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WESTERN CAPE PRIMARY SCIENCE PROGRAMME

ENERGY AND
An example of a short learning programme in the
Natural Sciences and Technology

CHANGE
GRADE 5

ACTIVITIES 4: The mains electricity also


1: Making a class poster to show supplies heat, light, sound and
the different forms of energy movement energy
2: Electrical energy travels through 5: How much electrical energy do
different materials appliances use from the main
3: Making electrical circuits in supply?
order to get heat, light, sound 6: Where does the main electricity
and movement energy come from?
7: How do we use electricity safely?

We welcome the wide use of these materials. Please acknowledge the PSP. ©PSP 2002
DEVELOPED BY WESTERN CAPE PSP TEAM AND TEACHERS
This learning programme will work towards the following learning
outcomes in the Natural Sciences

K LO1: Scientific Investigations


The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena,
and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological
and environmental contexts
K LO2: Constructing Science Knowledge
The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological
and environmental knowledge
K LO3: Science, Society and the Environment
The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships
between science and technology, society and the environment.

Course presented by Rose Thomas, Shane Nzwane and Sandra Mahote

Booklet designed by Welma Odendaal and illustrated by Janet Ranson


and Nicci Cairns

Western Cape Primary Science Programme


Edith Stephens Wetland Park
Lansdowne Road
Philippi 7785

PO Box 529
Howard Place
7450

Tel: 021 691-9039 Fax: 021 691-6350

e-mail: info@psp.org.za
website: www.psp.org.za
Contents
• This booklet illustrates an example of a short learning programme for Grade 5.
• It develops concepts, skills, attitudes and language in a step-wise fashion.
• It includes activities and tasks for learners, teacher tasks, support materials and
assessment suggestions.

2 . . . . . . . . . .Activity 1 Making a class poster to show the different


forms of energy
4 . . . . . . . . . .Activity 2 Electrical energy travels through different materials
8 . . . . . . . . . .Activity 3 Making electric circuits in order to get heat, light, sound
and movement energy
12 . . . . . . . . .Activity 4 We also get heat, light, sound and movement energy
from the main supply
14 . . . . . . . . .Activity .5 How much electrical energy do appliances use from
the main supply?
17 . . . . . . . . .Activity 6 Where does the main electricity come from?
18 . . . . . . . . .Activity 7 How do we use electricity safely?
22 . . . . . . . . .Suggested workscheme
23–26 . . . . . .Assessment sheets
27 . . . . . . . . .Codes for assessment
Task cards to photocopy
28 . . . . . . . . .Activity 2 Which materials can electricity flow through?
30 . . . . . . . . .Activity 3 Making electric circuits to get heat, light, sound
and movement energy
31 . . . . . . . . .Activity 4 Light , sound , movement and heat energy
32 . . . . . . . . .Activity 5 How much electrical energy do appliances use
from the main supply?
33 . . . . . . . . .Fact sheet: How much electricity is used by our appliances?
34 . . . . . . . . .Activity 7 A The 3-pin plug
35 B Using electricity safely in the home
Support materials
37 . . . . . . . . . . . . .Safety in the home
38 . . . . . . . . . . . . .How light bulbs work
38 . . . . . . . . . . . . .Background information about batteries
39 . . . . . . . . . . . . .Batteries and cells
40 . . . . . . . . . . . . .Background information about Earthing and electrical shocks
Back page . . . . . .Mindmap about energy and change
Making a class poster to show the
different forms of energy
Activity 1

Key concepts • Energy exists in different forms (there are different types of
energy – heat, light, sound, movement, electricity). There is also
nuclear (atomic) energy and stored energy but we do not expect
to cover these in this activity.

Teacher task Assist learners to find pictures from newspapers and magazines to make a
poster. Assist them to identify the different forms of energy in the
pictures.
NOTE:
uclear
We also get n
ored
energy and st
energy, but it
expected that
is not
we
Forms of Energy
at this
deal with this
stage. light energy heat energy

movement energy

sound energy

electric energy

heat energy

2
Learner task Work in groups
1. Collect pictures from magazines & newspapers to show the different
types of energy.
2. Make a poster on the wall of the classroom.
3. Write sentences about the different types of energy, e.g waves have
movement & sound energy.

Making a class poster to show the different


forms of energy

What we want to assess What we expect from learners

Making a poster to show The poster must have:


different forms of energy a a heading e.g. ‘Different Forms of
Energy’
a pictures that illustrate different forms
of energy such as sound, heat, light,
movement, electricity
a labels that name the form of energy
next to each picture

Writing sentences about the The sentences must:


different forms of energy a explain what form of energy is
shown in the picture, for example:
– waves in the sea have movement
energy
– the motor car has movement
energy
– the iron uses electrical energy
– the fire has heat energy
a the sentences must make sense

3
Electrical energy travels through
different materials
Activity 2

Key concepts • Some materials conduct electricity – they are called conductors
• Some materials do not conduct electricity – they are called
insulators
• Electricity will only flow in a circuit made of materials that conduct
electricity

1. Give each group of learners a torch battery (electrical cell), a torch


Teacher task
light bulb, and two pieces of insulated electrical wire.
2. Ask learners to make the bulb light up using that apparatus. Check to
see that the learners can make a circuit that will light the bulb.

wire cell

light bulb

electricity flow
3. Introduce the word ‘circuit’ and show the learners how the electricity
travels around the circuit from one end of the battery along the wires,
through the light bulb and back to the other side of the battery. Ask
learners to show you with their fingers on their circuit. See support
materials about light bulbs (page 38).
4 After learners have made the circuit with a light bulb they test different
materials to see if they conduct electricity. They do this by making a
circuit as shown below:

nail wire cell

light bulb

electricity flow

5. Introduce and explain the words ‘conductor’ and ‘insulator’.


Learners connect the material they want to test into the circuit with the
light bulb. If the light bulb shines, the material is a conductor (it lets
electricity flow through it). If the light does not shine then the material
is an insulator (it does not let electricity flow through it).
6. Give the learners the materials to test as shown on the task card.

4
Task car
Learner task dt
Task card photocop o
y,
Which materials can electricity flow page 28
.
NOTE:
through?
Let the learners
complete A
A.
before you 1. Use the apparatus to make the light bulb light up.
hand out B. 2. Draw a diagram to show how you made the light bulb light up.

wire cell

light bulb

electricity flow

3. Why did the bulb light up?

Because electricity went through the light bulb.


B.
1. Now, make a circuit like this.

nail wire cell

light bulb

electricity flow

2. Does the light bulb light up?


Yes
3. Did electricity flow through the circuit?
Yes
4. Does the nail conduct electricity?
Yes

5
5. Now test some more things to see if they let the electricity flow
Learner task
through. Then record your results on the table:
(continued)

Materials for Does the bulb light up? Did the material let Is the material
testing Yes/no the electricity through? an insulator
Yes/no or a conductor?

nail yes yes conductor

paper clip (metal) yes yes conductor

metal coin yes yes conductor

wooden clothes peg no no insulator

plastic bottle top no no insulator

metal wire yes yes conductor

metal spoon yes yes conductor

plastic spoon no no insulator

a piece of glass no no insulator

a plastic button no no insulator

Teacher task Discuss with learners what happened when they tested different materials.
They should find that only metals are conductors while plastics, wood,
stone and other non-metals are insulators.

Write a short report on what you did:


Learner task
Today we tested materials to find out if they are conductors or
insulators.

We found out that nails, wires, metal cans, paper clips and metal
spoons conduct electricity. They are all made from metal. They are
all conductors. .
We also found out that clothes pegs, plastic bottle tops,
plastic spoons, plastic and glass do not conduct electricty.
They are insulators.

6
Electrical energy travels through different
A ss es sm e n t
Activity 2 materials
What we want to assess What we expect from learners

A Using apparatus to make a circuit in which The learners must:


a bulb lights up a successfully connect a light bulb into the
circuit so that it lights up
a draw a diagram of the circuit showing the
following:

wire cell

light bulb

flow of electricity

a explain that the light bulb lights up because


it is connected into an unbroken circuit that
allows electricity to flow through the bulb

B Testing different materials to find out if they The learners must:


conduct electricity and writing a report a test the different objects made of different
materials by connecting them in a circuit
with a light bulb
a correctly record their observations on the
table as they are doing the test
a write a short report which correctly identifies
those objects and materials that are
insulators and those that are conductors of
electricity, i.e. all metals conduct electricity,
whilst wood, glass, paper, plastic and rubber
are insulators

oh, i see. only metal


things conduct
electricity.

7
Activity 3 Making electric circuits to get light,
sound, heat and movement energy
Key concepts • We can get heat energy, light energy, sound energy and
movement energy from electricity
• To get this energy from electricity we need to make an electrical
circuit
• A switch is used to make and break a circuit
• We can get electricity from a battery (an electrical cell)

Teacher task 1. Provide learners with the following equipment to make electrical
circuits:
– torch batteries
– torch light bulbs
– pieces of insulated copper wire
– wire wool (steel wool)
– small electric motors from old tape recorders and turntables
– sucker sticks or wooden blocks
– drawing pins
– prestik
– paper clips
2. Show learners how to make a switch using paper clips and wire
attached to thick cardboard, a wooden stick or block. They will include
a switch in each of the circuits that they make.

wire wire

paper clip paper clip

drawing pins drawing pins


wire wire

Switch in open position Switch in closed position

8
Learner task Task card
Making electric circuits to get heat, light, sound
and movement energy

1. Make three different electric circuits. Explain what happens when


you close the switch.

CIRCUIT 1
When I closed the switch

the light bulb lights up

CIRCUIT 2
When I closed the switch

the motor starts


and the fan turns.

CIRCUIT 3
When I closed the switch

the steelwool gets hot and melts.

Task card to
photocopy
– page 30.

9
Teacher task 1. Write a conclusion on the chalkboard with the help of the learners.

CONCLUSION
1. When I closed the switch, the electrical
energy flowed from the battery to the
light bulb and back to the battery. This is
called an electrical circuit.
2. I can get heat, light, sound and movement
energy from electricity. The electricity
comes from the battery.

2. Help learners to understand that energy is stored in batteries and is


released by a chemical reaction when the battery is connected into a
circuit. Use the background information to help you – page 38–39.
3. The chemicals inside the battery store the energy. When we connect
the battery into a circuit the stored energy changes to electrical energy
in the wires.
4. Assist learners to complete the following sentences.

Learner task Writing task


Look at the circuits you made. Complete these summaries (energy
sequences) about your circuits.
1. When you make a bulb light up stored energy in the battery changes
to electrical energy in the wires. This energy then changes to light
energy in the light bulb.
2. When you start the motor and make the fan turn, stored energy in
the battery changes to electrical energy in the wires. This electrical
energy then changes to movement and sound energy in the motor
and fan.
3. When you heat up some steelwool stored energy in the battery
changes to electrical energy in the wires. This electrical energy then
changes to heat energy in the steelwool.

10
A ss es sm e n t
3 Making electric circuits in order to get heat,
light, sound and movement energy
Activity

What we want to assess What we expect from learners

Making electric circuits in order to get The learners must use the apparatus to make
heat, light, sound and movement energy. a a circuit which lights up a bulb
a a circuit which turns a fan and motor (the fan and
motor will also make a sound)
a a circuit which heats a piece of steel wool
The learners must be able to manipulate
the equipment with confidence

Drawing circuits and writing an explanation The drawings must show clearly:
to say what happens when the switch a how all the components in the circuits are
is closed connected to each other
a what happens when the circuit is connected,
e.g. radiating lines around the light bulb that
show it is shining
The sentences must say:
a that the light bulb lights up
a that the motor turns and rotates the fan
a that the steelwool gets hot

Completing summaries about the These are the completed summaries (sequences):
sequence of energy flow a Stored energy in the battery changes to electrical
energy in the wires. The electrical energy then
changes to light energy in the light bulb
a Stored energy in the battery changes to electrical
energy in the wires. The electrical energy then
changes to movement energy in the motor and
fan
a Stored energy in the battery changes to electrical
energy in the wires. The electrical energy then
changes to heat energy in the steelwool

11
We also get heat, light, sound, and
movement energy from the main
Activity 4

electricity supply
Key concepts • We get electricity from a main electricity supply which comes to
our homes from a power station
• The main electricity flows in a circuit from the power station to
our house and into the appliances and back to the power station
• The electricity from the main supply is very powerful and can be
dangerous. So it must be used correctly and carefully

1. Bring a radio which can use the energy of batteries but which can also
Teacher task
run off the main electricity supply. Also bring some electrical
appliances which use energy from the main supply only.
2. Discuss with learners what they know about batteries and about the
main supply. See background information on the batteries and the
main supply on page 38–40.

Learner task
Writing task

Name of appliances What happens when I switch it on? What types of energy
do we get from it?

Kettle the water gets hot and boils heat, sound and
movement energy
Hair dryer (or heater) it makes a noise and gives out hot air heat, sound and .
movement energy
Food mixer or fan the beaters or blades go round and it movement and sound
makes a sound energy
Radio we can hear a sound sound energy
Lamp the light bulb lights up light and heat energy

12
Learner task Complete these sentences:
1. When I switch on the kettle I get heat, movement and sound energy.
2. When I switch on a hairdryer/ heater I get heat, sound and movement
energy.
3. When I switch on a food mixer/fan I get movement and sound energy.
4. When I switch on a radio I get sound energy.
5. When I switch on a lamp I get light and heat energy.

We also get heat, light, sound, and movement


A s se s sm en t
Activity 4 energy from the main supply

What we want to assess What we expect from learners

Completing sentences about The sentences should be completed as


the energy we get when we follows:
switch on appliances a when I switch on a kettle I get heat,
sound and movement energy
a when I switch on a hair dryer I get
heat, sound and movement energy. From
a heater I get heat, movement and
sound energy if it is a fan heater
a when I switch on a food mixer or fan I
get sound and movement energy.
a when I switch on a radio I get sound
energy
a when I switch on a lamp I get light
energy and heat energy

13
Activity 5 How much electrical energy do
appliances use from the main supply?
Key concepts • We can get almost unlimited amounts of energy from the
main supply
• Different appliances require different amounts of electrical energy
to make them work
• We can tell how much energy an appliance needs by looking at
the amount of electrical power it requires. The power is measured
in Watts
• A Watt is how much electrical energy an appliance uses every
second

Teacher task 1. Collect pictures of electrical appliances. You will find these in the
newspapers especially towards the end of the month. Cut these out.
2. Hand out pictures to the learners and with the help of the learner task
card, they must decide:
– what is the main form of energy we get from each appliance?
– how much energy (in Watts) does each appliance use?
3. Make a big chart on the chalkboard like this:

ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES
Amount of energy used Light Sound Movement Heat
every second

10 Watt

100 Watt

250 Watt

500 Watt

750 Watt

1 000 Watt

2 000 Watt

3 000 Watt

14
4. Ask learners to place their pictures of appliances on the chalkboard
to show the type of energy we get from it, and the amount of
electricity it uses (in Watts).

it takes a lot of yes, but we don’t need


energy to make much electrical energy to
things hot! get sound and light.

i wonder how much


energy cell phones use?

Learner task Task card


How much electrical energy do appliances use from the mains supply?
1. Place your picture on the class chart to show what energy you get
from your appliance and how much electricity it uses. Use the table
below to help you.
2. Look at the completed class chart and then answer these questions:
a Which appliance uses the most energy?
a Which appliance uses the least energy?

16
Turn to page

15
Learner task The amount of energy appliances use

Task card to
photocopy on
page 33.

3. Look at your chart again. Complete these sentences. Fill in the missing
words.

heat light sound movement


a. Appliances use a lot of energy when they give us heat from electricity.
b. Appliances use a little energy when they give us sound, light and
movement from electricity.

How much electrical energy do appliances


A ss e ss me n t
Activity 5 use from the main supply?

What we want to assess What we expect from learners

Answering the questions The answers must say:


about how much electricity a that the most amount of electrical energy is used by appliances
different appliances use such as: heaters, stove, kettles and hot plates
a that the least amount of electrical energy is used by radios,
tape recorders, and clocks
a appliances that give us heat use the most energy
a appliances that give us light, movement and sound use the least
energy

16
Where does the main electricity come
from?
Activity 6

Key concepts • Main electricity is generated (produced) by power stations


• The electricity travels in wires from the power station to our
homes and schools
• When we want to use the electricity from the main supply we have
to connect the appliance by means of a 3-pin plug into the socket
in the wall and switch on the electricity
• The 3-pin plug has three wires: the brown and blue wires connect
to the main circuit, the yellow and green wire goes into the Earth
and safely discharges dangerous electricity

Teacher task With the help of the drawing below – ‘Where does the mains electricity
come from?’ – explain the following to the learners:
The main electricity in our homes is produced in a power station.
Wires connect the power station to our homes.
When we plug in an appliance this brings the electricity from the power
station to the wires in the appliance.
When we switch on the appliance – this completes the circuit and allows
the electricity to flow from the power station into the appliance and back
again.
The electricity from the main supply is very powerful and can be very
dangerous – so it must be used carefully and correctly.

Where does the main electricity come from?

power station Steam

wall of house

The two wires


(brown and blue)
make a complete circuit brown wire (live)
from the power station to
the house into the appliance and blue wire (neutral)
back – so that electricity can flow.

Earth wire (green/yellowl)

The Earth wire is buried in the The Earth wire takes excess
ground outside the house electrical energy safely into
the ground.

17
Activity 7 How do we use electricity safely?

Key concepts • Most electrical appliances use energy from power stations
• Many electrical appliances use a lot of energy and therefore it is
dangerous to use them incorrectly
• An appliance must always be connected to the mains supply by
means of a 3-pin plug
• The 3-pin plug must be correctly wired up to the appliance
• Electrical wires are covered with insulating material to protect the
people using the appliance from being electrocuted (getting an
electrical shock)

Teacher task 1. Hand out the information about ‘Safety Inside the Home’ – page 37.
2. Supply the learners with 3-pin plugs, electrical cord and screwdrivers
(use an appliance with its wires and plug. The learners can unscrew
the plug, then they can wire it correctly again.)
3. Hand out the questions about ‘Why are there three wires?’ Get
learners to discuss these questions in groups.
4. Introduce the idea of ‘Earthing’. Use the background information about
‘Earthing’ to help you – page 40.
5. Introduce the terms ‘Electrical Shock’ and remind the learners about
insulators and conductors. Explain that although the wires in the cord
are conductors they are encased in plastic insulating material which
protects those using the appliances from being electrocuted (getting
an electric shock). Use the background information about electrical
shocks to help you – page 40.

Learner task
Task card
A. The 3-pin plug
Task card to 1. Wire up the 3-pin plug correctly like this:
photocopy on
page 34. brown – live

green/yellow – Earth

blue – neutral

2. Discuss the questions on the paper called ‘Why are there three wires?’
3. Colour in the 3 wires in their proper colours.

18
Learner task Why are there three wires?
(continued)
• Another name for
• Another name for the green/yellow the brown wire is
wire is the Earth wire the Live wire.
• If the green/yellow wire comes
loose then there will be no • If the brown or
connection to the safety wire that blue wire comes
goes into the ground. This takes loose, then this
excess current to the Earth if the will break the
appliance is faulty. circuit. The
electrical current
• The cover is made from will not be able to
plastic to insulate the wire run in the wires.
• The blue wire is called
and protect us from the The appliance will
the Neutral wire.
dangerous electrical not work because
current. Inside the plastic it will have no
are three wires – the Live • The wires are coated in plastic to electricity supply.
wire, the Neutral wire and insulate them so that we are protected
the Earth wire. from the dangerous electrical energy.

1. Facilitate a class discussion about why there are three wires in the 3-
pin plug making sure that the learners can answer the questions.
2. Cut out the pictures and sentences from the safety information – page
37, and put them into envelopes for the learners.

don’t do don’t

Do not insert bare wires Always use a correct plug. Do not use damaged cords
into electrical sockets To remove – or insert: – replace immediately
switch off first and hold
onto the plug.

Leerdertaak Task card


B Using electricity safely
1. Look at the pictures of people doing dangerous things with electricity.
Discuss:
a What is dangerous in each picture?
a What will happen to you if you do these dangerous things with
Task card to electricity?
photocopy on 2. Match each picture with the correct sentence and then put the
page 35. sentences back into the envelope again.
3. Now write your own safety rules for when you use electricity.

19
Learner task Rules for using electricity safely at home
(continued) When I want to use electricity safely I must:task

1. Make sure that my hands are dry before I touch any electrical plugs.
2. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------
3. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-------------------------------------------------
4. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-------------------------------------------------
5. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-------------------------------------------------
6. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-------------------------------------------------
7. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-------------------------------------------------
4. Finally draw a picture of an electrician working. Remember
everything you have learned about using electricity safely.

20
How do we use electricity safely?
A s se ss m en t
Activity 7
What we want to assess What we expect from learners

Wiring up a 3-pin plug The learners must:


a use the screwdriver confidently to wire up the plug
a attach the wires securely
a attach the green/yellow Earth wire to the earth pin, the blue wire
to the neutral pin and the brown wire to the live pin
Answering questions about The learners must show they understand that:
the reason why there are a the brown live wire and the blue neutral wire become connected
three wires into the circuit from the power station when we switch on the
appliance. If one of these wires comes loose there is no longer
a complete circuit and the electricity stops flowing
a a large amount of electrical energy flows through the live wire
a the green/yellow earth-wire becomes connected to a wire that
goes into the ground when we switch on the appliance.
a the Earth wire is there to protect people from getting electric
shocks. If it becomes disconnected then there is no safe
connection from the appliance to the ground. This is dangerous
if the appliance develops a fault
a the electrical wires are made from copper, a metal that conducts
electricity very well
a the wires are covered with plastic that does not conduct
electricity to prevent electricity escaping and causing shocks
Writing their own safety The learners must be able to:
rules for using electricity a identify dangerous ways of working with electricity, e.g. putting
bare wires into a plug socket
a say what they think will happen to them if they use electricity in
dangerous ways
a write a set of safety rules to warn people about the dangers
they have identified
Drawing a picture of an The drawing must show:
electrician working a the electrician wearing appropriate dress e.g. a uniform, wearing
shoes with thick soles, wearing rubber gloves, etc
a appropriate tools used by an electrician, e.g. a ladder to reach
the power lines, a screwdriver, etc
a doing some kind of work that an electrician might do, e.g. fixing
a plug, laying electrical cables in the road, etc

21
Suggested work scheme for the grade 5 learning programme

ENERGY AND CHANGE

PERIOD 1 PERIOD 2 PERIOD 3 PERIOD 4


Activity 1 Activity 1 (cont.) Activity 2 Activity 2 (cont.)
• Learners collect pictures of • Learners write sentences • Learners make a circuit to • Learners and teacher
different types of energy about the different types of make a bulb light up. discuss the results of the
and make a poster on the energy. (10 min) investigation about
classroom wall. conductors and insulators.
• Learners test different
(50 min) (20 min)
materials to see if they are
insulators or conductors of • Learners write a short
electricity. (40 min) report. (20 min)

PERIOD 5 PERIOD 6 PERIOD 7 PERIOD 8


Activity 3 Activity 3 (cont.) Activity 4 Activity 4 (cont.)
• Learners make switches • Teacher and learner • Teacher introduces a radio • Learners complete
and electrical circuits to discussion about batteries that uses batteries and sentences about energy
get heat, light and and how they work. mains electricity. and appliances. (15 min)
movement. (35 min) (20 min) (10 min)
• Teacher helps learners to
• Learners write a short • Learners write summaries • Learners record correct their sentences.
conclusion. (15 min) about the circuits they observations about energy (20 min)
made. (20 min) and different appliances.
(35 min)

PERIOD 9 PERIOD 10 PERIOD 11 PERIOD 12


Activity 5 Activity 5 (cont.) Activity 7 Activity 7 (cont.)
• Learners sort and display • Learners write to answer • Learners wire up three pin • Learners discuss the
pictures of different questions about the class plugs. (50 min) questions about why there
appliances according to display. (15 min) are three wires.
how much electricity the (20 min)
Activity 6
appliances use and what
• Teacher and learners
form of energy they supply. • Teacher explains how
discuss the importance of
(40 min) electricity gets from the
having live, neutral and
power station to an
earthing wires in a plug.
appliance in our homes
(20 min)
(using the diagram of the
mains supply). (30 min)

PERIOD 13 PERIOD 14
Activity 7 (cont.) Activity 7 (cont.)
• Learners match pictures of • Learners complete the
people using electricity writing of their safety rules.
dangerously with their (30 min)
correct sentences.
• Learners draw a picture of
(30 min) Total time for this Learning Programme = 14
an electrician working,
• Learners begin to write taking into account periods @ 50 min per period = 11,6 hrs. This is
their own electricity safety everything they have learnt three weeks’ work. (Recommended for Natural
rules. (15 min) about electricity. Sciences and Technology = 4 hrs per week)
(20 min)

22
TASK CARDS
Photocopy for learners
Activity 2
Which materials can electricity flow through?
A
1. Use the apparatus to make the light bulb light up.
2. Draw a diagram to show how you made the light bulb light up.

diagram

3. Why did the bulb light up? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................................................................

B
1. Now make a circuit like this.

wire cell
nail

light bulb

electricity flow

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2. Does the light bulb light up?

...........................................................................
3. Did electricity flow through the circuit?

...........................................................................
4. Does the nail conduct electricity?

...........................................................................
5. Now test some more things to see if they let the electricity flow through.
Record your results on the table:

Materials for Does the bulb light up? Did the material let Is the material
testing Yes/no the electricity through? an insulator
Yes/no or a conductor?

nail

paper clip (metal)

metal coin

wooden clothes peg

plastic bottle top

metal wire

metal spoon

plastic spoon

a piece of glass

a plastic button

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Task card
Activity 3
Making electric circuits to get heat, light,
sound and movement energy
1. Make three different electric circuits. Explain what happens when you close the switch.

CIRCUIT 1
When I closed the switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...........................................
...........................................

CIRCUIT 2

When I closed the switch


...................
...........................................
...........................................
...........................................

CIRCUIT 3

When I closed the switch


........................................
........................................
........................................

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Task card
Activity 4
Light, sound, movement and heat energy

1. Plug in some electrical appliances and switch them on.


2. Record what happens:

Name of What happens when What types of energy


appliances I switch it on? do we get from it?

Kettle

Hair dryer
(or heater)

Food mixer
(or fan)

Radio

Lamp

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Task card
Activity 5
How much electrical energy do appliances use
from the main supply?
1. Place your picture on the class chart to show what energy you get from your appliance and
how much electricity it uses. Use the table on the opposite page to help you.
2. Look at the completed class chart and then answer these questions:
a Which appliance uses the most energy?
a Which appliance uses the least energy?
3. Look at your chart again. Complete these sentences. Fill in the missing words.

heat light sound movement


a. Appliances use a lot of energy when they give us ———————————————
from electricity.
b. Appliances use a little energy when they give us ———————————————
from electricity.

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Amount of
APPLIANCE electrical energy
it uses in watts

cell phone 3W

radio/tape/CD player 15 W

fluorescent light 40 W

table lamp 60 W

sewing machine 75 W

fridge 150 W

fax machine 170 W

microwave oven 230 W


colour TV 340 W
electric drill 360 W
hair dryer 450 W

washing machine 500 W

vacuum cleaner 700 W

iron 720 W

toaster 1 000 W

electric frying pan 2 000 W

kettle 3 000 W
heater 3 000 W

hot water cylinder 4 000 W

stove 8 000 W

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Activity 7
Task card A The 3-pin plug
1. Wire up the 3-pin plug correctly like this:

brown – live

green/yellow – Earth

blue – neutral

2. Discuss the questions on the paper called ‘Why are there three wires?’

3. Colour in the three wires in their proper colours

Why are there three wires?

What is the green/yellow wire for?


What is the brown wire for?

• Give another name


• Give another name for for the brown wire.
the green/yellow wire.
• What happens if the • What happens if
green/ yellow wire the brown or blue
comes loose? wire comes
loose?
What is the blue wire for?

• Give another name


for the blue wire. What is inside the plastic?

• Why is the cover made


from plastic? • Why are the wires
coated in plastic?

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Activity 7
Task card B
Using electricity safely in the home
1. Look at the pictures of people doing dangerous things with electricity.
Discuss:
a What is dangerous in each picture?
a What will happen to you if you do these dangerous things with electricity?
2. Match each picture with the correct sentence and then put the sentences back into the
envelope again.
3. Now write your own safety rules for when you use electricity.

Rules for using electricity safely at home


When I want to use electricity safely I must – e.g.

1. Make sure that my hands are dry before I touch any electrical plugs.
2. ---------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------
3. ----------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------
4. ----------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------
5. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
----------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------
6. ----------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------
7. ----------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------

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Task card B
4. Finally draw a picture of an electrician working. Remember
everything you have learned about using electricity safely.

a electrician working

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SAFETY IN THE HOME
Be safe and happy with electricity by observing these simple rules.

Always wire your


plug correctly.

Yellow/Green – Earth Do not use a damaged cord.


Brown – live Blue – neutral Replace it immediately

Do not pull the plug by the cord. Do not insert bare wires into electrical
Switch it off first and remove by sockets. Always use a correct plug.
holding the plug.

Never run an extension cord under a carpet


Do not overload a socket.
or where people will walk or trip over it.
Use a multiplug.
Run the cord alongside the wall.

Never use electricity near water. Never stick your fingers into a socket.
Water and electricity do not mix. Use a safety plug.

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Teacher support
How a light bulb works This is what a light bulb looks like inside.
A light bulb will light up when there is a
pathway for electricity to flow through it.
The electricity must flow from the one
glass bulb

end (pole) of the battery through the


electric wires, then through the filament
(thin wire) inside the light bulb and then tungsten filament
back to the other end (pole) of the battery.
When you connect a light bulb you must
make sure that there is one connection to
the metal pin at the bottom of the bulb
and another to the side metal casing
around the base of the bulb. metal casing
Electricity will always choose the
shortest and easiest pathway along
conductors. If the easiest route does not go plastic pin
through the filament the bulb will not light
up. metal pin

Background information about batteries (cells)


A torch battery is also sometimes called an electric cell. (Scientists use the
term ‘battery’ for a number of cells.) The most common battery that we
use is a dry cell battery, which has chemicals sealed inside a casing.
The chemicals inside react together. This chemical reaction produces
electricity, which can be used when the battery is connected into a circuit.
When its chemicals have finished reacting, it stops working and cannot
be recharged.
We use very small dry cell batteries to power digital watches and
pocket calculators. These have other chemicals inside them.
Other batteries can be recharged with electricity and used again such
as a cell (battery) for lap top computers. The car battery is made up of
several lead-acid cells and these can be recharged.

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Batteries and cells

Mercury battery nickel-plated case


This type of battery is used for powering
digital watches and pocket calculators. It is a
mercury battery.
electrolyte
An electrolyte is a liquid or moist substance
which conducts electricity e.g. lemon juice,
salt water, ammonium chloride paste.
zinx powder
mercuric oxide and graphite

Dry cell battery


The common dry cell battery
produces a voltage of 1.5
volts. The zinc forms the
battery casing. The electrolyte
is ammonium chloride in the
form of a moist paste. carbon rod (positive)

zinc case (negative)

ammonium chloride paste

Lead acid battery


The lead acid battery is used in cars. It is so
called because it has electrodes that are made terminal
of lead, and the electrolyte is sulphuric acid.
The battery consists of six sets of cells, which top-up cover
produce two volts each, for a total of 12 volts.
terminal

positive plate cell

lead plates

casing
negative plate

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT EARTHING
Most houses, that have an electricity supply from the power station (main supply),
have a wire from the electricity board which goes through the wall and is buried in
the ground nearby. This is called an earthing wire. This is for the safety of those who
are using the electricity inside the house. When an appliance is faulty it can take
more electricity than it should. A faulty appliance is dangerous because when
somebody touching it can get burned or electrocuted. The earth wire conducts the
excess electricity in the faulty appliance down the wire into the ground where it
becomes harmless so that it will not cause a fire in the appliance or electrocute
somebody.
People’s bodies can conduct electricity. Without an earth wire the excess
electricity from a faulty appliance would flow through the person into the ground.
The person would get an electrical shock, or burns or even die from these. If there is
an earth wire, then the electricity will run through it as it is a better conductor than
a human body.
Many appliances are made of metal and use a lot of electrical energy. They must
have an earth wire. Other appliances are made of plastic (even some kettles and
irons) and do not draw a lot of electricity. They do not need an earth wire because
they are made of insulating material (plastic). If a plastic appliance is faulty, the
electricity can’t easily flow through the plastic to the person and electrocute
him/her.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT ELECTRIC SHOCKS


When a large amount of electrical energy passes through someone’s body we say
s/he has suffered an electrical shock or has been electrocuted.
The person usually falls down, sometimes s/he stops breathing for a short while,
and may suffer severe burns or he may be killed.
When a person has been electrocuted, the first thing to do is to switch off the
electricity at the main switch before you touch him / her to give help.
If the electricity has not been switched off and the electrocuted person is still in
contact with the electricity you could also be electrocuted when you touch him/her.

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