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Chapter #13: The Rise of a Mass Democracy Big Picture Themes 1.

. Andrew Jackson felt hed been robbed the presidency in 1824. This motivated the regular folks to political action. He vowed to win for the peoples sake, and did so. 2. A conflict started to brew between the north and the south. The issue was the tariff (import tax) and whether the south had the right to nullify or wipe it out. The trouble was worked out, but it foreshadowed bigger trouble to come, over slavery. 3. Jackson distrusted bankshe thought they were tools for the rich to milk money off the poor. He killed the National Bank and threw the whole banking system into chaos. 4. By the time William Henry Harrison ran for president in 1840, popular, mass politics had grown into the circus-like monster that its known as today. IDENTIFICATIONS: American System: an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power. Corrupt Bargain: thanks to Henry Clay's influence in the house of Representatives, John Quincy Adams becomes president and makes Clay Secretary of State Tariff of Abominations: passes in 1828, proposed by jacksonites who thought it would be defeated, led to formal protests in the South Nullification: Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void in South Carolina Force Bill: Authorizes the president to use the army and navy to collect federal tariff duties Five Civilized Tribes: The Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws and Seminoles. Indian tribes that adapted to Western ways. Trail of Tears: The forced movement of Cherokee Indians in 1838 to the land west of Mississippi River forced by the U.S. Army; it lasted 116 days and was 1,000 miles long, many Indians died along the way Nicholas Biddle: President of Bank of United States who carried out bank policies of (a) coining hard money and (b) cracking down on western "wildcat banks" by calling in loans Democrats vs. Whigs: The Democrats were in favor of states' rights and did not like the Federal Government involvement in social and economic affairs while The Whigs favored a strong federal government through the power of the congress. Jackson and his Democrats worked hard to get rid of the Protective tariff and the National Bank of the United States while the Whigs supported both.

South Carolina Exposition and Protest: This document said a state could order a law void, if it thought that Congress was overstepping its authority. It was written secretly by John C. Calhoun and adopted by the legislature of South Carolina. Martin Van Buren: Jackson persuaded the Democrats to nominate him. Was vice president in Jackson's second administration. Ran against three Whigs and easily won the election. Specie Circular: Law signed by President Jackson requiring lands in the west be paid for with gold or silver. A primary cause of the panic of 1837. Hayne-Webster Debate: The debate began on January 18 1830 and lasted nine days and was mostly a verbal sparring match between Hayne and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts over what rights the Federal governmenthad and could States ignore the Federal Government. Essentially Hayne laid out the arguments which would be used to justify succession. The Alamo: A small fort in San Antonio which was assaulted by 4,000 Mexican troops. After half an hour of combat, the Mexican army won control over the fort, killing all 250 American defenders. Political because it was a battle. GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: The "Corrupt Bargain or 1824 Know: Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, King Caucus, Corrupt Bargain 1. What was unusual about John Quincy Adams's victory in the presidential election of 1824?

John Adam's victory was unusual because he did not win the majority of popular votes or electoral votes like Jackson did. A Yankee Misfit in the White House Know: John Quincy Adams 2. Was John Quincy Adams well suited to be president? Explain.

Adams was not suited to be president because he wasn't elected by the people and he was supported by John C. Clay a former candidate, gambler, and dueler who also wasn't fit for presidency. Adams was elected unjustly. Going "Whole Hog" for Jackson in 1828 Know: Old Hickory, Mudslinging, Rachel Robards 3. Describe the tone and tactics used in the 1828 election.

The Republicans divided themselves into two parties; The National Republicans who supported Adams while the Democrat Republicans supported Jackson. The Adamites rallied together and chanted "Huzza for Jackson" while the Democrats adopted the oak as their emblem to represent their independence. Old Hickory as President Know: Inaugural Brawl, King Mob 4. What was there about Andrew Jackson which made him a man of the people?

Andrew Jackson represented and protected democracy the very foundation which America stands upon. He was already a famous war hero after the Battle of New Orleans. Also, he had humble beginnings, which represented American ideals of starting from the bottom and getting to the top. The Spoils System Know: Spoils System, Rotation in Office 5. Defend Andrew Jackson's use of the Spoils System.

As corrupt as it was, the spoils system was understandable for Jackson. He wanted support, and rewarded those who were loyal to him. He trusted these people, no matter how crude or vulgar they were; because he believed that they would help him. The Tricky Tariff of Abominations Know: Tariff of Abominations (of 1828), Denmark Vesey 6. What circumstances led to the passage of the Tariff of Abominations?

General Tariffs and additional tariffs on wool led to these abominations. These tariffs angered the south because southerners felt discriminated against because they lacked industry. "Nullies" in South Carolina Know: Nullies, Henry Clay, Tariff of 1833, Force Bill 6. Describe the nullification crisis.

Southern states, especially South Carolina, became very angry with the Tariff of Abomination. They were heavy consumers of manufactured goods, so the greater price affected them greatly. South Carolina nullified the tariff, and threatened to cede from the Union, leading to the Force Bill. The Trail of Tears Know: Cherokees, Five Civilized Tribes, Indian Removal Act, Trail of Tears, Indian Territory, The Bureau of Indian Affairs, Seminoles

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What was particularly unfair about the treatment of the Cherokee Tribe?

What was most unfair was that the Cherokee had gone through great lengths to become civilized. They abandoned their old ways of life and even developed an alphabet to write a legal code. Some even became prosperous cotton planters and slave holders. They had become just like whites, but Georgia legislature still declared their council illegal. Though Cherokees were supported by Supreme Court, Jackson ignored them and continued Indian removal. The Bank War Know: Bank of the United States, Nicholas Biddle 9. Do you agree or disagree with Nicholas Biddles nickname, Czar Nicholas I? Explain.

I agree with the title "Czar Nicholas I" because a czar has absolute power and he nearly had absolute power of the American Bank. "Old Hickory" Wallops Clay in 1832 Know: Anti-Masonic Party 10. What two things were unique about the election of 1832?

For the first time a third party entered the election called the Anti-Masonic party. Also was the calling of the national nominating convention. Burying Biddles Bank Know: Mandate, Pet Banks, Specie Circular 11. "Andrew Jackson's killing of the BUS forced him to issue the Specie Circular." Assess.

When the BUS charter expired in 1836, Jackson wanted to make sure that the bank would not revive, so 3 years before its charter ran out, he decided to remove federal deposits from it and move them stop his pet banks. He proposed depositing no more funds into the bank and gradually shrank existing deposits by using funds to pay for day-to-day expenditures of the government. Death of the BUS left financial vacuum in American economy; surplus federal funds were put in pet banks. Wildcat banks issued their own currency, but it was unreliable because its value was based upon value of bank it was issued from. The Birth of the Whigs Know: Democrats, Whigs 12. What is so alluring about being associated with the common man?

The common man claimed to be free of cronyism and corruption- down to earth, nest, hard working people. It exemplifies the rugged spirit of American individualism.

The Election of 1836 Know: Favorite Son, William Henry Harrison, Martin Van Buren 13. Describe the development of the second party system from 1828-1836.

It developed slowly over time due to quarreling over issues such as the National Bank and the protective tariff. From the election of 1828, parties ran their candidates for President and Vice-President tgether as a ticket. Big Woes for the "Little Magician" Know: Martin Van Buren 14. Why was Martin Van Buren unpopular?

He was above average of the presidents since Jackson in his intelligence, education, and training. His image of mediocrity came from a series of misfortunes over which he had no control. He was mildmannered and he seemed to ride the coattails of Jackson. He inherited Jacksons many enemies. The north was against the prospective annexation of Texas. A rebellion in Canada stirred p incidents along the northern frontier ad threatened war with Britain. He attempted to remain neutral in this. He entered office with a depression and the panic that came with it. The hard times he faces coming into office were just too much. Depression Doldrums and the Independent Treasury Know: Panic of 1837, Speculation, Divorce Bill, Independent Treasury 15. What caused the Panic of 1837, and what was done by the president to try and end it?

Main causes were over speculation, Specie Circular, and Jacksons economic policies. Jackson had caused the panic of 1837 by taking funds out of the bank and put them in state banks which the state banks used to give credit to land buyers. But since more people were expanding, it caused inflation. Jackson tried to slow it down by ordering Americans to use gold and silver to buy land. But still it did not help national economy and opened the door to economic troubles. President Van Buren, however, did nothing because he refused to involve government in the economy. Gone to Texas Know: Stephen Austin, Davy Crockett 16. What made Texas so appealing to Americans?

It had cheap land that was good for cotton. However, what makes cotton profitable? The cotton gin and slavery. In 1829 Mexico outlawed slavery, but this was ignored by the Americans in Texas. Furthermore, Americans continued to pour into Texas, outnumbering the local Mexicans and ignoring Mexican authority.

The Lone Star Rebellion Know: Sam Houston, Santa Anna, Alamo, W. B. Travis, Goliad, Lone Star Republic, San Jacinto 17. How did Texas, a part of Mexico settled by Americans, become independent of both?

The Texians, who had been invited to settle Texass vast, mostly unpopulated lands by the Mexican government, joined with native hispanic Tejano populations in open rebellion against Mexico after having personal/civil rights revoked & atrocities committed upon them by the Mexican government. After several battles, General Sam Houston attacked Generalissimo Antonio de Santa Ana at the Battle of San Jacinto, which lasted only 20 minutes yet decimated the Mexican Army, saw Santa Ana captured, and consequently ended the War for Texas Independence. Subsequently, the Texas Revolutionaries founded the great Republic of Texas which flourished from 1836 until it became a U.S. state in 1845 through a Joint Resolution of Congress for Texas Annexation. Makers of America: Mexican or Texan? Know: Moses Austin, Stephen Austin, Anglos 18. Did Texans ever really intend to become Mexican citizens, or did they feign allegiance to get land? I think they feigned allegiance because they brought their slaves with them, even though slavery was illegal in Mexico. Such blatant disrespect from the law, from the very time they entered the nation, shows a clear intention to not become upright citizens. The Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840 Know: Log Cabin, Hard Cider, "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too" 19. What does the election of 1840 tell you about politics and voters in America at that time?

Election of 1840 saw Pres. Martin Van Buren fight for re-election against an economic depression & Whig Party unified for 1st time behind war hero William H Harrison. Election was unique: electors cast votes for 4 men. Election was held during the worst economic depression in the nation's history & voters blamed Van Buren, seeing him as unsympathetic to struggling citizens. This shows that the voters were finally looking for someone efficient enough to stop the depression and make the country stable again, no matter political party. The Two-Party System 20. Who were the Democrats and what did they believe? The Whigs?

The Whig Party was a political party existing in the Jackson era & was united by opposition of President Jackson's policies. First & foremost, both parties wanted what was best for the country. The democrats favored the common and the Whigs favored big business and modernization. However, the two groups tended to be polar opposites, much like what we see in DC today.