Está en la página 1de 41

WESTERN CAPE PRIMARY SCIENCE PROGRAMME

An example of a short learning programme in the


Natural Sciences

ENERGY AND CHANGE


GRADE 7
Activity 1: Looking for different forms of energy
Activity 2: Burning a candle
Activity 3: Different fuels
Activity 4: Doing our own reading and research about oil and gas
Activity 5: Comparing three different fuels
Activity 6: Transport and fuel
Activity 7: Why do fuels cost money?
Activity 8: What about fuels in the future?

We welcome the wide use of these materials. Please acknowledge the PSP. © PSP 2001
Contents
• This booklet illustrates an example of a short learning
programme for Grade 7.
• It develops concepts, skills, attitudes and language in
a step-wise fashion.
• It includes activities and tasks for learners, teacher tasks,
support materials and assessment suggestions.
Page . . . . . .Subject
2 . . . . . . . . .Activity 1 Looking for different forms of energy
4 . . . . . . . . .Activity 2 Burning a candle
7 . . . . . . . . .Activity 3 Different fuels
8 . . . . . . . . .Activity 4 Doing our own reading and research about oil and gas
12 . . . . . . . .Activity 5 Comparing three different fuels
17 . . . . . . . .Activity 6 Transport and fuel
21 . . . . . . . .Activity 7 Why do fuels cost money?
25 . . . . . . . .Newspaper business report
26 . . . . . . . .Activity 8 What about fuels in the future?
28 . . . . . . . .Suggested workscheme for this learning programme on energy
. . . . . . . . . .and change
29 . . . . . . . .Sheet for assessing a task
30 . . . . . . . .Class recording sheet for task assessment
31 . . . . . . . .Blank assessment sheets
33 . . . . . . . .Codes for recording
APPENDIX
34 . . . . . . . .Task card: Activity 2: Burning a candle
35 . . . . . . . .Task card A : Activity 5: Comparing three different fuels
36 . . . . . . . .Task card B: Activity 5: Comparing three different fuels
37 . . . . . . . .Task card: Activity 6: Looking at different vehicles
38 . . . . . . . .Task card: Activity 7: Why do fuels cost money?
39 . . . . . . . .Fact sheets on ‘Oil and Gas in South Africa’
43 . . . . . . . .Xhosa translation: ‘Renewable and non-renewable energy sources’
44 . . . . . . . .Xhosa translation: ‘How much does crude oil cost?’
45 . . . . . . . .Labels of different types of energy
46 . . . . . . . .Five pictures on different forms of transport
Cover . . . . .‘Energy and Change’ mindmap
DEVELOPED BY WESTERN CAPE PSP TEAM AND TEACHERS
This learning programme will work towards the following learning
outcomes in the Natural Sciences

s LO1: Scientific Investigations


The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena,
and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological
and environmental contexts
s LO2: Constructing Science Knowledge
The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological
and environmental knowledge
s LO3: Science, Society and the Environment
The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between
science and technology, society and the environment.

Course presented by Rose Thomas and Sandra Mahote


Booklet designed by Welma Odendaal and illustrated by Janet Ranson
and Nicci Cairns

Western Cape Primary Science Programme


Edith Stephens Wetland Park
Lansdowne Road
Philippi 7785

PO Box 529
Howard Place
7450

Tel: 021 691-9039 Fax: 021 691-6350

e-mail: info@psp.org.za
website: www.psp.org.za
Activity 1 Looking for different forms of energy

Key concepts • There are different types (forms) of energy – heat, light, sound,
movement, electricity
(Nuclear energy (atomic energy) and stored energy are also forms
of energy but we will not deal with these here)

Teacher task 1. Hand out old newspapers, one to each group of learners. The
pictures and advertisements in the newspapers illustrate examples of
NOTE … different forms of energy. For example, motorcars, appliances and
While the learners are machines of any kind all use and produce certain forms of energy.
placing the labels, check People and plants and animals all use and produce certain forms of
to see that they are energy.
correctly identifying the 2. Also hand out the small labels (electrical energy, heat energy, sound
forms of energy. You
energy, light energy). See Appendix page 45.
can assess learners while
they are doing this.
Placing energy labels on pictures in newspapers
1. Look at the pictures in old newspapers and magazines and find all the
Learner task different forms of energy (heat energy, light energy, sound energy,
GROUP movement energy and electrical energy).
2. Put labels on all the places where you found the different forms of
energy.

3. Explain to your group why you have


placed the label there and what the
energy is doing at that place.
4. Write one sentence about each form of energy that
you found and what it was doing e.g;
The radio needs electrical energy to play music.

2
A s se ss m en t
Activity 1 Looking for different forms of energy

What we want to assess What we expect from learners

Placing energy labels on to Learners must:


pictures k Correctly identify the different
forms of energy by placing labels in
appropriate places on the pictures.

Writing sentences about the The sentences must say:


different forms of energy k What form of energy it is
k Where the energy is doing
something
k What the energy is doing.

at ?
h ?
w e re
wh

3
Activity 2 Burning a candle

Key concepts • Energy can be changed from one form (kind of energy) to another
• The process of burning also changes energy from one form to the
other
• Fuels are substances that we burn in order to get heat and light
energy
• Fuels contain stored energy

Teacher task 1. Write these key words on the board e.g. burn, stored energy (in the
wax), wax, fuel, heat and light energy, wick, oxygen, and energy.
2. Hand out the candles to each group of learners, and use the
appropriate key words to point out the parts of the candle.
3. Light the candles and write the following questions on the board.

Key words
wax, fuel, heat and light energy, wick, oxygen, energy

Questions
• What does a candle need to burn?
• What is happening when a candle burns?
• Where did the candle get its energy from?
• What energy do we get from a burning candle?

New words
Flame, smoke, melting, match, sound energy/ crackling

4. Facilitate a class discussion for learners to explore their own ideas


about the answers to the questions. Write any new words on the
board so that learners can fill in the table below.
5. Ask learners to fill in the ‘I think.... ‘ column in the table below, giving
their own ideas.
6. After that, ask learners to read the piece on ‘Energy from a burning
Candle’ on page 6. Finally, they complete the
‘I know.........’ column with the answers they find
from reading the piece.

4
Learner task 1. Look at the burning candle, and discuss it with you group using the
GROUP questions to help you.
Questions
k What does a candle need to burn?
k What is happening when a candle burns?
k Where did the candle get its energy from?
k What energy do we get from a burning candle?
2. Fill in the ‘I think…’ column in the table below.
3. Read the paragraph ‘Energy from a burning candle’ on page 6 to find
the answers to the questions.
4. Now fill in the ‘ I know…’ column in the table below using the correct
information from the reading.

Burning a candle

Questions I think … I know …

What does a candle need It needs a match to light it. A candle needs a match, a
in order to burn? wick, wax and oxygen to burn.
What is happening when The wax melts and the candle There is an energy change
a candle burns? gets smaller. when a candle burns.
Where did the candle get The candle got its energy from The candle got its energy from
its energy from? the match. the wax. The energy was
stored inside the wax.
What energy do we get We get light energy from a We get heat and light energy
from a burning candle? burning candle. from a burning candle.
Sometimes we get some sound
energy as well.

5
Energy from burning a candle
You have seen a candle burn. You have felt heat energy from the flame. It
also produces light energy.
k You must have heat from a match to light your candle.
When you light the candle, first the wick begins to burn until a little of
the wax has melted. Then the melted wax goes into the wick and also
catches alight. Thereafter, both the wick and the wax burn.
k You also need oxygen from the air to keep the candle burning.
A substance that burns with oxygen is called a fuel. So wax is the fuel
of the candle.
k When a candle burns there is an energy change taking place.
Wax is changed when it burns. Chemicals in the wax join with oxygen
as the fuel burns. Heat energy and light energy are given off. The
stored energy inside the wax is changed to heat and light energy by
burning the candle.
k People burn fuels because the fuels have stored energy.
When we burn fuels we get heat and light energy. People use fuels
because we need heat and light energy.
k We also need fuels to make engines work.
Inside a motorcar engine the petrol has to burn and give off heat
energy to make it work. Aeroplanes and ships also have engines in
which fuel is burnt.

Burning a candle
A ss e ss me n t
Activity 2 What we want to assess What we expect from learners
Completing the ‘I know ‘ column The answers to the questions
about ‘Energy from burning must match the information
a candle’. in the reading.

6
Activity 3 Different fuels

Key concepts • People use many different fuels e.g., wood, coal, oil, paraffin
petrol etc.

Teacher task 1. With learners, make a mind map on the chalkboard about different
fuels and their uses.
2. Once you have completed the mind map, focus the learners’ attention
NOTE … on two main categories of fuels, i.e. oil and gas. Inform them that they
Remind learners are going to RESEARCH some information on oil and gas by reading.
that
fuels are source Then they will present the information in the form of a poster.
s of
energy. In other
words,
we have to burn
fuel to
get energy. So el
ectricity
is not a fuel alth
ough it
W00d
is a source of en
ergy.
l
petr0
,
fire, cooking
motor cars, heating 0il
trucks, motor plastics, ships,
bikes, taxis, planes
tractors
FUELS AND
THEIR USES
diesel
taxis, boats,
lorries, tractors,
buses, trains c0al
fires for heating, power
fin gas stations, factories
paraf stoves, light
primus stoves, lamps, lights s, camping

7
Activity 4 Doing our own reading and research
about oil and gas
Key concepts • Crude oil and gas are important natural sources of energy
• Crude oil and gas were formed over millions of years, in the
Earth’s crust, from tiny dead animals and plants
• Mining companies drill deep into the Earth’s crust to find oil and
gas. The hole in the Earth’s crust through which the oil or gas
comes to the surface is called a well.
• Oil and gas are transported from these wells to places all over the
world
• Crude oil is used to make fuels and many other useful products

Teacher task

Introduction
1. Ask learners to raise as many questions as
they can about oil and gas.
Ask : “What do you want to know about
oil and gas?” Then the learners must make
up questions about oil and gas beginning
with words like: what, where, why, how,
when, what if, who?
2. Write their questions on the board in a mind map.
3. Now write up the specific questions on page 9. Compare the
learners’ questions with the specific questions and show that many
of the questions are the same.

How is oil and gas transported?


Where do we get oil and gas?
Why do ships carry oil?
How are oil and gas
QUESTIONS: made?
What if we didn’t OIL & GAS
have oil and gas?

Who uses oil and gas?


How much does it cost?
What are oil and gas used
for?

8
Specific questions
a. Why are oil and gas important?
b. Where do oil and gas come from?
c. What is crude oil?
d. What things are made from oil and gas?
e. How do oil and gas products get to the user (the customer)?
f. How are oil and gas formed?
g. How do we find oil and gas?
h. How do we get oil and gas from under the ground?
i. How are oil and gas transported?
j. How is crude oil refined into a finished product?
k. Where did the energy come from that is stored inside gas and oil?
4. Tell learners that you have information for them on the specific
questions. They will choose some questions and then research the
information to find the answers.

Setting up groups to do their reading research


1. Divide your class into groups of 5. Let each group choose two or
three questions to research.
2. Read the information sheet ‘A guide to Oil and Gas in South Africa’
with your class on page 39–42.
Note: Make sure learners can understand and explain any difficult
words or concepts.
For example: Crude oil is the oil that is found naturally far under-
ground in the Earth’s crust. After it has been brought to the surface, it
has to be changed or refined so that we can use it. The oil and petrol
that we buy for our motorcars have been refined from crude oil.

Setting the task for the learners


1. Hand out the task cards to the learners and explain what they have to
do.
2. Explain to the learners what you will expect on the poster:
k a suitable heading
k good illustrations
k appropriate and correct information
k artistic layout and lettering (this means that you must
arrange everything on the poster in a clear and artistic
way)

9
3. Let learners do the research (reading for information) in class. Be
available to help them with vocabulary and other questions.
4. Set a time for the making of the poster as a group project. (for a week
later) This is so that the learners have time to prepare their information
for the poster.
5. On display day, each group puts together all its information onto its
own poster.

6. Check each poster to make sure that all the information is correct.
Give time to each group to correct any errors.
7. Each group then presents its poster to the class orally. Assist learners
to speak clearly and loudly. Allow question time so that learners can
ask the whole group questions if anything needs to be clarified.
8. Display the posters in the class until you have finished the theme
‘Energy and Change’.

In some parts of the


world, an oil rig is
used to extract oil
and gas from the
bottom of the
ocean.

10
Learner task Making a poster about
GROUP oil and gas in South
Africa
1. Read about Oil and Gas in South
Africa.
2. Choose two questions to research
3. Read to find the answers to the
questions. Write out any relevant
information about those questions in
your own words. Your information must
be correct.
4. You may also draw pictures to show what
you have found out. The pictures must
have labels to explain them.
5. Next week you will have to put your
drawings and writing on a poster, which will be made by the whole
group.
6. The poster must have:
k a heading
k good illustrations with labels or explanatory notes
k correct information about the questions you have researched
k everything must be artistically arranged on the poster
7. You must be able to explain your information and drawings on the
poster to the rest of the class, and answer questions about them.
(You must be able to explain in a clear, loud voice, and give the
correct information.)

Doing our own reading and research about oil


A ss es sm e n t
Activity 4 and gas
What we want to assess What we expect from learners

Making a poster about oil and The poster must have:


gas in South Africa k a suitable heading relating to the topic about
oil and gas
k correct information that answers the questions that
the learners have chosen
k drawings or pictures that suitably illustrate
something about what the learners have researched
k illustrations must have labels or captions to explain
what they are about
k an artistic, neat presentation

11
Activity 5 Comparing three different fuels

Key concepts • Fuels store energy and we have to burn them to get the energy
out

Teacher task 1. Show learners three different fuels (candle wax, methylated spirits and
paraffin).
2. Explain to learners that they will carry out an investigation to test and
compare three different fuels. They do this by seeing how quickly each
fuel can heat water to boiling point.
3 Ask the learners to predict which of the three fuels will boil water first.
4. Hand out the task card and the apparatus (see learner task card) for
each group to carry out the investigation.
k A candle
k A spirit burner with methylated spirits
k A spirit burner with paraffin
k Glass baby food bottles or beakers
k Water
k Syringes or measuring cylinders to measure out the water
k Tripod stands and gauze mats
k Matches to light the candles and burners.

12
What do I want to find What must I do to Which fuel will be the
out about the fuels? test the three fuels first to boil the
in a fair way? water?

What must I do to
find out?
Learner task Comparing three different fuels
1. Set up your apparatus like this:

Water
Water Water
Wire gauze
Wire gauze

Tripod stand
Tripod stand Tripod

Spirit burner
Spirit
burner
Candle Paraffin Methylated
spirits

2 Compare what happens when you use three different fuels to boil
water. Use these questions to help you to make your observations:
k What colour is the flame?
k Which fuel causes pollution? What kind of pollution does it give off?
k Which fuel is the first to boil the water?
3. Write your observations in the table below:

A candle Methylated spirits Paraffin


The flame is yellow. The flame is blue. The flame is orange.
The candle gives off a small It gives off a smell when it is This gives off a lot of smoke
amount of smoke. burning. and a bad smell.
The bottom of the bottle gets The bottom and sides of the
dirty. bottle become black.
This fuel is the last to boil the This fuel is the first to boil the This fuel is the second to boil
water. water. the water.

13
Teacher task 1. Facilitate a discussion with the class about comparing the three fuels.
Make sure the following points come out in the discussion:
k Learners compare the fuels by using each fuel to boil water
(Remind learners that water boils when it bubbles vigorously)
k To compare the three fuels fairly, learners must use the same
amount of water with each fuel
k It is not necessary to have the same amount of fuel as long as there
is enough to bring the water to the boil
k Learners also have to make sure that all the water starts off at
about the same temperature (they take it from the same jug or
bottle)
k The fuel that takes the shortest time to boil the water, is usually
methylated spirits
k Paraffin gives off a smell and a lot of black smoke. It also gives off
black greasy soot that covers the outside of the bottle
2. On the chalkboard write any new words that are introduced by the
discussion and explain them:
e.g. soot – the sticky black stuff that sticks to the bottom of the glass
bottle, smoke, pollution, greasy, smelly gas, etc.

NOTE …
raffin in a
When we use pa
our homes, we
primus stove in
r into it, to
have to pump ai
work. The fuel
make the primus
d this helps it
mixes with air an
ore efficiently.
to burn much m
lot more
So it gives out a
es not make so
energy and it do
d soot.
much smoke an

14
Learner task Writing a report
WRITING TASK 1. Write a report about comparing three different fuels. Use the
headings below to help you.

Comparing three different fuels


What I wanted to find out about the fuels:
I wanted to find out which fuel will be the first to make the
water boil
I predicted that … the paraffin would be the first to make the
water boil
To compare the fuels this is what I did:
I took three baby food bottles. I poured the same
First …
amount of water into each one.
Then … I heated one bottle using a candle. I heated another
par
affin bottle using paraffin as a fuel. I used methylated spirits to
heat the third bottle.
Next… I watched to see when the water boiled
Finally … I noticed that the first bottle of water to boil was
heated with methylated spirits.
it
s pir
meth ylated This is what I found out about the energy in the three fuels:
I found that … The candle does not have a lot of energy
because it takes a long time to make the water boil. The
paraffin has more energy than the candle because it makes
the water boil more quickly than the candle. The methylated
spirits has the most energy because it boils the water fastest.
While I was doing the test, I also found out that:
The candle has a yellow flame, the paraffin has an orange
flame and the methylated spirits has a blue flame. I also found
out that paraffin makes lots of smoke and soot and it smells
very bad. It causes air pollution and it makes me cough.
Another thing I learned …
A candle makes a little bit of smoke and the methylated spirits
does not make smoke but it smells bad.
Points for discussion
2. After you have written your report, discuss this question with your
group:
Do you think the way we compared these three fuels was fair? Give
reasons to support your answer. Decide on some ways in which you
could have made the comparison fairer.

15
A s se ss m en t
Activity 5 Comparing three different fuels

Water
Water Water
Wire gauze
Wire gauze

Tripod stand
Tripod stand Tripod

Spirit burner
Spirit
burner
Candle Paraffin Methylated
spirits

What we want to assess What we expect from learners

Learners doing the investigation and writing Learners must be able to:
their observations k set up the apparatus correctly
k discuss and make observations while they are
carrying out the investigations
k write accurately about what they have observed
on their recording sheets
k compare the three fuels by making notes of
similarities and differences among them. For
example; how fast each fuel heats the water and
the amount and type of pollution it gives off
k
Writing a report about comparing three The report must:
different fuels k be written in the learners’ own words
k contain the relevant information under each sub-
heading
k

16
Activity 6 Transport and fuels

Key concepts • Fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are non-renewable sources of
energy. Wood, sunlight, wind and food are some renewable
sources of energy
• Different forms of transport use different fuels
• Most vehicles powered by engines, use fossil fuels

Teacher task 1. Display pictures of different vehicles on the board.

2. Explain the following points to learners:


k The car, the plane, the taxi and fishing boat all have
engines which make them move.
k These engines need fuel.
k Inside the engines the fuel burns, and the heat from the
fuel makes the engines work.
k This burning process gives off pollution into the air.
3. Hand out the questions and pictures of different vehicles
(see appendix 1) for learners to discuss in their groups (It
would be best to give each group all five pictures)

17
Learner task Looking at different vehicles
1. Look at pictures showing different vehicles that people use for
GROUP
transport
2. Discuss each picture using the following questions:
Questions for discussion:
k What energy changes are taking place when this vehicle moves?
k What kind of fuel does this vehicle use?
k Where does this fuel come from originally?
k Will this kind of fuel be available forever as a source of energy here
on Earth? Give reasons for your answer.
k When we use this kind of fuel, is it good or bad for the
environment? Give at least two reasons for your answer.
3. Complete the table below.

Comparing different vehicles and their fuels


Vehicle used Advantages Disadvantages What fuel Will the fuel always
for transport does it use? be available on Earth?

Bicycle Bicycles are cheaper You can only carry The children’s Yes as long as there is
than cars. Children small things on a food is the fuel. enough food for the
and adults can use bicycle. You can’t go children.
them. They are easy very fast.
to fix. They don’t cause
pollution. You don’t
need to buy fuel.
Motor car It goes very fast. It can You have to buy fuel. Petrol. No. It comes from oil and
(taxi) carry many people. It is dangerous if you when all the oil on Earth
don’t know how to is used up we won’t be
drive. It pollutes the air. able to get more.
Fishing boat It can carry many It pollutes the air Diesel. No because it also
people and many fish. comes from oil.
Aeroplane It can carry many It is very noisy and it Aeroplane fuel No because it also
people and goes fast. also pollutes the air comes from oil.
Horse cart It is safer than a car. It is slow compared to Horse food Yes, as long as we can
You can carry things a car. The horse could (grass). grow more food for
on it. You don’t have get sick and die the horse.
to buy fuel.

4. Report about one form of transport to the rest of the class.


It saves 5. Sequence the pictures of vehicles from the one that uses the most
petrol! energy to the one that uses the least energy. Write down the
sequence.
Most energy to least energy

Aeroplane Boat Taxi, car Horse cart Bicycle

18
Teacher task 1. Put the pictures on the board while learners report back. Take only one
report back for each form of transport. Encourage learners to make
corrections to their table as they listen to other groups.
2. After the learners have finished reporting to the class, ask them to
sequence the vehicles from the one that uses the most energy to the
one that uses the least energy.
3. Put the pictures of the vehicles on the board in that sequence.

1 2 3

4. Read the following passage to the learners and assist them to understand it.

Renewable and non-renewable energy sources


Oil, coal and gas are natural All the oil will be finished up in 2030.
Oil, coal and gas are natural sources of energy found
in the Earth’s crust. They are sometimes called Fossil
Renewable sources of energy
There are other sources of energy found in Nature.
Fuels because they are found between layers of rock For example, we can use sunlight to grow plants and
and were formed naturally over millions of years from we can get fuel for our bodies when we eat the plants.
dead plants and animals. We grow more plants all the time so that our supply of
How much oil, coal and gas is there? food for our bodies is never used up. We can burn
No one knows how much oil, coal, and gas exists in wood for fuel to heat our homes. We grow more wood
the crust of the Earth. We are using up the fossil fuels all the time so that our supply is never used up. We
very quickly. So mining companies are searching all say that food and wood from plants are renewable
the time to find new supplies of these natural fuels. sources of energy. This is because we can always get
They even have to search in difficult places, for new supplies by growing more. Sunlight and heat
example, under the sea. from the sun, wind, and the movement of water are
also renewable forms of energy.
Non-renewable sources of energy
Scientists think that one day soon, we will have
discovered and used up all the Earth’s supplies of
Fossil Fuels. We say that Fossil Fuels are non-
renewable sources of energy. This means that when
they are all used up we can’t get new supplies from
anywhere else. (Because it would take millions of
years for Nature to make more) Scientists estimate
that if we continue using fossil fuels as fast as we are
at present, then all the coal will be finished in 2085.

19
5. Assist learners to complete the following summary:

Learner task Renewable and non-renewable sources of energy


1 In your own words write to explain what the following words mean:
k A renewable source of energy means that we can make (or get)
more of it in the future
k An example of a renewable source of energy is wood or solar
energy
k A non-renewable source of energy means that we cannot make
anymore after it is all used up
k An example of a non-renewable source of energy is coal and oil
and gas

Transport and fuels


A s se ss m en t
Activity 6
What we want to assess What we expect from learners

Answering the questions: The answers must be correct:


1. All vehicles change stored energy to movement energy.
2. The motor car uses petrol or diesel fuel; the aeroplane uses
aviation or jet fuel; the fishing boat uses diesel; the bicycle
uses the children’s movement energy, which they got from the
energy stored in their food; the horse cart uses the movement
energy of the horse, which it got from the stored energy in its
food.
3. The petrol, diesel and jet fuel come from crude oil. The
children’s and horses’ food comes from plants and animals.
4. Petrol, diesel and jet fuel will not always be available. Sooner
or later all our supplies of oil and gas on Earth will be used up.
Food will always be available as long as we keep growing
more of it.
5. Petrol, diesel and jet fuel are bad for the environment because
they give off smoke and other poisonous gases, which pollute
the air. When it rains, this pollution also goes into the water.
6. Food for the children and the horse have no bad effects on the
environment. The dung from the horses and the toilet waste
from the children can be returned to the soil and used to
enrich it.

Completing a table to The learners must write:


compare the advantages k some advantages and disadvantages of each kind of transport
and disadvantages of k that the fuel for the horse cart and the bicycle is food, and is
different kinds of transport renewable.(We can grow more food)
k that the fuels for the car, the aeroplane fuel and the diesel for
the boat are non-renewable.(These fuels will not be available
forever)

20
Activity 7 Why do fuels cost money?

Key concepts • All fuels cost money to buy


• The price we pay for a fuel includes the cost of the crude oil from
which it was made, as well as the cost of producing it,
transporting it and preparing it for sale
• The price of fuels increases when the cost of crude oil increases
or when any of the above costs increase

Teacher task 1. Tell learners that they are going to find out how the price of crude oil is
determined. They are also going to think about the factors that
influence the price of fuels, which come from crude oil.
2. Write the following questions on the board.

Who decides on the How does OPEC decide the


price of crude oil? price of crude oil?

How much does


What is OPEC? crude oil cost?

Why does the price of crude


oil affect the price of fuels
that we use every day?

3. Read the article ‘How much does crude oil cost?’ with the learners.
Explain any difficult words and concepts.
4. Hold a class discussion to make sure that learners have found the
answers to these questions from the reading.

21
How much does crude oil cost?
Almost all the energy in the world comes from Fossil Fuels.
k Most of the coal is used to produce electricity in power stations.
k All of the crude oil is used to produce fuels for transport e.g. petrol, diesel
and aeroplane fuel.
Only a few countries in the world have large natural deposits of oil. These
are countries such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and Nigeria. They are called
the ‘Oil Producing and Exporting Countries’ (OPEC). They own the oil
deposits in their countries and they supervise the exploration, mining,
transporting and selling of oil to countries that do not have their own
oil. Usually it is sold to other countries as crude oil and these countries
then have to refine it themselves to make fuels.
The OPEC countries together decide on the amount of crude oil for
sale and it’s price. The price is always announced as the price per barrel
in American Dollars, for example; the price of crude oil is about $25 per
barrel. But this price of crude oil around the world changes slightly every
day depending on how
much is sold and which
countries are buying it.
Each country that buys oil pays for the oil and
then pays to have it refined and made into fuels.
Some of these costs are:
k the cost of refining it into different fuels
k the cost of transporting and supplying the
fuels to the people who use it
k the cost of building petrol stations
After that each country also
adds some taxes to the price
of the fuel.
All these costs are
included in the price of
the fuel that we buy.
In South Africa, some newspapers (e.g. The Star,
The Cape Times, The Mercury and The Pretoria News)
publish the price of Crude Oil each day. They also publish the
price of important metals like Gold, Silver and Copper.

5. For homework ask learners to find out the price per litre of:
k paraffin
k motor car oil
k petrol
k diesel fuel
6. The next day, hand out the task card called ‘The price of fuel’.

22
Learner task The price of fuel
Example calculation
1. Look at the business report from the Newspaper for Monday
27 August 2001, on page 25.
2. Find the price of crude oil and the Dollar/Rand exchange rate.
The price of crude oil shown is the price for one barrel. Each barrel
contains about 200 litres of crude oil.
How much does a barrel of oil cost in South African Rand?
Price of one barrel of oil = $25.71.(US dollars.)
Read to find out how many Rands make 1 Dollar.
1 Dollar = 8.3725 Rand
Therefore: The price of a barrel of crude oil is
$25.71 x 8.3725 = R 215.25
but 1 barrel of crude oil = 200 litres
Therefore: 200 litres of crude oil = R215.25
Therefore: the price of 1 litre of crude oil = R 215.25 ÷ 200
1 litre of crude oil costs R1.07
This was the price of everyday fuels on the 27 August 2001:
Prices:
k 1 litre of petrol cost R 3.63
k 1 litre of motor car oil cost R13.60 (500ml cost 6.80)
k 1 litre of paraffin cost R 3.80
k 1 litre of diesel cost R 3.38

Task
1. Look in the business section of today’s newspaper. Find the price of
crude oil and the Dollar/Rand exchange rate.
2. Calculate the price for one litre of crude oil today.
3. Find out the prices of petrol, motor car oil, paraffin and diesel for
today
4. Compare these with the price on the 27th August 2001. Has the oil
price changed? Has the price of fuels changed?
5. Why do you think the price of fuels is so much more expensive than
the price of crude oil? Why do you think the price of fuel changes now
and again? Write to explain why.

23
Learner task The price of fuel
WRITING TASK The price of fuels changes every now and then because the price of
crude oil changes. The Dollar/ Rand exchange rate also changes. Both
these things affect the price of fuels. Fuels are much more expensive than
crude oil. Why? Give at least two reasons.
Reason 1
The fuels come from crude oil. But the crude oil has to be refined in
order to make it into a fuel. The refining costs money. The cost of
refining a barrel of oil is added to the price we pay for the fuel. So fuels
cost more.
Reason 2
After the fuel has been made, it has to be transported to petrol stations
and shops to be sold.
This also costs money.
The cost of transporting
the fuel is added to the
price we pay for the fuel.
Reason 3
The government adds
taxes to the fuel price.

Why do fuels cost money?


A s se ss m en t
Activity 7
What we want to assess What we expect from learners
Learner writing task about The writing must explain that fuels are more expensive than
why fuels are more crude oil because:
expensive than crude oil k It costs money to transport crude oil to a refinery
k At the refinery the crude oil is heated in order to separate it
into different fuels. It is expensive to build and maintain
refineries. It is also expensive to heat the crude oil.
k After it is refined the different fuels have to be transported to
places where they will be used. The vehicles and pipes for
this cost money.
k Then the fuel is sold. It costs money to distribute it and to
keep account of how much is bought and sold.
k Many people are employed to get fuels to the places where
they are needed . It costs money to pay them.
k All these costs are added on to the price of the fuel.
k The government also adds taxes to the price of fuels.
k

24
25
Activity 8 Fuels and the future
1. Facilitate a discussion with the whole class about the following
Teacher task questions:
What will happen when all the oil, coal and gas supplies are
finished on Earth?
k Scientists think that in 2030 there will be no more oil and in 2085
there will be no more coal left on earth. What will happen when
these sources of energy are finished?
k In what ways will our lives change when the world runs out of
Fossil Fuels?
k What will you use for fuel when you are 60?
k What do you think your grandchildren will use for fuel in 2085?
k What can we do to prepare for a world without Fossil Fuels?
2. During the class discussion, write some of the words and phrases
that the learners have used (on the board).
3. Find books that have information about alternative sources of energy.
For example; solar energy, wind energy, energy from waves, energy
from plants, etc. Learners can research different ways to get energy
from these renewable sources in the future.
k See ‘Eskom to make use of wind energy’.

Eskom to make use of wind energy


Multimillion-Rand project in Western Cape will investigate environmentally
friendly alternative energy source
The Western Cape’s strong winds
will be used as an energy source
for electricity. Eskom will build a
multimillion -Rand wind power
generator at the end of the year.
This will be the only one in
South Africa. If all goes
according to plan it will produce
enough electricity to supply 2000
homes by the year 2005.
It will be built close to the N7
highway near Malmesbury. Eight
to ten large windmills will be
attached to electricity generators.
They will be placed on the top of
a hill which gets strong winds
almost all year round.
Once the Western Cape wind
All over the world there is a need for alternative energy sources …
power generator has been built, built in parts of South Africa that get a lot of wind.
scientists will study it to find ways of improving its All over the world there is a need for alternative
design. They will also calculate how much the energy sources that do not cause pollution. Wind
electricity that is produced by it will cost. If it is energy is just one kind of alternative energy source.
successful then many more wind generators will be Sunday Times 25/2/2001

26
Learner task 1. Write half a page on ‘Energy and the Future.’ Explain why we have to
find other sources of energy for the future. Give some examples of
WRITING TASK
other energy sources.
Energy and the Future
In the future we will have to find new sources of energy. This is because our supply
of fossil fuels on Earth will be finished. Fossil Fuels come from oil and
coal, that were made in the Earth’s crust millions of years ago.
We say that Fossil Fuels are non-renewable sources of energy. This
means that, when we have used up all our Fossil Fuels we cannot
get more from anywhere else.
Almost all fuels that we use today come from Fossil Fuels
such as coal and crude oil. We use coal to make most of
our electricity. We use crude oil to make petrol, diesel,
paraffin aeroplane fuel and candles. We also get paint and
plastic and many other chemicals and even clothing from
crude oil.
In the future, when all the Fossil Fuels have been used
we will not be able to make electricity. We will also not
be able to make fuels, plastics and chemicals. So we
must get these things from something else. This is why
we must look for other sources of energy and chemicals.
In the future we will have to use other sources of energy.
We can use solar power. This is the energy from sunlight. We
can use it to make electricity and to heat water in our homes. We can
use wind power to make electricity and to pump water. We also get energy from
plants. Maybe we will even use sources of energy that have not been discovered yet.

A s se ss m en t
Activity 8 Fuels and the future

What we want to assess What we expect from learners

Writing about ‘Energy The writing must show that the learners understand that:
and the Future’ k the supplies of Fossil Fuels on Earth will most probably be
used up some time this century
k we will not be able to make electricity from Fossil Fuels
k we will not be able to have transport that relies on Fossil Fuels
k we will not have products that are made from oil (such as
chemicals , paints, clothing and plastics)
k we will have to find and use other sources of energy such as;
wind, sunlight energy, energy from plants, nuclear energy and
solar energy

27
Suggested workscheme on Energy and Change
PERIOD 1 PERIOD 2 PERIOD 3 PERIOD 4 PERIOD 5
Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 (cont) Activity 4 (cont)
• Learners place energy • Teacher introduces the • Teacher and learners • Teacher introduces the • Teacher sets the task for
labels onto pictures (10 key words make a class mindmap specific questions about the learners. Each group
min) (5 min) about fuels and their oil and gas (10 min) chooses 2 or 3 questions
• Learners write sentences • Learners light candles uses (15 min) • Teacher reads the to research (10 min)
about the forms of energy and discuss the information sheet ‘ A • Learners read the
Activity 4
questions about the guide to Oil and Gas in information sheet (30
• Learners raise questions
burning candle (15 min) South Africa’ and min)
about oil and gas (15
• Class discussion about explains any difficult
min)
the burning candle (15 words or concepts (30
min) min)
• Learners complete the
summary about energy
and burning (5 min)

PERIOD 6 PERIOD 7 PERIOD 8 PERIOD 9 PERIOD 10


Activity 4 (cont) Activity 4 (cont) Activity 4 (cont) Activity 4 (cont) Activity 4 (cont)
• Learners read and then • Learners continue to • Learners put their • Learners present their • Learners present posters
write any information to prepare material for their pictures and writing onto posters one group at a
be eventually included on poster (40 min ) their posters time. Teacher assists
their poster. groups to answer any
• Learners draw or collect questions from the rest of
pictures to include on the class. (Teacher allows
their poster (40 min) time for 2 groups to
present in each period)

PERIOD 11 PERIOD 12 PERIOD 13 PERIOD 14 PERIOD 15


Activity 4 (cont) Activity 5 Activity 5 (cont) Activity 5 (cont) Activity 6
• Learners present posters • Teacher introduces three • Teacher and class • Learners write their • Teacher hands out
• Learners display the different fuels which discuss testing and reports pictures and writes
posters on the wall of the come from crude oil. (5 comparing the fuels questions on the
classroom. min) (15 min) chalkboard. (10 min)
• Learners receive • Teacher writes and • Learners discuss the
apparatus and discuss translates any key words pictures and write
how they will test the that learners used when answers to the questions.
three fuels. They also making their (15 min)
make predictions (10 observations • Learners complete the
min) table about the
(15 min)
•1Learners carry out the advantages and
• Teacher introduces the
test and write their disadvantages of
report format and
observations (30 min) different forms of
explains what is expected
transport
of the learners
(20 min)
( 10 min)

PERIOD 16 PERIOD 17 PERIOD 18 PERIOD 1


Activity 6 (cont) Activity 6 (cont) Activity 7 (cont) Activity 7 (cont)
• Learners report to the class about • Learners complete the summary • Learners complete the task card * Learners write half a page on
the advantages and on ‘The price of fuel.’ ‘Energy and the Future
(10 min)
disadvantages (Each group ( 40 min)
Activity 7
reports on one form of transport)
• Teacher and learners read the
(25 min)
article ‘ How much does Crude Oil
• Class sequences the pictures. cost?’ (20 min)
(5 min)
• Learners find out the prices per
• Teacher reads ‘Renewable and litre of other fuels which come
non-renewable energy resources from Crude Oil (for homework.)
(10 min)

28
Task Card to photocopy
Activity 2 Burning a candle
1. Look at the burning candle, and discuss it with you group using the
questions to help you.

Questions
• What does a candle need to burn?
• What is happening when a candle
burns?
• Where did the candle get its energy?
• What energy do we get from a
burning candle?

2. Fill in the ‘I think.....’ column in the table below.


3. Read the paragraph ‘Energy from a burning candle’ to find the
answers to the questions.
4. Now fill in the ‘ I know ...........’ column in the table below using the
correct information from the reading.

Burning a candle

Questions I think … I know …

k What does a candle


need in order to burn?

k What is happening
when a candle burns?

k Where did the candle


get it’s energy from?

k What energy do we
get from a burning candle?

34
Task Card to photocopy
Activity 5 Comparing three different fuels

1. Set up your apparatus like this:


2. Compare what happens when you use three different fuels to boil
water. Use these questions to help you to make your observations

Water
Water Water
Wire gauze
Wire gauze

Tripod stand
Tripod stand Tripod

Spirit burner
Spirit
burner
Candle Paraffin Methylated
spirits

4What colour is the flame?


4Which fuel causes pollution? What kind of pollution does it give off?
4Which fuel is the first to boil the water?
3. Write your observations in the table below:

Comparing three different fuels

Candle Methylated Spirits Paraffin

35
Task card to photocopy
Activity 5 Comparing three different fuels
Learner writing task
1 Write a report about comparing three different fuels. Use the headings
below to help you.

Comparing three different fuels

What I wanted to find out about the fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

........................................................................

I predicted that: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

........................................................................

To compare the fuels this is what I did:

First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Then . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Finally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

This is what I found out about the energy in the three fuels:

While I was doing the test:

I found out that . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

........................................................................

I also found out that . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

........................................................................

Another thing I learned is ................................................


....................................................................
Points for discussion
2 After you have written your report, discuss this question with your group:
Do you think the way we compared these three fuels was fair? Give reasons to support your
answer. Decide on some ways in which you could have made the comparison fairer.

36
Task card to photocopy
Activity 6 Transport and fuels
Looking at different vehicles
1. Look at the pictures at the back of the book showing different vehicles
that people use for transport
2. Discuss each picture using the following questions.

Questions for discussion


k What energy changes are taking place when this vehicle moves?
k What kind of fuel does this vehicle use?
k Where does this fuel come from originally?
k Will this kind of fuel be available forever as a source of energy here
on Earth? Give reasons for your answer.
k When we use this kind of fuel, is it good or bad for the
environment? Give at least two reasons for your answer.
3. Complete the table below.

Vehicle used Advantages Disadvantages What fuel does it Will the fuel always
for transport use? be available on Earth?

Bicycle

Motor car (taxi)

Fishing boat

Aeroplane

Horse cart

4. Report about one form of transport to the rest of the class.


5. Sequence the pictures of vehicles from the one that uses the most
energy to the one that uses the least energy. Write down the
sequence.

Most energy to least energy

37
Task card to photocopy
Activity 7 Why do fuels cost money?

Learner writing task


The price of fuel
The price of fuels changes every now and then because . . . . . . . . . . .
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
Fuels are much more expensive than crude oil. Why? Give at least two
reasons.
Reason 1
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
Reason 2
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................

Oh no! I
expensiv t’s more
e than a
week ag
o!

38
39
40
41
42
Imithombo yamandla ehlaziyekayo
nengahlaziyekiyo
I oli, amalahle negesi yimithombo yamandla endalo efunyanwa
kuqweqwe loMhlaba (Earth’s crust). Ngamanye amaxesha ibizwa
ngokuba yi oli eyifosili, kuba ifumaneka kumanqwanqwa amatye
asezantsi phantsi komhlaba kwaye yazenzekela ngokufa kwezityalo
nezilwanyana kwiminyaka eliwaka-waka eyadlulayo.

Akakho namnye owaziyo ukuba ingakanani na i oli,amalahle negesi


evela kuqweqwe lomhlaba. Siyisebenzisa le oli iyifosili ngamandla
kangangokuba iyaphela. Ngoko inkampani zemigodi zisoloko ngalo
lonke ixesha zifuna ukufumana indawo ezintsha ezinale oli yendalo.Zide
zikhangele nakwindawo ezinqabileyo, umzekelo: phantsi kolwandle.

Abenzululwazi bacinga ukuba ngenye imini,kungekudala siyakuze


sizifumanise siyisebenzise yonke le mithombo ye oli.Sithi i oli eyifosili
ngumthombo wamandla ongenakuhlaziywa. Oku kuthetha ukuba xa ezi
oli zisetyenziswe zonke asinakho ukufumana imithombo emitsha naphi
na.(kuba indalo iyakuthatha iminyaka eliwaka-waka ukwenza
enye.)Abenzululwazi bathekelela ukuba, ukuba siyaqhubekeka
ukusebenzisa le mithombo ngamandla njengoko sisenza ngoku, onke
amalahle ayakube ephelile ngonyaka wama-2085,ne oli iyakube iphelile
ngonyaka wama-2030.

Ikhona enye imithombo yamandla efumaneka kwindalo. Umzekelo,


singasebenzisa ukukhanya kwelanga ukukhulisa izityalo kwaye nathi
singafumana amandla xa sisitya ezi zityalo.Sityala izityalo ngalo lonke
xesha, ukuze ukutya okondla imizimba yethu kungapheli. sityala imithi
khon’ukuze singaphelelwa ziinkuni.Singabasa iinkuni ukwenza shushu
emakhaya Sithi ukutya neenkuni ezivela kwizityalo yimi thombo
yamandla ehlaziyekayo.Oku kungenxa yokuba singanakho ukufumana
ezinye iinkuni nokutya ngokuthi sityale.Ukukhanya nobushushu obuvela
elangeni,umoya namandla okubaleka kwamanzi yenye yemithombo
yamandla ehlaziyekayo.

43
Ixabiseke kangakanani I-Oli ekrwada?
Phantse onke amandla kwilizwe lonke avele kwifosili umz:amalahle.
• Inxalenye yamalahle isetyenziswa ekuveliseni umbane osuka
kwizikhululo zombane.
• Yonke Ii-oli ekrwada isetyenziswa ekuveliseni amafutha
ezithuthi,umz:ipetroli,idizili namafutha enqwelo-moya.

Ambalwa kakhulu amazwe apha ehlabathini athi abe nemveliso ye-


oli.La ngamazwe afana ne Saudi Arabia,iIrani,neNigeria.Abizwa
ngokuba ngamazwe avelisa i-oli nayithengisa kumazwe angaphandle-
OPEC (Oil Producing and Exporting Countries.) La ngamazwe
anemigodi ye-oli aze ajongane nokombiwa, ukuhanjiswa, kwa
nokuthengiswa kwayo kumazwe angena oli. Kumaxesha amaninzi
ithengiselwa amanye amazwe iyi oli engacolwanga ukuze wona la
mazwe azicolele ukuzenzela amafutha.

Xa edibene la mazwe eOPEC athi agqibe ngamaxabiso entengiso e-oli


ekrwada kwa nemayithengiswe .Ixabiso lisoloko lisaziwa ngokwexabiso
lebhareli yeDola yaseMerika.Umzekelo;ixabiso le oli ekrwada lingama
$25 ngebhareli, kodwa eli xabiso le oli ekrwada litshintsha mihla le,nje
kancinci kwilizwe jikelele ngokuxhomekeka okokuba kuthengiswe
kangakanani na kwaye ngawaphi na amzwe ayithengayo.

Ilizwe ngalinye elithenga le oli, lithi lihlawulele ukucolwa kwayo yenziwe


amafutha. Amanye amaxabiso ngala:

• Ixabiso lokuyijika le oli ibe zindidi zamafutha


• Ixabiso lokuwathatha nokuwasa la mafutha kubantu
abawasebenzisayo
• Ixabiso lokwakha izikhululo zeprtroli
Emva koko ilizwe ngalinye nalo longeza eyalo irhafu kwixabiso
lamafutha alo.Onke la maxabiso adityaniswa kwixabiso lamafutha
esiwathengayo.

Emzantsi Afrika amanye amaphepha (umz: The Star,Cape Times,


Mercury, nePretoria News) athi apapashe ixabiso le oli ekrwada rhoqo
ngosuku. Athi kwakhona apapashe ixabiso lezimbiwa ezibalulekileyo
ezinjenge Golide, iSilivere, neKopa.

44