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Cht lng dch v cho VoIP

Cng ngh truyn thoi qua mng IP s pht trin rt nhanh trong vi nm ti. Tuy nhin, ngi dng quen vi cht lng ting ni do cng ngh hin thi mang li. Cc nh sn xut ang c gng to ra cc thit b theo cng ngh mi, tha mn yu cu ca ngi s dng. Ci chng ta cn l dch v thoi vi cc ph r hn, cht lng chp nhn c v c tin cy cao. a phn cc nh sn xut s khng mo him v cht lng i vi loi dch v c bn v quan trng nh in thoi. y c xem nh mt tiu ch quan trng nht trin khai VoIP trong thc t. Cng ngh truyn thoi qua mng IP phi m bo nhng ch tiu cn thit nh gim thiu cc cuc gi b t chi, s tr trn mng, mt gi, v t lin kt. Tuy nhin, cc yu t ny a phn thuc v h tng c s mng. Chc nng iu khin cht lng dch v cho VoIP ht sc phc tp v s c cp cc bi tip theo. C rt nhiu yu t nh hng ti cht lng dch v cho thoi trn IP nhng cc tham s ch yu l : 1. Tr 2. Jitter 3. Mt gi tin Vi vic s dng giao thc vn chuyn thi gian thc RTP cho php ta gim st cc tham s ny t nh gi c cht lng dch v cho thoi trn IP. 1.1 Tr : Khi xy dng v trin khai mt ng dng thoi trn IP , c rt nhiu yu t lm nh hng ti cht lng cui cng ca h thng. c th l cht lng ting ni qua cc b CODEC, gii thng mng, cc kh nng kt ni mng... Mt yu t quan trng nh hng ti cht lng dch v l tr. Tr c hiu l khong thi gian tiu tn ngi nghe nghe c m thanh pht ra t ngi ni trong mt cuc thoi (t ming ti tai). Tr xut hin do rt nhiu nguyn nhn t khi truyn tin qua mng IP cho ti lc pht li ting ni ti bn nhn, c th do b x l tn hiu s DSP, do thut ton nn v gii nn, jitter...Tr l yu t khng th trnh khi. Thng thng, tr trong mng in thoi truyn thng vo khong 5070 ms. c c tr trong h thng VoIP xp x vi tr trong mng chuyn mch knh l l tng nhng iu kh c th thc hin c. Ta ch c th xy dng h thng
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VoIP c tr chp nhn c i vi ngi s dng. Theo khuyn ngh ca ITU th mt h thng VoIP m bo cht lng dch v tt khi tr mt chiu khng c vt qu 150 ms:

Hnh .1: nh ngha cc tng tr mt chiu Cc gii hn ny c khuyn ngh dng cho cc nh qun l mng quc t, do yu cu ngt hn cc mng qun l ring r. Vi cc mng ring, tr 200ms l hp l v 250ms l gii hn. C hai loi tr khc nhau: Tr c nh v tr thay i. Thnh phn tr c nh bao gm cc thnh phn tr c thm vo trc tip trn mt kt ni tng. Thnh phn tr thay i bao gm cc thnh phn ny sinh trong cc hng i trong nhng b m tn hiu trn cc cng ni tip kt ni vi mng WAN. Cc b m ny to ra nhng thnh phn tr thay i hay chnh l Jitter, tr thay i c x l bng cc b m loi jitter ti cc Gateway/Router ti u thu. a. Tr truyn dn mng Tr mng l thi gian truyn dn cc gi qua mng n ch. Cc thnh phn ca tr mng gm: Tr truyn dn, to ra do vic gi mt gi qua mt lin kt (v d nh gi mt gi c kch thc 256 byte qua mt lin kt c tc 64kb/s s cn 32ms).

Tr truyn lan to ra do s truyn lan tn hiu qua lin kt vt l. Tr ny thng c b qua nu lin kt c chiu di nh hn 1000km Tr node, l tr do b nh tuyn thc hin vic xp hng v x l cc gi. Tr giao thc l tr do cc c ch khc nhau ca mi giao thc, v d nh giao thc TCP c pht li cc gi tin, hay tr truy cp mng (giao thc Ethernet). Tr Gateway to ra do vic lin kt gia cc mng phi c thi gian x l ti Gateway. Tr truyn dn mng c th c b qua trong mng PSTN, i vi mng IP tr ny rt ln, do khng th b qua. b. Tr do b CODEC : Tr Coder hay cn c gi l tr x l l thi gian mt b x l tn hiu s DSP nn mt mu PCM cng vi thi gian tr thut ton ca Codec. Cng ngh x l thoi ngy nay c nhiu b m ho khc nhau, mi b m ho li x l theo mt thut ton nn v m ho khc nhau v tc x l thoi li khc nhau nn tr qua cc b m ho c th cng khc nhau. V d thut m ho d on tuyn tnh m i s (ACELP) x l mi khi thoi PCM trong vng 10ms. B x l thut ton m ho d on tuyn tnh m i s cu trc tch hp (CEACELP) c tr x l khong 2,5 n 10 ms ph thuc vo ti trng ca b x l tn hiu s DSP. Nu ti trng ca b x l tn hiu s y vi 4 knh thoi th tr x l c th ln ti 10 ms. Nu ch phi x l mt knh thoi th tr c th ch l 2,5 ms. Tuy nhin trong cc k hoch truyn dn phi s dng mc 10 ms tnh ton tr cho b x l ny. Thi gian gii nn vo khong 10% thi gian nn cho mi khi mu PCM. Do c nhiu mu trong mi khung nn thi gian gii nn tng ng vi s lng mu trong khung. Do thi gian tr ca mt khung 3 mu l 3 * thi gian tr mt mu.

Hinh . 2: Thi gian tr tt nht v ti nht i vi cc b m ho c th: c. Tr do m ho Cc b m ho thoi hin i hot ng da trn vic tp trung cc mu thoi thnh khung. Mi khung tn hiu thoi u vo (gm cc mu thoi) c x l thnh cc khung b nn. Khng th to ra cc khung thoi c m ho cho n khi tt c cc mu thoi ca khung c tp trung y trong b m ho. Do c tr khung xy ra trc khi vic x l bt u. Ngoi ra, nhiu b m ho cng xem xt cc khung tip theo ci thin hiu qu nn. Chiu di ca qu trnh xem xt ny gi l thi gian look ahead ca b m ho, lng tr ny cng l c tnh vo tr ca b m ho. d. Tr m thit b u cui IP Card m thanh v card in thoi trong my tnh c nhn PC thng c cc b m kh ln to ra mt giao din tc c nh vi b bin i A/D- D/A v mt giao din khng ng b vi lp ng dng. Ngoi ra, b tng thch (adapter) mng v modem cng s dng b m tng hiu qu truy cp mng. Cc b tng thch ny c ti u ho cho truyn thng d liu- l mt ng dng m tr khng phi l vn quan trng. Song vi truyn thoi, tr c nh hng rt ln n cht lng thoi th s ti u ho ny khng ph hp.

Thm vo cc tr trn, cn c tr b m phn mm. Cc ng dng c th lu tr mt lng ln d liu x l chng d dng v hiu qu hoc qun l jitter tr trong gi tin thu c. e. Tr m/gi ho H.323 Tr gi ho hnh thnh trong qu trnh t o gi, tr m xut hin khi phn r gi.Tr gi ho l thi gian cn thit thu thp y thng tin ca mt gi. Khi s dng cc gi c chiu di cnh vi m ho dng khung, th khi gi ho c th c tr thm vo nu nh chiu di gi khc vi chiu di khung ca b m ho. Tr m l do qu trnh xp hng trong my thu v thng c s dng n b jitter mng. Vic to li tn hiu thoi yu cu cc gi phi n cng lc song do tr mng thay i nn my thu phi c b m lm tr cc gi n sm v ng b chng vi cc gi n mun. f. Tr tng trung bnh Nhn chung tr tng bao gm tt c cc loi tr trn cng li, trong m hnh E tr tng trung bnh t ming ngi ni n tai ngi nghe c c trng bi tham s tr Ta. Hnh sau m t quan h gia tr tng v gi tr R trong m hnh E:

Hnh .3: Mi quan h gia tr mt chiu tng v gi tr R

1.2. Jitter L hin tng sai lch thi gian, gi tin n ch khng ng thi im. Ting ni qua b CODEC c s ha v chia thnh cc gi tin theo mt tc xc nh. khi phc li ting ni ti pha thu th tc thu phi bng vi tc pha pht. Pha thu phi c b m ln cha c gi tin ti mun nht ri sp xp li trc khi khi phc ting ni. Ton b cng vic x l ny gy ra mt tr. Thng thng, lng tr ny vo khong 50 ms l chp nhn c. y l tham s ring bit ca ting ni. gii quyt hin tng ny, ta phi xc nh kch thc b m hp l, thng qua 2 cch : o cc mc gi tin khc nhau ca b m trn ton b thi gian v iu chnh kch thc b m thch hp. Cch ny ch ph hp vi loi mng n nh nh cc mng cc b, mng ATM. m s lng gi tin n mun v tnh t l ca chng trn tng s gi tin nhn c trong sut tin trnh. T t l ny, ta c th sa li kch thc b m. Cch ny rt thng dng.

1.3. Mt gi tin Thc ra Internet l mng ca cc mng v khng c c ch gim st y no m bo cht lng thng tin truyn. Hin tng mt gi tin l kt qu ca rt nhiu nguyn nhn : Qu ti lng ngi truy nhp cng lc m ti nguyn mng cn hn ch. Hin tng xung t trn mng LAN. Li do cc thit b vt l v cc lin kt truy nhp mng.

Mt khc, qu trnh truyn ting ni phi p ng yu cu thi gian thc nn cc gi tin ting ni ch c ngha khi thi gian ti ch ca chng khng c vt qu thi gian tr cho php. Do vy, khi thi gian ny vt qu tr th cng c hiu nh l mt gi tin. Tt c cc iu kin c th gy ra hin tng mt gi tin v thm ch mt cuc gi nu nh s gi tin b mt l qu ln. Hin tng mt gi tin gy nh hng nghim trng ti cht lng cuc gi, nht l i vi mng IP v cc dch v trn thng khng c bo m. Trong mng IP, gi tin thoi cng ging nh gi tin d liu thng thng, nhng trong trng hp d liu th c c ch pht li. ng thi, do tnh c th ca tn hiu ting ni

lin quan ti thi gian thc nn hin tng mt gi tin thoi gy ra cc s c nghim trng trong qu trnh khi phc ting ni :

Vi vic s dng giao thc RTP vn chuyn v gim st lung thng tin th hin tng mt gi tin c pht hin kp thi. Ta c th gim st s lng gi tin b mt . Ti mi bn tham gia hi thoi c th tnh tng i chnh xc t l gi tin b mt c gi t mt ngun. Thng thng t l ny vo khong 5-10%. T l ny c trao i qua trng fraction lost trong cc bn tin thng k c gi mt cch nh k. Trn thc t, mi gi tin ting ni ch khong vi chc byte nn ta vn c c ch b khi phc tn hiu m khng cn s dng c ch pht li. Mt s cch gii quyt vn trn : T ng gi li gi tin cui cng khi pht hin c hin tng mt gi tin. y l mt cch thc n gin, ch ph hp khi gi tin b mt khng k nhau v hin tng mt gi tin l khng thng xuyn. Gi km cc thng tin tha gi tin th (n+1) trong n gi tin gi. Cch thc ny c u im l xc nh c chnh xc gi tin no b mt, nhng li lm gim hiu sut s dng ng truyn v tng tr do phi x l cc gi tin tha. Gim lng tin tha gi tin th (n+1) gii quyt vn gii thng nhng cch ny li gy kh khn trong vn x l tr.
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Nh vy, ta cp ti mt s vn v cht lng dch v cho thoi trn IP. y l iu ht sc quan trng trong qu trnh trin khai mt h thng VoIP thc tin. Trong mt vi nm sp ti, cht lng ting ni qua cc b CODEC s tip tc c ci thin. Cng vi s pht trin ca cc thit b phn cng v gii thng cho mng, cht lng dch v cho VoIP s c nng cao hn na. Vi mt s thnh tu t c trong nhng nm 90, nht l trong x l tn hiu s, cc b chuyn mch cht lng cao v cc giao thc c s QoS, cho php khuyn khch cng ngh truyn thoi qua mng IP.