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U
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D
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I
n
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Ciclos de motores alternativos
n
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a
d
e

P
o
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e
n
C
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l
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d
1
s
Ciclos de motores alternativos: dispositivos
d
e

M
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d
y

d
e

F
l
u
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d
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s
Compresin
Procesos:
Suministro de calor
Expansin
a
d

C
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l
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s

I
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e
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T

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Dispositivo:
U
n
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v
e
r
s
i
d
a
D
t
o
.

I
n
g
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n
i
e
p
n
c
i
a
d
e

P
o
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e
n
C
i
c
l
o
s

d
2
Fluido de trabajo: aire, gas ideal, calorficamente perfecto
s
e) Anlisis de ciclos de aire estndar:
Introduccin
d
e

M
a
d
r
i
d
y

d
e

F
l
u
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d
o
s
P P
e) Anlisis de ciclos de aire estndar:
a
d

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U
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v
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s
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d
a
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o
.

I
n
g
e
n
i
e
V V
Ciclo real
Ciclo ideal de aire estndar
n
c
i
a
- Procesos de escape posterior admisin de aire fresco: CESIN DE CALOR
- Fluido de trabajo: GAS IDEAL CALORFICAMENTE PERFECTO (g.i.c.p)
v p
c c =
d
e

P
o
t
e
n
T R Pv
g
=
T mR PV
g
=
m V v =
v p g
c c R =
g
u
g
PM
R
R =
- Carreras de compresin y expansin: ADIABTICAS+REVERSIBLES=ISOENTRPICAS
C
i
c
l
o
s

d
cte s =
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

F
I
I
F
V
V
T
T
cte PV =

-Combustin o detonacin: suministro de calor a P o V constante.


Ejemplos: CICLO OTTO: a V=cte.
CICLO DIESEL: a P=cte.
s
Ciclo Otto ideal

|
|

|
+ +
|
|

|
+ + + =
- - - -
s e VC
VC
gz c h m gz c h m W Q
dE
2 2
1 1
d
e

M
a
d
r
i
d
y

d
e

F
l
u
i
d
o
s

|
.

\
+ +
|
.

\
+ + + =
s
s s s
s
e
e e e
e VC
VC
gz c h m gz c h m W Q
dt 2 2

- - -
-
+ + = vc
s
s
e
e
VC VC
s m s m
T
Q
dt
dS
o
a
d

C
a
r
l
o
s

I
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I

e
r

a

T

r
m
i
c
a


s e
T dt
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
d
a
D
t
o
.

I
n
g
e
n
i
e

P
2
3
Hiptesis:
- Sistema cerrado
- Gas ideal; calorficamente perfecto
U Q W A =
W pdV =
}
n
c
i
a
2
1
4
( )
V f i
U mc T T A =
d
e

P
o
t
e
n
Procesos:
v
C
i
c
l
o
s

d
1-2: Compresin: adiabtica +reversible

isentrpica
2-3: Adicin de calor a V=cte
3-4: Expansin: adiabtica +reversible isentrpica
s
Resolucin ciclo Otto
d
e

M
a
d
r
i
d
y

d
e

F
l
u
i
d
o
s
1-2: compresin adiabtica reversible
2-3: suministro de calor a V=cte
( ) ( )
1 2 2 1
;
V c
U mc T T Q W

A = =
( )
2 3 3 2 V
U mc T T Q

A = =
a
d

C
a
r
l
o
s

I
I
I

e
r

a

T

r
m
i
c
a

3-4: expansin adibtica reversible
( )
3 4 4 3
;
V e
U mc T T W

A = =
V V
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
d
a
D
t
o
.

I
n
g
e
n
i
e

P 3
( ) ( )
3 4 2 1
4 1
V V
C
mc T T mc T T
W W T T


Relacin de compresin:
1 4
2 3
V V
r
V V
= =
n
c
i
a
2
4
( ) ( )
( )
3 4 2 1
4 1
3 2 3 2
1
V V
e C
V
W W T T
Q mc T T T T
q = = =

1
1
1 q =
d
e

P
o
t
e
n
v
1
1
1
r

q

|
|
|

|
|
|
|

|
A
F F
V
R
T
l l
G id l l fi t f t
C
i
c
l
o
s

d
|
|
.

\
+
|
|
.

\
= A
I
F
g
I
F
V
V
R
T
c s ln ln
Gas ideal calorficamente perfecto:
1
2 1
1 2
;
T V
T V

| |
=
|
\ .
1
3 4
4 3
;
T V
T V

| |
=
|
\ .
Evoluciones isentrpicas:
1 2 \ .
4 3
T V
\ .
s
Resolucin ciclo Otto ideal
r=8; t
1
=25C; P1=1 bar; t
MAX
=727C; Cilindrada=1600cm
3
d
e

M
a
d
r
i
d
y

d
e

F
l
u
i
d
o
s
=1.4;
cp=1kJ /kgK
( )
3
1 2 2
1600 1 V V cm V r = =
V
3
2
228.6 V cm =
714 /
P
V
c
c J kgK

= =
286 /
g P V
R c c J kgK = =
3
1828 V cm
a
d

C
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a

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1
1 04
V

| |
1
2
V
r
V
=
3
1 1
1
2.14.10
g
PV
m kg
R T

= =
1
1828 V cm =
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
d
a
D
t
o
.

I
n
g
e
n
i
e1 0.4
1
2 1 1
2
298(8) 684.6 411.6
V
T T T r K C
V

| |
= = = = =
|
\ .
( )
1
1
1 591.5
c V
W mc T r J

= =
1-2: compresin adiabtica reversible
2 1
2
18.38
P V
P bar
P V

| |
= =
|
\ .
n
c
i
a( )
23 3 2
482.6
V
Q mc T T J = =
( )
1 2
P V
\ .
3 3
3
2 2
26.85
P T
P bar
P T
= =
2-3: suministro de calor a V=cte
d
e

P
o
t
e
n
3-4: expansin adibtica reversible
1
3 4
4 3
1
4 3
1
435.3 162.3
T V
T T K C
T V r

| |
= = = =
|
\ .
1
| |
V P

| |
C
i
c
l
o
s

d
3
1
1
1 862.9
e V
W mc T J
r

| |
= =
|
\ .
3 4
4
3 4
1.46
V P
P bar
P V

| |
= =
|
\ .
( ) ( )
( )
3 4 2 1
4 1
1
23 3 2 3 2
1
1 1 0.56
V V
e C
V
mc T T mc T T
W W T T
Q mc T T T T r

q



= = = = =

s
Ciclo Diesel ideal

|
|

|
+ +
|
|

|
+ + + =
- - - -
s e VC
VC
gz c h m gz c h m W Q
dE
2 2
1 1
d
e

M
a
d
r
i
d
y

d
e

F
l
u
i
d
o
s

|
.

\
+ +
|
.

\
+ + + =
s
s s s
s
e
e e e
e VC
VC
gz c h m gz c h m W Q
dt 2 2

- - -
-
+ + = vc
s
s
e
e
VC VC
s m s m
T
Q
dt
dS
o
a
d

C
a
r
l
o
s

I
I
I

e
r

a

T

r
m
i
c
a


s e
T dt
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
d
a
D
t
o
.

I
n
g
e
n
i
e
Hiptesis:
- Sistema cerrado
- Gas ideal; calorficamente perfecto
U Q W A =
W pdV =
}

P
2
3
4
n
c
i
a
( )
V f i
U mc T T A =
2
1
4
d
e

P
o
t
e
n
Procesos:
v
1
C
i
c
l
o
s

d
1-2: Compresin: adiabtica +reversible

isentrpica
2-3: Adicin de calor a P=cte
3-4: Expansin: adiabtica +reversible isentrpica
s
Ciclo Diesel ideal
1-2: compresinadiabticareversible
( ) ( )
1 2 2 1
;
V
U mc T T Q W A = =
d
e

M
a
d
r
i
d
y

d
e

F
l
u
i
d
o
s
1 2: compresin adiabtica reversible
2-3: suministro de calor a P=cte
( ) ( )
1 2 2 1
;
V c
U mc T T Q W

A
( ) ( )
2 3 3 2 2 3 2 V
U mc T T Q P V V

A = =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 V V P
Q mc T T P V V mc T T mR T T mc T T = + = + =
a
d

C
a
r
l
o
s

I
I
I

e
r

a

T

r
m
i
c
a

3-4: expansin adibtica reversible
( )
3 4 4 3
;
V e
U mc T T W

A = =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 V V g P
Q mc T T P V V mc T T mR T T mc T T + +
V V
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
d
a
D
t
o
.

I
n
g
e
n
i
e

P
2
3
4
Relacin de compresin:
1 4
2 2
V V
r
V V
= =
Relacindevolmenes:
3 3
V T
r = =
n
c
i
a
v
1
4
1
2 1
;
T V

| |
=
|
Relacin de volmenes:
2 2
V
r
V T
= =
d
e

P
o
t
e
n
1 2
;
T V
=
|
\ .
1 1 1
3 4 4 2
T V V V r

| | | | | |
( )
2 3 2
1 1
1
e C
V
W P V V W
r

+

C
i
c
l
o
s

d
3 4 4 2
4 3 2 3
;
v
T V V V r
T V V V r
| | | | | |
= = =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
( )
2 3 2
1
1
1
e C
V
V
Q r r

= =

s
Resolucin ciclo Diesel ideal
r=8; t
1
=25C; P1=1 bar; t
MAX
=727C; Cilindrada=1600cm
3
d
e

M
a
d
r
i
d
y

d
e

F
l
u
i
d
o
s
=1.4;
cp=1kJ /kgK
( )
3
1 2 2
1600 1 V V cm V r = =
1
V
3
2
228.6 V cm =
714 /
P
V
c
c J kgK

= =
286 /
g P V
R c c J kgK = =
3
1
1828 V cm =
a
d

C
a
r
l
o
s

I
I
I

e
r

a

T

r
m
i
c
a

1
1 04
1
298(8) 6846 4116
V
T T T K C

| |
|
1
2
r
V
=
3
1 1
1
2.14.10
g
PV
m kg
R T

= =
1
1828 V cm
1 2 i di bti ibl
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
d
a
D
t
o
.

I
n
g
e
n
i
e
1 0.4
1
2 1 1
2
298(8) 684.6 411.6 T T T r K C
V

= = = = =
|
\ .
( )
1
1
1 591.5
c V
W mc T r J

= =
2 1
2
18.38
P V
P bar
P V

| |
= =
|
\ .
1-2: compresin adiabtica reversible
n
c
i
a
1 2
P V
\ .
3
3 3
3
2 2
334 ; 1.46
V V
V T
r V cm r
V T
= = = =
2-3: suministro de calor a P=cte
d
e

P
o
t
e
n
( )
23 2 3 2
193.7 W P V V J = =
1
3
5064
T r
T K

| |
|
( )
23 3 2
675
P
Q mc T T J = =
( )
3-4: expansinadibticareversible
C
i
c
l
o
s

d
3
4
4
506.4
v
T K
T r
= =
|
\ .
( )
3 4
754.2
e V
W mc T T J = =
4
3
4 4 3
4 4
1.69
g
mR T
V
P bar P P
V V

| |
= = = =
|
\ .
3-4: expansin adibtica reversible
( )
2 3 2
1
23
1 1
1 0.53
1
e C
V
V
W P V V W
r
Q r r

+

= = =

s
d
e

M
a
d
r
i
d
y

d
e

F
l
u
i
d
o
s
0.6
0.8
P 3
a
d

C
a
r
l
o
s

I
I
I

e
r

a

T

r
m
i
c
a

0.4
r
otto
r ( )
r
diesel
r ( )
2
4
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
d
a
D
t
o
.

I
n
g
e
n
i
e
0.2
rv 2 :=
v
1
n
c
i
a
0 5 10 15 20
0
r
0.7
d
e

P
o
t
e
n
0.6
r
Diesel
rv ( )
P
2
3
C
i
c
l
o
s

d
0.5
r 15 :=
4
1 2 3 4 5
0.4
rv
v
1
s
Instalacin central trmica de motor alternativo
d
e

M
a
d
r
i
d
y

d
e

F
l
u
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d
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s
a
d

C
a
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I
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e
r

a

T

r
m
i
c
a

U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
d
a
D
t
o
.

I
n
g
e
n
i
e
n
c
i
a
d
e

P
o
t
e
n
C
i
c
l
o
s

d