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Thng tin vi ba s l mt trong 3 phng tin thng tin ph bin hin nay (bn cnh thng tin v tinh

v thng tin quang). H thng vi ba s s dng sng v tuyn v bin i cc c tnh ca sng mang v tuyn bng nhng bin i gin on v truyn trong khng trung. Sng mang v tuyn c truyn i c tnh nh hng rt cao nh cc anten nh hng. H thng Vi ba s l h thng thng tin v tuyn s c s dng trong cc ng truyn dn s gia cc phn t khc nhau ca mng v tuyn.
            

(M hnh h thng viba s in hnh) - Mt h thng viba s bao gm mt lot cc khi x l tn hiu. - Vic x l tn hiu bng gc thnh dng sng v tuyn thch hp truyn trn knh thng tin l ph thuc vo mi mi trng truyn dn khc nhau.

(S khi thit b thu pht viba s)


        

1.3.1. Phn loi theo bng tn - Viba s bng hp (tc thp): 2 Mbit/s, 4 Mbit/s, 8Mbit/s, tng ng vi dung . lng knh thoi l: 30, 60 v 120 knh. Tn s sng v tuyn:
   

- Viba s bng trung bnh (tc trung bnh): Truyn tn hiu c tc t 8 34 Mbit/s, tng ng vi dung lng knh thoi t 120 480 knh. Tn s sng v tuyn s dng l .
    

- Viba s bng rng (tc cao): Truyn tn hiu c tc t 34 140 Mbit/s, tng ng vi dung lng knh thoi 480 1920 knh. Tn s v tuyn s dng:
   

1.3.2. Phn loi theo cng ngh - H thng viba c s dng cng ngh PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy Phn cp s cn ng b) - H thng viba mi s dng cng ngh SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Phn cp s ng b).
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1.4.1. u im (1) Thng tin xut pht t cc ngun khc nhau nh in thoi, my tnh, facsimile, telex,video... c tng hp thnh lung bit s liu tc cao truyn trn cng mt sng mang v tuyn. (2) Nh s dng cc b lp ti sinh lung s liu nn trnh c nhiu tch lu trong h thng s. Vic ti sinh ny c th c tin hnh tc bit cao nht ca bng tn gc m khng cn a xung tc bit ban u. (3) Nh c tnh chng nhiu tt, cc h thng vi ba s c th hot ng tt vi t s sng mang / nhiu (C/N)>15dB. Trong khi h thng vi ba tng t yu cu (C/N) ln hn nhiu (>30dB, theo khuyn ngh ca CCIR). iu ny cho php s dng li tn s bng phng php phn cc trc giao, tng ph hiu dng v dung lng knh. (4) Cng mt dung lng truyn dn, cng sut pht cn thit nh hn so vi h thng tng t lm gim chi ph thit b, tng tin cy, tit kim ngun. Ngoi ra, cng sut pht nh t gy nhiu cho cc h thng khc. 1.4.2. Mt s khuyt im
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(1) Khi p dng h thng truyn dn s, ph tn tn hiu thoi rng hn so vi h thng tng t. (2) Khi cc thng s nh BER, S/N thay i khng t gi tr cho php th thng tin s b gin on. Khc vi h thng tng t, thng tin vn tn ti tuy nhin cht lng km. (3) H thng ny d b nh hng ca mo phi tuyn do cc c tnh bo ho, do cc linh kin bn dn gy nn, c tnh ny khng xy ra cho h thng tng t. Cc vn trn c khc phc nh p dng cc tin b k thut mi nh iu ch s nhiu mc, dng thit b d phng (1 + n) v s dng cc mch bo v.
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Thng cc mng vi ba s c ni cng vi cc trm chuyn mch nh l mt b phn ca mng trung k quc gia hoc trung k ring, hoc l ni cc tuyn nhnh xut pht t trung tm thu thp thng tin khc nhau n trm chnh. (ng dng trong cc trung tm chuyn mch hoc t chc cc mng Internet). 1.6.1 Vi ba s im ni im Mng vi ba s im ni im hin nay c s dng ph bin. Trong cc mng ng di thng dng cp si quang cn cc mng quy m nh hn nh t tnh n cc huyn hoc cc ngnh kinh t khc ngi ta thng s dng cu hnh vi ba s im-im dung lng trung bnh hoc cao nhm tho mn nhu cu ca cc thng tin v c bit l dch v truyn s liu. Ngoi ra, trong mt s trng hp, viba dung lng thp l gii php hp dn cung cp trung k cho cc mng ni ht, mng thng tin di ng.

1.6.2 Vi ba s im ni n nhiu im Mng vi ba s ny tr thnh ph bin trong mt s vng ngoi v nng thn. Mng bao gm mt trm trung tm pht thng tin trn mt an ten ng hng phc v cho mt s trm ngoi vi bao quanh. Nu cc trm ngoi vi ny nm trong phm vi (bn knh) truyn dn cho php th khng cn dng cc trm lp, nu khong
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cch xa hn th s s dng cc trm lp a tn hiu n cc trm ngoi vi. T y thng tin s c truyn n cc thu bao. Thit b vi ba trm ngoi vi c th t ngoi tri, trn ct.v.v... mi trm ngoi vi c th c lp t thit b cho nhiu trung k. Khi mt cao c th b sung thm thit b; c thit k hot ng trong cc bng tn 1,5GHz -1,8GHz v 2,4GHz s dng mt sng mang cho h thng hon chnh. Hin nay cc h thng im ni n a im 19GHz c ch to v lp t Chu u cung cp cc dch v s liu (Kbit/s) Internet trong mng ni ht khong cch 10Km. Trm trung tm pht tc bit khong 8,2Mb/s v a ch mi trm li s dng k thut TDMA.

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1.7.1. iu ch v gii iu ch s

1.7.2. Cc phng thc iu ch s trong viba Trong viba s ch yu s dng cc phng thc iu ch PSK v QAM a mc.

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Trong viba s ch yu s dng cc m HDB3 v CMI.


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Sng v tuyn l sng in t c tn s t 30 n 300 v c chia ra cc bng tn LF, HF, VHF, UHF v bng tn cao dng cho thng tin v tinh. C hai loi sng v tuyn l sng dc v sng ngang. Sng dc l sng lan truyn theo

    

phng chuyn ng ca n (tiu biu nh sng m thanh lan truyn trong khng kh) cn sng ngang l sng in t c vect cng in trng v t trng vung gc vi nhau v vung gc vi phng truyn sng. Cc sng v tuyn c th c truyn t an ten pht n an ten thu bng hai ng chnh: bng sng b mt v sng khng gian. 2.1.1. Sng b mt Khi sng v tuyn lan truyn dc theo b mt tri t, th nng lng truyn dn b tiu hao. Mc tiu hao ny ph thuc vo hng s in dn v in mi hiu dng ca t. tng t nh khi sng i dc theo ng dy. Khi tn s sng trn 30MHz t c tc dng nh mt dy dn km gy tiu hao ln. Do , trong thc t khi truyn sng trn mt t ngi ta thng chn sng c tn s thp. 2.1.2. Sng khng gian Sng khng gian l mt loi sng quan trng trong thng tin VHF,UHF v SHF. Nng lng truyn ca sng khng gian t anten pht n anten thu theo ba ng truyn tng ng vi sng trc tip, sng phn x t mt t v sng phn x t tng i lu. Bu kh quyn chia ra lm 3 tng: + Tng i luu: l lp kh quyn t mt t ln n cao khong (10 15)km. Cng ln cao mt phn t kh cng gim, lm thay i phng truyn ca cc tia sng. Tng ny thch hp cho vic truyn sng ngn. + Tng bnh lu: l lp kh quyn nm trong min t tng i lu ln n cao khong 60km, tng ny c mt phn t kh thp, chit sut kh c tc dng lm khc x tia sng, i phng truyn, lm cho cc tia sng pht t mt t ln tng bnh lu s b i phng truyn quay v mt t. Do vy rt thch hp cho vic truyn sng cc ngn. + Tng in ly: l tng kh quyn cao nm t cao (60 - 2000)km, min ny hp th nhiu tia t ngoi c nng lng ln, cc tia ny c tc dng phn ly cc phn t
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4.1. THIT B VIBA PASOLINK 4.1.1. M hnh mng viba SDH

4.1.2. Tham s h thng

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4.2. THIT B MIN-ILINK

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