TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 3
1. Introduction ........................................................................................ 3
1.1. Lecture Objectives. ......................................................................... 4
1.2. Individual (student) Objectives. ...................................................... 5
2. PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION 6
2. Product Design Specification (PDS). ................................................. 6
3. CONCEPT DESIGN 14
3.1. Concept 1. ..................................................................................... 14
3.2. Concept 2. ..................................................................................... 15
3.3. Concept 3. ..................................................................................... 16
3.4. Concept 4. ..................................................................................... 17
3.5. Concept 5. ..................................................................................... 18
4. Design Loads Acting On Structures 22
4.1. Dead Loads. .................................................................................. 24
4.1.1. Dead loads calculations. ......................................................................... 25
4.2. Imposed Loads. ............................................................................. 31
4.2.1. Snow loads calculations. ......................................................................... 32
4.3. Wind Loads. .................................................................................. 33
4.3.1. Wind Load Coefficient from BS6399-2. ................................................. 34
4.3.1.2. External Pressure Coefficients for walls...............................................................37
4.3.1.3. External Pressure Coefficient for Roofs...............................................................40
4.3.1.4. Internal Pressure Coefficient.................................................................................45
4.3.2. Wind Load Calculations. ........................................................................ 46
5. STRUCTURE ANALYSIS 56
5.1. Verify Appropriate Section Properties. ......................................... 59
5.1.1 Plastic Moment under Dead Load. .......................................................... 59
5.1.2. Plastic Moment under Dead and Imposed Load. .................................... 70
5.1.3. Plastic Moment under Dead, Imposed and Wind Load. ......................... 76
5.1.3.1. Suction wind pressure on windward roof.............................................................76
5.1.3.2. Pressing wind pressure on windward roof............................................................83
5.2. Structure Stability. ......................................................................... 91
5.2.1. Resistance to Lateral-Torsional Buckling. .............................................. 91
5.2.2. Segment Adjacent to Plastic Hinge. ........................................................ 98
5.2.3. Haunch and Stanchion Stability. ........................................................... 100
5.2.4. Sway Stability. ...................................................................................... 101
6. DRAWING 108
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7. EVALUATION AND DISCUSSION 117
8. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 120
9. REFERENCES 122
10. APPENDIX 127
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1. Introduction
This project is raised with the objective to design a single-storey warehouse according to
plastic design criteria and British Standards specifications where is appropriate. The designed
single-storey warehouse is erected by several steel members and is arranged in a regular
geometrical form, in where they can interact between them through out structural connections or
joint to support loads and maintain the structure under equilibrium or stability.
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1. INTRODUCTION
Basically all steel structure is composed by a number of interconnected elements such as
beams, columns, stanchion, rafter, eaves and foundations. As in group, they enable the force or
load that acting on the structure to be safely transmitted to the ground. Nevertheless, the structure
member must have the capacity to carry loads in a variety of ways, and may act in tension,
compression, shear, torsion or in combination of these. To deliver a steel structure without any
interruption during it service life. It is imperative that the structure is been interpreted and several
analyses should be carry out to precisely predict the response of the structure under natural
phenomena influence, such as wind, snow, heat, moisture, rain penetration, fire protection and
etc. To sustain numerous of influence, the structure basically must be strong, stiff and stable to
withstand the load or force that subjected to it.
This paper, consist of design document in three section; structure specification, structure
calculations, and drawings. It emphasis the structure calculations with the inclusion of related
material specifications and important structural details. British Standard will be the guide line of
this project where the appropriate terminology, notations, and citations will be use.
Objective:
Following are lecture objective and individual (student) objective of this project.
1.1. Lecture Objectives.
 Design a single-storey warehouse according to elastic design.
 Warehouse is located at 10 km from the centre of Manchester.
 The warehouse is to be 36m long and 18m wide, whereby the height should be sufficient
to allow access of forklift truck, van or small pick-up truck.
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 Steel framed building with cladding.
 Warehouse design is base on British Standard specification.
1.2. Individual (student) Objectives.
 Design a single-storey warehouse according to plastic design.
 Gain understanding of the design process and the responsibilities of a designer.
 Gain understanding of the structure under influence of loading.
 Develop/gain project management skills.
 Familiarisation of exploration of all different resources available for design a structure
e.g. Internet, Books, British Standards and others.
 Gain experience of CAD software and understanding their role in the engineering field.
A traditional design approach has been taken to design the structure. The approach is;
 Product Design Specification (PDS)
 Concept Design
 Structure Analysis
 Detail Design
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2. Product Design Specification (PDS).
This project aim to design a warehouse or steel structure which can be operated safe
under nature phenomena. This section focuses on the design specifications and the considerations
to achieve a successful design, which meet all lecture objective and as well as student objective.
These specifications are being very closely considered during the design process.
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2. PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION
Following are the specifications with technical and quantitative information wherever it
is available and necessary for the structure design;
 Function.
 Site and environment of the structure.
 Type and size of buildings.
 Type of joints.
 Loads subjected to the structure.
 Material selections.
 Stability of the structure.
 Fire resistance.
 Stress concentration and Residual stress.
 Corrosion and protection of the steel work.
 Weldability of the steel structure.
 Process and installation.
 Aim and advantages of plastic design..
Function.
This section describes the functional requirements of the structure in the form of brief
statement;
 Used to store good, spare components such as electric motors, gear boxes, coupling and
etc.
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 Prevent rain penetration from the roof and wall that might spoil the component keep
inside the warehouse.
 Warehouse is the winning key component for the supply chain business.
 Distribution point of materials or good between manufacturer to customer and all points
in between.
 Safe and reliability under service life.
Site and environment of the structure.
The designed warehouse or structure is located in 10 km from the centre of Manchester
and there is no obstruction or building within 50m from the warehouse. Manchester lies in a
bowl-shaped land area bordered to the north and east by the Pennine hills and to the south by the
Cheshire plain [3]. Manchester has a relatively damp climate and is a rainy city. Thus, the
structure might expose to a different situation under different environment conditions.
Environment condition around Manchester,
Condition: Sun, Rain, Wind and Snow.
Temperature: average lies between 19°C to 1°C.
Ground Level: between 35 and 42 meter above sea level.
Type and size of buildings.
Several type of warehouse or steel structure under consideration; single bay portal frame,
double-bay portal frame with valley beam, double bay portal frame, lattice girder structure, roof
truss and etc. Advantage and disadvantages for each type of structure will be considered in
chapter 3. The size or dimension of the structure must meet the lecture objective.
Type of joints.
A structural connection may be defined as an assembly of components which are
arranged to transmit forces from one member to another member. Normally, connection of a joint
will subjected with axial force, shear force and moment, but for calculation purposes the joint
will generally reduce the forces in one plane. The contraction or expansion of the structure may
occur due to temperature change, shrinkage, creep and etc. The joint that used in this design is
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assume to be watertight but don’t transmitted any forces, and the joint is sufficient stiff to sustain
the shear force, axial force or moment that subjected to the joint.
Load subjected to the structure.
Forces that induced into the members of structure from dead load, imposed load, wind
load, earthquake forces, thermal stress and etc. However, for this project only dead load, imposed
load and wind load will be considered. The forces that induced into a structure from the
gravitational self weight or dead load of the member are significant for large span beam. Dead
load should always be under consideration since it exists all the time. Another form of force that
created by gravitational as well is define as imposed load or live load which are applied to the
structure; human, furniture, vehicle, stored material, fluid, snow and etc. The amount of snow
load subjected to the structure, can obtain from BS6399-3. Wind load is another form of imposed
load but they aren’t produce by gravitational. The pressure values are relying on geographical
locality, slope of the roof and shape of the structure. The pressure can be strut pressure or
suction pressure.
Material selection.
For material selection, the design strength, young’s modulus, bending strength and other
properties of the steel, I-section, bolt and nut must according to the grade and product standard
specified in BS 5950-2. For plastic design, one of the requirements is to make sure that the
plastic hinge is occurring at the steel member, before the plastic hinge can occur. The steel
member must undergo an elastic behaviour. Thus, the ductility of the steel member will be
concern.
Stability of the structure.
For a structure to stand, it must be stable under the action of loads. The resultant forces
that applied on the structure in the vertical direction or horizontal direction and pass through the
center of gravity (CG) of the structure, the structure is say to be stable. However, if the resultant
forces subjected on the structure pass through slightly eccentric from the center of gravity. A
moment which defines as overturning moment will occur, which cause instability of structure.
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For an individual problem, a steel member, I-section is very efficiency and strong when load
through it shear center, but it is inherently weak when subjected to lateral bending (minor axis)
or torsion, particularly the universal beam section. Such phenomenon is known as lateral
torsional buckling. Emphasize against the possibility of failure caused by lateral torsional
buckling of a member across the cross-section must be taken care.
Fire resistance.
In design of steel structure, the ‘critical temperature’ is important and is defined as the
temperature in which the strength of the steel member is reduced to a certain level that the
structure will collapse. As the temperature increase, it may induce thermal stress on the steel
member. BS5950 part 8 is the standard that been using for designing a steel structure which can
resist fire.
Stress concentration and residual stress.
Stress concentration normally occurs at the holes for bolts which use to connect the
structural member and small cracks along the surface of the I-section which cause fatigue.
Meanwhile, residual stresses are induced into the steel member during rolling, welding of the
steel member to certain geometry, lifting and transportation, flame cut or drilling. During rolling
process, the whole steel is initially at a uniform temperature, however as the cooling process
undergo, some portion of the steel member which have a thinner cross section than others and
consequently the cooling effect will be faster than the thicker cross section. Thus, as for welded
joints, the part that cool 1
st
may have compression residual stress and the part that cool last have
the tensile residual stress. Since the cooling rate affected the yield strength of the materials, the
thinner section tends to have higher yield strength than the thicker section. It is believe that, for
plastic design, when a plastic hinge occur at the steel member, the residual stress are relieved by
the large strains, thus it doesn’t affect the ultimate strength of the steel member unless lateral
torsional buckling occurs.
Corrosion and protection of the steel work.
Corrosion is a chemical reaction between the steel member, water and oxygen which
produce hydrated iron oxide called rust. The effects of corrosion on the steel structure are
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reducing of cross-section of steel member and may create a small conical pit which may cause
stress concentration effect. For this project, drainage holes are included at appropriate location
along the steel member.
Weldability of the steel structure.
Welding is a joining process in which the joint production can be achieved with the use of
high temperature, high pressure or both. For this project, only the high temperature welding to
produce a joint will be used and the most common method of welding structural steel is MMA
(manual metal arc welding). Before the two steel members is weld, the welding edge between the
two steel members must undergo a fillet process or chamfer to compose the welding joint
stronger.
Process and Installation.
For plastic design, the steel member will undergo a process where the plastic hinge is
created. To induce a plastic hinge in the steel members, the steel member will simply supported
at both end and a pressure or load will apply along the steel member until the plastic hinge occur.
This ensure that the rafter or stanchion meet the requirement for plastic design.
Aim and advantages of plastic design.
The main objective using plastic design methods is to calculate the collapse load or
collapse moment of the structures. Thus, plastic theory concentrates on one criterion which is the
strength of the steel member. In the simple form of plastic design, the plastic design theory
makes no attempt to assess the deflection of the structure, since it is relative small compare with
the structure size or to enquire the stability of the structure. For the project, stability will be
concern, especially lateral torsional buckling along the rafter. Plastic design has several
advantages; realistic the steel frame actual behaviour, simplifies the analysis of steel structures, a
uniform margin of safety of a structure and the utilization of the steel member [15].
Summary of PDS.
Following are brief statement of the structure requirement, which summarize all above
specifications.
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 Steel structure can sustain 3 type of loading; dead load, imposed load and wind load
which obtain from British Standard 6399-2 and British Standard 6399-3
 Stability of the structure, avoid lateral torsional buckling and corrosion protection.
 Analysis of steel structure meets the British Standard 5950-1.
Design Flow Chart
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Preliminary

Design
Section Description:
Loading: Determine the load subjected to the structure.
Analysis: Analyse the structure according to British Standards.
Stability: Analyse the stability of structure according to British Standards.
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Loading
Analysis
Stability
Drawings
END
Yes
Yes
No
No
3. Concept Design.
3.1. Concept 1.
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3. CONCEPT DESIGN
Advantages.
 Easy to erect.
 Light structure.
 Size – medium.
 Suitable for warehouse.
 Large space inside the building.
 Wide and low.
 Easy to design.
 Cheap cost.
Disadvantages.
 Complex maintenance.
 Strong but not stiff.
 Manufacturing difficulties.
3.2. Concept 2.
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Truss Frame System
Advantages.
 Light structure.
 Size – medium.
 Suitable for warehouse.
 Large space inside the building.
 Wide and low.
 Easy to erect.
 Strong and stiff.
Disadvantages.
 Complex maintenance.
 Difficult to design.
 Manufacturing difficulties.
 Expensive cost.
3.3. Concept 3.
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Arched Roof System
Advantages.
 Light structure.
 Size – medium.
 Suitable for warehouse.
 Large space inside the building.
 Wide and low.
 Strong and stiff.
 Easy to design.
 Easy and fast to erect.
Disadvantages.
 Complex maintenance.
 Manufacturing difficulties.
 Moderate cost.
3.4. Concept 4.
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Portal Frame System
Advantages.
 Size – large
 Suitable for warehouse.
 Large space inside the building.
 Wide building.
 Strong and stiff.
 Design for minimum direct sun light
Disadvantages.
 Difficulties in design.
 Complex maintenance.
 Manufacturing difficulties.
 Snow load, dust, leaves stuck between the roof pitch.
 High building.
 Expensive cost.
3.5. Concept 5.
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Saw-tooth Roof System
Advantages.
 Size – large
 Suitable for warehouse.
 Very large space inside the building.
 Wide building.
 Strong and stiff.
Disadvantages.
 Difficulties in design.
 Complex maintenance.
 Manufacturing difficulties.
 Snow load, dust, leaves stuck at the center of the roof.
 Expensive cost.
This section is produced with several of concept sketches and each of the sketches is listed
with the advantages and disadvantages which will be utilize in the evaluation matrix. The
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Portal Frame with Alternative Valley Columns Ommited
evaluation matrix enables the concept design to be chosen under certain important criteria which
satisfied lecture objectives and individual objectives. The concept designs that score the highest
score on the evaluation matrix are the most desirable option and the design is forwarded to the
detail design stage.
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4. Design Loads Acting On Structures.
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4. Design Loads Acting On Structures
All structure is composed of a number of interconnected elements such as roof deck,
purlins, slabs, beams, columns and foundations. Collectively, it enables the internal or external
loads that acting on the structure safely transmitted to the foundations then to the ground. The
design loads are used to calculate the bending moments, shear force, stress and deflections at
critical points along the steel member and finally suitable dimension, section or properties for the
element can be determined.
Loads acting on the structure can be classified as static and dynamic. Static loads are
applied on the structure slowly and gradually and these are steady-state which mean doesn’t vary
with time. Dynamic loads are defined as sudden application on the structure and variation of the
magnitude respect with time. The design static loads acting on the structures are divided into four
basic types: dead load, imposed or live load, wind load and force due to thermal effect in which
partly can be obtain from the British Standard (BS). In static, loads are force that acting on
structural element that can represent as surface loads, line load and concentrated loads.
A force that applied on the large size of area is considered as a surface load, and this type
of load has units of force per unit area which is classified as pressure (N.m
-2
). In general, wind
load and snow load is considered as a surface pressure which will further discuss in chapter 4.3.
A force that applied over a long, narrow area may considered a line load and assumed to be
distributed along the long dimension, line loads have units of force per unit length (N.m
-1
) and
often vary with position along the line. Self-weight of the beam, purlin and roof deck can treated
as a line load and the force that distributed along the length of the member is classified as
Uniformly Distributed Load (UDL). A force that applied over a small area can considered as a
concentrated load or point load, and this type of load has a unit of Newton (N). Consider a purlin
“rested” itself on the haunch frame or structure. A reaction will occur at the both end of the
purlin, in which the reaction is acting on the haunch frame. The reaction produce by the purlin is
treated as a point or concentrated load.
The effect of Static Loads consist of Dead loads, Snow load and Wind load when
subjected on the haunch portal frame will be concern. The design loads are obtain by multiplying
the characteristics loads by the partial factor of loads γ
f
, which can be obtain from [1:p12: table
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12]. Several load combinations with their design loads are used to analysis the haunch portal
frame as shown in table 1. Analysis on the bending moment, shear forces, deflections and sway
stability will be carry on in chapter 4.
Dead Imposed Wind (Up) Wind (Down)
Dead 1.4
Dead + Imposed 1.4 1.6
Dead + Imposed + Wind (int Suction) 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2
Load Combinations
Partial Factors For Loads
4.1. Dead Loads.
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Table 1
Dead load or classified as gravity load, is the weight that act permanently and it remains
constant in term of magnitude, location and direction. Dead loads always act vertically
downwards and such loads normally consist of the self-weight of the structure as well as the
weight of the building elements, which is non-moving partition can be concern as dead load. By
referring to the schedule of weights of buildings material given in [British Standard 648], the
characteristics dead loads can be estimated or from the manufacture’s literature or BRITISH
STANDARD 6399-1: 1996. In general the symbol G
k
and g
k
is used to denote the total load or
UDL of the dead loads. According to the preliminary design, the deal load acting on the portal
frame will be calculated.
4.1.1. Dead loads calculations.
Refer to appendix,
Unit weight of the roof deck is given, 100.5 N.m
-2
Unit mass of the purlin for (Sr.No. 9) is given, 6.25 kg.m
-1
Unit weight of the I-Beam (W410 x 0.73) is given, 0.73 x 10
3
N.m
-1
By referring to figure 1, it shows the concentrated load or point load provided by the purlin is
acting on the haunch portal frame. In the preliminary design, the spacing between each purlin is
1.5 m and the height of the roof (h
r
) as indicated in figure 1 is 3 m, meanwhile the height of the
column from the foundation or ground is 3 m. The width or W as indicate in figure 1 is 18 m and
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h
r
h
c
A E
D
1
B
1
B
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5 D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D
C
W
Figure 1
18.43°
the slope of the roof as indicate in figure 1 is 18.43°. The distance between two haunch frames is
11.83m. The roof deck “rested” itself on the purlin and the purlin “rested” itself on the portal
frame. To calculate the point load or the reaction of the purlin acting on the haunch frame, the
haunch portal frame is ‘cut’ at the apex as shown in figure 2.
Concentrated load calculation.
The concentrated load acting on point C,
Given unit weight of roof deck = 100.5 N.m
-2
Assume the weight of the roof deck within the
half of the distance between the purlin is acting
on point C. Thus,
The UDL of the roof deck acting on the purlin =
2
43 . 18 cos 5 . 1
5 . 100 ×
= 71.61 N.m
-1
The unit mass of the purlin = 6.25 kg.m
-1
Unit Weight of the purlin = 81 . 9 25 . 6 ×
= 61.31 N.m
-1
Total line load along purlin, G
k
= Line load purlin + line load roof
= 61.31 + 71.61
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A
B
1
B
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
C
‘cut’
Figure 2
= 132.94 N.m
-1
Refer to table 1,
Given partial factor for dead load, γ
f
= 1.4
Ultimate Design Load = 1.4 G
k
= 1.4 x 134.94 N.m
-1
= 186.09 N.m
-1
The UDL acting on the purlin and the reaction (R1,R2) acting on the haunch frame is illustrated
in figure 3.
Ultimate UDL acting purlin C = 186.09 N.m
-1
Given the length of the purlin = 11.83 m
Reaction on both end of purlin (R1, R2) =
2
L ω
=
( ) ( )
2
83 . 11 09 . 186
= 1.1 k N
Unit weight of the I-Beam is given, = 0.73 x 10
3
N.m
-1
Assume the weight of the beam within the
half of the distance between the purlin is acting
on point C. Hence, concentrated load for beam
acting on point C, G
k
=
2
43 . 18 cos 5 . 1
10 73 . 0
3
× ×
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Figure 3
R1 R2
UDL, ω
L
= 520.13 N.
Ultimate Design Load = 1.4G
k
= 1.4 x 520.13
= 728.18 N
Total Ultimate Design Dead Load = 1.1 k + 728.18
= 1.83 k N
The concentrated load acting on point B,
By referring to figure 2, at point B the concentrated load that it sustains is the reaction from the
purlin where the reaction is the half of the combination of roof deck self-weight and purlin self-
weight. The self-weight of the beam is excluded at point B. Thus, the concentrated load on point
B is 1.1 k N.
The concentrated load acting on point B
1
, B
2
, B
3
, B
4
and B
5
,
The concentrated load acting on point B
x
,
Where x can be 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
Given unit weight of roof deck = 100.5 N.m
-2
Assume the weight of the roof deck within the
distance between the purlin is acting
on point B
x
. Thus,
The UDL of the roof deck acting on the purlin = 43 . 18 cos 5 . 1 5 . 100 ×
= 143.21 N.m
-1
Total line load along purlin, G
k
= Line load purlin + line load roof
= 61.31 + 143.21
= 204.52 N.m
-1
Refer to table 1,
Given partial factor for dead load, γ
f
= 1.4
Ultimate Design Load = 1.4 G
k
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= 1.4 x 204.52 N.m
-1
= 286.33 N.m
-1
Ultimate UDL acting purlin B
x
= 286.33N.m
-1
Given the length of the purlin = 11.83 m
Reaction on both end of purlin (R1, R2) =
2
L ω
(Refer to figure 3) =
( ) ( )
2
83 . 11 33 . 286
= 1.69 k N
Unit weight of the I-Beam is given, = 0.73 x 10
3
N.m
-1
Assume the weight of the beam within the
distance between the purlin is acting
on point B
x
. Hence, concentrated load for beam
acting on point B
x
, G
k
= 43 . 18 cos 5 . 1 10 73 . 0
3
× ×
= 1.04 k N
Ultimate Design Load = 1.4G
k
= 1.4 x 1.04 k
= 1.46 k N
Total Ultimate Design Dead Load = 1.69 k + 1.46 k
= 3.15 k N
Base on the Preliminary design, the whole structure consist of 4 portal frames as shown in figure
4.
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Reg3
Reg1 = Region 1
Reg2 = Region 2
Reg3 = Region 3
1 = Portal Frame 1
2 = Portal Frame 2
3 = Portal Frame 3
Assuming the structure is under influence of dead, imposed, or wind load and the influence of
the load is separated into 3 regions as indicated in figure 4. Portal frame 1 and portal frame 2,
each of them sustain half of the loading at Region 1. At region 2, portal frame 2 and portal frame
3, each of them sustain half of the load at region 2. In the other way around, two portal frames
lies between regions sustain half of the load from the region. Thus, portal frame 2 and 3 sustain
twice the load at portal frame 1 and portal frame 4.
B B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 C
1 1.1 3.15 3.15 3.15 3.15 3.15 1.83
2 2.2 4.84 4.84 4.84 4.84 4.84 2.93
3 2.2 4.84 4.84 4.84 4.84 4.84 2.93
4 1.1 3.15 3.15 3.15 3.15 3.15 1.83
Portal Frames
Ultimate Concentrated Load for DEAD LOAD (k N)
Table 2 show the total ultimate concentrated load for dead load on the haunch portal frame at
different location along the rafter of the haunch portal frame under partial factor, γ
f
of 1.4. From
table 2 it shown that, the ultimate concentrated load for portal frame 2 and portal frame 3 sustain
the higher value of point load compare with portal frame 1 and portal frame 4. Thus, it will
provide larger bending moment, in which will be use to estimate the section of properties of the
portal frame which will be carrying on in chapter 5. The ultimate concentrated load in Table 2
will be concern with load combination (dead + imposed).
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Figure 4
4
3
2
1
Reg1
Reg2
Table 2
B B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 C
1 0.94 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 1.57
2 1.88 4.15 4.15 4.15 4.15 4.15 2.5
3 1.88 4.15 4.15 4.15 4.15 4.15 2.5
4 0.94 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 1.57
Portal Frames
Ultimate Concentrated Load for DEAD LOAD (k N)
Table 3 show the total ultimate concentrated load value for dead load on the haunch portal frame
at different point along the rafter under partial fraction, γ
f
of 1.2, the ultimate concentrated load
for table 3 will be concern under load combination (dead + imposed + wind). The method to
obtain the value in table 2 and table 3 is the same.
4.2. Imposed Loads.
Imposed load or refer as live loads is represents the load due weight of the occupants, or
user, furniture, moveable partitions, distributed, impact, inertia and roof loads including snow but
the excluding wind load. When live loads are applied slowly and gradually on the structure, they
are static load. When they are applied suddenly and their magnitude varies rapid with time, they
are dynamic load. The snow loads are often significant, especially for the roof of the building.
Snow is moveable load, because the snow load will not cover the whole entire of the roof top,
and some member supporting the roof may receive the maximum stress or deflection, with the
snow cover only a portion of the roof. Snow loads on the roof vary widely and depend on such
factors as elevation, latitude, wind frequency, duration of snow fall, roof size, geometry, snow
density and slope of the roof. Generally the symbol Q
k
or q
k
is used to donate the amount of
imposed load. The snow load acting on the roof for the preliminary design structure can be
obtained from BRITISH STANDARDS 6399-3: 1988.
Base on the preliminary design, where the roof slope is 12°. The minimum design snow load
acting on the roof;
Refer to [7:p2:4.3.1], stated:
- A uniformly distributed load of 0.6 k N.m
-2
measured on plan for roof slope of 30° or less.
Kah Hin Tan - 31 -
Table 3
Snow load acting on the roof, (Q
k
) = 0.6 k N.m
-2
Snow load is considered as a surface load. To transfer surface load to concentrated load, similar
step can be carry out as finding the concentrated load for the roof deck.
4.2.1. Snow loads calculations.
The concentrated load acting on point C, refer
figure 2.
Given unit weight of snow load = 0.6 k N.m
-2
Assume the weight of the snow load within the
half of the distance between the purlin is acting
on point C. Thus,
The UDL of the roof deck acting on the purlin =
2
43 . 18 cos 5 . 1
10 6 . 0
3
× ×
Line load along purlin for snow, Q
k
= 427.5 N.m
-1
Refer to table 1,
Combinations load of Dead + Imposed
Given partial factor for imposed load, γ
f
= 1.6
Ultimate Design Load = 1.6 Q
k
= 1.6 x 427.5 N.m
-1
Ultimate UDL for snow load acting purlin C = 684 N.m
-1
Given the length of the purlin = 11.83 m
Reaction on both end of purlin (R1, R2) =
2
L ω
=
( ) ( )
2
83 . 11 684
= 4.05 k N
Reaction at point C = 4.05 k N
Reaction at point B = 4.05 k N
Kah Hin Tan - 32 -
Reaction at point B
1
, B
2
, B
3
, B
4
and B
5
= 4.05 x 2 = 8.1 k N
B B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 C
1 4.05 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 4.05
2 8.1 16.2 16.2 16.2 16.2 16.2 8.1
3 8.1 16.2 16.2 16.2 16.2 16.2 8.1
4 4.05 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 4.05
Portal Frames
Ultimate Concentrated Load for IMPOSED LOAD (k N)
Table 4 show the value of the total ultimate concentrated load for imposed load at different point
of the haunch portal frame under partial factor, γ
f
of 1.6. The value shown in table 4 will be
concern under load combination (dead + imposed)
B B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 C
1 3.03 6.06 6.06 6.06 6.06 6.06 3.03
2 6.06 12.12 12.12 12.12 12.12 12.12 6.06
3 6.06 12.12 12.12 12.12 12.12 12.12 6.06
4 3.03 6.06 6.06 6.06 6.06 6.06 3.03
Portal Frames
Ultimate Concentrated Load for IMPOSED LOAD (k N)
Table 5 show the total ultimate concentrated load for imposed load on the haunch portal frame at
different point of the haunch portal frame under partial factor, γ
f
of 1.2. The ultimate
concentrated load value shown in table 5 will be concern when under load combination (dead +
imposed + wind). The method to obtain the value in table 5 is the same as method using in table
4.
4.3. Wind Loads.
When a wind is subjected to a structure, the wind will deflect or stopped by a structure. In
which the kinetic energy of the wind come from the free stream velocity is stopped by the wall or
structure, thus transformed into potential energy of pressure or suction (Bernoulli’s equation), in
Kah Hin Tan - 33 -
Table 4
Table 5
which the magnitude of the pressure is depend on the free stream velocity, the surface roughness
on which the wind acts, the density of the air, the structure geometrical shape, dimension and
orientation of the structure. The wind load is assume to be static effect, doesn’t vary with time.
Generally the symbol W
k
or w
k
is used to donate the amount of wind load subjected to a structure
or building and can obtain from BRITISH STANDARD 6399-2: 1997.
4.3.1. Wind Load Coefficient from BS6399-2.
The wind load acting on the haunch portal frame can be obtained from BS 6399-2, section 2,
standard methods. Base on the preliminary design, haunch portal frame which is consider as
equal-duo pitch structure. The wind load subjected to the structure is two orthogonal load cases
where the wind direction normal to the faces of the building.
To acquire the pressure subjected to the haunch portal frame. Dynamic Pressure (q
s
) must obtain
in which the value of the dynamic pressure is influence by several factor which will discuss in
this chapter.
4.3.1.1. Dynamic pressure
Refer to [6:p13: 2.1.2], Dynamic pressure is defined as;
2
613 . 0
e s
V q ⋅ ·
q
s
– Dynamic Pressure (N.m
-2
)
V
e
– Effective Wind Speed (m.s
-1
)
Effective wind speed
Refer to [6:p27: 2.2.3], Effective wind speed is defined as;
V
e
= V
s
x S
b
V
s
– Site of the wind speed
S
b
– Terrain and building factor
Kah Hin Tan - 34 -
Terrain and building factor
Refer to [6:p28: 2.2.3.3], Terrain and building factor, S
b
The S
b
value can be obtain from [6:p28; table 4]
But, the effective height is needed to indicate the S
b
value.
Where the effective height can obtain from [6:p10: 1.7.3.2] and [6:p8: figure 2]
The effective height H
e
may be conservatively taken as the reference height H
r
.
H
r
= 6 m
Since the location of the structure is located at 10km within Manchester and the nearest distance
from Manchester to seaside > 100km (refer to google earth). The value of the terrain and
building factor S
b
is obtain from column (site in town, extending ≥ 2km upwind from the site) is
chosen and the closest distance to sea upwind ≥ 100km. Interpolation may needed, where the H
e
is between 5 and 10.
Interpolation,
H
e
- 5
6 – 5 = 1
5
36 . 1 58 . 1 −
= 0.044
1 x 0.044 = 0.044
1.36 + 0.044 = 1.40
S
b
= 1.40
Site wind speed
Refer to [6:p18: 2.2.2], Site wind speed is define as;
V
s
= V
b
x S
a
x S
d
x S
s
x S
p
V
b
– is the basic wind speed.
S
a
– altitude factor.
S
d
– direction factor.
S
s
– Seasonal factor.
S
p
– Probability factor.
Basic Wind Speed
Refer to [6:p19: figure 6]
At location 10 km around Manchester V
b
= 22 m.s
-1
Altitude factor
Refer to [6:p20: 2.2.2.2], altitude factor is define as;
S
a
= 1+ 0.001Δs
Kah Hin Tan - 35 -
Δs – Site altitude (in meters above mean sea level).
Refer to [22]
The altitude for Manchester is between 35 and 42 meter above sea level.
S
a
= 1+ 0.001(42)
= 1 + 0.042
= 1.042
Direction factor
Refer to [6:p27: 2.2.2.3], Direction factor stated;
If the orientation of the building is unknown or ignored, the value of the direction factor should
be taken as S
d
= 1.00 for all directions.
Seasonal factor
Refer to [6:p27: 2.2.2.4], Seasonal factor stated;
The seasonal factor S
s
is used for buildings which are expected to be exposed to the wind for
specific subannual period. Assume the S
s
= 1 for worst case might happen.
Probability factor
Refer to [6:p27: 2.2.2.5] and [6:p103: Annex D] Probability factor stated;
S
p
= 0.749 for Q = 0.632
Note 1 stated, the annual mode, corresponding to the most likely annual maximum value.
Given,
V
b
= 22 m.s
-1
S
a
= 1.042
S
d
= 1
S
s
= 1
S
p
= 0.749
Site wind, V
s
= 22 x 1.042 x 1 x 1 x 0.749
= 17.17m.s
-1
Effective wind speed,
V
e
= V
s
x S
b
= 17.17 x 1.40
= 24.04 m.s
-1
Dynamic Pressure,
2
613 . 0
e s
V q ⋅ ·
= 0.613 (24.04)
2
= 354.27 N.m
-2

Since the dynamic pressure proportional with the effective velocity, the effective velocity
proportional with terrain and building factor with assuming the site wind speed remain constant.
Kah Hin Tan - 36 -
While the terrain and building factor proportional with the height of the building. Thus, the
dynamic pressure is proportional with the height of the building, but it is assume to remain
constant and doesn’t change with the height of the building and the maximum value of the
dynamic pressure will be use.
4.3.1.2. External Pressure Coefficients for walls.
Base on the preliminary design, the wind load subjected to the structure is two orthogonal load
cases where the wind direction normal to the faces of the building. Wind load can separated into
2 cases, where it is side wind and gable wind. Figure 5 indicate the side wind direction and figure
6 will indicate the gable wind direction.
Given the dimension for the preliminary design is,
Length = 35.49 m
Width = 18 m
Height of the wall = 3 m
External pressure coefficient for side wind.
Refer [6:p30: 2.4.1.2],
Kah Hin Tan - 37 -
Figure 5
Side Wind Direction
Figure 6
Gable Wind Direction
Wind direction
Wind direction
The value for the pressure coefficient for windward and leeward can be obtained in [6:p31: table
5] by using a ratio of the building dimension, D/H. Where D is the depth of the building in which
varies with the wind direction. H is defined as the height of the wall.
D = 18 m
H = 3 m
6 ·
H
D
Windward (front),
C
pe
(front) = +0.6
Leeward (rear),
C
pe
(rear) = -0.5
Refer [6:p30: 2.4.1.3] stated;
Scaling length (b), where
b = B or,
b = 2H
B – Crosswind breadth of the building
H – Height of the wall
Whichever is smaller.
b = Length of the building.
= 35.49 m
b = 2H
= 2 (6.02)
= 12.04 m
b = 12.04 m
Refer [6:p31: figure 12 b]
D>b, where D = 18m and b = 12.04m
Thus, 3 side wall faces subjected to pressure.
Refer [6:p30: 2.4.1.4]
Kah Hin Tan - 38 -
As stated in the PDS, there is no other building located near the warehouse within 50m. Isolated
value should be used;
Side pressure coefficient,
Zone A, -1.3
Zone B, -0.8
Zone C, -0.5
External pressure coefficient for gable wind.
Refer [6:p30: 2.4.1.2],
The methods to obtain the external pressure coefficient for gable wind are similar with the
external pressure coefficient side wind.
D = 35.49 m
H = 3 m
83 . 11 ·
H
D
C
pe
(front) = 0.6
C
pe
(rear) = -0.5
Refer [6:p30: 2.4.1.3] stated;
Scaling length (b), where
b = B or,
b = 2H
Whichever is smaller.
b = Width of the building
= 18 m
b = 2H
= 2 (6.02)
= 12.04 m
b = 12.04 m
Refer [6:p31: figure 12 b]
Kah Hin Tan - 39 -
D>b, where D = 18m and b = 12.04m
Thus, 3 side wall faces subjected to pressure.
Refer [6:p30: 2.4.1.4]
As stated in the PDS, there is no other building located near the warehouse within 50m. Isolated
value should be used;
Side pressure coefficient,
Zone A, -1.3
Zone B, -0.8
Zone C, -0.5
External pressure coefficient.
Side Wind Gable Wind
Cpe Cpe
Windward (front) +0.6 +0.6
Leeward (rear) -0.5 -0.5
Zone A -1.3 -1.3
Zone B -0.8 -0.8
Zone C -0.5 -0.5
Face
4.3.1.3. External Pressure Coefficient for Roofs.
Refer [6:p40: 2.5.2.4.1]
External pressure coefficient for duopitch roof can be obtain from [6:p43: table 10] using the key
in [6:p42: figure 20].
According to the preliminary design of the roof, the pitch angle is 12°.
Two set of pressure coefficients for roofs is given in table 10, whereby zone for wind direction θ
= 0° (side wind) and zone for wind direction θ = 90° (gable wind). Interpolation for the C
pe
value
for both wind directions is required.
Pressure Coefficient for wind direction θ = 0° (side wind),
Kah Hin Tan - 40 -
Table 6
Interpolation for C
pe
value A,
C
pe
value for A,
C
pe
min = -0.98
C
pe
max = +0.32
Interpolation for C
pe
value B,
C
pe
value for B,
C
pe
min = -0.74
C
pe
max = +0.26
Interpolation for C
pe
value C,
Kah Hin Tan - 41 -
at θ = +15° at θ= +30°
C
pe
= -1.1 C
pe
= -0.5
Min Value for θ = 18°
-1.1 - (-0.5) = -0.6
15
6 . 0 −
= -0.04
-0.04 x 3 = -0.12
-1.1 - (-0.12) = -0.98
at θ = +15° at θ= +30°
C
pe
= +0.2 C
pe
= +0.8
Max Value for θ = 18°
0.2 - (0.8) = -0.6
15
6 . 0 −
= -0.04
-0.04 x 3 = -0.12
0.2 - (-0.12) = +0.32
at θ = +15° at θ= +30°
C
pe
= -0.8 C
pe
= -0.5
Min Value for θ = 18°
-0.8 - (-0.5) = -0.3
15
3 . 0 −
= -0.02
-0.02 x 3 = -0.06
-0.8 - (-0.06) = -0.74
at θ = +15° at θ= +30°
C
pe
= +0.2 C
pe
= +0.5
Max Value for θ = 18°
0.2 - (0.5) = -0.3
15
3 . 0 −
= -0.02
-0.02 x 3 = -0.06
0.2 - (-0.06) = +0.26
C
pe
value for C,
C
pe
min = -0.36
C
pe
max = +0.24
Interpolation for C
pe
value E,
C
pe
value for E,
C
pe
= -1.22
Interpolation for C
pe
value F,
Kah Hin Tan - 42 -
at θ = +15° at θ= +30°
C
pe
= -0.4 C
pe
= -0.2
Min Value for θ = 18°
-0.4 - (-0.2) = -0.2
15
2 . 0 −
= -0.013
-0.013 x 3 = -0.039
-0.4 - (-0.039) = -0.36
at θ = +15° at θ= +30°
C
pe
= -1.3 C
pe
= -0.9
Min Value for θ = 18°
-1.3 - (-0.9) = -0.4
15
4 . 0 −
= -0.027
-0.027 x 3 = -0.081
-1.3 - (-0.081) = -1.22
at θ = +15° at θ= +30°
C
pe
= +0.2 C
pe
= +0.4
Min Value for θ = 18°
0.2 - (0.4) = -0.2
15
2 . 0 −
= -0.013
-0.013 x 3 = -0.039
0.2 - (-0.039) = +0.24
C
pe
value for F,
C
pe
= -0.82
C
pe
value for G,
C
pe
= -0.5
A B C E F G
Press 0.32 0.26 0.24 NA NA NA
Suction 0.98 0.74 0.36 1.22 0.82 0.5
Pressure Type
External Pressure Coefficient (Cpe) for Side Wind
Table 7 shown the value for the external pressure coefficient C
pe
for wind acting at θ = 0°.
Pressure Coefficient for wind direction θ = 90° (gable wind),
Kah Hin Tan - 43 -
at θ = +15° at θ= +30°
C
pe
= -0.9 C
pe
= -0.5
Min Value for θ = 18°
-0.9 - (-0.5) = -0.4
15
4 . 0 −
= -0.027
-0.027 x 3 = -0.081
-0.9 - (-0.081) = -0.82

Table 7
Interpolation for C
pe
value A,
C
pe
value for A,
C
pe
= -1.52
Interpolation for C
pe
value B,
C
pe
value for B,
C
pe
= -1.42
C
pe
value for C,
C
pe
= -0.6
Interpolation for C
pe
value D,
Kah Hin Tan - 44 -
at θ = +15° at θ= +30°
C
pe
= -1.6 C
pe
= -1.2
Min Value for θ = 18°
-1.6 - (-1.2) = -0.4
15
4 . 0 −
= -0.027
-0.027 x 3 = -0.08
-1.6 - (-0.08) = -1.52
at θ = +15° at θ= +30°
C
pe
= -1.5 C
pe
= -1.1
Min Value for θ = 18°
-1.5 - (-1.1) = -0.4
15
4 . 0 −
= -0.027
-0.027 x 3 = -0.08
-1.5 - (-0.08) = -1.42
C
pe
value for E,
C
pe
= -0.42
A B C D
Suction 1.52 1.42 0.6 0.42
Pressure
External Pressure Coefficient (Cpe) for Gable Wind
4.3.1.4. Internal Pressure Coefficient.
Based on the preliminary design, the haunch portal frame structure is considered as an
enclosed building. The portal frame structure it is cover up with roof deck on the roof and each
side of the walls. It is assume that the dominant opening doesn’t occur and as stated in [6:p53:
2.6.1.1], the internal pressure coefficient for an enclosed building may be obtain from [6:p54:
table 16]. The internal pressure coefficient is -0.3.
Kah Hin Tan - 45 -
at θ = +15° at θ= +30°
C
pe
= -0.4 C
pe
= -0.5
Min Value for θ = 18°
-0.4 - (-0.5) = 0.1
15
1 . 0
= 0.007
0.007 x 3 = 0.02
-0.4 - (0.02) = -0.42
Table 8
4.3.2. Wind Load Calculations.
Wind load is considered as a lateral loading. Based on the preliminary design, the haunch
portal frame structure is low, wide and long structure. Gable wind loading doesn’t cause any
instability of the structure, since the wind direction is inwind depth with the length of the
structure. However, the side wind loading will be checked base on the value that obtains from
chapter 4.3.1.
The pressure coefficients that obtain from 4.3.1 on table 6 and table 7, it can be represent by
figure 7 and figure 8.
Figure 7 and figure 8 are treated as separated case.
Kah Hin Tan - 46 -
Figure 7
0.6
-0.3
-0.5
-0.98 -1.22
0.6
-0.3
-0.5
0.32 -1.22
Figure 8
Wind
direction
Wind
direction
Concentrated load calculation base on figure 7.
The wind load is consider as a surface load, and the surface load acting on the roof and wall
surface will be calculated to transfer the surface load to point load acting on the haunch portal
frame.
Net pressure coefficient for figure 7 is shown in figure 9.
Point load acting on the haunch portal frame is shown in figure 10.
The distance between A and A
1
is 1m, A
1
and A
2
is 1m. Meanwhile the other dimension for the
haunch portal frame remains the same as shown in figure 1.
Kah Hin Tan - 47 -
0.9 -0.2
-0.68 -0.92
Figure 9
B
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
CB , CD
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D
E2
E1
A2
A1
E A
Figure 10
Given Dynamic Pressure from chapter 4.3.1.1,
q
s
= 354.27 N.m
-2
Assume the side effect factor C
a
= 1
Refer to [6:p13: 2.1.3.3] stated;
Net pressure for enclosed buildings,
P = P
e
- P
i
Where,
P
e
– External Pressure
P
i
– Internal Pressure
And given P
e
and P
i
from [6:p13: 2.1.3.1] and [6:p13: 2.1.3.2];
P
e
= q
s
.C
pe
.C
a
P
i
= q
s
.C
pi
.C
a
Net Pressure = External Pressure – Internal Pressure.
P = q
s
(C
pe
– C
pi
) C
a
C
a
= 1
P = q
s
(C
pe
– C
pi
)
Where (C
pe
– C
pi
) value can be obtain from figure 9 for each side of the wall and roof.
Concentrated load calculation on windward wall.
Assume purlin A
1
sustain half of the windward pressure and the other half of the windward
pressure is sustain by purlin A
2
.
Given dynamic pressure, q
s
= 354.27 N.m
-2
Given net Pressure Coefficient, C
p
= 0.9 (refer figure 9)
Pressure, P = 354.27 x 0.9
= 318.84 N.m
-2
UDL acting on purlin A
1
and purlin A
2
, = Pressure x (half of the column height)
= 318.84 x 1.5
= 478.26 N.m
-1
Kah Hin Tan - 48 -
Ultimate UDL, = 1.2 W
k
= 1.2 (478.26)
= 573.91 N.m
-1
Given length of the purlin = 11.83
Reaction of the purlin acting on the haunch
portal frame. [Refer figure 3] =
2
L ω
=
( ) ( )
2
83 . 11 91 . 573
= 3.39 k N
Reaction of the purlin at point A
1
and A
2
is 3.39 k N.
Concentrated load calculation on windward roof.
The concentrated load acting on point C
B
,
[refer figure 10].
Given dynamic pressure, q
s
= 354.27 N.m
-2
Given net Pressure Coefficient, C
p
= -0.68 (refer figure 9)
Pressure, P = 354.27 x -0.68
= -240.9 N.m
-2
UDL acting on purlin C, =
2
43 . 18 cos 5 . 1
9 . 240 × −
= -171.64 N.m
-1
Ultimate UDL, = 1.2 W
k
= 1.2 (-171.64)
= -205.97 N.m
-1
Given length of the purlin = 11.83
Reaction of the purlin acting on the haunch
portal frame. [refer figure 3] =
2
L ω
Kah Hin Tan - 49 -
=
( ) ( )
2
83 . 11 97 . 205 −
= -1.22 k N
Concentrated load on the haunch portal frame,
At point C
B
= -1.22 k N
At point B = -1.22 k N
At point B
1
, B
2
, B
3
, B
4
and B
5
= -1.22 k x 2 = -2.44 k N
Concentrated load calculation on leeward roof.
The concentrated load acting on point C
D
,
[refer figure 10].
Given dynamic pressure, q
s
= 354.27 N.m
-2
Given net Pressure Coefficient, C
p
= -0.92 (refer figure 9)
Pressure, P = 354.27 x -0.92
= -325.93 N.m
-2
UDL acting on purlin C, =
2
43 . 18 cos 5 . 1
93 . 325 × −
= -232.23 N.m
-1
Ultimate UDL, = 1.2 W
k
= 1.2 (-232.23)
= -278.68 N.m
-1
Given length of the purlin = 11.83
Reaction of the purlin acting on the haunch
portal frame. [refer figure 3] =
2
L ω
=
( ) ( )
2
83 . 11 68 . 278 −
= -1.65 k N
Kah Hin Tan - 50 -
Concentrated load on the haunch portal frame,
At point C
D
= -1.65 k N
At point D = -1.65 k N
At point D
1
, D
2
, D
3
, D
4
and D
5
= -1.65 k x 2 = -3.3 k N
Concentrated load calculation on leeward wall.
Assume purlin E
1
sustain half of the windward pressure and the other half of the windward
pressure is sustain by purlin E
2
.
Given dynamic pressure, q
s
= 354.27 N.m
-2
Given net pressure Coefficient, C
p
= -0.2 (refer figure 9)
Pressure, P = 354.27 x -0.2
= -70.85 N.m
-2
UDL acting on purlin A
1
and purlin A
2
, = Pressure x (half of the column height)
= -70.85 x 1.5
= -106.28 N.m
-1
Ultimate UDL, = 1.2 W
k
= 1.2 (-106.28)
= -127.54 N.m
-1
Given length of the purlin = 11.83
Reaction of the purlin acting on the haunch
portal frame. [Refer figure 3] =
2
L ω
=
( )( )
2
83 . 11 54 . 127 −
= -0.754 k N
Reaction of the purlin at point E
1
and E
2
is -0.754 k N.
Kah Hin Tan - 51 -
1 2 3 4
A1 3.39 6.78 6.78 3.39
A2 3.39 6.78 6.78 3.39
B -1.22 -2.44 -2.44 -1.22
B1 -2.44 -4.88 -4.88 -2.44
B2 -2.44 -4.88 -4.88 -2.44
B3 -2.44 -4.88 -4.88 -2.44
B4 -2.44 -4.88 -4.88 -2.44
B5 -2.44 -4.88 -4.88 -2.44
CB -1.22 -2.44 -2.44 -1.22
CD -1.65 -3.3 -3.3 -1.65
D5 -3.3 -6.6 -6.6 -3.3
D4 -3.3 -6.6 -6.6 -3.3
D3 -3.3 -6.6 -6.6 -3.3
D2 -3.3 -6.6 -6.6 -3.3
D1 -3.3 -6.6 -6.6 -3.3
D -1.65 -3.3 -3.3 -1.65
E2 -0.754 -1.508 -1.508 -0.754
E1 -0.754 -1.508 -1.508 -0.754
purlin point
for frame (k N)
Ultimate Concentrated Load
Table 9 shows the ultimate concentrated load acting on different portal frame under side wind
direction with wind up or suction pressure at the wind ward roof.
Kah Hin Tan - 52 -
Table 9
Concentrated load calculation base on figure 8.
The wind load is consider as a surface load, and the surface load acting on the roof and wall
surface will be calculated to transfer the surface load to point load acting on the haunch portal
frame.
Net pressure coefficient for figure 8 is shown in figure 11.
Compare figure 11 and figure 9, the different for the net pressure coefficient on each surface
happen at the windward roof surface. So, only concentrated load under windward roof need to
recalculate.
Concentrated load calculation on windward roof.
The concentrated load acting on point C
B
,
[refer figure 10].
Given dynamic pressure, q
s
= 354.27 N.m
-2
Given net Pressure Coefficient, C
p
= 0.62 (refer figure
11)
Pressure, P = 354.27 x 0.62
= 219.65 N.m
-2
UDL acting on purlin C, =
2
43 . 18 cos 5 . 1
65 . 219 ×
= 156.5 N.m
-1
Kah Hin Tan - 53 -
0.98 -0.2
0.62 -0.88
Figure 11
Ultimate UDL, = 1.2 W
k
= 1.2 (156.5)
= 187.8 N.m
-1
Given length of the purlin = 11.83
Reaction of the purlin acting on the haunch
portal frame. [Refer figure 3] =
2
L ω
=
( ) ( )
2
83 . 11 8 . 187
= 1.11 k N
Concentrated load on the haunch portal frame,
At point C
B
= 1.11 k N
At point B = 1.11 k N
At point B
1
, B
2
, B
3
, B
4
and B
5
= 1.11 k x 2 = 2.22 k N
Kah Hin Tan - 54 -
1 2 3 4
A1 3.39 6.78 6.78 3.39
A2 3.39 6.78 6.78 3.39
B 1.11 2.22 2.22 1.11
B1 2.22 4.44 4.44 2.22
B2 2.22 4.44 4.44 2.22
B3 2.22 4.44 4.44 2.22
B4 2.22 4.44 4.44 2.22
B5 2.22 4.44 4.44 2.22
CB 1.11 2.22 2.22 1.11
CD -1.65 -3.3 -3.3 -1.65
D5 -3.3 -6.6 -6.6 -3.3
D4 -3.3 -6.6 -6.6 -3.3
D3 -3.3 -6.6 -6.6 -3.3
D2 -3.3 -6.6 -6.6 -3.3
D1 -3.3 -6.6 -6.6 -3.3
D -1.65 -3.3 -3.3 -1.65
E2 -0.754 -1.508 -1.508 -0.754
E1 -0.754 -1.508 -1.508 -0.754
Ultimate Concentrated load for WIND LOAD (k N)
Portal Frames
Table 10 shows the ultimate concentrated load acting on different portal frame under side wind
direction with wind down or pressing pressure at the wind ward roof.
In this section the value of the concentrated load acting on the purlin, will be carry to
chapter 5 to calculate the free bending moment, reactant moment, plastic moment, sway stability
and lateral torsional buckling.
Kah Hin Tan - 55 -
Table 10
Kah Hin Tan - 56 -
5. STRUCTURE ANALYSIS
5. Structure Analysis.
Base on the preliminary design, haunch portal frame is classified as a continuous
construction. For steel member such as beam, rafter or stanchion are combining together using
several kind of joint. These joint are capable to convey moment, shear and thrust over the entire
structure when is subjected with load, and due to the advantages provided by the continuous
structure, in where the greater participation of steel member of the structure to resist the applied
load. Thus, the structure becomes more tough, rigid and stable.
Initially, there are two types of design where can be use to designed the haunch portal
frame; elastic design and plastic design. The disadvantages of elastic design is mainly about the
utilisation of the steel member is within the elastic region of the stress strain curve, meanwhile
the plastic design limits the steel member at the ultimate tensile stress, thus it bring an
advantages for plastic design to utilise the steel member is higher order. Plastic design often
simplifies the design, analysis and calculation. The main criteria for plastic design is to
concentrate on the strength of the steel member and in the simple form of plastic design, the
plastic design theory make no attempt on the deflections or the stability of the structure, but the
analysis on the stability and lateral torsional buckling of the structure will be taken count in this
chapter, and emphasize on the lateral torsional buckling effect. Since the plastic design consist of
several advantages compare with elastic design, plastic will be use to design and analyses the
haunch portal frame in this chapter. [8:p152]
To use plastic design, the steel member must sustain loading until the excess of yield, so
that the plasticity (plastic hinge) can develops in the certain region of the steel members. Thus, a
ductile behaviour is required for the steel member to yield over the entire cross-sections. The
steel member should be fabricated at certain of high standard where it can be obtained from
[1:p117: 5.2.3.3]. For fixed-base haunch portal frame, collapse under vertical load will normally
occur at the joints, and some point between the rafters. Indeed the plastic moment or collapse
moment for the structure when subjected with load need to be determined and the skill required
is; transform or ‘cut’ the portal frame into half at the apex of the portal frame and three reactions
which is horizontal and vertical shear force and bending moment. Since the vertical load is
Kah Hin Tan - 57 -
transfer from the roof deck to purlin and from purlin to the main frame at the purlin points, the
plastic hinge will from at whichever of the purlin point load corresponds to the maximum
sagging moment in the rafter. Failure to locate the exact point of the plastic hinge, will lead to a
violation of the fundamental yield condition of plastic theory. Base on BRITISH STANDARD
5950-1 section 5, it will be the guide line for the plastic analysis on the haunch portal frame.
Collapse plastic moment analysis for the haunch portal frame under 4 type of load
combination as shown in table 1, bending moment diagram at collapse moment for the frame will
be determine, Overall sway stability of the frame will be check, rafter stability, buckling
resistance moment, deflection of the rafter, shear force at the bolt, stanchion stability and finally
haunch stability.
In this chapter, assumptions had to be made before analysis can carry on, the list below
stated several assumption;
 The steel is ideal elasto plastic material, which means the behaviour of the material
idealized the stress-strain curve with sufficient accuracy.
 The steel materials behave identically in tension and compression.
 The structural connections are rigid to extent that they are capable to transferring the
redistributed effects.
 No construction technique or structural details obstructing the development of plastic
hinge.
 The structural remain at the same location even subjected with load.
 The steel structure is ductile enough to undergo the plastic region.
Kah Hin Tan - 58 -
5.1. Verify Appropriate Section Properties.
Suitable section properties for the rafter will be determine in this chapter, in where plastic
collapse moment will be determine 1
st
, then by using the maximum plastic moment under 4 type
of load combination stated in table 1, suitable section of properties will be determine.
5.1.1 Plastic Moment under Dead Load.
Dead load combination.
Refer to table 2 to obtain the concentrated load acting on the haunch portal frame at the purlins
point shown in figure 12 and calculate free bending moment diagram.
Take moments,
M
B5
= 2.93 k x 1.5
= 4.4 k N.m
M
B4
= (2.93 k x 3) + (4.84k x 1.5)
= 16.05 k N.m
M
B3
= [2.93 k x 4.5] + [4.84 k x (3 + 1.5)]
= 34.97 k N.m
M
B2
= [2.93 k x 6] + [4.84 k x (4.5 + 3 + 1.5)]
Kah Hin Tan - 59 -
A
B
1
B
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
C
‘cut’
Figure 12
= 61.14 k N.m
M
B1
= [2.93 k x 7.5] + [4.84 k x (6 + 4.5 + 3 + 1.5)]
= 94.58 k N.m
M
B
= [2.93 k x 9] + [4.84 k x (7.5 + 6 + 4.5 + 3 + 1.5)]
= 135.27 k N.m
M
B
= M
A
Since the concentrated load value for the other side of the haunch portal frame is the same. The
free bending moment is the same. Figure 13 show the free bending moment diagram for haunch
portal frame under dead load with partial fraction, γ
f
1.4.
Kah Hin Tan - 60 -
Figure 13
When the haunch portal frame is ‘cut’ at the apex point, there are 3 equal and opposite reaction;
moment ‘M’, horizontal shear force ‘H’ and vertical shear force ‘V’ as showing in figure 14. By
using the equilibrium equation, maximum plastic moment occur (plastic hinge) on the rafter of
the structure will be calculate.
Refer [8:p161], figure 15 and figure 16 shows two possible collapse mechanisms for a haunch
portal frame. To determine the plastic moment, reactant moment must determine 1
st
. Thus,
reactant moment equation are required at A, E, B
1
, B
1
and B
5
.
Kah Hin Tan - 61 -
hr
hc
hh
A
E
W
B1
B5
H H
V
V
M M
D5
D1
Figure 14
B
1
D
1
Figure 15
Collapse mechanism ‘A’
A E
B5 D5
B
1
D
1
Where,
h
r
= 3 m
h
h
= 0.5 m
h
c
= 2.5 m
W = 18 m
Taking moment about possible plastic hinge may occur on haunch portal frame (refer to figure
14, figure 15 and figure 16):
(Assume anti-clockwise moment positive for left hand side and clockwise positive for right hand
side of ‘cut’ at apex)
At, A; reactant moment = M + 6H + 9V
At, A
1
; reactant moment = M + 5H + 9V
At, A
2
; reactant moment = M + 4H + 9V
At, B
1
; reactant moment = M + 3.5H + 9V
At, B; reactant moment = M + 3H + 9V
At, B
1
; reactant moment = M + 2.5H + 7.5V
At, B
2
; reactant moment = M + 2H + 6V
At, B
3
; reactant moment = M + 1.5H + 4.5V
At, B
4
; reactant moment = M + H + 3V
At, B
5
; reactant moment = M + 0.5H + 1.5V
At, D
5
; reactant moment = M + 0.5H - 1.5V
At, D
4
; reactant moment = M + H - 3V
At, D
3
; reactant moment = M + 1.5H - 4.5V
At, D
2
; reactant moment = M + 2H - 6V
At, D
1
; reactant moment = M + 2.5H – 7.5V
At, D; reactant moment = M + 3H - 9V
At, D
1
; reactant moment = M + 3.5H - 9V
At, E
2
; reactant moment = M + 4H - 9V
At, E
1
; reactant moment = M + 5H - 9V
At, E; reactant moment = M + 6H - 9V
Kah Hin Tan - 62 -
Figure 16
Collapse mechanism ‘B’
A E
B5 D5
B1 D1
Table 11
Reactant Moment at purlin point
Investigation of the collapse mode ‘A’ under dead load by using equilibrium equation.
Refer to figure 17, figure 15 and table 11.set up the equilibrium equation.
At A;135.27 = reactant moment = M + 6H + 9V
135.37 - M - 6H - 9V = 0 equation 1
At B
1
; 135.27 = reactant moment + M
p
= M + 3.5H + 9V + M
p
135.27 - M - 3.5H - 9V = +M
p
equation 2
At B
5
; 4.4 + M
p
= reactant moment = M + 0.5H + 1.5V
4.4 - M - 0.5H - 1.5V = -M
p
equation 3
At E; 135.27 = reactant moment = M + 6H - 9V
135.27 - M - 6H + 9V = 0 equation 4
Solve the simultaneous equation;
Consider equation 4 and equation 1.
Equation 1;
M = 135.37 – 6H – 9V equation 5
Kah Hin Tan - 63 -
Figure 17
Free bending moment and reactant moment under collapse mechanism ‘A’
Equation 4;
M = 135.27 - 6H + 9V equation 6
Solve equation 6 and equation 5,
135.37 – 6H – 9V = 135.27 - 6H + 9V
V = 0
Substitute equation 5 into equation 2,
135.27 – (135.37 – 6H – 9V) - 3.5H - 9V = +M
p
135.27 – 135.27 + 6H + 9V -3.5H -9V = +M
p
2.5H = +M
p
equation 7
Substitute equation 5 and equation 7 into equation 3,
4.4 – (135.37 – 6H – 9V) - 0.5H - 1.5V = -2.5H
8H = 130.97
H = 16.37 k N
Substitute H into equation 5 and equation 7, to obtain M and M
p
.
M = 135.37 – 6(16.37)
= 37.15 k N.m
M
p
= 2.5 (16.37)
= 40.93 k N.m
M
p
> M (obey fundamental yield condition of plastic theory).
Location for the plastic hinge to occur on the portal frame is at B
1
, B
5
, D
1
and D
5
. To check
whether the plastic hinge is located at the correct position on the rafter, calculation of the reactant
moment on all the purlin point is needed to check the maximum plastic moment can occur along
the rafter. Table 12 show the amount of plastic moment along the rafter on each point of purlin
under influence of dead load.
Kah Hin Tan - 64 -
H 16.37
V 0
M 37.15
Point Reactant Moment F.B.M Reactant Moment Plastic Moment
A = M + 6H + 9V 135.27 135.37 -0.1
B^1 = M + 3.5H + 9V 135.27 94.445 40.825
B = M + 3H + 9V 135.27 86.26 49.01
B1 = M + 2.5H + 7.5V 94.58 78.075 16.505
B2 = M + 2H + 6V 61.14 69.89 -8.75
B3 = M + 1.5H + 4.5V 34.97 61.705 -26.735
B4 = M + H + 3V 16.05 53.52 -37.47
B5 = M + 0.5H + 1.5V 4.4 45.335 -40.935
C = M 0 37.15 -37.15
D5 = M + 0.5H - 1.5V 4.4 45.335 -40.935
D4 = M + H - 3V 16.05 53.52 -37.47
D3 = M + 1.5H - 4.5V 34.97 61.705 -26.735
D2 = M + 2H - 6V 61.14 69.89 -8.75
D1 = M + 2.5H - 7.5V 94.58 78.075 16.505
D = M + 3H - 9V 135.27 86.26 49.01
D^1 = M + 3.5H - 9V 135.27 94.445 40.825
E = M + 6H - 9V 135.27 135.37 -0.1
Plastic Moment under Dead Load
All unit in (k N.m)
From table 12, the maximum plastic moment is at point B and D, but the plastic moment occurs
at point B and point D is considered as moment in the haunch. It is assumed the plastic hinge that
occurs at the eaves of the haunch is shifted to the column top immediately below the lower end
of the haunch, point B
1
and D
1
. Thus, the plastic hinge occurs at point D
1
, D
5
, B
5
and B
1
. Figure
18 show the free bending moment line, reactant moment line and plastic moment base on the
values that obtain from table 12.
Kah Hin Tan - 65 -
Table 12
Investigation of the collapse mode ‘B’ under dead load will be carry on by using equilibrium
equation.
Kah Hin Tan - 66 -
Figure 19
Free bending moment and reactant moment under collapse mechanism ‘B’
Figure 18
Refer to figure 19, figure 16 and table 11.set up the equilibrium equation.
At A;135.27 = reactant moment = M + 6H + 9V
135.37 - M - 6H - 9V = 0 equation 8
At B
1
; 94.58 = reactant moment + M
p
= M + 2.5H + 7.5V + M
p
94.58 - M - 2.5H – 7.5V = +M
p
equation 9
At B
5
; 4.4 + M
p
= reactant moment = M + 0.5H + 1.5V
4.4 - M - 0.5H - 1.5V = -M
p
equation 10
At E; 135.27 = reactant moment = M + 6H - 9V
135.27 - M - 6H + 9V = 0 equation 11
Solve the simultaneous equation;
Consider equation 8 and equation 11.
Equation 1;
M = 135.37 – 6H – 9V equation 12
Equation 4;
M = 135.27 - 6H + 9V equation 13
Solve equation 12 and equation 13,
135.37 – 6H – 9V = 135.27 - 6H + 9V
V = 0
Substitute equation 12 into equation 9,
94.58 – (135.37 – 6H – 9V) - 2.5H – 7.5V = +M
p
94.58 – 135.27 + 6H + 9V -2.5H -9V = +M
p
3.5H - 40.69 = +M
p
equation 14
Substitute equation 12 and equation 14 into equation 10,
4.4 – (135.37 – 6H – 9V) - 0.5H - 1.5V = -3.5H + 40.69
9H = 171.66
H = 19.07 k N
Kah Hin Tan - 67 -
Substitute H into equation 12 and equation 14, to obtain M and M
p
.
M = 135.37 – 6(19.07)
= 20.95 k N.m
M
p
= 3.5 (19.07) – 40.69
= 26.06 k N.m
M
p
> M (obey fundamental yield condition of plastic theory).
Location for the plastic hinge to occur on the portal frame is at B
1
, B
5
, D
1
and D
5
. To check
whether the location of the plastic hinge is correct or wrong, calculation of the moment at critical
point can be done,
Let take B
1
,
At B
1
; Moment in envelope = free bending moment - reactant moment
= 135.27 - M - 3.5H - 9V
= 135.27 – 20.95 – 3.5(19.07)
= 47.57 k N.m (> M
p
)
Yield violated the fundamental condition of plastic theory; mechanism ‘B’ is invalid.
Mechanism ‘A’ critical = 40.93 k N.m
Suitable cross-section of properties for the rafter to sustain the plastic moment occurs on collapse
mechanism ‘A’.
Refer [1:p32: table 11], [1:p29: figure 5] and [1:p30: 3.5.2];
Refer to appendix, given section properties for the rolled I-Section,
The classification of this rolled I-section is determined by referring [1:p32: table11] and [1:p29:
figure 5]
b = 180/2 = 90
T = 16
d = 413 – (2 x 16) = 381
t = 9.65
Kah Hin Tan - 68 -
Designation Area Depth Web
A thickness Width Thickness I S r I S r
x 10^ -3 d tw bf T x 10^ -6 x 10^ -3 x 10^ -6 x 10^ -3
mm x kN/m m^2 mm mm mm mm m^4 m^3 mm m^4 m^3 mm
W410 x 0.73 9.48 413 9.65 180 16 274 1.33 170 15.5 0.172 40.4
Flange Axis X-X Axis y-y
p
y
= design strength = 275 N.mm
-2
refer [1:table 9]
5 . 0
275

,
`

.
|
·
y
p
ε =
5 . 0
275
275

,
`

.
|
= 1
Outstand element of compression flange for rolled section;
625 . 5
16
90
· ·
T
b
5.625 < 9ε : Class 1 Plastic
Web of an I-Section, neutral axis at mid depth;
48 . 39
65 . 9
381
· ·
t
d
39.48 < 80ε : Class 1 Plastic
Class 1 Plastic – Cross-sections with plastic hinge rotation capacity.
Since the section is class 1 plastic, it may use for plastic design.
Given formula where,
S
xx
required =
y
p
p
M
Where M
p
is maximum plastic moment and p
y
is design strength.
From previous calculation,
M
p
= 40.93 k N.m (under dead load)
p
y
= 275 M N.m
-2
6
3
10 275
10 93 . 40
×
×
·
xx
Z
= 0.149 x 10
-3
m
3
Z
xx
required = 0.149 x 10
-3
m
3
Z
xx
provided by section = 1.51 x 10
-3
m
3
.
The rafter section can sustain the plastic moment.
Kah Hin Tan - 69 -
5.1.2. Plastic Moment under Dead and Imposed Load.
Dead load + Imposed load combination.
Refer table 2 and table 4 to obtain the concentrated load acting on the haunch portal frame at the
purlin points shown in figure 12 and calculate the free bending moment under imposed load and
dead load, where the imposed load is refer to snow load.
Dead Load Imposed Load Total Load
B 2.2 8.1 10.3
B1 4.84 16.2 21.04
B2 4.84 16.2 21.04
B3 4.84 16.2 21.04
B4 4.84 16.2 21.04
B5 4.84 16.2 21.04
C 2.93 8.1 11.03
Ultimate Concentrated Load (k N)
Point
Table 12 indicate the total concentrated load acting on each of the purlin point of the haunch
portal frame.
Take moments,
M
B5
= 11.03 k x 1.5
= 16.55 k N.m
M
B4
= (11.03 k x 3) + (21.04k x 1.5)
= 64.65 k N.m
M
B3
= [11.03 k x 4.5] + [21.04 k x (3 + 1.5)]
= 144.32 k N.m
M
B2
= [11.03 k x 6] + [21.04 k x (4.5 + 3 + 1.5)]
= 255.54 k N.m
M
B1
= [11.03 k x 7.5] + [21.04 k x (6 + 4.5 + 3 + 1.5)]
= 398.33 k N.m
M
B
= [11.03 k x 9] + [21.04 k x (7.5 + 6 + 4.5 + 3 + 1.5)]
= 572.67 k N.m
M
B
= M
A
Kah Hin Tan - 70 -
Table 13
Figure 20 is the free bending moment diagram for the haunch portal frame under dead
load and imposed load with partial fraction, γ
f
= 1.4 for dead load and γ
f
= 1.6 for imposed load.
Plastic moment need to be calculated under load combination (dead load + imposed load) to
ensure the I-Section that been choose can sustain the plastic moment produce by the load.
Kah Hin Tan - 71 -
Figure 20
Possible collapse mechanism ‘A’ will be check under (dead + imposed) load.
Refer to figure 21, figure 15 and table 11.set up the equilibrium equation.
At A;572.67 = reactant moment = M + 6H + 9V
572.67 - M - 6H - 9V = 0 equation 15
At B
1
; 572.67 = reactant moment + M
p
= M + 3.5H + 9V + M
p
572.67 - M - 3.5H - 9V = +M
p
equation 16
At B
5
; 16.55 + M
p
= reactant moment = M + 0.5H + 1.5V
16.55 - M - 0.5H - 1.5V = -M
p
equation 17
At E; 572.67 = reactant moment = M + 6H - 9V
572.67 - M - 6H + 9V = 0 equation 18
Solve the simultaneous equation;
Consider equation 15 and equation 18.
Kah Hin Tan - 72 -
Figure 21
Free bending moment and reactant moment under collapse mechanism ‘A’
Equation 15;
M = 572.67 – 6H – 9V equation 19
Equation 18;
M = 572.67 - 6H + 9V equation 20
Solve equation 19 and equation 20,
572.67 – 6H – 9V = 572.67 - 6H + 9V
V = 0
Substitute equation 19 into equation 16,
572.67 – (572.67 – 6H – 9V) - 3.5H - 9V = +M
p
572.67 – 572.67 + 6H + 9V -3.5H -9V = +M
p
2.5H = +M
p
equation 21
Substitute equation 19 and equation 21 into equation 17,
16.55 – (572.67 – 6H – 9V) - 0.5H - 1.5V = -2.5H
8H = 556.12
H = 69.52 k N
Substitute H into equation 5 and equation 7, to obtain M and M
p
.
M = 572.67 – 6(69.52)
= 155.55 k N.m
M
p
= 2.5 (69.52)
= 173.8 k N.m
M
p
> M (obey fundamental yield condition of plastic theory).
Reactant moment along the rafter need to be discovered, to ensure the plastic moment occurs on
B
1
, B
5
, D
5
and D
1
is the maximum value. Table 14 show the reactant moment value along the
column and rafter of the frame.
H 69.52
V 0
Kah Hin Tan - 73 -
M 155.55
All unit in (k N.m)
Plastic Moment under Dead Load + Imposed Load
Point Reactant Moment F.B.M Reactant Moment
Plastic
Moment
A = M + 6H + 9V 572.67 572.67 0
B^1 = M + 3.5H + 9V 572.67 398.87 173.8
B = M + 3H + 9V 572.67 364.11 208.56
B1 = M + 2.5H + 7.5V 398.33 329.35 68.98
B2 = M + 2H + 6V 255.54 294.59 -39.05
B3 = M + 1.5H + 4.5V 144.32 259.83 -115.51
B4 = M + H + 3V 64.65 225.07 -160.42
B5
= M + 0.5H + 1.5V
16.55 190.31 -173.76
C
= M
0 155.55 -155.55
D5
= M + 0.5H - 1.5V
16.55 190.31 -173.76
D4 = M + H - 3V 64.65 225.07 -160.42
D3
= M + 1.5H - 4.5V
144.32 259.83 -115.51
D2
= M + 2H - 6V
255.54 294.59 -39.05
D1
= M + 2.5H - 7.5V
398.33 329.35 68.98
D
= M + 3H - 9V
572.67 364.11 208.56
D^1
= M + 3.5H - 9V
572.67 398.87 173.8
E
= M + 6H - 9V
572.67 572.67 0
From table 14, it shows that at point B
1
, B
5
, D
5
and D
1
is the maximum point for the plastic
moment to occur. Figure 22 shows the free bending moment, reactant moment and plastic
moment of the portal frame under dead load and imposed load.
Kah Hin Tan - 74 -
Table 14
Plastic moment provided by the I-section for the rafter need to be check to ensure the plastic
moment provided is more than the plastic moment occurs on the haunch portal frame under dead
load and imposed load.
Plastic Moment provided by the section;
M
p
= Z
xx
x p
y
=1.51 x 10
-3
x 275 x 10
6
= 415.25 k N.m
Plastic Moment required;
M
p
= 173.76 k N.m
Plastic Moment required for the collapse mode ‘A’ < Plastic Moment provided by the section.
The haunch portal frame is said to be satisfactory for load combination (1.4G
k
+ 1.6Q
k
).
Kah Hin Tan - 75 -
Figure 22
5.1.3. Plastic Moment under Dead, Imposed and Wind Load.
To investigate the plastic moment of the haunch portal frame under dead, imposed and
wind load, it is more complex compare with portal frame which under combination of dead and
imposed load only. This is due to the wind load is subjected on the wall of the structure, and it
will either increase or decrease the free bending moment value on the base of the portal frame.
Thus, the location of the highest plastic moment or plastic hinge might occur along the haunch
portal frame, need to be analysing again. The wind load acting on the roof purlin and wall purlin
already been calculated on section 4. Two separate case need to be analyses, where the windward
roof is under suction pressure and pressing pressure.
5.1.3.1. Suction wind pressure on windward roof.
The reaction of each purlins on the haunch portal frame when subjected with dead load,
imposed load and wind load, need to add it up together to obtain the total concentrated load
acting on each purlins. Table 15 show the total load for each purlin acting on the haunch portal
frame. The value of ultimate concentrated load of the purlin for dead, imposed and wind load,
can be obtain from table 3, table 5, and table 9.
DEAD IMPOSED WIND TOTAL
A1 NA NA 6.78 6.78
A2 NA NA 6.78 6.78
B 1.88 6.06 -2.44 5.5
B1 4.15 12.12 -4.88 11.39
B2 4.15 12.12 -4.88 11.39
B3 4.15 12.12 -4.88 11.39
B4 4.15 12.12 -4.88 11.39
B5 4.15 12.12 -4.88 11.39
Cb 2.5 6.06 -2.44 6.12
Cd 2.5 6.06 -3.3 5.26
D5 4.15 12.12 -6.6 9.67
D4 4.15 12.12 -6.6 9.67
D3 4.15 12.12 -6.6 9.67
D2 4.15 12.12 -6.6 9.67
D1 4.15 12.12 -6.6 9.67
D 1.88 6.06 -3.3 4.64
E2 NA NA -1.508 -1.508
E1 NA NA -1.508 -1.508
PURLIN POINT
ULTIMATE CONCENTRATED LOAD (k N)
Kah Hin Tan - 76 -
Table 15
Refer table 15 and figure 23, calculate free bending moment diagram.
Take moments,
M
B5
= 6.12 k x 1.5
= 9.18 k N.m
M
B4
= (6.12 k x 3) + (11.39k x 1.5)
= 35.45 k N.m
M
B3
= [6.12 k x 4.5] + [11.39 k x (3 + 1.5)]
= 78.8 k N.m
M
B2
= [6.12 k x 6] + [11.39 k x (4.5 + 3 + 1.5)]
= 139.23 k N.m
M
B1
= [6.12 k x 7.5] + [11.39 k x (6 + 4.5 + 3 + 1.5)]
= 216.75 k N.m
M
B
= [6.12 k x 9] + [11.39 k x (7.5 + 6 + 4.5 + 3 + 1.5)]
= 311.36 k N.m
M
A2
= 311.36 k N.m
M
A1
= 311.36 + [6.78 x 1]
= 318.14 k N.m
M
A
= 311.36 + [6.78 x (2+1)]
= 331.7 k N.m
M
D5
= 5.26 k x 1.5
= 7.89 k N.m
M
D4
= (5.26 k x 3) + (9.67k x 1.5)
= 30.29 k N.m
Kah Hin Tan - 77 -
B
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
CB , CD
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D
E2
E1
A2
A1
E A
Figure 23
M
D3
= [5.26 k x 4.5] + [9.67 k x (3 + 1.5)]
= 67.19 k N.m
M
D2
= [5.26 k x 6] + [9.67 k x (4.5 + 3 + 1.5)]
= 118.59 k N.m
M
D1
= [5.26 k x 7.5] + [9.67 k x (6 + 4.5 + 3 + 1.5)]
= 184.5 k N.m
M
D
= [5.26 k x 9] + [9.67 k x (7.5 + 6 + 4.5 + 3 + 1.5)]
= 264.92 k N.m
M
E2
= 264.92 k N.m
M
E1
= 264.92 + [-1.508 x 1]
= 263.41 k N.m
M
E
= 264.92 + [-1.508 x (2+1)]
= 260.4 k N.m
Figure 24 show the free bending moment diagram under combination dead + imposed + wind
(up) load with partial fraction, γ
f
= 1.2. Base on the reaction moment from table 11 for each
purlin points, plastic moment will be calculated. By referring to figure 24, the free bending
moment at the windward side is higher than the leeward side. It is predicted that the plastic
moment will occur at the eaves of the haunch on the leeward side of the haunch portal frame, yet
the plastic moment on the windward side will be check. [9]
Kah Hin Tan - 78 -
Figure 24
Refer to figure 25, figure 23 and table 11 to set up the equilibrium equation.
At A;331.7 = reactant moment = M + 6H + 9V
331.7 - M - 6H - 9V = 0 equation 22
At B
1
; 311.36 = reactant moment + M
p
= M + 3.5H + 9V + M
p
311.36 - M - 3.5H - 9V = +M
p
equation 23
At B
5
; 9.18 + M
p
= reactant moment = M + 0.5H + 1.5V
9.18 - M - 0.5H - 1.5V = -M
p
equation 24
At E; 260.4 = reactant moment = M + 6H - 9V
260.4 - M - 6H + 9V = 0 equation 25
Solve the simultaneous equation
Recall equation 22 and equation 25,
Equation 22;
M = 331.7 – 6H – 9V equation 26
Equation 25;
M = 260.4 – 6H + 9V equation 27
Kah Hin Tan - 79 -
Figure 25
Solve equation 26 and equation 27;
331.7 – 6H – 9V = 260.4 – 6H + 9V
18V = 71.3
V = 3.96 k N
Substitute equation 26 and V into equation 23;
311.36 – (331.7 – 6H – 9V) - 3.5H - 9V = +M
p
311.36 – 331.7 + 6H – 3.5H = +M
p
-20.34 + 2.5H = +M
p
equation 28
Substitute equation 28, equation 26 and V into equation 24;
9.18 – (331.7 – 6H – 9V) - 0.5H - 1.5V = 20.34 – 2.5H
8H = 313.16
H = 39.15 k N
Substitute H and V into equation 28 and equation 26.
+M
p
= -20.34 + 2.5H
= -20.34 + 2.5(39.15)
= 77.54 k N.m
M = 331.7 – 6H – 9V
= 331.7 – 6(39.15) – 9(3.96)
= 61.16 k N.m
Plastic moment is obtain at point B
1
and B
5
, other point along the frame need to be check. To
ensure the highest plastic moment value doesn’t excess the plastic moment provided by the
section. Table 16 show the value of plastic moment, reactant moment and free bending moment
under dead + imposed + wind load. The negative and positive sign for the plastic moment,
indicate the I-section either under sagging or hogging.
Kah Hin Tan - 80 -
H 39.15
V 3.96
M 61.16
All unit in (k N.m)
Plastic Moment under Dead + Imposed + Wind(up) Load
Point Reactant Moment F.B.M
Reactant
Moment
Plastic
Moment
A = M + 6H + 9V 331.7 331.7 0
A1 = M + 5H + 9V 318.14 292.55 25.59
A2 = M + 4H + 9V 311.36 253.4 57.96
B^1 = M + 3.5H + 9V 311.36 233.825 77.535
B1 = M + 2.5H + 7.5V 216.75 188.735 28.015
B2 = M + 2H + 6V 139.23 163.22 -23.99
B3 = M + 1.5H + 4.5V 78.8 137.705 -58.905
B4 = M + H + 3V 35.45 112.19 -76.74
B5 = M + 0.5H + 1.5V 9.18 86.675 -77.495
D5
= M + 0.5H - 1.5V
7.89 74.795 -66.905
D4 = M + H - 3V 30.29 88.43 -58.14
D3
= M + 1.5H - 4.5V
67.19 102.065 -34.875
D2 = M + 2H - 6V 118.59 115.7 2.89
D1
= M + 2.5H - 7.5V
184.5 129.335 55.165
D^1
= M + 3.5H - 9V
264.92 162.545 102.375
E2
= M + 4H - 9V
264.92 182.12 82.8
E1
= M + 5H - 9V
263.41 221.27 42.14
E
= M + 6H - 9V
260.4 260.42 -0.02
Kah Hin Tan - 81 -
Table 16
Figure 26 show the graph of the free bending moment, reactant moment and plastic moment
travel along the frame.
Refer to table 16; the maximum plastic moment is at point D
1
, 102.375 k N.m. The plastic
moment provided by the cross section (W410 x 0.73) is 415.25 k N.m. Plastic Moment required
under dead, imposed and wind load combination with partial fraction, γ
f
= 1.2 < Plastic Moment
provided by the section. The haunch portal frame is said to be satisfactory for load combination
1.2(G
k
+ Q
k
+ W
k
).
Kah Hin Tan - 82 -
Figure 26
5.1.3.2. Pressing wind pressure on windward roof.
The method to check the I-section of the haunch portal frame is the same that carried out on
chapter 5.1.3.1. The total load acting on each purling point need to be determine, then the
bending moment and the reactant moment on the frame, and finally, the maximum plastic
moment that occur mustn’t exist the plastic moment provided by the section.
The total ultimate concentrated load acting on each purlin points can be determine by combining
table 3, table5 and table 10. Table 17 shows the load combination of dead, imposed and wind
load.
DEAD IMPOSED WIND TOTAL
A1 NA NA 6.78 6.78
A2 NA NA 6.78 6.78
B 1.88 6.06 2.22 10.16
B1 4.15 12.12 4.44 20.71
B2 4.15 12.12 4.44 20.71
B3 4.15 12.12 4.44 20.71
B4 4.15 12.12 4.44 20.71
B5 4.15 12.12 4.44 20.71
Cb 2.5 6.06 2.22 10.78
Cd 2.5 6.06 -3.3 5.26
D5 4.15 12.12 -6.6 9.67
D4 4.15 12.12 -6.6 9.67
D3 4.15 12.12 -6.6 9.67
D2 4.15 12.12 -6.6 9.67
D1 4.15 12.12 -6.6 9.67
D 1.88 6.06 -3.3 4.64
E2 NA NA -1.508 -1.508
E1 NA NA -1.508 -1.508
PURLIN POINT
ULTIMATE CONCENTRATED LOAD (k N)
Compare the total ultimate concentrated load of table 17 and table 15, the different between two
tables is the ultimate concentrated load value at the windward roof. Thus, only the windward side
moment need to recalculate and the leeward side moment can be obtain from chapter 6.1.3.1.
Kah Hin Tan - 83 -
Table 17
Take moments,
M
B5
= 10.78 k x 1.5
= 16.17 k N.m
M
B4
= (10.78 k x 3) + (20.71 k x 1.5)
= 63.41 k N.m
M
B3
= [10.78 k x 4.5] + [20.71 k x (3 + 1.5)]
= 141.71 k N.m
M
B2
= [10.78 k x 6] + [20.71 k x (4.5 + 3 + 1.5)]
= 251.07 k N.m
M
B1
= [10.78 k x 7.5] + [20.71 k x (6 + 4.5 + 3 + 1.5)]
= 391.5 k N.m
M
B
= [10.78 k x 9] + [20.71 k x (7.5 + 6 + 4.5 + 3 + 1.5)]
= 563 k N.m
M
A2
= 563 k N.m
M
A1
= 563 + [6.78 x 1]
= 569.78 k N.m
M
A
= 563 + [6.78 x (2+1)]
= 583.34 k N.m
Free bending moment under load combination [(dead + imposed + wind (down)] is shown in
figure 27.
Kah Hin Tan - 84 -
Figure 27
Since the shape of the free bending moment shown figure 27 is quite similar with the free
bending moment shown in figure 24. It is expected that the maximum plastic moment or plastic
hinge will occur at the eaves of the haunch on the leeward side of the frame.
Determine the plastic moment,
At A;583.34 = reactant moment = M + 6H + 9V
583.34 - M - 6H - 9V = 0 equation 29
At B
1
; 563 = reactant moment + M
p
= M + 3.5H + 9V + M
p
563 - M - 3.5H - 9V = +M
p
equation 30
At B
5
; 16.17 + M
p
= reactant moment = M + 0.5H + 1.5V
16.17 - M - 0.5H - 1.5V = -M
p
equation 31
At E; 260.4 = reactant moment = M + 6H - 9V
260.4 - M - 6H + 9V = 0 equation 32
Solve the simultaneous equation
Use equation 29 and equation 32,
Equation 29;
M = 583.34 – 6H – 9V equation 33
Equation 32;
M = 260.4 – 6H + 9V equation 34
Solve equation 33 and equation 34;
583.34 – 6H – 9V = 260.4 – 6H + 9V
18V = 322.94
V = 17.94 k N
Substitute equation 33 and V into equation 30;
563 – (583.34 – 6H – 9V) - 3.5H - 9V = +M
p
311.36 – 331.7 + 6H – 3.5H = +M
p
-20.34 + 2.5H = +M
p
equation 35
Kah Hin Tan - 85 -
Substitute equation 33, equation 35 and V into equation 31;
16.17 – (583.34 – 6H – 9V) - 0.5H - 1.5V = 20.34 – 2.5H
8H = 452.96
H = 56.62 k N
Substitute H and V into equation 33 and equation 35.
+M
p
= -20.34 + 2.5H
= -20.34 + 2.5(56.62)
= 121.21 k N.m
M = 583.34 – 6H – 9V
= 583.34 – 6(56.62) – 9(17.94)
= 82.16 k N.m
H 56.62
V 17.94
M 82.16
Point Reactant Moment F.B.M Reactant Moment Plastic Moment
A = M + 6H + 9V 583.34 583.34 0
A1 = M + 5H + 9V 569.78 526.72 43.06
A2 = M + 4H + 9V 563 470.1 92.9
B^1 = M + 3.5H + 9V 563 441.79 121.21
B1 = M + 2.5H + 7.5V 391.5 358.26 33.24
B2 = M + 2H + 6V 251.07 303.04 -51.97
B3 = M + 1.5H + 4.5V 141.71 247.82 -106.11
B4 = M + H + 3V 63.41 192.6 -129.19
B5 = M + 0.5H + 1.5V 16.17 137.38 -121.21
C = M 0 82.16 -82.16
D5 = M + 0.5H - 1.5V 7.89 83.56 -75.67
D4 = M + H - 3V 30.29 84.96 -54.67
D3 = M + 1.5H - 4.5V 67.19 86.36 -19.17
D2 = M + 2H - 6V 118.59 87.76 30.83
D1 = M + 2.5H - 7.5V 184.5 89.16 95.34
D^1 = M + 3.5H - 9V 264.92 118.87 146.05
E2 = M + 4H - 9V 264.92 147.18 117.74
E1 = M + 5H - 9V 263.41 203.8 59.61
E = M + 6H - 9V 260.4 260.42 -0.02
Plastic Moment under Dead + Imposed + Wind(down) Load
All unit in (k N.m)
Kah Hin Tan - 86 -
Table 18
Table 18 and figure 28 show the collapse plastic moment along the haunch portal frame under
[dead + imposed + wind (down)] load. From table 18, the maximum plastic moment is 146.05 k
N.m and it occurs at point D
1
. The plastic moment provided by the I-section is 415.25 k N.m.
Hence, the frame is say to be satisfactory under dead load, imposed load and wind (down) load
with partial fraction γ
f
= 1.2.
Kah Hin Tan - 87 -
Figure 28
Plastic moment on each load combination for haunch portal frame.
Figure 29 show the plastic moment distributed around the haunch frame under (1.4G
k
).
All units for the moment are in (k N.m).
Figure 30 show the plastic moment distributed around the haunch frame under (1.4G
k
+ 1.6Q
k
).
All units for the moment are in (k N.m).
Kah Hin Tan - 88 -
49.01
49.01
16.51
8.75
26.76 37.47
40.94
37.15
40.94
37.47 26.76
8.75
16.51
49.01
49.01
0 0
Figure 29
208.56
208.56
68.96
39.05
115.51 160.42
173.76
155.55
0 0
Figure 30
208.56
208.56
68.96
39.05
115.51 160.42
173.76
Figure 31 show the plastic moment distributed around the haunch frame under 1.2(G
k
+ Q
k
+
W
k
), in where the wind pressure is a suction pressure on the windward roof. All units for the
moment are in (k N.m).
Figure 32 show the plastic moment distributed around the haunch frame under 1.2(G
k
+ Q
k
+
W
k
), in where the wind pressure is a pressing pressure on the windward roof. All units for the
moment are in (k N.m).
Kah Hin Tan - 89 -
97.11
97.11
28.02
23.99
58.91
76.74
77.5
61.16
0 0
121.95
121.95
55.16
2.89
34.88
58.14
66.91
Figure 31
77.54
57.96
25.59
102.38
82.8
42.14
92.9
149.52
33.24
51.97
106.11
129.19
121.21
82.16
0 0
174.36
174.36
95.34
30.83
19.17
54.67
75.67
Figure 32
149.52
121.21
43.06
146.05
117.74
59.61
Through out the analysis and calculation that have carry out in this section, the haunch portal
frame under 4 type of load combination is satisfactory, where the maximum plastic moment
under 4 type of loading doesn’t excess the plastic moment provided by the I-section (W410 x
0.73). Nevertheless, there is several factor need to be consider for the haunch portal frame; the
resistance of the frame under lateral-torsional buckling, distance for the segment adjacent to a
plastic hinge, segment or member with one flanged restrained (haunch and stanchion), in-plane
stability under gravity load and out of plane stability. BS5950-1 will be use as a guide line to
carry out an investigation on the haunch portal frame in section 6.2.
Kah Hin Tan - 90 -
5.2. Structure Stability.
Structures consist of several members and when it is subjected to different kind of loads;
dead load, imposed load and wind load. Base on the theory, for a perfectly straight beam is
loaded in the plane of the web, the elastic critical load the beam will fail suddenly by deflecting
sideways and twisting about its longitudinal axis [8]. In the other way around, the theory is
referring to buckling. If such members buckle when under service condition, it will create
instability of the structure, consequently the building or structure will collapse.
5.2.1. Resistance to Lateral-Torsional Buckling.
Base on BS5950-1, the standard method to check the buckling resistance of the structure
is under section [1:p49: 4.3.6.2].
BS5950-1, section 4.3.6.2 stated;
LT
b
x
m
M
M ≤
Where,
M
x
- maximum major axis moment in the segment.
M
b
- buckling resistance moment.
m
LT
- equivalent uniform moment factor for lateral-torsional buckling.
Thus, M
b
and m
LT
need to be obtain,
M
b
= p
b
S
x
[1:p50:4.3.6.4]
p
b
- bending strength [1:p51: table 16]
S
x
- plastic modulus about the major axis
To find the bending strength p
b
from table 16, equivalent slenderness λ
LT
must be obtain, and λ
LT
can be obtain from BS5950-1,section 4.3.6.7.
For I-section member λ
LT
=
W
u β νλ
Kah Hin Tan - 91 -
In which,
y
E
r
L
· λ
where,
L
E
- effective length for lateral-torsional buckling.
r
y
- radius of gyration about the minor axis.
u - buckling parameter = 0.9 (for rolled I-section with equal flange)
Β
w
= 1 (for class 1 plastic)
The Effective length under lateral torsional buckling is the length of the rafter;
Given horizontal length of the rafter = 9m
Effective length of the rafter =
43 . 18 cos
9
= 9.47 m
Radius of gyration = 0.17 m refer to appendix
17 . 0
47 . 9
· λ
= 55.71
for I-section with equal flange ν can be determined;
25 . 0
2
05 . 0 1
1
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+
·
x
λ
ν
where,
x - torsional index, and is defined as;
T
D
x ·
D = 413 mm, depth of the section
T = 16 mm, flange thickness
x = 25.81
Kah Hin Tan - 92 -
25 . 0
2
81 . 25
71 . 55
05 . 0 1
1
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+
· ν
= 0.95
Find the equivalent slenderness λ
LT
;
λ
LT
=
W
u β νλ
=
1 71 . 55 95 . 0 9 . 0 × × ×
= 47.63
Determine p
b
bending strength from table 16;
p
b
= 238 (N/mm
-2
)
S
x
= 1.51 x 10
-3
m
3
[refer to appendix]
Thus,
M
b
= ( ) ( )
6 3
10 238 10 51 . 1 × × ×

= 359.38 k N.m.
In the previous analysis section 5.1, where the plastic moment is determine by using equilibrium
equation under four type of load combination as stated in table 1. The results that obtain from the
analysis are showing in figure 29, figure 30, figure 31 and figure 32. Hence, there are 6 different
form and value of plastic moments acting on the rafter. Therefore, 6 lateral torsional buckling
analyses will carry out, to ensure the rafter can sustain the lateral-torsional buckling effect.
Find the m
LT
value for six form of plastic moment,
Refer [1:p54: table 18]
Given m
LT
for beam;
max
4 3 2
15 . 0 5 . 0 15 . 0
2 . 0
M
M M M
m
LT
+ +
+ ·
But m
LT
≥ 0.44
Where,
M
2
and M
4
- are the value at the quarter point.
M
3
- are the value at mid-length.
Kah Hin Tan - 93 -
1
st
case,
Refer to figure 29, the plastic moment on the windward and leeward of the rafter is the same,
thus it is treated as same case.
max
4 3 2
15 . 0 5 . 0 15 . 0
2 . 0
M
M M M
m
LT
+ +
+ ·
( ) ( ) ( )
01 . 49
94 . 40 15 . 0 76 . 26 5 . 0 01 . 49 15 . 0
2 . 0
+ +
+ ·
LT
m
75 . 0 ·
LT
m
2
nd
case,
Refer to figure 30, the plastic moment on the windward and leeward of the rafter is the same,
hence, it should treat as same case.
max
4 3 2
15 . 0 5 . 0 15 . 0
2 . 0
M
M M M
m
LT
+ +
+ ·
( ) ( ) ( )
56 . 208
76 . 73 15 . 0 51 . 115 5 . 0 96 . 68 15 . 0
2 . 0
+ +
+ ·
LT
m
58 . 0 ·
LT
m
3
rd
case and 4
th
case,
refer to figure 31, the plastic moment on the windward and leeward of the rafter give different
form and value of plastic moment, therefore, it should treated as separated case.
3
rd
case: Windward m
LT
,
max
4 3 2
15 . 0 5 . 0 15 . 0
2 . 0
M
M M M
m
LT
+ +
+ ·
( ) ( ) ( )
11 . 97
5 . 77 15 . 0 91 . 58 5 . 0 02 . 28 15 . 0
2 . 0
+ +
+ ·
LT
m
67 . 0 ·
LT
m
Kah Hin Tan - 94 -
4
th
case: leeward m
LT
,
max
4 3 2
15 . 0 5 . 0 15 . 0
2 . 0
M
M M M
m
LT
+ +
+ ·
( ) ( ) ( )
95 . 121
16 . 55 15 . 0 88 . 34 5 . 0 91 . 66 15 . 0
2 . 0
+ +
+ ·
LT
m
49 . 0 ·
LT
m
5
th
case and 4
th
case,
refer to figure 31, the plastic moment on the windward and leeward of the rafter give different
form and value of plastic moment, therefore, it should treated as separated case.
5
th
case: windward m
LT
,
max
4 3 2
15 . 0 5 . 0 15 . 0
2 . 0
M
M M M
m
LT
+ +
+ ·
( ) ( ) ( )
52 . 149
19 . 129 15 . 0 11 . 106 5 . 0 97 . 51 15 . 0
2 . 0
+ +
+ ·
LT
m
74 . 0 ·
LT
m
6
th
case: leeward m
LT
,
max
4 3 2
15 . 0 5 . 0 15 . 0
2 . 0
M
M M M
m
LT
+ +
+ ·
( ) ( ) ( )
36 . 174
34 . 95 15 . 0 17 . 19 5 . 0 67 . 75 15 . 0
2 . 0
+ +
+ ·
LT
m
4 . 0 ·
LT
m
The leeward m
LT
is smaller than 0.44. Therefore, the m
LT
value for this case is treated as 0.44.
From BS5950-1, section 4.3.6.2. Given,
LT
b
x
m
M
M ≤
Kah Hin Tan - 95 -
1
st
case,
m
LT
= 0.75
M
x
max = 135.27 k N.m
M
b
= 359.38 k N.m.

75 . 0
10 38 . 359
3
×
·
LT
b
m
M
= 479.17 k N.m
M
x
< 479.17 k N.m
Lateral-torsional buckling is satisfactory for 1
st
case.
2
nd
case,
m
LT
= 0.58
M
x
max = 572.67 k N.m
M
b
= 359.38 k N.m.

58 . 0
10 38 . 359
3
×
·
LT
b
m
M
= 619.62 k N.m
M
x
< 619.62 k N.m
Lateral-torsional buckling is satisfactory for 2
nd
case.
3
rd
case,
m
LT
= 0.67
M
x
max = 311.36 k N.m
M
b
= 359.38 k N.m.

67 . 0
10 38 . 359
3
×
·
LT
b
m
M
= 536.39 k N.m
M
x
< 536.39 k N.m
Lateral-torsional buckling is satisfactory for 3
rd
case.
Kah Hin Tan - 96 -
4
th
case,
m
LT
= 0.49
M
x
max = 264.92 k N.m
M
b
= 359.38 k N.m.

49 . 0
10 38 . 359
3
×
·
LT
b
m
M
= 733.43 k N.m
M
x
< 733.43 k N.m
Lateral-torsional buckling is satisfactory for 4
th
case.
5
th
case,
m
LT
= 0.74
M
x
max = 563 k N.m
M
b
= 359.38 k N.m.

74 . 0
10 38 . 359
3
×
·
LT
b
m
M
= 485.65 k N.m
M
x
> 485.65 k N.m
Lateral-torsional buckling is not satisfactory for 5
th
case.
6
th
case,
m
LT
= 0.44
M
x
max = 264.92 k N.m
M
b
= 359.38 k N.m.

44 . 0
10 38 . 359
3
×
·
LT
b
m
M
= 816.77 k N.m
M
x
> 816.77 k N.m
Lateral-torsional buckling is satisfactory for 6
th
case.
Kah Hin Tan - 97 -
Calculations prove that, the shape and dimension of the structure under influence of
loading or moment can resist 5 cases out of 6 for lateral-torsional buckling. To prevent the
structure collapse under influence of moment which cause lateral torsional buckling. The rafter
may be stiffening by fix in a stiffener at the rafter. It may reduce the failure cause by the lateral
torsional buckling. The purlin which connected from one frame to the other frames may help to
prevent the lateral torsional buckling.
5.2.2. Segment Adjacent to Plastic Hinge.
BS5950-1 section 5.3.3 stated that, the length of a segment adjacent to a plastic hinge
location, between the points at which compression flange if laterally restrained, the distance
shouldn’t exceed L
m
. From the statement, it indicates the distance between each purlin shouldn’t
exceed the distance L
m
which can be obtain from;
5 . 0
2
2
275 36 130
38
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
+
·
y
c
y
u
p
x f
r
L
where,
f
c
- compressive stress (in N.mm
-2
) due to axial force.
p
y
- design strength (in N.mm
-2
).
r
y
- radius of gyration about the minor axis.
x - torsional index = 25.81

By referring to previous calculation in chapter 6.1, when the haunch portal frame is ‘cut’ into
half at the apex position, it will induce 3 opposite and equal reactions which is Moment, shear
force at horizontal axis (H) and shear force at vertical axis (V). The shear at the horizontal axis
(H) is to calculate the compressive stress f
c
.
A
H
f
c
·
where,
A - is the cross-section of area of the I-section = 9480 mm
2
[refer to appendix]
Kah Hin Tan - 98 -
The maximum horizontal shear force (H) that obtains from previous calculation in chapter 6.1 is
69.52 k N under influence of dead load and imposed load.
9480
10 52 . 69
3
×
·
c
f
= 7.33 N.mm
-2
Torsional index, x = 25.81
Design strength, p
y
= 275 N.mm
-2
Radius of gyration, r
y
= 40.4 mm
L
u
=
5 . 0
2 2
275
275
36
81 . 25
130
33 . 7
4 . 40 38
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
+
×
=
253 . 1
2 . 1535
= 1225.22 mm
Actual hinge spacing or purlin spacing;
Spacing =
43 . 18 cos
1500
= 1578.95 mm.
The actual length between the plastic hinge is >L
u
. Thus, the number of purlin at the hinge region
will be double up to reduce the concentrated load of the purlin hence reduce the shear force
acting on the horizontal direction (H).
Kah Hin Tan - 99 -
5.2.3. Haunch and Stanchion Stability.
BS5950-1 section 5.3.4 stated, the spacing L
y
between restraints to the compression
flange shouldn’t exceed the limiting spacing L
s
given as; for steel grade S275;
5 . 0
2
1
100
72
620
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

·
x
K
r
L
y
s
where,
K
1
= 1 + 0.25(D
h
/D
s
)
2/3
Torsional index, x = 25.81
Radius of gyration, r
y
= 40.4 mm [refer to appendix]
Where D
h
and D
s
is the dimension of depth of the rafter and haunch. [Refer to BS5950:1: figure
17].
D
s
= I-section depth / cos 18.43
=
43 . 18 cos
413
= 434.74 mm
D
h
=
2
74 . 434
500 −
= 282.63 mm
3 / 2
1
74 . 434
63 . 282
25 . 0 1
,
`

.
|
+ · K
= 1.19
Limiting spacing provided, L
s
;
5 . 0
2
81 . 25
100
72 19 . 1
4 . 40 620
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

×
·
s
L
= 2789.31 mm
Actual haunch length;
Kah Hin Tan - 100 -
Length =
43 . 18 cos
1500
= 1578.95 mm.
Given L
s
> length of the haunch. The haunch is said to be stable.
It is permissible to check the stanchion stability using BS5950-1, section 5.3.4. Given
limiting spacing;
5 . 0
2
1
100
72
620
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

·
x
K
r
L
y
s
refer [1:p120]
K
1
= 1 for an un-haunch segment;
5 . 0
2
81 . 25
100
72 1
4 . 40 620
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

×
·
s
L
= 3318.02 mm
Stanchion height = 2500 mm
Limiting spacing > stanchion height. Thus, the stanchion is stable.
5.2.4. Sway Stability.
The overall stability of the structure is check by using BS5950-1 section 5.5.4.2.2.
The portal frame is stable if it satisfactory the equation stated;

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+


yr
r
b
p
L
L
h
L
D
L 275
4
44
ρ
ρ
in which,
h
h s
h
b
L
D D
D
L L

,
`

.
|
+
− ·
2
Kah Hin Tan - 101 -
h
L
I
I
r
c

,
`

.
|
·
2
ρ
for single bay frame
Ω is the arching ratio;
o
r
W
W
· Ω
D - is the cross section depth of the rafter; refer to appendix
D
h
- is the the additional depth of the haunch; refer [1:p123: figure 17]
D
s
- is the the depth of the rafter; refer [1:p123: figure 17]
h - is the mean column height;
I
c
- is the in-plane second moment of area of the column; refer to appendix
I
r
- is the in-plane second moment of area of the rafter; refer to appendix
L - is the span of the bay;
L
b
- is the effective span of the bay;
L
h
- is the length of a haunch; refer [1:p123: figure 17]
L
r
- is the total developed length of the rafter; refer [1:p123: figure 18a]
p
yr
- is the design strength of the rafter in (N.mm
-2
)
W
o
- is the value of W
r
for plastic failure of the rafters; refer [1:p123: figure 18b]
W
r
- is the total factored vertical load on the rafters; refer [1:p123: figure 18b]
Obtain effective span of the bay, L
b
.
h
h s
h
b
L
D D
D
L L

,
`

.
|
+
− ·
2
L = 18m
L
h
= 1.5m
D
h
= 0.28 m
D
s
= 0.43 m
Find,
L
b
=
5 . 1
28 . 0 43 . 0
28 . 0 2
18
,
`

.
|
+
×

= 16.82 m
Kah Hin Tan - 102 -
413 . 0
82 . 16
·
D
L
b
= 40.73
Given I
c
and I
r
= 274 x 10
-6
m
4
Find,
3
18
10 274
10 274 2
6
6

,
`

.
|
×
× ×
·


ρ
ρ = 12
Consider a fixed end beam with a length of span (L) supporting a uniform distributed load (ω),
the plastic moment for the hinge to occur is given as;
16
2
L
M
p
ω
·
given,
xx y p
S p M . ·
p
y
- design strength = 275 M N.m
-2
S
xx
- Section modulus [refer to appendix]
Thus,
xx y
S p
L
·
16
2
ω
2
16
L
S p
xx y
· ω
and
W
o
= ωL
So,
W
o
=
L
S p
xx y
16
W
o
=
( ) ( )
18
10 33 . 1 10 275 16
3 6 −
× × × ×
= 325.11 k N
Kah Hin Tan - 103 -
L
r
=
,
`

.
|
43 . 18 cos
9
2
= 18.95 m
find,

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

yr
r
p
L
L
h
L 275
4
44
ρ
ρ
=

190.08
and,
73 . 40 ·
D
L
b
For the frame sway stability analysis, four cases will be considered under load combination as
stated in table 1.
1
st
case,
Dead load [refer to table2]
Total vertical load acting on the rafter,
W
r
= ( ) ( ) [ ] 2 93 . 2 10 84 . 4 × + × k N
= 54.26 k N.
Thus,
3
3
10 11 . 325
10 26 . 54
×
×
· Ω
= 0.17
Given,
73 . 40 ·
D
L
b
and,

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

yr
r
p
L
L
h
L 275
4
44
ρ
ρ
=

08 . 190
= 1118.11
40.73 ≤ 1118.11
Kah Hin Tan - 104 -
Portal frame under dead load is satisfactory under sway stability check.
2
nd
case,
Dead load + Imposed Load [refer to table13]
Total vertical load acting on the rafter,
W
r
= ( ) ( ) [ ] 2 03 . 11 10 04 . 21 × + × k N
= 232.46 k N.
Thus,
3
3
10 11 . 325
10 46 . 232
×
×
· Ω
= 0.72
Given,
73 . 40 ·
D
L
b
and,

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

yr
r
p
L
L
h
L 275
4
44
ρ
ρ
=

08 . 190
= 264
40.73 ≤ 264
Portal frame under dead load + imposed load is satisfactory under sway stability check.
3
rd
case,
Dead load + Imposed Load + Wind Load (UP) [refer to table15]
Total vertical load acting on the rafter,
W
r
= ( ) ( ) [ ] 5 67 . 9 26 . 5 12 . 6 5 39 . 11 × + + + × k N
= 116.68 k N.
Thus,
3
3
10 11 . 325
10 68 . 116
×
×
· Ω
= 0.36
Kah Hin Tan - 105 -
Given,
73 . 40 ·
D
L
b
and,

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

yr
r
p
L
L
h
L 275
4
44
ρ
ρ
=

08 . 190
= 528
40.73 ≤ 528
Portal frame under dead load + imposed + wind load (UP) is satisfactory under sway stability
check.
4
th
case,
Dead load + Imposed Load + Wind Load (DOWN) [refer to table17]
Total vertical load acting on the rafter,
W
r
= ( ) ( ) [ ] 5 67 . 9 26 . 5 78 . 10 5 71 . 20 × + + + × k N
= 167.94 k N.
Thus,
3
3
10 11 . 325
10 94 . 167
×
×
· Ω
= 0.52
Given,
73 . 40 ·
D
L
b
and,

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

yr
r
p
L
L
h
L 275
4
44
ρ
ρ
=

08 . 190
= 365.54
40.73 ≤ 365.5
Kah Hin Tan - 106 -
Portal frame under dead load + imposed + wind load (DOWN) is satisfactory under sway
stability check.
Through out the analysis that have been carry out in this section, the structure is rigid and
stiff enough under influence of 4 type of loading. But only one analysis in this section that prove
unsatisfactory which is; lateral torsional buckling for case number 5 (pushing windward pressure
acting on the windward roof). To preventing the lateral torsional buckling to occur, a stiffener
must fix in the I-section or rafter at the position where the maximum plastic moment occur. It is
assume, the stiffener that fix in the I-section, can resist the lateral torsional buckling.
Kah Hin Tan - 107 -
Kah Hin Tan - 108 -
6. DRAWING
Kah Hin Tan - 109 -
Kah Hin Tan - 110 -
Kah Hin Tan - 111 -
Kah Hin Tan - 112 -
Kah Hin Tan - 113 -
Kah Hin Tan - 114 -
Kah Hin Tan - 115 -
Kah Hin Tan - 116 -
Kah Hin Tan - 117 -
7. EVALUATION AND DISCUSSION
7. Evaluation and Discussion.
The final design is development of the concept 3. This design overcomes most of the
negatives effect discusses on the PDS. In this project, only dead load, snow load and wind load is
considered. The analysis that had carried out in chapter 5 proves that the final design is
satisfactory under all effect of loading combination, except the lateral torsional buckling effect
when the structure is subjected with side wind. The solution for the lateral torsional buckling
effect is by fixing the stiffener on the rafter I-section at the point where the maximum plastic
moment occur. Figure 33 show the location where the stiffener is installed at the rafter by MMA
welding process. For dimension inquire (refer to drawing num 0003)
The influence of wind pressure on the steel portal frame structure clearly been observed
in chapter 5, where the wind load subjected to the structure increase to a limit that the lateral
torsional buckling unsatisfactory meet the standard given in BS5950. Thus, the wind effect can
bring destructive to steel structure and the structure might collapse. In British Standard 5950-1
2.4.2.3, the resistance of the structure to the horizontal force is to provided the triangulated
bracing, moment resisting joints, cantilever column, shear walls and etc. the x-bracing had been
used in this design as shown in drawing number 2. The x-bracing act as a compression member
which tied up the portal frame together, thus prevent the structure sway and buckling effect.
Kah Hin Tan - 118 -
Figure 33
For corrosion resistance, it can be preventing by made some changes on the design.
Corrosion will occur if two elements exist which is water or moisture and air. It is impossible to
seal a steel structure with plastic or any element that provided air tight. Thus, the water element
must be preventing to trap at the steel for long time, drainage with holes or opening can reduce
the corrosion to occur. Figure 34 show the final design for the stanchion to prevent corrosion.
Basically, the final design had meet lecture objective and individual objective and the structure is
stiff and strong enough to sustain dead load, imposed load and wind load.
Kah Hin Tan - 119 -
Figure 33
Kah Hin Tan - 120 -
8. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
Suggested Future Work:
 The structure can attach with the overhead crane that useful for the warehouse for
warehouse purposes.
 Elongated the length of the warehouse without change the concept design.
 Expand the site of the warehouse examples; change single bay portal frame to multi-bay
portal frame.
 Design a structure which can sustain the thermal effect such as thermal stress.
 Design a structure base on BS5950-8 (fire resistance)
Kah Hin Tan - 121 -
Kah Hin Tan - 122 -
9. REFERENCES
References:
Following are the sources of information, which has been utilised during the conduct of the
report.
Standards:
1. British Standard 5950-1:2000
- Code of practice for design – Rolled and welded section.
2. British Standard 5950-2:2001
- Specification for materials, fabrication and erection – rolled and welded section.
3. British Standard 5950-8:2003
- Code of practice for fire resistant design.
4. British Standard 4-1:1993
- Specification for hot rolled section.
5. British Standard 6399-1:1996
- Code of practice for dead and imposed load.
6. British Standard 6399-2:1997
- Code of practice for wind loads.
7. British Standard 6399-3:1988
- Code of practice for imposed roof loads.
Kah Hin Tan - 123 -
Books:
8. Title: Limit States Design of Structural Steelwork
Author: David Nethercot
Publisher: Van Nostrand Reinhold (UK) Co. Ltd
Date of Publication: 1986
ISBN number: 0-442-31752-2
9. Title: Structural Engineering Design in Practice.
Author: Roger Westbrook
Publisher: Longman Group UK Limited
Date of Publication: 1988
ISBN number: 0-582-0 1735-1
10. Title: Elementary Structural Design of Steelwork to BS449
Author: P.C.L Croxton, L.H. Martin, J.A. Purkiss
Publisher: Edward Arnold Ltd
Date of Publication: 1984
ISBN number: 0 7131 3531
11. Title: Design of Structural Steelwork (2
nd
edition)
Author: Peter Knowles
Publisher: Blackie & Son Ltd
Date of Publication: 1987
ISBN number: 0-903384-59-0
12. Title: Plastic Design of Frames
Author: Sir John Baker & Jacques Heyman
Publisher: Syndics of the Cambridge University
Date of Publication: 1969
ISBN number: 69-19370
13. Title: Plastic Design of Steel Structures
Author: A.mrazik, M.Skaloud, M.Tochacek
Publisher: Ellis Horwood Limited
Date of Publication: 1987
ISBN number: 0-85312-381-0
14. Title: Analysis of Structures
Author: T.S. Thandavamoorthy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Date of Publication: 2005
ISBN number: 0-19-567003-5
Kah Hin Tan - 124 -
15. Title: Plastic Design of Steel Structures
Author: A.mrazik, M.Skaloud, M.Tochacek
Publisher: Ellis Horwood Limited
Date of Publication: 1987
ISBN number: 0-85312-381-0
16. Title: Design of Structural Elements
Author: Chanakya Arya
Publisher: Chapman & Hall
Date of Publication: 1994
ISBN number: 0 419 17620 9
17. Title: Structural Detailing (2
nd
edition)
Author: Peter H.Newton
Publisher: Macmillan Education Ltd
Date of Publication: 1991
ISBN number: 0-333-55471-X
18. Title: Mechanics of Materials (4
th
edition)
Author: J.M. Gere and S.P. Timoshenko
Publisher: Stanley Thornes
Date of Publication: 1997
ISBN number: 0-7487-3998-X
19. Title: Designing Steel Structures Methods and Cases
Author: Sol E.Copper with Andrew C.Chen
Publisher: Elsevier Applied Science
Date of Publication: 1989
ISBN number: 0-85334-362-4
20. Title: Handbook of Structural Design
Author: I.E. Morris
Publisher: Reinhold Publishing Corporation.
Date of Publication: 1987
ISBN number: 62-70728
21. Title: Structural Design
Author: B.Currie and R.A. Sharpe
Publisher: Stanley Thornes Ltd
Date of Publication: 1996
ISBN number: 0-7487-0417-5
Kah Hin Tan - 125 -
Internet:
22. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester
23. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tensile_strength#Explanation
24. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=43330&refer=&units=metric
25. http://www.thakkargroup.com/sectional_z_purlin.htm
Kah Hin Tan - 126 -
Kah Hin Tan - 127 -
10. APPENDIX