w 2 284810" Ffm Q, = Boo} avsarxiees 1-21 VAR] bom (be) red S* (o.0asg)= old tem; Dy 2 B/eaiare Co. 5) 20.1546m Ch Cee ee ees Eloy Aw (Fie Y= 42m eoy 1.265% 10 Coco) 2 4 11x 15° Shem Q, = (500) 4-19 ITF ae ravan ow Go, Ny, Ana Q, werease 0-8% Cpecrease o wh) FoR Te LaRcer 3sikewl conouctors Csmauer, too kewl cowsuctens). A294 Cad FoR DRAKE | TABLE A-d LISTS THE GuTHIDE DIAMETER AS \:108 An 2 Me LOB so.cmer FE Ine Deg + Yaonzers® 2 24-8 ft Con 2M BES OT Ce z2 aaa) = 88466 x10 Flam 462 xe = er Be amt A Bn eo) BBAEE R08 64 10° ak FoR A Lemctw of ITS wi eo \geantc® CAPACITIVE REACTANCE = \oe5 aan To NEUTRAL 2 a anon eee Tong = ZORA s SRE. oat alee © FRx eneee oR O-GBIXATS = WAA FoR THE LINE TOTAL THREES PHASE REACTIVE TOWER SUPPLIED BY THE Lint CAPRCITANGE = \s uvew BY JB wrr0ex wrx ie? 2 ABB VAR 4:30 ke D 20.5 m H> 10 ™ " Hxg= VQeltO-s}* = 26.006 m Fron Exanple 48 , Dar é. saxio™) : x Cun = © eS ers Lal) = Late) os \_ : (2) fez) tn( 228.) - bn (22208) . -" Cun = 324K 10 3, whee ts 04014 larger tran tw Problen, 4-20 -88- Bf iaxwxze = Dea = \Szw po ovedze [zz coca ee ba IRF Com 2 ced am eT NBESS NS Fo Cisne fe evee) : “ co fe %e EEE Ke a J © 2 x Xm Bre 25An0 Lim k B.zsanio® oR, BRSax! bee ea we = DERM g 2608 125 x 600 ee ae te te (o> Fr Or 7 tom 8 BART LANE x pay eer ee Wace cuneces @ @ “My Be Deg = tSttm — awp ez Or eNGA a Fe Ket x io [+ Dey 4 hy He taster| aie n wha Oe 5 reek Aon sex ao s = BRB x lo om FoR 12S kw k= B-21ex 10% , = RUMEAM 2 ast4 125 x 10” From Problew 4-30 | an Cage Lge E3297 xS")= Corse xd oa Mat Vg e 20 av x= Cag Vege (Gca3sis™ )(2oxid ~7 = 13297 XID c on From Eq (Ain) The conductor Svrgate electric frell strengt is t ~90- if _ cal 432 E,= 1. S247X1D COMTD, (2)(@- 84x18"), 00n8) 5 . = 3.1750x1Dd x Saw No \o00—V- JOOCH, = 3.175 Byres = ee 4 i i Veg Ea(A12-6) tre qrovact level electric ' Field Strength Aire ctly Under tre conductor 4 rs 4 ce, = beset” fete) _ @ruer ‘ &” Gomes ™) | Gor Goren” | i = ies Qy ay | zou x GE) = ogotas By | 433 (a) Fron Preble ae Zo , 1 +8 Cant 2m Cats xis) eee 20.006 L au a) n( Le ) Cage ECS 67S 410 —u . E = 163441 X10 Te Bae Cx Veg s (C-195x15") (aoxio®) = 1,379x1D : 1399x187 r= SB crasad ones) *Gese)(% (er) (#,854x16")(o.00asys) eee = anes2 AVens —— aS aye Er Ee EB, E, = The Conductor Sucpace electric Field Strenat ep re = = Ceashxie) * V.394K10 7 QYGay EE vic) (am)(e.9syxie™) | Gey* Coys Cosy Ovi lotov Lasy Ln( 225 \ne 2.0.06) Coens “CS = rr - -7 Guy Vig = 19a xis ™)\aoxi) = 12378 410 6 = 1.2348xI0 7 NV (Qn) (#. #59116 9) coosuas) ~ (ss) (a5) = Ben vens leasaexip”? Jasin” [ue - QGhoy | (9 (esse) Cs.8syui5 Goy Qor+lo.5)— Ven » Gs)\= = o.oo AY vo —_—_ ra Aecrenses 164.5% (increases 24e8%) 25 Condvitor dlaneter Twreaes 25% (decreases 25%), Tre Srevnd level elect LL strength £ mereates 56% (delneated Get Faje - -42- CHAPTER 5S velo pu 5 Gs 008 <(oNd4ge-B4)C Bed = NESS Le0.8 a | “osm Ls = \a05 a is Tee ces" Ces) = oso. Be el Gs 2 0-\150 [25-84 kA v y, BT ra 5 =25.80" Vs = Alg+ BEQs VoCs.05) 41-635 eo Jens l- 5 = 19.054 2-045 / 24.96 = 2007S +g HITZ Ng + 20-168 235-96 ky eases = = zone (22%kv 5 cata Ty = ots /25-24" ka Vex veCines) +(wess 26-8") (¢-119/25-84" ) 's = \A05 4 2044 / 86-64" = Wave 42-04 ae, Acie, ee Vg = 19-28 S38 = aang ky, ~93- Rzbe vz ae 2 - A+ B= ie¥E 2 yey (3.85900 150188) o0+5-49)(150 1+ 4 (4asxi5" a0? \(1a.99 [80-89] V# 0.01823 LI70-81° = 0.9220+5 0.002997 0.1820 [ONS per Cat i RB: = 72044 | 80084? Q fs FCs z)= 4.215 x18" /20°(| + vot 1S/rresp) 7 ce (set45 x18" fac") (0.941 + $0.00 180) = (1-125 x2"22)(0.79) 10.0867°) = y.as0xi0/%0.0° uw (1 Vee FHL = orl ky = - Pe L-cos'(.F.) 2%0 /=cos!.a7 ° = = 066627/=2i! SB Va (PA) W8G+0)(0-91) Gt AVatBEgs (C-1920 loase\an.oa es)+ (att tos") x ore) Ve = V24,73/Oors? + 43.39 /72-43° We = 1389334 Sheng © 14g.9 Lees? av, Ws = MHGIVGT = say fev Eos CUrb Ez Crasxist [4.097 \(1a1 coal (Feanlene deri = 0.06287 (40.07 + 0.6508 /-7-T38° . ; © Fs = 6.6448 710,02677 = 0, ers0/-2:3% Ly ~9y- bgt com, V; = M 2. UHH = 25d) AML Bes RSL = © i 0-4 920 i fo Vers = Mamet VAL x ipo = 2SUIEBAC Kio = 11-870 Mire axe i 2 aan + SE Fase 7 SEE = GH 2 adn Swe, yoo Yeose = '/Bease = 1840x107 @ Ap = Dp = 0-720 LOems? per onrt Bare etd LEO Ld go] Coes? per vat sa4- a st Tpy = = ISORIP © 1 90,079 = 0.1 40.07° ter th 2 [20. .1614 140207" fey Fe Yenc Peon? : 5 Svase 36 (©) Veep = B22 0? = 0,7565 [0° per \ TL ——— apo > SRE LO z Lo ees bee vei z= 066624 /-8.1? ee? per\ = OS = 2510 Treo svagio- = x6yo/e Mr ve@o) RA Tipe AncVeed Bp Enne eM a 505 b+ (-1320/8051)Q e4el-tus) ro” Bee ; = 0.9343 (O27? + 0, 3643 LT = 1044+ 0.3501 = 16106 L186? per onic ° = ..= ==. . "7 ZFspu= CeoVRrs * Dest 0619 [40.04 *\(4s6s)-+ 6182,/o1S)(nse4 [8-1 = 0.2505 19,097 + 21.592 L274? = 2.567 -J 0.1 07s Typ = 22567 LeB34B° per omit © Vamupy 2 Veto /Ape = 06/0982 = 11263 Per Une °o 2 Vawepo 7 Varuee (SXcsae) SALE wie = 1126 = 9865 00 = 17.8 %o Narepe 2ASLS = 96- In Vs Xs Ratrin F2,) | (B48 + YHA) ; C\F2 BL) I a, 56 (OD From Taste Aa, Reoura we (YEE Y= core 2 [km , nd Sieger o-or0t» jo-50G 20: 8u/aat an F* p.22qno*Lad sion tye me Ke Be ve EZ ah (rrnn eS wo L086 aunwe {srt )aoana ferent B= 22 Bk = osunte ean’ = suey L820 Ee ¥Ciw WB) = GrarnstZe Le 00a 12s Lye = Bren ® Lee § Je = asl kun Boo /-cei'em = 01945 Le2s-3 ka 232 151.3 212-08 kyu Vg + iste = 2erbyy Vewe = Vs/A = 262/eaa8 = 2ea.2kVi youve > Vans Vere | 2¢q2-218 ; vs aap ae aa ee ae 227 &) Ty: 0945/0 ka Tye ome leone Cinsiays sua l8en’ (0 94s £2") 2 6-6/2 kyu 5 Vg zee I: 2accky, 238-6 Ve we > Vs/A = 2366/eaa18 ves BAEC ARE gy 2 9.487, © mse 19.45 (25-34 kA Vez irgaZecart + 40.6 07-95" = W849 La kv Vg = we-a SB = 205-ARV LNB 2 2059-28 109 2 56% nie -41- SOR Ineereeiteate . pin % Ce-0nea) rd Co.) = 0. 020 afm Fane PRD. ANGE A217, He oor 4 Jo338s 0336/8662 [hw Be Amon oF Lae s/w a 2 Va} (2-a36nise/86-6*) (4-807 5 Sx 180 /9 = o.aae Joon pu B. B= Zk = 6.336 (recy [306° = cogs (econ Es YC EB) s (a-aermre tise Jae") (14 o-01stfi76.c") = B.5axt* 90.05 S (be Vas 478 Jos raza lotky,, 3 Leos > F, = te SH coo lations 3 644 Ly3.a ka VB va Crs) YE 415 (0095) qr (2-919 [20912 (274.24) + Goras L364") (aoa [18 it) = ema 2TTRYS 5 Ve2 264-48 : AST RY, je + BIg ~ (BSA nd */ 90.08") 74-24) 4G.9739/2.001F) Rea 7/i8 191) = 2-079 /24.82" ka > B+ VB Type) = SE 457-4 (019 Jon (2702 = 24-42") 216g id PS = ces (zt 24-42) » 0-999 Lacing G) Furr-LoaD Line Losses: Py —PQ = 1647-1600 = 47 Mw EFflcveuer = Pa] Ps\tee = (Ieco/igqr) too = 97-7, © Va Vs/A= 497-9/0-4139 = 410-2 ky Yue = Vauc-Vace wise = 470:2- 475 Vere ams Xoo = = (ay Twe senses imvenance ree pease 2. (A+ jel) zk = (one +420 Coe) vanes nie?) 40264420 Spe Be. lo stale kv AWE RRCEWVING ERD VOLTAGE PER PHASE * Ss r—— RCoRD Shek BaA2esG MA TWE CURRENT PER PHASE 15 GWEN BY Brew | 3¥e Sit we Hg = BEB Looe Leer” A Bu iat Lo” THE SEwDING EXD VeLTAGE , AB Pee KVL, 1S Givew BY = ee e . = "S\o3 Tg z Vat Bq = 2 7LeH Grs20) Cove L368" )\6 = \4a.3n 24-93 kv Lime VoLrage MAGNITUDE (8 THEW THE SENOING END LINE-te- Ve cuy = V3 Cease d= 2s0kv The sewping En WER IS So Bg EL = B(04-332499 )(oo0 seat) 3 g2a.8 MW #4 288-6 MAR = 432 [40 Mya. 250-220 | ose VouTAGe REGULATION IS. Tae Pacse> 24S aay Pscaqy 322-8 TRANSM SON Line EFFIcENCE 1s T= E (b) warn o-B Leaping pwer Factor, Tp = 7 qe rewerracten, Ip> loco /3687°A TWE seupincenD veLTAcE 19 Vy > Vge Zig = 1239 929" kv ip > V+ Zia JR x 12.39 een’ Vs c2u = 210-26 kV THe stupite END LINE-To- Line VOLTAGE Mm Fe sewomceus rouer Bays BUSTS a s faa Ci (230-87) = dara 41686 23Qasadart CO) Le 22,8 - 4 \G8S = beige 27-58" EVoutAce Reauiation = 70°26 —720 , _ o agae ze 4D ETRansmssion Lint cericeNcr = 228? 2A = aaa Rcsa) S2u8 -49- SWE TOTAL LINE imeedawee Bz O-1826 44 673A) = 182643 78-4 = 80.5 (76-82 /py, FWE LINE ADMITTANCE FoR lows 15 ye Ae Lee's eras Lids or saan ur? Lad 8/th ba veo by Va 320 (et = vane Lo bv i b . Tq: Beenie [ot = sor loA (+s ume poueneactan) . SR C2BOD_ S 3, - In4+ VC X= 802 Lo + (12800 /o (0-241 ° £20”) = 502+) 35:26 = 503-3 (4097 A IME StnDING END VeLTAGE Ves 132-810" +(e-5033 /4-09°) (20-5 /76:89" ) fe 134.182 #3 dover z 1am 14 (16.047 ky we Lne-te-Line WeLtAce Hacwrene ar me sewping Ewe ts 3 (44-79) = 250.184ky Ig > Ta + V(X) = sor dasa sGaard Lie) Coan Lae) = AND 4513.46 2 496-7 (BPA Stwoiwe enn Power Secagy? BCi4aray(o-arer) L1G 24" -88 = ZNB-BS eg 283) MVA s. ce ; —_ 2 Poca gy t RIS BEM 5 Qycg, > 28 BI MVAR © REGULATION = Vs-Va. = LAde 14 = 13BB Be Ve Tea coe Bio ¥QS ONS LETS = 0.02355) #5 OF, 4413E3 s Ae z wO13SS1 FOsH4ISES ec = outer Louies e = 02922180 + Loe 4t4 76S Fg. - O-028551 _Fo,qyases C= = € = 0-476 234 [0-44 RES radians = 06879715 -5 0. 4242167 ye - ee - a cost (¥2)= eee eS (922180 +5,444768)+ (8797S -5.4242787) zh —— cesit(¥2) = 0.400965 + 0.010132 = 0.4010 0-507? Alternartwe ly % cost (+ orsssit+s, 44ageg)= cost (,o23ss!) cos C44gses) ~ rad lass oe . i + Using (9023551) 5 'n(.447383) cesw(Fe) = (1-000277) (4900'TIS2) +5 (4043883) (4 4344 (0) = o.qo04es +10.0102132 = 0 e per oat = (Aariz0 65 6444768) (6877755, 429297) Soe = osoninis + J.424S308 = 024350/ 87.20" . Ye_ rt. swo(%) = ef e* Taw (Bd)s) = sh(Fe)l— 1 _ (qoosse+J-010182) — | SiNrH (YQ) O643S0 / 8720° - - 035 +4 O01 =~ 04099 S232 0,097 Sba LLM Oa43S0/ 720° DO 4eo / BP 0.4180 LB%UcP Tron(¥a(2) = 022289 1 860° per vait 101 Sa @) ———___, S 23513 Bs 10? —— 4.4 x18" L70° Bee PTT8S 6 408997" nea [aa syse® DU (4) ¥2 cee = V3q (Ds VG ssisdesier 4x? [10° (Soc) = 006216 871.SS° 0002657410. 62105 © A=D= cosw(ee)= cost LL = €08H (602687) Cos (662108) +) sig (-0265'7) S16) (- 2/08) radians =——~_* = ((,000383) (o, ¥13262) +4 (e026 5731) (58186) = bs813sss £40,018463 = 0.8139 Lleogt? , Per park stvaCS2) = sink (60r6S+ J.é2105 Tadlians _ 5 —+. = SI¥e(-02667) cos(-exiog) +] cosk (026871) s in (662108) ¢ o2657\(.81329) +4 (1.000%883)(+ S81 589) ororiedt+ J onSe2074 = 0.5825 / 7.972 Ee smmn$e) = bery6 (-2s4s0°)(. seas / #72879) R= 1646/8829 ra (ap)sise a) = oseas L87.87° 2206 Le 2o4S0° c= ———————— =——_—— ~ lol BX ye AB lt sale kv I f a i e z,: Fe Le . Jove © ner (eo KA SENeu RS) FE ate & (ay Vg: ATg + Sige ost (vost (21+ \o4-6/85-42 (1-202) = 314.4 L399" kV 5 Vege BeBe S44 SRV (by Bye B Ve Bags rece 3 /aeaz’ Grays otra7[iiee C202) 2 isa Baka 5 Igs wisaka (PE) g 2 Co CART BIT) en ETE) 2 oA BEE LAGOS > Pas JB Nou Ts (pss VB seas Cuisayo azee = \06t-7 MW FULL Leap Line Losses = LU beam Lint Losses = Pg- Pgs le6it-\e00 = GIT MW @ Vau: V/A = 544-5 /eeisrs 66r2kv q Yves Vow oVee x oo Vere _ 66%2 — Ako . i 7 x loo = BUAY 480 _ ~103- BAB TAME A.A THREE ACER Finch ConauctonS PER PHASE rez 010969 = GE: 202 [kw @ Zo: BF - le. 336/866" 2 264.4 [att Bt e690" > TR NEF L x forse na sernsd§/86-6%90 (200) = owNg+geo281 PU DI = Bz Coab(@R) = cook (0-013 +Je- 38) «> = Coal sh Oous Atm o-3er 2c hoons Croagy +9 AS hos Bay FerA2BS xe dooodi® 2 0.9285 /e-258 PU 4 Arh TA 2 ace (cous ajo-aevd Sly 8-ONS Cen 9-81 +4 Comhoond Aiwo-Sz Aad. e-sne (88.30 Be Borcwyh 2 2eaa (aa? (oan (88-39?) = 938-28 £36.69° = OC\CAS HF o.BTIS ee now wh / Ze zone Lssraifacaa lena) = Vaosxio® £9009 5 “104 - t Var Gte/ye) lo 22m lot ky rc tee a [qces'0-42 nom /=26-48" kA Vgz AUga Bigs 0.9295 2-258° (277-1) 98-25 /86 69" (+804 /225-82)) = arr4 J2aathy,., Voz 34k: csanky | Vs [A= 65e-T/oaaes = Tomb, 4% FL loo : AR S8l noo 2 46-77% ‘ABO (> Ve= 0-288 /o.25€ (2rd + 98-25/86.69'C 1-804 Lo") + Bra ZBs.ce ky, 5 Vo = 32-482 5967 Vewe = Vs [a= 8567 /oazes = 999-5 ky UA aU ey “80 ceo Vg= 257-300-258" + v2.4 Los? = 251.2 Laros kyy Vg = 252 JS = assakyy eu = Vy /A = aasr/oazes > 4686 ky, 6 68.6 ~A80 7 ove AGRE WAM loos — 247% 480 = \D8- i | i } 4h t es aso (/oaan aawa ne?) / Gree ese [2 s earn2 Lease: 0456 450 15 = Ce pPe ze [z = [SEB [enews e gvea fosat Besse . : Se ——_—_ B SB eas S46 Paatate 6 J marad: o Baca [13a % im Ra a ese aod o 8486] -aral 2 0.48a7 £84.48 Dinh 08 pagan EASE a Vaz Ug cath x Fed. sinh VL = Basa /o°A Conk Th = Ce 2 Gears x 0-204 /H32 Je (o-aas7 x aoc: 4 (= 5-48 x oasar (84.43) = \at.8@ 227-97" ky Ege Tgeneh sy Ye LUNE -To- Line VoLTA GS MAGHiUDE AT THE SAMDING EwD Is (3197-862 23g.aky PobTh 2(ar6-1x0.8004[i ae + ZAI? x onsa7/ 2H Boe [-5.48" = 392-3) (26-330 SENDING END Lint corrent MAguiruDE 1g BB2-B1A Pscaay = SS Gaa-a) aaa) en (at-a1 26-25) = 1st qsakw Qacagy = VS (238-8) (332.31) aie (27.97 26.337) = 345 kvar Vortace requcanin = C37:26/e-390) ~ 12403 ~ ie eee Gere mat Atweiono , Egio; Gps Ve [come ) siwct Bs s-ars/ase = 0002065 nad/mi _ ue Lan The WavELenarn a: 802065 oaeeeeeee AMD THE VELocITY oF PREEAGATION = $2 Cox Beas \82, 580 m/s ~106- TwWE LOAD BEING AT UNITY PF, ChoosinG ABASE OF IZSMVA AND 2ISKV, 125 mio” 2isy* pase tmeepance: (2'5) 2 arom; BASECURRENTS 2335-1A 125 dx 25 Ace LSat . ogg /-5-48 tu, ior we Tg: vo Le eu 2. Ug = Tyee ha Fy Be Ahk « 2 Q Lg we-8804 Lrad) 2G deta vons 25-48% 0-4 847 (B&43 >) = ven 22278" te 2 Tyee th « YY oR Ze A ve Le wo.a5a7 (84-93) = Ci Le’ x 0-804 L248) +( watieeat = 0-49 /26.35° PU AT ME SENDING END LIWE=TO- LINE VoutAGE MAgwTUDE z Ve\No2% 215 2 2eadTky LANE CURRENT MAGNITUDE = O°AN* 335-7 = BATRA -\07- SNT gauvateet TT cincur: Be Be v6a-6 /e5.42 = srg agrcay DV AUIERNATIVELY > = 0-2sia/ 85. (S00) = 164.6 (e540 x (LY Rs Atnetnseo Lat ken Als) Ey Gai2) = (rn? Jad) [Cerhirdo—1 YA AtohVh _ Covnse Lf @ais985 450018463) \ O62 jaysstOe. ave OG216 /an.55°(.5825 12 ». es \vxie? Lad [ \0337 0.167 | 3 Gis in 2 \starn?/ Ba. Bal Banas JST 19 $s Es =, Biya Jetin FR Eo ison Jims.a FA + Ro Axe + + R n + = i A 2 = i RAN ss KE ig ig! eM & z rs - Eaatns - ehiei7sis ss eam S S inyxrsss L Eqovalent TW Cresit Nominal WW Curcore ‘ R= WHR is ayo Smaller than R= IS0 2» ‘ X= WV RS 662% serailer tren X VIS, 2 Ba = WISN KISS Vs BHM, larger than Vine Ul Kid? sé . Gla = Wisxte’s ik introduced inte tre eguivaleat Ir curcviT. ~108- B+ B= a9-258/8: 12 Ye Epa + (Bet nist ae’ » 300) 69" = 5.67349 ABN LE con vk = KK pik 2 Lana 2 Jags) [O4288 4 dovooa 8 -¥ 5 « e285 4 jovooaB\ __ 2 (A Le) ie Ban [ee Soo aay \ ap [ss aint fas it e115 x jo ei e-0768 (176 1, = = Gatnio 4 Gzaaaxiot & a rrr S-673-0 Jageon.n = eae w ’ 8 ie < < . eh iw, 18 24) Vejrasenats OE Ent A EQUVALENT Te cikcuit NomwaL TT ciReUIT RaS-C190 1s 55% SMALLER MAM REG x 248:09.R is 2-47 SMALLER THAN X= t00/5 TE Bas 729g xt s 18 V2 7, Lancer maw Y[2 27-21% ts Gi]2 2 6-31K1T Ts 1s WWrReDUCED IwTo THE EGUIVALENT TT CiRCUIT, (Ae TME Lone Line W- EQUIVALENT ClaculT 1s SHowA BE Lew: Bs B enva/Vr) 5 Fy = © 826 +40 78A) MJ mc Pen enact q: ee >8 fat : t* 308 Tas w iad ceae 7 BNC Lact Sf Pen uate Vie Lee, Be BR x 1c0-09 Lpeaatas $2 GR: horas? Lae's Flt Gach oh Yeh = 0-972 Levi? y Fz bee | ag Jota? vale = 86.48/97. 26" kewl (KI) ale ¥ 2 302 Lee (\s2.800 Let)( 0.5076 x1? /aavan’) = BOTS S20 A 2 eSarcnio> /34.a\s Ve + Ves Ty B's vez gee det. 507-5 /8.24' (156-48 197-26") = \egaas J2.45' y @)Seuaing ew Line-to-Line voltage macwitune = JS 160.8352 27a.cky ) Tye Far a Vs CE) s 5075 /8-24' 4 \c0-835 (05476) (29-454 a0 2 aenas Ligeat a 5 Lg 2 482-430 ©) Sgeagyt BVs TZ = 3 (leoraasy (o.aanasy [Boras mre -04 2 22k arm» fact mvaR CA) PERCEa Venrace Re cutarien s OBR BRE ay 132-3 i Moe i VR 2 LeF2 efGesn ase?) (320)= 50-3458 eu jw vhs jpr 5 pr = o-3ase fe = B= Conph = coA(-3458 Aadions) 2 0-0227L0° PU Kh = = Bs 4 Be Awph = 414-9) Amer 3a5e netions) aj tomas a Ez j(L awph = 4 2 cn (0:5 % radiands) E-a(yaaHt hay mom 24 haan? s ' ' I > ps BA/K = o:3a5a/zeo = 1.319% Ao? padcana/ bow d= 2t/p = AT6Gkm a za > ssi = Wate et | (5297). qoa.a mai (34) Ze 274-9 i -iMe 2: B 2 jios-arn Auteneariveny : B. BF 2a) Meh Ge) PL sCGesanaaey SEG 3888 radensd o-3058 = Qles-B Coarar) = gf tesag ne Ee LACED en(e) _ j ames ) 2 daaxte* Cressy 2 3 72asnict s * os - dre5-a8.0. ie Ns B ransuss y Ve = EQuWwALENT Th CineuiT 5:22 Seo/e-9227 = 541.4 ky V, = Sooky compl Va + jz Am Bh [We [22.9] [corph 445 2 mpl] Uy |coopl 442 smpr| Ve Soo = 522s aveky Con egagasjanmoaase| vzez nea Rea. O Pr 36 _ 590x500 > 2359 15-48 a ~a- REweRKING PROB. 5:6: @) } +4 0-506 n/ km Az B= YZ ve LE mw ie (3.22910 Lac’) (S06 Leo") = 0-98 Fu B= 2= 5k 4 5 y= eee Ci-e-c04085) 2 3216x107 /90° s et OAAUB(125-4)4 § 50-6 (0-1945 (25-847) 2 moa aad key, \a6-9 JS 2 2sa-4 kv Veg = Vaui* Vs[A = 254-a/oae > 256-5 ky Yves Van. —Ve eu 2 2565 88 00 = 17-7, Va ru 28 Cb) Vg > e-aaie (i254) + j50-660.79.45 Let = 124-86 44 40-2 = wee L708" ku Wave® aaraknyy i { law = Vs/A = 2272z/oaaig 2 22a1kv Y yes BRANDS Zvr 2 2BAN=B xloo > 5:08 ze cer Ve = o-ame(i2s.a) 44 50-6 (o-1945 25-84" ) + oT. 344 4erie + 3.3 / 13-63" Vg = 3-3 = ez ky Vew = Ve [A = 196-2/0-9908 = sat.aky Yve + SATAR2NB io = 422% De = Me 5.28 ——— Next oR kan. OB. SAB: Soe, » REWORKING PROB. S13: OM 2+ LF/§ = [joaas [seams . 264-0 Gm VR LER Le fie 335 (4A-8etme©) C200) 2 Jo-B807 PU (er Aa Dr cenBls Conle-BaeT radians) = 0-42 BH PU Bj Zo Awmph = 5264 Ata(o-BEoTAMdemm = Aga a é: 1G) PmBh sg 2a Pin @-B80Tratiens): 41-408 15? § rr —=—t q crm Sar bn (Peg IDs) ame in ( Pew Ven) GE me 0 An ( Be: n eal Ce CE | ‘D Characteristi impedance oF Learns Factor: PN Geometrre Factors where, JE BS = 3M a » (per) [Stab ) wee bee ee Free srace Vvelouth oF Geowetriy Factors Propagation where =. 7 F Poée (rms) xe%) a a ose -n4- 5.24 conta. For tee TESAV line in Exanyle $.10 | . Deg= VONCN GA = TCH om 4 DeL= 1.041 5463) (o4sn)> = 0.202 m a Genk a Dse= 1-dal V (14) (oasy) (onusm)? = 0.213 my 8 ag xio Te wee axik LaQried a S Ln (27-64 [-202) “NS - 27. bt\ ez an w Gases Gea) Gass Ge) | = 2 ! i i 525 (> FRA Lesstess tne, Bs OITE = ance foarromere™ = 0001289 nad | ke > 53 [oman eee let. z = eco (36.37" Hwa 0 [= 36-87") o> 3% 288.675 Jot 2544 Ca ph Ve + 4 FL AmpS ER PA > croorasaxsee: 2977 nad = 21.car" Vg > 0-9295(288.675L0") 44 (Ca%e-as) 0-3c88 (184-9 36-87 G5?) 2 356-53 rer” kv SENDING EXD Lineate- Link WALTAGE MAGHITDE = 3 356.53 _ - _ > GiTsaky © 9-H ABA Ve 4 ong ce =A aaarag °°3688 (288.675 fot) 103 + 0-9295(u54-9 /-36:87") = Fo2-% Livan 5 NE conRear = 902.34 Sscagy > 3N5 Eel = a(ase-s3 Lieut) oars Lara’ dia Boo mn + 4 529-672 MvAR PERCENT VELTACE REGULATION: (356-53 /0.9295 )- 288. ers RSE ARSS Jn 788 OTS 288-675 = Bey ~ Wem Bee ns rue tine eunse constant is Bhs BT fread = HEX = » ‘Se00 FROM THE TRACTICAL Line LOADABUITY, = 22-68" ae Wen Mane Gt ng 5 7002 CHZCEAD CEE? ate seer” Aim ph Pow 2263" fe SLL t 499-83 MW Famer Sti= CHNenstt? ww, Kv, = fe. Cored = ICs20y Gaa-aad Ze = Acoky (by) TWE EQUIVALENT LINE REACTANCE Fee A LOSSLESS LIME 1s ae ze AUPK = Bream anes 1aBaa a Genk Weastess LIME, THE MamnuM PIER THAT CAN BE ries occurs Fee A LoAD TRANSMITTED UNDER STEADY STATE COnPL ANGLE OF 40"- wooky (LL), Va zora ria eAC 420) kv Guy With Vex \ Pu = (Ase) Ce-Axaoe) 123-34 ™ = WET MW | TWEORETICAL MAIMUM PeWER= \ ote From Problew S41 R= 0.9134 L1-087° per A=d.BIST Sys 1.087° oni Be B= 14g Les ats ede m Oye as.42? Usiig &9 (5.5.6) = (800)\(s0o) 281 2 : fanax eeiesee) - © — cos (85-22 }, 087°) Panan = SIGS — soaey 2 197. MW (2-# he te) For this loading at uth power Fattors = Panan 13477 Tae = = 1613 day NP Vac(Pe) Ve (S80) (1-0) 6 Tees tee From Tally AWS ) tye thermal lt for tree ACSR INS Qemil condvetors is 3(ii= 3.33 Ma/ phere. The Current 1.013 GA correspprding to the treoretical Steady-state Stability Lit Ys well below tre thernal lit oF 3-33 BAS -11g- 528 Line LENGTH + 2oekra 550km ZC) ok zane /-2-45° 202-6 (-245 YR (vy ortase 875s" 0.6838 / 87.55" A.D (Ret 0.9694 (2:15 ote 11:36" BCH) . 69.54 (85-1\5° yie-¢ [855° é€ @) : anions */40-08" 2.2360? /40.39" Fa max OW) B2a \284 we tweemas vor oF 3-25kALPuase contesmnns to LB (soo) (3-88) = 288A Mi AT Sooky AUD Unity PowER FACTOR. 5:24 x ’ aa Rez o-9285/oase pus, Aze-%285 , Q,=0-258 od ' . B= Baers /secen; 22825, O,> 866% (Q) Using €@.(5-5-6) 2 P. _ Beensoo _ 2:9285(520) O1, (ag.cato-2se" Cos aa28 4825 ene q = 2544.5 —1A7 = 2397-5 MW (b> Usina EQ.C5-5:4) WoTH S:0,: 2 = Q, = TAME Amw(ez- y oeescee (vo (26-6%-0-25€) z aa.28 Qg = — 2358 MVAR DELWERED To REch\winG END Qg x + 2358 MVAR ABSORBED BY Line At mE RECKIVING EXD Receiving eup ef = Cod (tan! $2) cal tas! es R saat. = OFT1S LEADING =ud- @) Be |EL= (-03s+4jeoaes)ioo ~ 8844465 4 ty CA asza nid) wo fa 2 jorter mS vorh 7 3 a 2 a Rane. | Saguene * Gry. saan tee (8:8 +4465) /52q = 20-0166 +4 0-088 pu 2 do.vrer/Cifoszn) = § oreaser pw NM pst Mt THE Nominal Th ciRcurT FoR THE MEDIUM Line 1S SHowM BELOW: BBN b46-5Hn jeaterms ismans &) Sag rater = Vincter Tiantea VB = 2306-973 = S585 MVA @ =D Ww ak gle (BBe4 46-5) (O12 1S) = aga Jot" BiB: Berjacse avar Las a aa 7 + BL = cnttss Lapa ms 2 oS SEL: Vinatea | Fe %.. [ER _ [vcsexdeaes > . 3 rs xo” = 366-6 /-5acn ; a f. Stus (2r03/ s6e.6 = la4e3 WA ~120- Problem 5.31 ‘The maximum amount of real power that can be transferred to the load at unity pf with a bus voltage greater than 0.9 pu (688. 5 kV) is 2950 MW. Problem 5.31 z j 4 3 Bese eas 8 Real Load Power (MW) Problem 5.32 ‘The maximum about of reactive power transfer that can be transferred to the load with a bus voltage greater than 0.9 pu is 650 Myar. Problem 5.32 re Load Resctive Power (MVR) S33 (a) Using £9(5-5.3) With B+ 3S 2 cos (@5.4i oo) ae GoolGrsxsee) CoS(gs.¥2°- 38°) — (+8137) (.28x500) 1640 Tee — P UZ 1o.w= 809%, MW (three - phase) EFp= 804% NU 1S De practical bide loadabilin provided “rat tre voltaqe arop Wert and trermal lett are net exceeded. QQ) zat fe = _804 = RP MO) Ge(oasxson)(o.09) (Cl Roe et = [s = (o-ran Li082°)(-vae Lo + (164.6 s5-n°) (0.993/¢.1°) aa.ge]8 = - 8127 Varn EOP + 103.45 / 42.52" aae6e/8 = (O.8136VpeL ~10.06)+ 4 (0, 01846 VaeL> test) Taking the sqparest magquituele oF tre above eqvation: QA 2 > BRB OLA VRE WBE Vag, + 2O7NC, Soluma tre above guadradic equations 3 [ess + 4 Geen = Ne Ve 4 Ger) (seein) = ha by, Vae . 2 (0.6622) Veep 7 SOUIVE = S2re5 Ave, = 'O¥S per vat = NV, = SOD. (Al Vans Vela= SS8 oe eis av. ‘ OloVen. = SUS 5205 cigo = 178% $21.8 -yn- 3-33 conta. From Probles 5°27 , tre srermal Viste BIT MA. Smee Vari] vy s21-S]S00 5 1,043 wan 0.18 ana the ternal seen TaeL= [wit and © vs As qreater Wane = F-33 RA is O-1438QGA , the voltage Arop srerna| ait are not exceeded at p= got-hw, loadabihty 16 determined by stability « areater ctherefore, BBA Reo-a7ae Leoudt RU; As e-47B4 » Om Foor Be Ee coga lee; Z2G04B, Ons OS 2 2: F731 -ASx500) Soa (oo vine €a,C553> wirw 6: BSE Re 500 (0-A5%5°9) caaC ee. BS) COad 2218 Mn C34) e243 2D = 2218 MV 1S ME LINE LOADA BILITY IF THE VOLTAGE DROP AND TWERMAL Limits ARE MoT EXCEEDED, = mae 2272s a WS Vauls) E@-a5s0j@99> ® Tnevs Us = Aig + BE ~ as [see’ (27123/8.0") © Bee /§ = (e934 [220% ) Ver? & Go" VB 13:55) +4 (0:0016 Ve ect leai4) 288 o8 LE = ©9739 Ve gy TAKING THE SQUARED MAGNITUDE OF THE ABOVE BEBBS = o-ADEEA VEAL — 256 Veer PTAC Sotving THE Above QUADRATIC EQUATION ~12a- BBA conep. aseto +y/ Secor 4 (093664) (56,100) oe = 250.68 v, tap 2. (0.7678) seam Var = 250.68 VT = YBHOIS Avi, = 0.868 per unit for this load currest, 2725 Ga, tre voltae Arog Vinit Ya fy, = O98 1g exceeded. The thermal (nit | 3-33 Aa & not exceeded. Therepore “tee voltage atrop Lit Aeternines load bits for tuis lke. Bored on Varies 94S per nit, Tare caleviated ay Follows + We Avarit Fire. #)\(eABx 500 79 ° 7 bees = eatandecomit \(AESE or) + coat(aoe? G4, L8H") 2eB-es /§ 2 267.09 oon + Gas tee [94-10 = E4966 Tyg. 267.04) + Goo. 283, + 04281) TAKING SQUARED MAGMTUDES: 83333 = Bose Tr, — 2601 Tag, +71387 Solving ME Quadratic, = 2G0l + [eeon*+ 4Caesa)Cnare) Tree 2C 3658) oe AT O-99 bE LEADING THE PRACTICAL Ling LoADABILITY FORTHE Line 13 Paz VB (e-a5x500) 2:2 G99) = W942 MW Wawiew 1S BASED oN ME VILTAGE DROP LiwT Va] Vg2 048, ~\24- { | | | | | 5:34 comp. (4) Yaw. = Ve/A = Seo/oarsa = 513-4 kv, . BId-4 — C 500x245) gg = 808% 4 eke Boe xo-4S @) R= 206 Am. The steaty site Stabilrty Lweit iss 38 ‘ fe ($CAN S00) coe a5.1¢-38) ~ (RANGA ras. 16° 0549 9.54 6287 Pas 2188-274 = 1904. mw 2 2a Tap= —fR = PW Vae OF) Ae Ws AVarr+ Bb Eee see [ss = (.1¢94Jo.184°) ae, 10°) + (64-54 8515°)(2-35/2.1)°) 2GE-ENS] Ss = (62614 Vag, - 4.298) + F(0,0026-Vae, + 1631S) Takiteg thespoared magnitudes BB BST2 5 LIST Vee ~ TIT Vere + 26704 - Solving Se = 171, > . mans Qn) 4 4 G93 ) (56629) = rhea, Neem 2(-9397) 44ns Avi, = O-8F1e per onet Var. = 28-8 Va = The volteqe arop lit bv x |= OAs is not satisfied. At the voltaqe drop lint: Ns = AYVagit BEeer SEE /se = (0,ncayfousy*)( “EAE2PL) + (4.54 J8s18° fn, Leste") -VB- 5+BS conv aee.gns/Ss = (265-85 ~ 3.983 Xae,) + Aormrye +69-43 Tere) Sevared maqaite oles: ee — Solving tam = 2003 + VGeost 4H (NCH ese) Cassey” _ , aoe 24226) The practical lite leadabilt, forts reo Qs line it Paec= VE (-7Sxsoo(h8)O91)= 1447, mw at Van|vg = OAS fer oat ane at 0-97 PH. leadily ©) Le CoD Mm 5 coneesmnng Brias (85-57; Kids onrseltess* Lp = GOA(IS*S00) coses.sy?- see) — C-TSEN(OASKSOY™ og RO ae ane Otte Stee) ppt 1865-722 = 694-3 Mw The practidal Lite lbadagility For teu Goo Qn le is 694.3 Mur corresprding to De Steady - Sete Seb It - 536 (@) sre ey = 346.8 Hw : Nealecting losses ant Using &g (5.4.18)% B= OVG4S)(szz) sin(ss®) _ - 164 RO(STL)= 1.480/396. %) Sin ( 2 zee radars) Be seus bw /ine ~\de- 5:36 conrp. oc ete See Bate # B4s-ky Lines = 2 (b> FoR Sooky Lines , SEL = Ceeoy = 40a MW 4 Pe kas SEL Sak (9081 = 1B 5 MN [Live 2Re0 gy 2NGat of Slines ve S00-kV Lunes = teas6 2. Ges)". 2250.4 MW 260 Ce) For T65-kw tints, SEL= Pz 48 CSEL) = 1:48(2250-4) = S333 vine, 2200 ye oGeal & 2 Lincs Baad a 165-kv LUNES = -i7l- 5:37 CO Usiwa £e.05.4.29): Pp. —— ae = 48 Cau) Pon = Radiens) Pe V48(aac.a) = S873 Mw/B45-kv Line # B45-kv Lines > 220° _ 4.2 S44) eT Lincs sas Pe 1-48 Caean) = 1345.5 wi] Seo-ky une # Boo-kv tines = 3200 _ 44 45-5 BAe eA Lines Pe 48 C2250-4) = BBBi-B Mul 165-kv Ling B200 _ 4) a 4G ale 2Lines ave w 765-kv Unes = i) pe WNL45) (StH) (sin zS°) = tz) @z2) Sin (2 X 400 radians) 300d B= v3 (340-8) = He. Ww /ZYSRY Line ae B4SAw Liss 2000 4) ~ yg = & Lines aRe aes be (-131)(107.) = 1018-3 MW/sooar Le 4 soody Les = 2000 ele aye = 3 Lines 1628-3 eo D = (1-13) (2280.9) = 2545.9 aw / 1s bv Lise * 1ES- lev Lines = _2000 EI =_2 Lines 2548-7 +1 = a.7941 = 2S - 1B Pl = G@-acnc*) C300) (go/m) = 16.26" REAL POWER FOR ONE TRANSMISSION CIRCUIT Pz 3600/4 > G00 MW Fromme PRACTICAL Lint Loamagitity, Py Vs yu Va pet Ans = Am BA God Coad CStLD Pw V6 +26" FRom Wwicu StL: 466-66 MW since SEU [CRM nae) /20] MH ky, = [EcCaO = fleancaeeee + dooky NOTE: Emnom im pamering s ejags Wal lal LoS Awa LP = ver vel THE PUASOR DINGRAM CORRESPONDING To THE AGAVE E@UAneN IS SHeuW BELOW: on Goes Ata Crean?) 5:34 Fa Van Wallet Wall sin A AVa le 208 Lallvar wee Bh Wall Vel o) o (by BX siiFriNa ME oRIauy FROM Of TOO, THE PeMeR DIAGRAM IS Sholn Iw FIG. Cb) Ageve. -ma- 5:39 conto. FoR AGIVEN LeAD AND A Gwen VALUE OF Wel O%A = WVgllsl (LEN TE Loci of PomTA WILL BE A SET of CIRCLES OF RADIY O'A , one FoR EACH OF tHe Set or VALUES oF (Ugl. FeRTIONS oF Two SucH CIRCLES Cknoun AS RECEINING EMD CIRCLES) ARE SHOLIN Be Lew: Vas Giver: Ver and V8 (Ve < IVa) Vas constant Wats Lint OA in THE cuRE MEOVE 15 THE LeaD Ling WHEE INTERSECTION WIT THE POWER CIRCLE DETERMINES THE OPERATING POINT. TRUS, FoR A LORD CWITH A LAGGING PeNcR-FACTOR ANGLE 2) A AUD ARE TE OPERATING FriutTS CORRESFoMDING TD SEuDNG-~END VOLTAGES \Wg,\ Aud Weal , RESPECTIVELY | THESE OPERATING FowTs DErERNIE TWE REAL Awd REACTIVE PewER RECEIVED FOR ME THe SENDING. EUD Veutaces TME REACTIVE PowER MAT MUST BE SUPPLIED AT THE RECEIVING Ewd Woman To Marais CONSTANT \Jql WHEN THE SewDine END VOLTAGE DECREASES FROM \V5,\ To We. \ IS Given BY AB) wincn is PARALLEL To THE REACTIVE. PoWER ARIS, -130- Problem 5.40 ‘The maximum power that can be delivered to the load is 10250MW. Problem 5.41 For 8800MW at the load the load bus voltage is maintained above 720KV even if 2 lines are taken out of service (8850 MW may be OK since the voltage is 719.9 kV). 5-42 From Broblen S17, the shut adwittnce of the egvivated TT circuit Wwrthest Comzoation iy Sle xX “bs : - 7 A (sre xtO°e d ers7eid?) = 6.3¢ xo d aarcie’s =@+ia with 1D% Shunt reactive compensation | tre eguivalet shunt adnrttanee Wot Jeg = Gtx 15%+ J (aa ryx ied) (1- +B) Nep= G3bxioo + Jeeaxid's = cenxin’ lenin Swee there ig no Serieg Compensation; Zeg = BS 16466 182° 2 The equivalet A paraneter of the Conpsated linet = Yegt Rey= 1+ Yegtes _ ee = 1+ (Gem 127-17) (iene jesv2) = Beg = 1 + ©.056) LIT 8?°= 0.194145 005 = 7441 6-20 The No-Loadt voltae is = ™Ms S4u.5 Vanc> = Des). S7e7h UY Reg Oty ce where Vs ig obtained Fron Proble. 5.12, Varp= BOUL kk the Sane as ane, tw Brolle. S212, Smee ‘tre Shont reactors Gre renoved at full loach s Therepore 5 Om via. = Van > Vari =5%6-7 - 480, ),, = Xoo =" STATO, ,, = 2015 2 Vare 7 WO = 2046 fo The impedance Dp each Shunt reactor ic : <1 Frente? 9 LS G19) = <3 myx - same Cra] = Insesn At Badr enh or we lines -\3h- : Bas (0) Ve + S537 ky, Game AS PReB.5:14) Seq 2 Gates 4 § 7-294 nc C1089] FROM Peob. 5-18, a vata ee 9 729k Mees Tang nie (878 S Zen? 2 ae-25 (866r nr Key sv» Yeu Be va yCrasans® Love )Geaslee ce") 2 Ve 00888 L114.1¢ = o:AG Aa 430-0036 20.9644 9-20" Ve we, = Ns [egy = Grs-t[oncaa = CITB Nig STEBAAES x10 + AVn7 ABS (by Vz= 556-TKV,, Coane AS Frew. 5:14) Vewe 2 Nal As 856-7/0-n64e = satakvr Ye 2 B13 = 480 nto = 20-3% ABO © Vg> 435-1 ky (sane as PRB. 5-14) Vew = Vs/A + ans [ences s anu2 kyy Yves M27 480 x00 2 - 6% “eo e -133- = EY 5.44 From Problem 5.57 i Bes ely s se Sey Bared on 4o% series Compim sation, half at each ed cf te line, tre iapedewe OF Gach series capacitor as Beant ~ xe? ~F4.G4d gga) = =isact. S/prote at each end) Usrng re ABCD Paraveters fro. Probles 5.4 re egpivaled ABCD paraneters oF tre COmpensated lire are + _ rs 1 [Gracy |fOM37A-08 eye sesee Tr daa i 2. [ 1 | eee o.tnn/La? Hl 1 eae ——====== aa ona? 2 co pone Buding Omol a ated ne Contes Co nee eee vernon Receiving Eno line. Series Gputors (Grom Pa. S01) [i = [: ee] [erase 1Rw.OS [84322 “bi | = 3 2 Taalde. | Lo 1 2-061 x1D° 70.32" | oO, BIZ 11.03 Cag, | Dag, 5 068813 L1s03° 10%64 =] ~ > ° o 2061 KID' / Jo.82" 0.8813 L238 5-46 FROM PROB. BAB: (2) B's Be aa.25 (8c-cat 2 5-673 4498-04 Impedance of EACH SERIES CAPACITOR IS Zone =D Kear * H(A) 03 Casoads =f 4-1 EQUIVALENT ABCD PARAMETERS Of THE COMPENSATED LIVE ARE 1 | -dis-ti) [eares/e-2sd lanzs/acen” || 4 | -jt4-d ° n tho 1592 90-09" cares /e-258] | © n Studia Ene UNGHRENSATED LINE RECEIVING END SERIES CAPACITORS From PR, SHB SERIES CAPACITORS \ aja | fo anes 225e 24-62 (36127 ° | gos miae/9 onqaz(e2535 oaaaz [0255 avas L305 Va. wes ara? Z9 09442 (2:2525 (BY Ae e-9492 , Oy > 0-255) : 5 Bey > Bey = WAS, Oxy = BOS From £Q.(5-5-G) Wit Vaz Vaz 500 KVL a SeoxSeo _(e. : : Cerne ees eee e Recto os) Was aas = Ba99 — 563 2436 mw (34) WHICH 15 22-57 LARGER THAN THE VALUE Panay = 2297S MW CALCULATED IN PROB, 5:24 FoR THE UNCOMPENSATED LINE, “WE- 5-46 Fron Broblen S-44 ¢ Req = Oo stis On = 103° ~ al - ° Beg = Fa = 109-4 Oz = %a-ss° Frow Ex(586) wit Vee Vas SDP aM! Geo)(so0) — &8@13) (sont TOY eee eee Penax EGO os (natn inet Penax = ALES. — IVT = ITE. MW Cteree~ Phau] whe 6 4203 Zo learner tan tre value Pana = NBM NW calculated Probl, 5-27 For te bncorgencated [she ~ Wb Let eg be tre eburmlent Cenes reactance OF one T6E-QV , SCO &m, Serius compensated line . Tre eQuivalent semnes reactanle oF four hides ut. two |ntermediate substations antl one lide Section our—O- Service CY tyen % at (& xg) + £ (Exeg) = O-RMTE Keg Fro EG (SHG) wi $= 557) Va = O75 fer vat ) aud f= tooo Mw 4 4 pe (res) Gasxres) soB5) — . a000, | 27g Xe Solving for Xegi Kegs ETSY = x (i- Ne’ = 1563S 3) Soliwat Neo= '8-4% serves capacitive : Compensation (Ne= 2146 % melodias 4% lise losses) - i & : ie Reap? YE w= -3 Leet (42 2 -Jsataa . <3 . = Yeas = = Ly TeB\= ~ 4 (ETRE ))- -J3.48x10's i Ry E a og iz7eost? » 1G 4G Lest 4 Zen, Se -j3. faanait aeoeinte (203% | oem [/-087° - a Se mo ce we © ,-it.k 1 ° [: 1 ) (saa 1 ] Rt Recewiny Bt BESET EY jen shone compentatn Apter multylginy “tee above pive maatrices! Ree | Te 0-424 Leste? 109.4 1 82-SS° Ca | De © | ou nicl Zeer T o.tay oer | | 1 { { -138- i S40 See soutien oF PRBAS FoR YL, Ze Comb Wh, ano AGE, Fon rae Uncontenanres Lines R2Bz CombVR = 08a0g Lhe" = ZBoawyis 186-18 £7906 Be. ARTA . omens CEA84 e.acuas £4042" S Ze AG m [- Sav NOTING THAT THE SERIES compansarien ONLY ALTERS THE SERIES BRM OF THE EQUIVALENT TeciReuir, THE NEW SERIES KAM IMPEDANCE 1S Boe Boge 1G £79-46" = jot x2ve (ot277 D4 60.88 /s585 0, mews nes In WIE 0.8297 1S ne CMAGINARY Pant OF Fe o-B4a1 (19.047 A [owt a’e! sf on Novime MAT Az 2% 4, ann Le Le Ceahh aw S ER. ak ek eu + Go-8t /55-a5° » oc005a Seat )atz0-87 faa! 2 = : — 4 Cnet VCs BEY 2 Ve EE ax0.008544 [8UE + Co-8e 155 c-cons [9-4 S THE SERIES COMPENSATION HAS REDUCRD THE PARAMETER B to ABeut ONE- MAD OF ITS VALUE FoR THE un compENSATED LINE, Wintour Acreering tue A AwD & paRAncrens APPRECIABLY, TRUS, THE Maximum POWER THAT CAN BE TRANSMITTED IS INCREASED Br ABour 300% . ~ Bae 3:50 THE SHUNT ADMITTANCE OF THE BHTIRE LINE 1S Fe HRs pons nws x 2a0z -jooouras wity 0%, compensation | Yugy = ota (je-eowta)): -j occ 8228 FROM FIG. 5: OF THE TEXT, FoR HE CASE OF ‘SHUNT ADMITTANCE , AaDety B20, Ex¥ = je-cce 3228 FoR THE UNCamPENSATED LINE, THE KBE, B PARAMETERS ARE CALCuATED WoL setution oF PR.5. AA: 2 NerweRns’, SEE FIG.5.4 of THE TERT To MeDIFT THE PARAMETERS, foe “sem So FoR THE Line WITH A Shunt lNpucTOR, Reg = odded (usa + \R678 Lx9-40" (0.008 812 Z-98°) 4 e vwoau LZ THR VeLTAGE REGULATION Wink THE SuUNT REACTOR CommecreD AY No LeAD 16 Gwen BY Qet-86/voan) - 12443 e-0667 Vans WHICH 15S A CONSIDARABLE REDUCTION COMPARED fo 0.247 FR THE REQuLAnen OF THE YNCOMPENSATED LINE. (SEE Sauron of PR-SAS) 551 (a) FROM THE SeLUTION oF PR-5.25, Boz 2a0-aan; phe aca FoR A LOSSLESS Une, MME RQUIVALENT LINE REACTANCE 15 Gwen ey xs Be Amph = Gr0-as)Amareais lot 5:5) conte, Boor 4600 MA we Recewing EnD fewer S. 0... = tooo Los swce FL, = Vaceee Vactn? ace S , me rer ancie 5 x! \5 CBTAWES Ren Boo = (SeenSoo /tor.u) Ato S en «$f: 2e.04ae TWE Receive END Reacriva PUER 1S Give BY — (APrtonmateET) Q Nscurey Vaceey Vee RCReD * cnS — “REY Cash x" x' = $00%522 en(re.oam) _ CD00)" ag car.cai”> v8 Tou = 23 +\B mvaR wen THE ReQuacn CarAeiten MVAR 19° 3. 2 j2808-4g002 -j576.85 WE CAPRCITIVEREACTANCE 18 Q\vEN BY CSL EQ. 2.3.5 iw ext) ay? a rin S500 x, TM Rl Jes or 6 2. ABD. BED we = Gime Ineyarsse * Ot Coo) Trae tao conren x cr ee erteay net n comereets re Xen 2 84x! 2 oa Clot): 428A TME NEM CQuivacent Te ciRcurT PARAMETERS ARE Given BY Bn {Ohare = caren; Ys 5B kawPhy 2 Gocorsie s ; BteED = 4 Bigs Gezen, Ais wee = 04577 THe activins au veusnce vem Punse Uys S88 /ethvs 288.675/6" ky =* = Sxceay | VE Le asa Jo3car" ka TWE SENDING EWD VeLTAGE Is THEN GIVEN BY Vsz ANq + Big = 226-4 freaky; Vecuisy +18 s2e4: 565aky Pence ur veurnce Recutane « S654/¢ 9582-508 sige = 184 Sos . ~M1- Problem 5.52 ‘The maximum amount of real power which can be transferred to the load at unity pf with a bus voltage greater than 0.9 pu is 3900MW. Problem 5.52 ‘The maximum amount of real power which can be transferred to the load at unity pf with a bus voltage greater than 0.9 pu is 3400MW (3450 MW may be OK since pu voltage is 0.8985). oe eee eee sine’ Problem 5.53 = z a i | wo 1400150040000 OKO Losd Real Power (MW) “| -W2- CHAPTER G oA Ss -2 -3\ 1% 4 -3 4-2 len -3 -3 alls e TMERE ARE N-122 Gauss etimivarien STEPS: Dunne eter i, sueracr Aay[Ays ~S/S = 7b TIMES EQ. Trem EQ2, Awd SUBTRACT Ary [Ay ~3IS THES EA.4 From Bone, BS -b =3 = 4 © 5 -S\\ a le] -6 | eeu ce Bx ag? ! o -uk oR 4 ay = Fron fa. 3. 5 a alfa 4 } ° 5-5 als | -¢ uuiew 1S TRIANGULARIZED, | ° o 2 my a | Vin Back, SUBSTITUTION, ae y Bee Bx Caanee’s RULE, 5 -2 -3 aA -2-3 Be las 7-2) = 80 5 Ave | oe 7-2] ste Gexennmae ay or WHE FIRST 3 <3 8 e-3 8 ceuune > 5 AH? 5-2 Ag: |as nwo -t\ +24 5 Age |-8 1 40) = 84 ma Ge a GA courp . a b. Beet 2 OAR 4 Xq: Ad > wee 5 7 “2 Ve S a oc 8 BY MATRIX METHOD \ Seas 2S o A 5 ot were A Lt AX+¥ 5 ATAX= AUN 5 Ke AT Y WHERE! ag a as aeons Red 5 Feros y xgehes ~~ G2 x 1 VP" GE Step Xi | =| 6 3 aed oe Slfxa yl fa WAGE ster o figel 2 vm |=] we ° © [13-768 L*3 2.45! Back substitotion + ee ee tTaee = O.17620 Xp= 126 — 2 (0.17620) a2 fee =O. 188 I 06636 1 306686) | 0.0 8009 x= 10 | mA we aL) Qwr GESTEP o (ee 2 2.481441 Oo :3468085, ° Back SuBsTiTUTION — eal ipa CRBS = VB24G NIELDS * Xs mag 16-21-8240) 2 01104 a \a-8 xe Va 3Cret09) 01827 6 - 145 - ga Summary~ Gaus: Elimiat %* Divisios | Hmottphadoc | + Sobtmachow "CE step N-1 N(w-1) NOn=1) x ce step | wea) | Naa | NG) ace sep | (uns) | (WANS) | (y-aOrs) (wil ce ster Ql) wT Touls tees gin “s G5 From EQ (Tetee) ) back svbstrtotion 1 given bys = BR 7 Ag ywer Xai — Algyiaa Sha” 7 Aten Xn Xe = Akk Wnch requires one Arvision, Q-RY mobtiphectisns and (W-K) subtractions for each REN (enter le Sommary ~ Back Sub stitutiin © Divisions [# molt phaahiul # Subtraction Xn t ° ° mee 1 1 | Keer ! 2 2 Ky ! @&-) &-) Totals N Ste wel |S te nod) 25 Se 6-G Using “the results of Problems G4 ant GS writs N= 100: [seta] 8+ [ Geokwes If isS157]= ome ‘ 6e (49) 5*4157]=o.coss Poo] 166 + [Geek] [154187] = ovcose Total time = Os 3071S time ie required por Time por G Time for : bare Lebet tution wote : Additional Indexiny and mane gin DO loops. har Ne 1D elements and G7 The y vector has Nhe 10° elements « the A matrix Steraqe requirements aret Genlas Gd vik 4s qootxich bytes = 4oo¥. Q bytes 8 % (iva z, [B.-A xat- Ars x)= Lf 3x(i)] % Litn= ga Dear Aa XO Ags QO 3b B-4 eG 72x, 0)) Xz (te) 7a [as7 Ax %- Axx 7h [a - Sx,(L) -2x,5) | t_foj-4 2 [3 6 XU | © [+l00C0 | @.07000] 6.082429 /.0'4 [3 | 0.08037 | 0 - PROD] o ° x » (0000 | 0.05857 | 0,06757]]| 0.06542) 0.06668 | 0, 06626 x3 (U ©, 21424 | ©. 16439] 0, 18092] 0.9749/] 0.17668 | 0.17606 Stop after sae - oroneeo= q,oman|- ee arom | 70887 %@-%2G) | ~ fo.ocere — 0-06 43 O-% mer |” [ae one [aa" oot G4 x(= ffi-smti]) «bes Bra Gey - 20) X; (i) = a iE -8xiCin) ~2x2in)) Step agter four ‘Vherations. Gavsss Seidel converges 0.06534] more rapidly 0.1%37] oO, tNgap) Fer ths problen. | Xa(41-%3G)) 2 XiG)— XG} [_ | o-0ga10 - 0.074: =o i [xsd XO | = o,00) i xictene afesncl] xbe= bh and) = xt} xX lit) = ont fs-sxa@ -2x07] i fof i z 3 4 5 6 x) | © [e100 | 0.0700 | o.mg87 | 0.56707 | 1.5633) 0, 6Ns7 Xi) | 0 | 0.100 | -2-0629 | -1.5567 [-4enn7 [-1.0130 | - 7.2984 x) [0 [aug | teed [49-399] 17-990 | 0.875 [ — 9/8039 eer & 4 to u i 3s | XiGi Jaanes | -o.ter8 |s.aney | -anor | sone | -cosor nial Xalll Josriuy | -29.6279 | 1.3902 | -1¥-yoe | 20.603 | -36-77_ | 4E-bey xl) | tor.70 72-08 | INBHS =200.83 [ 3574] | -473-68 | eons Gauss Serdels ardans efrerady) xed? bP 4G) -axi] xa(inns gig [B- sx Cie) -2 civ] tje}] a z 3 [4 s 4 XG) [ O]| 0.100 | n.0760] o,s757R] 1-34b0 | 1-TS6Y es xii) | O | 0-080 | -1-cxeg|—4-1832 | cues) |- Ctene | -4-7026 L_ xa] O | MeeMH | M380] 60-189} G18 33-246 | 1s. 74 {7 z 4 10 ny ir 13 |_xibfisiore [o.gsane [-o.1oent | -o-rcbeg [onevaf erent [ ain1 (xO tn [once [Caan | -O-cany [stay [cag | eae xah) ~1979 | 007 | 7.17Dy 31.3 6213] T1428 7S S495 Neher Ke Jacobi nor Gavss-Sede| “iterative metuats Converge 2 tre Unugve solution (given in the Problem. M2 solution) =14- eu NOTE ERRO® IN PRINTING OF PROB-STATERENT: | 2 AML Secoun E@uamen SHOULD BE %, 4 XL VBS REWRITING THE GIVEN EQUATIONS, 2 XM, 2 TR 40633 5 Xe BAK ‘ 3 Wath An init Guess of ox, Coeds And ¥i Cede, UPDATE oy With THE FIRST EQ. ABAVE, AND %, WHT THE SEcoWD Equation, Thus eee eee) eciaai | BeG3as 0. AGED 3 Aur Met RR COE RAL ER Im Succ Ding \TERATIONS, CoMPUTE MoRE GENERALLY AS Xan) XCved = 4 0.cda 2 2, Aue Xa Gree 8 = XG AFTER SEVERAL ITERATIONS, 2,2 2438 AWD Xe O-AIT. AUER A FEU HORE ITERATIONS, X12 e-ABAZG AND X= O-NTL, « > Wowtver, nore THAT AN ‘UNEDUCATED GUESS oF ImiriaL VALUES, SvewAs ro) + X,(o)s 100, WeULD HAVE CAUSED THE SoLUTEN To Diverae, REWRITING THE GIVEN ER@vATION, FoR THE GAUSS~ SEIDEL MEMeD: se bxtabe Mie Pela g = FORO USe THE IwtAL Earimare 1 COD =) TWEN , IN SuceEEDING WeRATIONS. Wwematen Ar XC: FOOD eb eb 8 2 Wresanen 22 3 C2d= Flesh: £@S) 442 o-B75 7 2 lento Bi C87 Fle: 4 Co-BIS) +h ose 2 WTERASION A. Cay: FlO-BSEBD: bCo-ascey “b= 0-B545 es aa\— \> Gow ate ce rem SEEMS Te BE sce \a\cmsrr\- [yon\ <¢ 23, Wwrew 5 SUFFICIENTLY SHALL, OnE MAC How STOP. THE QUADRATIC FeRMULA GIVES THIS ROOT AS X= e-BS425 vo ewe places, a 161> GaKw Evler0) iss AGtl= Mads og Taking thE 2 transform (assume Zero inital conditions) + 2X@)= MR@I+ O' YZ (2U-y) x@= OY! ke: @u-n o' Yes ce Ye Example G-3, 6a Fer Bet (BU-M)= a w= bso a 4 aq tz Fer xamgle 2.5, 2: [s+2] m= B'(-A) Det (EU-M)= Det] = x fo} Ta-9 GetS For ° > _ U-M)z v= 7 Det (2U-M) vee St =| TA For Gauss-Seidel, me Sie-ay=[ up? “fete }-[2 Rt | 7 [= lee oto Lo Antu ~192- GAS corp, ae Aa det (2U-M)= vee ef au B(e- AnAu)=0 o | a. Amu Aaioe Anat aso, AnAy An Any Whea N=2, Both Tacoki and Gauss- Setel converge ip and only if [Anau Aku <1 GE Gaver Seidel, From Ea(Gir) is given by os XnCC rts - ArnXaciet) = ArenXalt) meen dale Zane) kets aeeN For each ky the ateve equation reapires (N=!) mul liplicutions one dwvisios , and (Ne!) subtractions. TRUS For N equations, each iteration requires NUHi)mUlE ty Keating N divisions » and Niel)sebtractiens. For N= 100, Computer tre fer iteration 14 nse }+ Nast) + Niw-(0") = (Lo0)¢aay (154) + (eelust] + wola) GS") = crous Pies Some addition! te zor Indexing cinel manag iss DO loots <158- eazy oe ae a xt+ 8xt5 From, Eq (63-7) + KH ~1 aC) = x@+ [4 MW 8 XG +8] fo -Beasyeae sxci+e) } i ° \ ae 3 4 5 x) 1 | o.o7o707 JrteBTLHLE | “14559733 | —1-YS1163 | ~H4SI TS x(S)- XCF HSUNS3-+ LHSIE3) 6. CO00I1L x4) = HSI Stop apier S iterations. Note Gut X= TL ESNYSS As One gplotion. The ot-er two Solutions are X= 0.0589059 + J 1-3S4RUZ G18 = a = yxde sex + oR xX +103 From BRG-%.9): wa x(ie) = xt) + tar esetel+ loaxtitred fo ~ Lx ten ate sete) stromata) fi o}] | 2 3 4 lin [ 1g 1 x | ni {-1-5 |-1.2n5 | -2-1seag] -asensig «= 42424804] -a997@y [29203] x19) = xb xbe) = 00,0008 = 2-A4A3ALZ+ 2-189701 2.99970] Stop after 19 erations. X= ~2-1923223 , Sleeees cceeeesnssaiaceeseae: is one Of four solutiexs to this 4 tegree polynomial. The ster three Soltis are X= -3, X= -3 ant Xe whe -164- 19 1 Xone * ik ain | PX] [xe ye . ae xe CL, xe Sst] -S Ld +42)] Ga 7 Eola ta) xike eke re ben] 2 peep Sun Ota} al la-e wat Ma, SmQu bral KLE ©.8 = cor (Kit%) Gre xa) sin cited = sm Ube) Trae] — xie** Bos ~ coer] 24 + G7) of sin cas te] 5 ne ei =e ee sm Cte) Lior et] pe oe coi Ginny ey Cate) wore te right sie of te equations are evaluated at t. A xyHIe 1 XL EVE OF 0.89557] 0.83165 OetSI7G] O.21565 Y=) oy ye = x(t) eg nT | sHass [asad bei @) n@ret Ord whieh vk Diverging ~166- Wark THE STARTING Fomy 2, CODZ\ AnD X5GD2-1 FOR THE FIRST \veRanon In THE Newton@ RAPHSON METHOD, $, CG, x20) = le angel S$, (%vcer, X26) = 2a 22d THE PARTAL DERWATWES EVALUATED AT %\Co) AND Xz (0) ARE a5. > 2x22 NEGLecting DERWATIWES OF ORDER GREATER THAN owE IN TAYLOR - SERIES Expansion, as as, S, (mien, xater) + Amcor =| was 2) Lo oa Cod am XaCod ag. C x coo, x26 ee oo SS so § Cod, Xgo>) + AX, C02 I + AxC se any ) =\ xy axe aed Svestrution SELDs ; V+ 2Ax, — 4 Sx, 20 bap V+ DAx, — Ax, 20 Stmorrantios sownen wieres; AXGds 0-5 AND AX, (od=0 TWUS, BEXTER Esrimerts oF 2, AND >, ARE yO = RCO) HAR, = Looe 205 5 C= ALCO FALE VOT MN PROCKEDING AS ABeve WITH THESE NEN ESTIMATES, SECOND AMD THIRD ITARANONS sven: X\C2) = O-335T AND X29 = — 06-4286 (37 2 2 1SBSA Aww >E,Ca2 —OA2ER Note THAT Such PREBLERS ARE SeLvED MOST CONVENIENTLY Wind A DIGITAL ComeuTeg ~ISb- Let PCY) = yrmgea Using ME woe Guess Ysa | PCY = PCADE AAA eas o-0728 FO? = BE a goog sang senur Cary = pcays - aa AnD ae = PCH) / PiCytD = ares /GB8T4) = - 0-284 4 eye RCRD FoR me FIRST IttRAnON , fa Yay’ = x" - a so tty mAg = axo-289 5 Cyt) = p(aetad= o08an 2 A 2BQ , 2 7 , . . 7 20897. 6. 03BS b Cyrd = pC 4-280) = - 26738 5 agi: Saere Quo ERATION: age Ag = 4.209 +0-0B35 = &.B225 , ce PCy) = p(a-t228) = wei, p Cyr d= p Carats) s -25679 agi = occa /G2-ser9) = -9-00074 2 2 eot4= 4. Baw \reration: Yo: Yo —Ayis 4 BS se eeoTs= A aan2e e C4) = ~ 0.400001 smce PCy?) Dierens from zene BX one PART IN A MILLION, ONE SeLUneN TO MIS NewLiNeak E@uanay CAN BE SAID m oe 3 Be yrs 4.2324 ra, OFCOURSE, THE PRESEucE of THE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTION MEANS. THAT THERE ARE oTMER SeLUTeuS To THE PROBLEM, “\91~ G22 C00 Yue S-ftoc ure (eras 5 Yay: 2a ag (6343 Nase B-3G2 Gon f-es-as, Ygs 24g: aan (West? Vint -B24G 261 Jes, Y,20 Cop At ous 2, B= VLMa Wc (S- 5-8) aan Vale (Fa BOs) + + Yan aC 5-63-05) Twos 62 ty 1-87 (1) en (Sy nest) + 447 Cir coh 62-43Dq 2-a.seeed; Sy- ne.s7: + 44, 59538" Wawen aces en (= U6-5 oR Sys NGG oR Ag.anacs’ 5 tace Fs (6-47 408° (E> FoR tuSB, Pye Val Yan Om C8, 8) +45 Vaero C- 6355] Seastitenma, <2 = Va [101d en CG -U6e- BI) + GVA ce G3-43t] Tuus ° Nj [er cacaar] + Vg en (5g est") tat Auae, Gy = Va L Yan WAC Fs B= Oa0) + Yo Vain O35] Vg Vg [etree (dy - nest Se 61Ng Ain 63-49] ae VE Ain GRad Ny Ao CO, -ne-59° Dean gar * Va? 3 : ? ConSimne COA AUD ES.2 ABOVE, 2 2 2 : 2 ey 2 2. avy an 6a.a3* ay. em 6a | = Bo avd enenast]s (2, -E vw * . 5 : on Va + A VE [en caas—osnneras’ | a 4 2h wen Gu _ xX: was, Ve -vg+ac0 ME secumow oF Wen ss Ve: SHV S fs 2 TAMING ME festiwE Sige, Vos o-8127 en Va = 0-4R42 “ISB. G:22 Contp. SeBstrrtenag in Ea. d <2 so 8127 Cr 63.43" 4 0.9342 Col F-06591") ew Wuwieu SHELDS, en Cd, = Wesnt) = - 0, 136% oR Sy - Wests e 1. AGE on 8, = —20-808" @> 2 WL YW or Gend +Me cn &- = 82d + 4X3 Vy 07 Ch Ond) 2 0.4437 Cd ToL REAL POWER Less Iw THE SYSTEM 1S CALCULATE AS 08-4Aad 4G 2 0, SAB ~164- Yasue te Fe at Broote Toray | MA /4424" per Yast -Yeqe ie " a3 Ysq= 24093/-85.01° per onit 7 G:24 In Example 6.9, as shown in Figure 6.3, buses 1 and 3 are not directly connected to bus 2. Therefore, ie a Also, Yoa is the same as in Example 6.9, Yas = 9.95972/95.143° per unit Using (6.4.2) with the impedance of the line between buses 2 and 5 (Line 2) doubled, Yos = 1 2(0.0045 + j0.05) = 9.95972/95.143° per unit + 1 + jB'2/2 + jB’25/2 Rog + jX?24 Ras + jX’as = (0.89276 - j9.91964) + (0.89276 - j9.91964) +j1.72/2 +j0.88/2 = 1.78552 -j18.539 = 18.625/-84.523° per unit The above results can be verified using PowerWorld simulator. > Wo- G25 @) By inspection + -Jiaes | +10. | +5n.5 Yous =| +d10, [-Jis. | +35, Lhe Oth tis | +is.]-Ing (b) Bus | Tyre ZTrpvt Data Unknowns 1 Swing LF > Load mole | Vay Sa TOS Sere 3 Const Was 1-0 per $ voltage a= N° P a es Fy fork bo Oh Wi aa Bes 3 is voltaye Controllece First caleclate Gy Fem FR GS.3)- Q3= var} va sm,@- Se) cs + Yaa Vici sin [8,0] - 6,6) -@32) + Nas Vso) sin TF Os5] + TAY Voisin L836) -6,67-2,)] + Yas Vscq sm [8,C0)- Sle) ~ Ose t 1-08§0+ 0 +44.83 (1.05) sinGEssmud) + 24-3.Le) sin Ety.aane] 4+ of = 30S per unit Also Qgy = Gy + Q y= WSCEK OWE Neat check Qenerater WHOS per usit, 3 var limite. Since Gos = tS exceeds Qexmax ~ 10 (as given in Table Gl), set Ges = Pezrax = 110 per oarte Tren O,* Gey ~ Gy = OO Bos 3 is nos a = O-% per unt. load bor for ‘this ideratitn. Next compote Vali) from EQ (Gs.a). . Pyn —— Maye & a 4 ne - CR wey l ~ ours araet (-olZ]h 1 gay pan? Spay Laem? { towne -do.eenr — Cees + dayee) } " D2 ~ Sasori as,s@ /-83.54° _ Rts Cesmie aa ee teoser Lat? Tats eS — cians one mmore pars thresh ERGs), Boys ee men [7 tes Hawai] LEAT asm | Ose: = BS6O-S25-686 _ 25,856 [8343S : = osm [2-276° 24et [8ST ats 2 es7e bare Per vait ~ Wie 627 Bos a is & load bE. Usk, tre tkpot late and bos adwittarce values fron Probler 6-25 tn Epler Sea) + £-AQ oy SS UN z4 Ser eh elk Boys {series a) (1.029°) + (45) vex | Us OLo® MWe wee) -r0+sos -L asi} Ry a LEOTAMS gs fasauas® ° Mas TELE ae = 0. ISG (TSS ext, re above valve 1s vsed th Eg Fi.5.2) & re-caleslee YK): ed -r-0tlo.s _ oe Tel 0.7 7S8/+7.863° ts af 2.06155 [165-7° Tay z 1 Sais igs 1S 10°C OTanse [788° = \ olf = 1.7603 - 14,2122 = oyyin wen? — Sysh= Tea ese WO* eiae } nat USE 3° spe ° Foys Wess Dae kg ecg 5 La 853° per onrt VS L=10° ——<———— Bus 3 is @ voltage contyolled boc. First calcu late Ox pro €4 (6-53). Qs: mar Mi six['s,@)~ 8,7 G2,] + Ye Usin [5 @)-SE)-9.) YM sin bolt ~ w3~ G27 contp. Qe Lo {e-s\(1.0) sin (0% oF 90") +(5)(0.9565) sin(°enesa"-a05) + (1.5) (1-0) Sin (40°) } @y= O-2624 fer onit Also Peg Pst Ag = O- 262y C@gz 0 From Tables 2) Smee Oey = Orday Per oxct, does not exceed Ser ..,' as gwen ty Table 6.12, = +G.0 bavts at bes 3 are not te qeueretor var exceeded, Compution Val) prom Eq (68.2); Mos +5 BNO pes les 7 Yas t we nag +GKRo7] MW Sine 5 ue oa ~ [Gasnioue]> (icreee 20) = <2 {Go-iosei) ~[ias suneasieaere If Ruy = 0.3466 - 37.5 = 508 [87.389 ; 15 30° LS [= 70° Way = boos [2.6462 Befts.z) her been used above te compote Ss 26469. The bus voltaye maquitvde Vs tro input data, ac given ty Table Gr. 2 Vy) = 160 L616? per omit. per owit is “There gore le - \e5 G28 a ‘ ves ° ° ns —Yuw Yaa Ya — Yoq va | = oS 450-2 V4 e2456)-C eseajay—Cr+5a)] Yaa = ABAG ~dWeG L orgy joeaG= Vor 2. 2 . 7 ay Vs 7 Yaa Va | a Deemine VE ANS VQ i mit Same wav as VS. THEN = w\.04 Caage) — Co6eeaj2-e) Gora joeet) = C143) Gers Jo 9083] Via 2° Var || Weiqejeone 2 MOREA AWENA LoS iando.oina = 10616 a7 PU B.eee= we Problem 6.29 ‘The maximum mismatches corresponding to the first three iterations are 171.55, 56.76, and 73.6MVA. 38 iterations are necessary in order to have the maximum mismatch be less than O.SMVA. Problem 6.30 ‘The maximum mismatches cosresponding to the first three iterations are 199.67, 83.51, and 64,.62MVA. 33 iterations are necessary in order for the maximum mismatch value to be less than 0.5 MVA. Problem 6.31 (Note: Typo in problem: load increase should be at bus 2; also increase maximum number of iterations from 50 t0 200) Bus 2 Load (MW) Iterations required 800 49 810 Pr 820 50 830 50 840 31 850 120 360 No solution - diverges = lee 32 ARO): = 24x) ~wsiny FQ(6.6.2) * AL Os By- vy afr Vi C08 Sy@l- 17 Om] + Tan Val) cos [540)-$0-8,.] + Yas Vs cos] By@1~5,0)-G]+ Vy Vy) es Fey] using £9 (644); sre Kererfner-a6-aqh Yaro Yar a al . Gy = Yq = Yay = = —— = 2 197925198 Rye tiky — 0-036+Jo.40 Geonit = <1 ° Nay = a = 24.93 [44289 per oni tS Ray #9 Gy 003 + LAY281° per onit Sag a a ths 9.98987 208-193" per nie Ryg +Y X4s 0.00% + Jo10 = 1 1 1 re My = Soy * . + tt) Sat ys Bas Rag tS xy Ray tI Xgy Rug ti xqe zy Syy = (0.2038 -J2.47992) +. scHy ~ 524-860) +(o. 8128 ~ 14.9196) + Senas. 4 3 ett Yay = 2.4804-326.97 = art [£85377 per onit Using tse adwittiawe values in Ger) above AP @= O- bo je 2.484 (140) cog [95.1425] + 14.93 (05)cosEataat” | + 3111 (1.0) cos [es.399] +.4.95897C.o)cosas. walt APy(o) = -1.0f-o,09104 = +0,04/04 per onit ~Wi~ 632 Using ee Ne equation gor JT) ih Table 6.5 ae = Vy ells Sin[$a6)-$, - 04] + HMOs Berger] Hea rT 50 er] hers er eb-g3} TlyyOl= 10 fo + 24899 (leo) sinGas.1439) + 24-93 (1-08) sin opze7) + 969 uasinferenth | Tlyy@) = ~hof -se.sost = 438.503 per vart G33 Uankg BE(G-6-2) Qe Rev Lr cos 81-8) + Woyconra eeacot(tet- @.) Bes B= VD IY COf(y- Srey) + VRMCOS(Sy 8-4) + HY ew-O,)] Usiss Ea (06-3) Ree As LY ser S-) savin Con) + Th slechre,)| Krowons + Onl nowus: BR Peo Pa 20 Sa a5 late lecag f= |uelt 22 |sy a Mo Mr OS My RIS0 VERE eo Per sie and EO Vaia Tre above Keown valoes aud admitieces prom Problem NAB in the above turee equations + -n.0 = Vy Locos ts-a0%) +5,cos (s.-81-98) | a) lo = s,-40°) @) ae cos (8:-910°) + S.Vq cos(s. 0-5 = vy [las (s.-40°) + 1SM + Sisin (sy wae] @ = lege 6.33 (a) step S.@\= EEO Yee bo oo Compute AYg Co) PLCX\= Leo [10 c08(-909) +s cos(-a) | = 0 2) a+§ c05(- 904) +8 cos(-409) =O Ose) = ole sero) + 1s + ssin-2o%] =O 2,-2.0) =10-0 [-2-0 Ag@\= | fi -Re) | = | toro | = Te ~ Q- O00 -0.5-0 <0. le) Step 2 Compote Tle) (see Tatlec-S Text) Tia F ie = ~Va Davi sin (8-8 eH ay S18 (So — Ox) ] = -LoTioG) si 40%) + SO) Sis(-t0) l= 18. Tha = oh = WaNagyy sin (4.- 65-4) = (1-0) (s) sin 10) = 7 8 x Tay = Be Va Va Sim (S87 62:)= (MG) C40) = 7S a Vx Navi sin (ta £1-6,,) Ney snl 5. -en)| = -1.0 [e.s\(i) sth C20) +S )Cr) sim (-20°)] = 7S a = = Vann 608(6.0 + Darvy cos(firSy7@u) + ee Ve cose.) rrr —— = of _ Tha : Mae, COMES Og.) =O TB = SB sy Pav coelsrsrenye ay Cs(se8)- =O =? - 7 F3y,= FEe = MY 8(80 837 eu) = © = tot TH = 3o = -MYasmhe,, +t sin(f.- 8) - Oy FAM Sin-8.) + Yury sin (61-83 - 23) | TH = CMOS) sim 909)+ [asia cae) + 1509 sino") scr) 8h¢-4] = 1s Dy) m = su] = Per uve _ 4 er. Stee 3 Solve Wee“ o AS, 72.0 eee AS, = er eo eo 18 Av, -o.5 Vswa Gases elimatios » multiny ee firct equation by (“Sis) and subtract #ron the Second epuatiéut iS) ° Ag, “20 O 5+833333 © AS; | = 0.33333 ° ° ws] Lave ~Os Back Substitutions AV, = -O-S]1S = - 0.033333 AS) = O-33333/s.e33332 = 0, OSTINies As, [-2-0 4 S(o-ostmres)] fis = -o.yrest AS. - OM2est7 Oe Ace i 0-08 714285 Av ~ 0.033333 -l0- G34 Step 4 compute 40) cone. §0) ° >. U4 2857 = O.N428S7 rede XQ) = [Sa0) | = xX@+ AX =] O} +] -osriiaes|=| o.osniies rat) rf [--osssssy | ovteannen | ter one Chech Qgq vein ES (6.5.3) Qy 2Vs Lav sin Ly 85-8) HM SING -8 8) + VV, HES, @.)\ = 1 [asy00 sis (o.osmy sh E) +S (bs) sh oeny ot ~ Z) radios + sO) sey] v [pa sasa = YeTbis +S] =O. TME per one Box = Prt @q= CMLE+ OF OU 6 PEF Omit: i Since Bey = Orme Ue tortain cthye Linets [E8.0, +5- pus 3 remaids 4 voltaqe- controlled bet. tis Completes the fITst Newn-Raphion ‘keration, -m- Tue Y-wus FoR Me ststem 1S Gwen BY —a1aa8 gre jie Yous * dio ajraag gue dio jie -4saae BUS LIS THE swine BES 5 BUS 2 1S THE VOLTAGE-CONTREMEED BUS; BUSS \S THE LeAD Ou, THE UNKNoUN VARIABLES ARE Sa, Sy, ane Va THe copian ue oe A BRB MATRON, vaLUES of 5b, Y,5 Vi AND ML Twe TACOBIAN we aj ARE KHAN, THUS, Pee Va Vy Yar ARCA A-BS © Va Va Yan Am CE 8s) = lO pm & #1 BVy ASC H-8Rd Pa = Va Ma Yay 2586 f-500 + Vay Yar 2 (Sx-Sa> 210 Va ASE, OB ACE KY Since Vz 1S GIVEN, THE Eauanen FR Q, CAN BE ELIMINATED, Qy = Mays Yor OF CER- BY +a, 32096 -LD eVE ea] 2 = Lr0 Vy Or Sn los My On C5y-F2) —10-48 VE] THE Unnneua VECTIR AMD TACOBIAW MATRIX ARE Given BY & Oris woke 2 at z. ae oa, Babe ove x | 8, 5 F5C)= Van ame ats Va Us oy os 2a, 205 2 Bi ey ey TWE PARTIAL DERIVATIVES ARE Gian OY Ot oe Va, Yay Co Ch ~ 59 +¥2 Vy ace C8 -83) = WeBen dS, + 5 v, co C8,~ 85) -ML- G38 cours, = B= MV Yas Cr CEL- 8g) = clo 8 Vy Ow C 5-84) oa 2 Va Vag AC 8-8) = 10:5 2H CE GY 2% fas, = s10s vy or (bah. Bey [28,2 My Cds ted OH C8-h DBR LW, = er&HSz wes Pon C8y- 8a) Ba,)/25, = 10 Va Va Pew ( 55-82) = = 105 Vz Aw (55-8) 2G, /25, + lo Va rendy ANON AN, Ain dy- da) = 10 Vy 05483 + 105 Vy DCB Bay (IVy > — [edge 84M C8,-H- 39-96 Ve mre Taay Bz Parse Geet, Py: “Rat 2-853, AnD Gy: a. Bud MESE WILL REMAIW CenSTANT THRoWE THE ENTIRE ITERATIVE PROCESS, Wm aw tnaL Guess & = S220 Awe Vyzh at em mua aN ie ccc +6661 | at |. | &I_-| AG 2.8653 = |-22653 > °, Bay a 40k" 1 22a =08t 0 ba 2 ml05 ° aod 2058 ° ° 4G hove mar Tl amp Ty ARE Gott Zeee. BED a 5c eaGdo 808288 Jos ( = i : eros ESE Oo ot. ° Sea Press -\B- eee - 2.9398" = 01600 nad mast = = s03ee = oo3er - . ° - 24308" ~ 2A3as" HP 4 AR EL Ol 4] cacsue |e | -asne \ 6.0862 ©. 463B Using me new vanurs 5) 2 —2.9395, ° ry : Sul and Va 29-1638, CaP) 2 e688 AnD ooo 0.G\AB = 2.0463. 2 .0a6 LEDATED WnSHaTER WeTeR: a8 eae ~e.aagt =i [a0Saa6 ong 42017 Tees Jos \licesae 1a.55e9 72-8841 A682 apoe 18.28 [0.0651 0-086 0-010 > eee 2068s 00087 ee 210084 00561 — 3.0023" Then x =9-9924" 0.4802 THE LPDATED INVERSE: fa e.00la WEN At |= |-0-0023 4aQ, —0-003\ THE Wsmaten Bena suateEnouau, F,2— 3.0023, F,* 9924; V, twee Be Rs Wea Mia AC GAD WV Neg ARCH = SD = lo-B Pew 3.0023" 4 9-502 PHVA = 2AAST Qa, = Q,=-Ly, Che i a, + Q, AMaMia Co C8, 8L VM Vein OP CK -ERDEM Yd ~\T4- G35 cont. ars Q z— [lob 00 score +4502 Gn g.aa2g’ — 14 as\ = O-186s Bar Q + = [va er G-8 9+ MaNe Yas CCS 53> VY] = [to's em C-d.c029 + 9.a11Gn G.4201"- 22.028) 1.6345, -i6- Problem 6.36 After the first three iterations Ja= 28.72, 23.87, 22.61; and with the next iteration it converges to 22.58. Problem 6.37 (Note typo: Problem reads "...loadings an...." but an should be "loadings and") 261 Mvar will increase V2 10 1.0. Adding the 261 Mvar decreases losses from 34.84 to 23.95MW. Problem 6.38 Before new line | After new line Bus voltage V2 (p.u) 0.834 0.964 Total real power losses (MW) 34.84 19.62 Branch between buses 1 and 5 (loading) 68.5 64.1 [Branch between buses 2 and 4 (Yeloading) 269 19.5 (both lines) Branch between buses 2 and 5 (Zeloading) 43.9 32.8 Branch between buses 3 and 4 (%oloading) 53.1 44.9 ‘Branch between buses 4 and 5 (oloading) | 16.8 118 Problem 6.39 (G3 voltage (p.u) Myar at bus 3 ‘Bus 2 voltage (p.u)_| Real power losses (MW) (4.00 279 0.777 39.88 ~lTe> G3% conra. 1.005 284 0.783 39.21 1.01 289 0.789 [38.6 __ | 1.015 294 0.795, 38.03 [1.02 300 0.801 137.48 1.025 306 0.807 36.97 1,03 312 0.812 36.49 (1.035 318 0.818 36.04 1.04 324 neene 0.823 35.61 1,045 oo lanes 0.829 35.21 a 1.05 337_ 0.834 [34.83 1.055 344 0.839 34.48 | (106 351 | 0.844 34.15 1.065 359 [0.849 - 33.83 [1.07 366 fossa [33.54 1.075 374 0.854 33.27 1.08 381 __ | 0.864 33.02 Problem 6.40 Tap setting Mvar@Gi__| V5 (p.u) ‘V2 (pu) P losses 0.975 94 0.954 0.806 37.64 0.98125 90 0.96) 0.817 36.63 10.9875 98 0.965 0.823 _ 36, 0.99375 106 0.97 0.828 35.4 1.0 114 0.974 0.834 34.84 1.00625 123 _| 0.979) 0.839, 34.31 1.0125 131 “0.983 [o.sas 33.81 1.01875 140 0.987 0.850 33.33 1.025 149 0.992 0.855, 32.89, (4.03125 158 0.996 0.86 32.47 | 1.0375 167, [a0 0.865 32.08 1.04375 176 | 1.004 4 0.87 31.72 1.05 185 1.008 0.874 31.38 1.05625 195 1,012 [0.879 31.06, 4.0625, 204 1.016 0,884 | 30.76 1.06875 214 1.02 0.888 30.49 } 1.075 224 1.024 0.893 30.23 1.08125 233 1.028 0.897 30 1.0875 243 1.031 {0.901 Pree [1.09375 253, 1.035 0.906, 129.59 | 11 263 1.039 ~ [0.910 29.42 Problem 6.41 Tap setting | Mvar @ G1_| XrMri(MWMvR) | XFMR2(MWIMVR) | P fosses(MW) | 09 170 193 /-172 210 /342.4 42.61 0.9063 i52 _ 192.2 / -164.8 209.2 / 316.8 41.37 --