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GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page i

Western Cape Primary Science Programme (PSP)


An example of a learning experience in the Natural Sciences

MATTER AND
G 4
M
RADE
ATERIALS
WHAT CAN WE FIND OUT ABOUT MATTER?
6 Investigation – How can we measure the
1 What is Matter? quantity of a liquid?
2 What are solids, liquids and gases? 7 How do we measure the amount of matter we
3 What solids, liquids and gases are around us? have?
4 How do we measure solids, liquids and gases? 8 How do we measure the amount of gas we
5 How much can a medicine spoon hold? have?

We welcome the wide use of these materials.


Please acknowledge PSP. ©PSP 2008
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page ii

DEVELOPED BY WESTERN CAPE PSP TEAM AND TEACHERS


These materials were written to support teachers in their work with learners around the
content area of Matter & Materials. While this is not a complete work schedule, it offers
possibilities for teachers to include other learning experiences and to extend and
develop this further.
This example learning experience shows how you can work towards the following
learning outcomes in the Natural Sciences.

A LO1: Scientific Investigations


The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena,
and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological
and environmental contexts
A LO2: Constructing Science Knowledge
The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and
environmental knowledge
A LO3: Science, Society and the Environment
The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships
between science and technology, society and the environment.

Courses presented by Rose Thomas and Nontsikelelo Mahote


Booklet designed by Welma Odendaal
Illustrated by Nicci Cairns and Janet Ranson

Western Cape Primary Science Programme


Edith Stephens Wetland Park
Lansdowne Road
Philippi 7785
PO Box 529
Howard Place
7450
Tel: 021 691-9039 Fax: 021 691-6350
e-mail: info@psp.org.za
website: www.psp.org.za The PSP is grateful for support from PETROSA
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page iii

Contents

Section 1
1. Learning experiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1–24
2. Assessment tasks
LO2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
LO1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
LO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

Section 2: Teacher resources


Task cards to Photocopy
1. Task card 1. Solids, liquids and gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
2. Task card 2. Assessment for LO2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
3. Task card 3. How do we measure solids liquids and gases? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
4. Task card 4. How much can a medicine spoon hold? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
5. Task card 5. How can we measure the quantity of a liquid? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
6. Task card 6. Assessment for LO1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
7. Task card 7. How do we measure the amount of matter we have? . . . . . . . . . .35
8. Task card 8. Measuring the mass of different objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
9. Task card 9. Assessment for LO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

Traditional story: Umgwebi uSokhetye/The Great Judge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40

Section 3
Extracts from the National Curriculum Statement for Natural Sciences Grades R-9
1. Core knowledge and concepts for Matter and Materials (NCS) . . . . . . . .43–45
2. Learning Outcomes and assessment standards (NCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46–51
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Section 1
1. Learning experiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1–24
2. Assessment tasks
LO2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
LO1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
LO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
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1
Key concept
What is Matter?

g Everything around us
is made of matter

Teacher Task Introduction


Introduce learners to a selection of objects on your table, eg a plastic bag of air, a
glass of water, a book, etc. Then point to all the things around you in the
classroom, eg chalk, walls, tables, floor, etc.
Ask your learners:
a What are all these things made of?
a What is the ‘stuff’ they are made of?
a Where did this ‘stuff’ come from?
Accept many different answers and explanations from learners.

Introduce and explain


Introduce the word ‘matter’ and explain that scientists use this word to
describe all the ‘stuff’ that things are made of.

MATTER

1
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Note to teachers
Everything in the world is made of ‘matter’. All matter is made from very
small particles. These small particles are called atoms. (Atoms occur
naturally throughout the Earth, and in the water and in the atmosphere on
Earth.) There are many different kinds of atoms. So we get many
different kinds of matter. For example, copper is made from
copper atoms. Water is made from hydrogen
atoms combined with oxygen
atoms.
Scientists like to classify
matter in different ways. One way is to classify
it by the kind of atoms that it is made of. The study of
chemistry is the study of different kinds of matter and the atoms that
make up the matter.
One way of classifying matter is to classify it into the three forms or phases of
matter which occur naturally. These are solids, liquids and gases. Some substances
occur naturally in one form. For example, coal is found as a solid; oxygen in air is
found as a gas; and saliva is found as a liquid.
Sometimes it is difficult to decide whether something is a solid, or a liquid, or a
gas. This is because different substances can behave more like a liquid in some
conditions, but more like a solid in other conditions.
For example, when syrup is warm, it’s like a liquid because it pours like a
liquid. But when it is cold we can’t pour it. It’s more like a solid, although it
takes the shape of its container. It’s the same with porridge. Porridge is runny
when it’s hot, but solid when it cools. Uncooked rice can be poured, although each
grain retains its shape like other solids.
Sometimes a solid or liquid substance also gives off a gas, which we can smell but
we can’t see. For example, a hard-boiled egg gives off a smell. So does fruit juice.
However, many things around us are made up of a combination of more than
one form of matter. For example, an orange has a skin which is solid. It has
juice which is liquid. And it gives off a gas which helps us to smell that it’s an
orange. Another example is soda water in a bottle. The bottle is a solid. The
water is a liquid. And the bubbles are a gas (carbon dioxide).
We also know that some substances can change their form or phase. For
example, ice is a solid. But when we heat it, it becomes a liquid – water.
When we heat it even further, it becomes a gas – water vapour. Water is one of
the few substances that occur in all three phases naturally on the Earth’s surface.

Water is one of
the few
substances that
occur in all
three phases
naturally on the
Earth’s surface.
2
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2
Key concept
What are solids, liquids and gases?

g We find matter in
three different forms:
solids, liquids and
gases

Teacher Task Introduction


Introduce the terms:
Solid a book
Liquid water in a glass
Gas air in a bag
Show more examples of solids, liquids and gases, eg cool drink, wood, cardboard
box, balloon or ball with air, point to the air around us, etc.

Preparation
1. Hand out boxes containing common examples of solids, liquids and gases eg
cloth, oil, inflated balloon, helium balloon (ask at the Spur), tea, chocolate,
water, bean, milk, bottle of air, glass bottle, fruit juice, tea bag, bottle of car
fumes, biscuit, egg shell etc.
2. Label all the objects with their names. Ask the learners to read the labels
before they do the task.
Learner Task
Sorting, drawing and writing
1. Sort the things in your box into solids, liquids and gases.
or
e 28 f 2. Write and draw pictures to show which things are solids, which things are
See pag er Task
rn liquids, and which things are gases.
the Lea hotocopy.
p
Card to

3
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SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES

Cloth Oil Bottle of air

Ruler Milk Smell of vinegar

Bread Tea Air in a football

Rice Juice Bottle of petrol fumes

What can all solids do? What can all liquids do? What can all gases do?

a All solids keep their shape. a All liquids can pour. a All gases take the shape of
a All liquids take the shape their container.
of the container. a All gases can escape into
the air.

Consolidation
a Check that each child has sorted the objects correctly and that s/he has
recorded the sorting correctly at her/his table.
a You can do this by getting children to call out the answers. Correct and explain
where necessary. They can then check their own work and make corrections.
a Read through the properties in the last row of the table and explain them to
the children.

Explain
a Explain that the properties of a solid are the things that all solids have in
common. The properties of a liquid are the things that all liquids have or can
do. The properties of a gas are the things that all gases have or can do.

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What solids, liquids and gases are


3 around us?
Key concept
g Some everyday
substances and
objects are combina -
tions of solids, liquids
and gases.

Teacher Task Discussion with class


Ask the class:
a What other solids, liquids and gases do you know of?
a Can all things (matter) be sorted into just these three groups (categories)?
(solid, liquid or gas)
a Is it easy to tell whether something is a solid or a liquid?
a Is porridge a solid or a liquid? Does it have gas in it? Does it have a liquid in
it? When it’s cooked, is it a solid, or a liquid, or a gas?
a What about coca cola, is it a solid, liquid or gas?
Accept many different answers and explanations from your learners.

Teacher and Making a class display with learners


a Ask your learners to bring other examples of substances from their homes to
Learner Task make a class display. Sort the items into solids, liquids and gases and name
them.
a Ask learners to write labels for their substances.
a Make space for a display in your classroom.
a Tell your learners that they are going to do individual writing. Ask them to copy
Learner Task
the sentences into their books and complete them. Then they must make one or
two sentences of their own.

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THE THREE FORMS OF MATTER


Everything in the world is made up of matter.
Matter comes in 3 different forms.
The 3 forms of matter are ———————————,
———————————————————— and ——————————————————
A cloth is a ———————————————
Oil is a ——————————————————————
Chocolate is a ——————————————————
There is ————————— inside a balloon. ETc …

Teacher Task Playing with words


a Play a game in which learners suggest action words (verbs) that describe what
solids liquids and gases can do, and what we can do to them. When you do
this activity, use more than one language. This will help the learners to
develop their understanding of the properties of the three forms of matter.
a Write up your learners’ responses in the form of a mind map. Try to encourage
your learners to think of as many words as they can. You want to build up a
rich collection of words.

SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES


What can solids do? What can liquids do? What can gases do?
What can we do to solids ? What can we do to liquids ? What can we do to gases?
Cut Pour/chitheka Squeeze
Break/yaphula Drink/sela Blow/vuthela
Build Spread/smeer Pop
Drop Splash Smell/joja/ruik
Stack Overflow/phuphuma Burst
Crush/cola Flow/vloei Squash
Bang Stir/zamisa/roer Escape
Push Mix/meng Whistle
Pull/tsala/trek Run/baleka Exhale
Fold/songa/vou Trickle Inhale/sezela
Bend/goba/buig Dribble Etc
Etc Drop
Spit/tshica
Etc

6
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Teacher Task Demonstrate and explain


a Use a lemon or orange to demonstrate that many everyday objects are made up
of a combination of solids, liquids and gases.
a The lemon skin is a solid.
a Scratch the skin and the lemon gives off a gas that you can smell.
a Use other examples as well. For example, boiled egg, raw onion, cut a tomato,
a bottle of coca-cola, etc.

Learner Assessment Task for LO2


See Assessment
Standards for LO2 What solids, liquids and gases are around us?
Grade 4 on page 46. Some things around us are a combination of solid, liquid and gas.
Also Assessment Task The purpose of this assessment task is for learners to:
Card for LO2 on a Name and describe objects, materials and organisms
page 29. a Sort objects and organisms by a visible property.

Instructions
1. Bring as many things as you can from your home, which are a combination of
solid, liquid and gas.
Explain to your group about the solid, liquid and gas in each one.
2. Write and draw in your book about the solids, liquids and gases from your
home. Your writing and drawings must show everything you understand about
solids, liquids and gases.
When you write, use some of the words from the word game.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
What solids, liquids and gases are around us?
Assessment for LO2
Assessment task Assessment criteria
Write and draw in your book about the Learners must:
solids, liquids and gases at your home. a Choose suitable examples of objects from home
that are a combination of solid, liquid and gas.
a Draw pictures of the objects that show
understanding about the solids, liquids and/or
gases in them.
a Make drawings which are clear, neat and detailed.
a Provide labels or captions for the drawings using
key words such as, solid, liquid and gas as well as
appropriate verbs generated in the word game.

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How do we measure solids, liquids


4 and gases?
Key concept Thinking about measuring
There are lots of solids, liquids and gases in our lives. Sometimes we need to
measure how long or how much of something we need.
g In every day life we
measure solids, liquids Is it important to be able to measure solids, liquids and gases? What do
and gases for practical you think?
and safety reasons.

Class discussion about measuring


Encourage your learners to talk and share their experiences about measuring matter
and materials in their lives; for example, measuring how much petrol, weighing the
baby, buying a certain amount of food, measuring how much building material,
buying clothing of the right size, etc.

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This task is to introduce a reason why in certain circumstances we need to measure


Teacher Task solids, liquids and gases.
Tell your learners a story which explains a reason for measuring. (You can tell them
a story that you know, use the one below, or make up a story that shows how
important it is to measure. Also see the traditional story on page 40)

Once upon a time there was a little girl called Thandi. She lived with
her grandmother. One morning she woke up feeling terrible. She was
hot and sweaty and her chest was hurting. When she tried to get out of
bed her legs felt weak and wobbly. She coughed and coughed, which
made her chest even more sore.
Thandi’s grandmother could see that something was wrong. She put her
hand on Thandi’s forehead and it felt very hot. She could hear Thandi
coughing and wheezing. She got a big fright. She began to look for the
medicine that the doctor had given her the last time Thandi had such a
high temperature. This liquid medicine would help to lower Thandi’s
temperature and make her sleep. It would also help to stop the pain in
her chest.
Thandi’s grandmother searched for the medicine. At last she found it in
the box above the sink. She read the instructions on the bottle to see
how much to give Thandi. Then she looked for the medicine spoon but
all the spoons were at their Auntie’s house. She had borrowed them for
the party the next day.
So Thandi’s grandmother took the medicine to Thandi and told her to
Note to teachers drink just a little bit from the bottle.
Use examples of
medicines from the
chemist, homeopathic
medicines and herbal Discussion
remedies – or ask To help learners understand why it is important to measure substances
your learners to bring a What do you think happened to Thandi? Did she get better?
examples from home. a Did her grandmother do the right thing?
You will find that all a What should she have done?
of these have a Do traditional healers measure the amount of medicines? How do they do this?
different ways of a Look at a bottle of medicine. What measurements are shown on the bottle? Is
measuring the dose. there more than one? What do these measurements tell us?
Sometimes it is
a Why do some medicines have directions on the bottle?
measured in drops.
a What do the directions tell us?
Sometimes it is
a Why should we follow the directions properly?
measured in spoons.
a Why should we always only take the recommended amount (measurement) of
And sometimes it is
measured in milli- this medicine?
litres. a Do you think it is important to measure accurately? Why?
a Why do you think the amount of medicine is different for adults and children?
a Can you think of any other situations where it is important to measure matter
accurately?
a Do people measure gas? Why is it important to measure gas accurately?
a Do people measure solids? Why?

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Learner Task How do we measure solids, liquids and gases?


Measuring medicines
or
e 30 f 1. Bring some empty medicine boxes and bottles to your class. Look for the
See pag er Task
rn instructions found on them. Sometimes there is a paper with instructions inside
the Lea hotocopy.
p
Card to a medicine box.
2. Read the instructions and find out how much medicine must be taken.
3. Then make a list in your books like this:

MEASURING MEDICINES
Name of medicine Dose: Amount of medicine

For a child For an adult


Panado syrup
Panado tablets
Grandpa powders
Borstal
Enos

Discuss
Discuss these questions with your group
Questions
1. Why do we have to measure some medicines before we take them?
2. Why is the dose different for children and for adults?
3. What will happen if a child is given an adult’s dose?
4. What will happen if an adult is given a child’s dose?
5. How will you find out what the dose is of a medicine?

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5
Key concepts
How much can a medicine spoon hold?

Note to teachers about measurement


g Most medicine spoons When scientists measure matter, they use
have an indication of a many different kinds of measurements. We
measurement on them. are focusing on one type of measurement,
Sometimes they have a called the volume, in this learning experience.
measurement for a full This measurement is used when we want to find out how much space a certain solid
spoon (5ml) and some- or liquid takes up. This measurement is called the volume. We measure it in units
times they have a called millilitres (ml) and litres (l).
measurement for half Millilitres are very small units. They are used for measuring small quantities, which
a spoon (2.5ml). take up a small space. Litres are large units. They are used to measure larger quantities,
which take up a larger space. A medicine spoon is used to measure powdery solids and
liquid medicines.
Medicine spoons usually have a measurement on them so that the medicine dose can
be accurately measured. A medicine spoon usually contains space for 5ml of liquid or
powder. The space that the liquid or solid occupies in the spoon is called the volume.
This is a measure of the quantity of liquid.

Teacher Task Preparation


a Provide different liquids for the learners to measure, for example, sugar-water,
water, cool drink, milk, etc.
a Provide different powders for the learners to measure, for example, Maizena,
salt, sand, flour, coffee, etc.
a Demonstrate the following procedure to the learners.

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Learner Task What quantity of liquid or solid do we have?


Measuring the quantity of liquid or solid in a medicine spoon
See page 31 for
the Learner Task How much water in one teaspoonful?
Card to photocopy. 1. Take 1 medicine spoon of water.
2. Suck it up into a syringe.
3. Read how much water is in the syringe.
Volume =
4. Squirt the liquid from the syringe into a measuring cylinder.
5. Read how much water is in the measuring cylinder.
Volume =
Use the same procedure to measure medicine spoonfuls of other liquids.
Record
Liquid Syringe Measuring cylinder
1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . .volume = . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . .ml
1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . .volume = . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . .ml
1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . .volume = . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . .ml
Now use the same procedure to measure medicine spoonfuls of powder.
You will not be able to suck the powder into the syringe. You must pour it into the
back.
Powder Syringe Measuring cylinder
1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . .volume = . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . .ml
1 spoonful of . . . . . . . .volume = . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . .ml
1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . .volume = . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . .ml

Consolidation
a Help the learners to come to a conclusion about what they have found out.
They will find that the quantity of liquid or powder in the spoon is always 5ml,
no matter what liquid or powder you use.
a Write the following question on the chalkboard. Help them to answer it and
ask your learners to write the question and answer into their science books.

HOW MUCH CAN A MEDICINE SPOON HOLD?


1 medicine spoon always measures
a quantity of 5ml, no matter what
liquid or powder we use.
The liquid or powder occupies a space
of 5ml in the medicine spoon when it
is full.
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6
Key concepts
INVESTIGATION
How can we measure the
g We measure liquids in quantity of a liquid?
units called millilitres
(ml).This is for very
small amounts of liquid. Teacher Task
g We also measure liquids
in units called litres (l). Introduction
This is for larger Introduce and explain the concept of volume. Introduce and explain the units for
amounts of liquid. measuring the volume, (ml and l). Remind your learners that these units are used
g There are 1000 internationally to measure volume. Remind your learners about medicine spoons as
millilitres of liquid in 1 well. Remind them that medicine spoons can hold 5ml of liquid.
litre.
g When we are measuring Preparation
Prepare your learners to carry out an investigation. They must work out how to
the quantity of liquid,
measure the quantity (the volume) of water that will fill different containers.
we say we are
measuring the volume
Investigation
of the liquid.The volume
The purpose of this investigation is for learners to:
tells us how much space
a Experience the size of different volumes of water
the quantity of liquid
a Find out that a big volume is made up of multiples of smaller volumes. This will
takes up. So the volume
help them to begin to convert from smaller units to larger units.
of a liquid is measured
Apparatus
in millilitres and litres.
For each group you will need:
a Plastic medicine spoons
a A baby food jar
a A 500ml cool drink bottle/box
a A 1-litre plastic milk bottle
a A 2-litre milk bottle
a A funnel (You can cut a coke bottle to make a funnel.)
a A bottle or jug of water.

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Note to teachers
Some baby food jars have measurements on the side. Point is generally filled up to the neck. Draw your learners’
out these measurements to the children. Show them that attention to this. Then you can tell them to fill up their
the small baby food jars contain 100ml of liquid when they bottles to the neck and after that to do the calculation.
are filled up to the neck of the jar, not up to the lid. In the case of bottles that are used for fizzy drinks (like
This is a useful measurement because they can put 20 of coke bottles), the liquid is not filled up to the neck. A
the 5ml medicine spoons of water in it to fill it to 100ml. space is left for expansion of the gas in the bottle. If the
These jars are also useful because when you use them to fill children use these bottles and fill them up to the neck, then
up the 500ml, 1l and 2l bottles, the calculation will be easy they will measure a bit more than the 1l or 2l printed on
for the children. the bottle.
When learners do their own investigation, they can choose
Let them work out for themselves how they will go about
any container and fill it up to the neck. Then they can do
measuring the quantity of water in their containers.
their calculation. In an investigation you can expect many
Remind them to pour carefully.
different containers and answers from different learners.
When you select 500ml, 1l and 2l bottles for this activity, But you must check that they have used a suitable method
try to use milk or juice bottles because the liquid in them to measure, and that their calculations are correct.

Group activity
Learner Task
How can we measure the quantity of a liquid?
See page 32 for Measure and calculate the amount of water that will fill different containers.
the Learner Task a Remember 5ml of water can fill 1 medicine spoon.
Card to photocopy. 1. Use the water and containers to measure how much water will fill each
container. Record your findings.

PREDICT DO COUNT CALCULATE


How many do you think This is what you must How many did fit into How much water did
will fit into the bottle? do the bottle? you measure? (ml or l)
How many medicine Pour water How many medicine spoons How much water is
spoons of water will of water did it take to fill there now in the
fill the baby food the baby food bottle? bottle?
bottle?

How many baby food Pour water How many baby food How much water is
bottles of water bottles of water did it take there in the bigger
will fill the to fill the small fruit juice bottle?
small fruit bottle?
juice bottle?

How many baby Pour water How much water is there How much water is
food bottles in the small milk bottle? there in the bigger
of water did bottle?
it take to fill
fill the small milk bottle?

How many baby Pour water How many baby food bottles How much water is
food bottles of of water did it take to fill there in the bigger
water will fill the big milk bottle? bottle?
the big milk
bottle?

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Teacher Task Consolidation


Check that your learners have carried out the activity and done the
calculations correctly. Make sure that they have completed their table
correctly and that their answers are correct.

Learner Task Writing Task


Write the following questions on the chalkboard. Help your learners to
write the questions and the correct answers in their books. They can
draw the container.

WE MEASURED HOW MUCH LIQUID WE HAVE


1. How much liquid do we have in a medicine spoon?
We have ————————— of liquid in a medicine spoon.
2. How much water do we have in a baby food bottle?
We have ————————— of liquid in a baby food bottle.
3. How much water do we have in a small juice bottle?
We have ————————— of liquid in a small juice bottle.
4. How much liquid do we have in a small milk bottle?
We have ————————— of liquid in a small milk bottle.
5. How much liquid do we have in big milk bottle?
We have ————————— of liquid in a big milk bottle

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See pages 44 for Assessment Task for LO1


the Assessment
Standards for LO1 INVESTIGATION
for Grades 4 & 5, To measure how much water will fill my container.
and page 33 for
the Assessment Task The purpose of this investigation is for learners to:
Card for LO1 to a work out a way to measure and calculate how much water will fill a container
photocopy. a carry out the procedure they have planned using small measuring instruments
a report on the procedure and the results obtained

Instructions
1. Bring any container from home.
2. Talk about how you will find out how many millilitres (ml) of water will fit into
your container.
3. Carry out your plan.
4. Draw and write to tell how you found out.

Suggested drawing and writing frame to help learners record what they
did.

This is my container

Predicting:
I think my container will hold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Doing:
This is what I did . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
............................................
Calculating:
This is my calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
............................................
I calculated that my container holds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
of water
My prediction was correct/incorrect
Was your prediction a good one? Explain why to your group.

16
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 17

Assessment Task for Teacher task


LO1
(cont.) Group reflection
Conduct a group discussion that helps the learners to reflect on their
investigation. Use these questions to help them.
1. Compare your prediction and your final answer. How good was your prediction?
2. Was it easy to measure the quantity of liquid in your container? How accurate
were your measurements?
3. Was it easy to make accurate measurements? What was difficult to do?
4. How important is it to make accurate measurements and calculations?
5. What would have helped you to be more accurate?

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Investigation: To measure how much water will fill my
container
Assessment for LO1
Assessment task Assessment criteria
Measure how much water your Learners must:
container will hold a Bring a suitable container
a Make a reasonable prediction of the
quantity of water it will hold
a Work out a reasonable and accurate way of
finding the volume of the container using
known measurements such as medicine
spoons and small bottles
a Draw and write a method that shows their
understanding
a Show any calculations
a Compare their answer and prediction and
reflect on the accuracy of their prediction.

17
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 18

7
Key concepts
How do we measure the
amount of matter we have?
Teacher Task
g The amount of matter in Note to teach
a substance is called the Introduction In the pre er
vious lea
mass. Talk with your learners about shopping for food. Show experienc rning
es we ha
g We measure mass in them some food packets from sugar, mealie meal, flour, measured v e
the volum
grams (g) or kilograms rice, a box of tea, and so on. quantity e or
of liquids
(kg). powders. an d
g We can measure the The volum
us how m e tells
amount of matter (mass) uch spac
somethin e
in a substance using a g takes u
y p or can
on occupy. B
beamer balance.This ol measure
ut when
w e
P mass we
measurement is used are
measurin
when scientists measure g the am
matter in ount of
the amount of matter it.
there is in a solid, liquid For exam
ple, a very
or gas.This measurement piece of large
polystyre
is called the mass. We have a big n e will
volume b
measure it in units called small am ut a
ount of m
grams (g) and kilograms it (mass) a t ter in
. A small
(kg). We use grams (g) lead will p iece of
for small amounts of have a sm
volume b a ll
matter. We use kilograms ut will h
large amo av e a very
(kg) for larger amounts unt of m
(mass). A a tt e r in it
of matter. loaf of bre
have a sm ad will
all mass
brick wil but a
l have a
large mas
s.
Ask your learners:
a When we shop for sugar, how do we know how much sugar we are buying?
(Draw their attention to the measurements on the packets and get your
learners to read them.)
a Do all food packets have the same amount of food in them?
a What units are used on the packets to measure the food?
a Which units are used for the bigger amounts?
a Which units are used to measure the smaller amounts?

Introduce the word mass to the children and explain the concept. Also introduce
and explain the units g and kg. Explain how to measure mass by demonstrating
how to use a beamer balance. When we use a beamer balance we put the
substance we are measuring in one side and a known mass in the other side. If the
two sides balance, then the masses are the same.

When these marks are


in line it is balanced Beamer balance

18
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 19

Learner Task How do we measure the amount of matter we have?


a Use a balance to measure how much matter 6 medicine spoons hold.
a Bring some substances from home that you would like to measure.
See page 35 for the
Substance What quantity (volume) How much matter
Learner Task Card
do you have? (ml) mass do you have?(g)
to photocopy.
6 medicine spoons of rice 30 ml
6 medicine spoons of sugar 30 ml
6 medicine spoons of water 30 ml
6 medicine spoons of flour 30 ml
6 medicine spoons of sand 30 ml
6 medicine spoons of stones 30 ml
6 medicine spoons of salt water 30 ml
6 medicine spoons of tea 30 ml
6 medicine spoons of salt 30 ml
6 medicine spoons of oil 30 ml
6 medicine spoons of sugar water 30 ml

Teacher Task Consolidation


Make a class graph with your learners to show how much mass there is in 6
medicine spoons of different kinds of matter.

Graph to show the mass of 6 medicine


spoons of different kinds of matter
Mass (g)

rice sugar water flour sand stones salt tea salt oil sugar
water water
6 medicine spoons of different kinds of matter

a Which substance has the most matter (mass) in 6 medicine spoons?


a Which substance has the least matter (mass)in 6 medicine spoons?
a Did any substances have the same amount of matter (mass)in 6 medicine spoons?
a Do all substances have the same amount of matter (mass)?

19
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 20

Suggested Writing Activity


Possible sentences
Ask your learners to draw pictures in their books, and to write sentences
about what they found. For example:

DIFFERENT SUBSTANCES CONTAIN


DIFFERENT AMOUNTS OF MATTER
• Six medicine spoons of rice has 100g of
matter.
• Six medicine spoons of water has 60g
of matter.
• Six medicine spoons of …………………………
has …………… of matter.

Teacher Task Comparing


When we compare things, we have an opportunity to introduce the words less
than, more than, and the same as.
For example:
a The mass of the flour is less than the mass of the oil.
a The mass of the sugar is more than the mass of the flour.
a The mass of the salt is the same as the mass of the sand.

Extension Learner Task


Measuring the mass of other objects
Ask your learners to bring in other things and measure their masses using a
beamer balance. For example, they may bring erasers, pencils, coins, bottle tops,
small stones, and any other small objects. Try to get them to bring in things of
different sizes. Polystyrene objects work well because even if the object is large, it
has very little mass. Metals also work well because even small pieces of metal have
quite a high mass.
Ask your learners to record the masses of the objects and then draw a bar graph
sequencing the objects from those with the least mass to those with the most
Learner Task mass.

Measuring the mass of different objects


See page 37 for 1. Bring some objects from home or school.
the Learner Task 2. Find the mass of each object.
Card to photocopy. 3. Record the mass.
4. Draw a graph showing the different masses. Start with the smallest mass. Then
record each mass in order. End with the largest mass on your graph.

20
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 21

Record the mass

Object (Draw or name) Mass (g)

4g

Graph to show the mass of different objects

Graph to show the mass of different objects

bottle- Pencil Eraser Ruler


top

Consolidation
1. Discuss the following questions with your learners. Refer to the results of their
measurements in order to decide on the answers.
Questions
a Do all objects have the same amount of matter?
a Do all objects have the same mass?
a Do bigger objects always have a bigger mass?
a Do smaller objects always have a smaller mass?
2. Then get your learners to write the questions and answers into their books.
3. Write the conclusion with them.

Conclusion: Different objects have different


amounts of matter. The amount of matter
which something has, does not depend on its size.

21
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 22

8
Key concepts
How do we measure the
amount of gas we have?
Teacher Task
g A gas is made up of
particles of matter and Thinking about measuring gases
so we can measure its 1. Ask your learners
mass. a What gases do we use around the house?
g It is difficult to a Do people ever need to measure a gas? When?
measure the volume a How do you think you can measure how much gas you
(the quantity) of a gas. have? Would it be easy to measure a gas?
This is because a gas
will spread out until it Finding out about measuring gases
fits any size of 2. Then ask your learners to find out whether the gas in gas
container. So the bottles (eg BP gas and Cadac gas) is measured in grams and
volume of the gas kilograms or in millilitres and litres. They must also find out
changes depending on if you can buy different amounts of gas, and make a note of
the size of its the different amounts of gas we can buy. Learners can look at
container. the gas bottles at home or they can find out at garages and
places where gas bottles are filled.

Note to teacher
The gas we buy is always measured in kilograms, not in container, it will have a small volume. If the same mass
litres. It is difficult to measure the quantity (volume) of of gas is now put into a bigger container it will spread
the gas. This is because gas just spreads out to the size of out to fill the container, and its volume will be large,
its container. If a certain mass of gas is put in a small even though it is still the same amount of matter.

Teacher Task Explain


Draw the following diagram on the chalkboard and explain what it represents to
your learners.

1 kg gas 1 kg gas 1 kg gas 1 kg gas


You can tell the learners that:
There is the same number of particles of gas in each of the containers. You can
count them on the picture. We can squeeze them into a small container. Or, we can
put them into a bigger container. If we put the same number of particles of gas
into a bigger container, they spread out.
But the number of particles stays the same. The amount of matter is the same.
It has the same mass of 1kg.

22
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 23

When we want to buy gas, we want to be sure of the amount of gas matter we are
paying for. So the gas is squashed (compressed) into the bottle until a certain
mass (measured in kg) is reached. Then you know that you are buying a certain
amount of that gas matter.

1 kg gas
5 kg gas 25 kg gas
45 kg gas 90 kg gas

Learner Task Look at some gas bottles


a What is the amount of gas matter in the bottles?
a Are there different sized bottles? How much matter do these bottles contain?
a Draw and write to explain how much gas is in the bottles you looked at.

1 kg 5 kg 2 5 kg 4 5 kg 9 0 kg

a How does the person who fills up the bottles know when the bottle is full?
Discuss
The purpose of this discussion is to prepare the learners for the assessment task
for LO3
Lead a class discussion using questions like this:
a What sort of gases do we use in our lives?
a What sorts of devices (things) need gas to make them work?
a Why do these devices need gas to make them work?
a Why are these devices useful to us?

The following are some examples of such devices:


• a bicycle pump • a football
• a bicycle or motor car tyre • a compressor to pump up tyres
• air brakes on a bus • a compressor which powers a jack-hammer
• pumping a primus stove • a gas stove to cook
• a parachute • a kite
• a deep sea diver’s air tanks • aerosol cans
• the doors of a bus which use compressed air, etc.

23
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 24

See the Assessment


Assessment Task for LO3
standards for LO3
for Grade 4 on
The gases in our lives – we use gas to make things work
The purpose of this assessment task is to:
page 48 and see
page 39 for the a understand how gases are used in our lives
Learner Task Card a identify technological devices that use a gas to make them work
to photocopy. a explain the purpose and usefulness of these devices.

Assessment task Learner Assessment Task for LO3


The gases in our lives
We use gas to make some things work.
Devices that use gas are useful to us.

Discuss
1. Think about the places where you live. Are there any things that use gas to
make them work?
Look at home
2. Look at home for all the things that need a gas to make them work.
Think about how the gas makes each thing work
3. Explain to your group how each thing works.
4. Explain what each thing is used for.
Do
5. Draw and write about the things that use a gas to make them work. You must
show that you understand how gas helps each of the things to work. You must
also show how these devices are useful to us.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Assessment task Assessment criteria
Draw and write to tell The learner must:
about the things that a Provide suitable examples of technological
use a gas to make devices that make use of a gas to work, eg.
them work. a bicycle pump, a football, a tyre, a
compressor to pump up tyres, a compressor
which powers a jack-hammer, air brakes on a
bus, pumping a primus stove, using a gas
stove to cook, a parachute, a kite, the doors
of a bus which use compressed air, a deep-
sea diver’s air tanks etc.
a Provide information about what these
devices are used for.
a Show some understanding of the purpose of
the gas in the device.
a Provide a suitable heading.
a Draw clearly and write legibly using suitable
key words.

24
PERIOD 1 PERIOD 2 PERIOD 3 PERIOD 4 PERIOD 5
GR 4 M&M 2008

Learning exp. 1 • Learners sort draw and Explain properties of Learner writing task • Playing with words
Introduce: What is matter? write about solids, solids, liquids and gases • What solids, liquids and • Introduce objects with
liquids and gases Learning exp. 3 gases are around us? combinations of solid,
10/20/08

Learning exp. 2
Introduce: What are solids, • Check sorting Introduce: What solids, liquid and gas
liquids and gases? • Consolidation liquids and gases are • Prepare learners for
3:26 PM

• Show examples • Ask learners to bring around us? assessment task –


examples for a class • Make a class display learners must bring some
display objects from home
Page 25

PERIOD 6 PERIOD 7 PERIOD 8 PERIOD 9 PERIOD 10


Assessment task for LO2 Learning exp. 4 Discuss questions about Learner task Learning exp. 6
• Learners write and draw: How do we measure solids, measuring medicines What quantity of liquid or • Introduce investigation
What solids, liquids and liquids and gases? Learning exp. 5 solid do we have? – How do we measure
gases are around us? • Class discussion about Introduce: How much can a • Consolidation the quantity of a liquid?
• NB Decide when to give measuring medicine spoon hold? • Introduce and explain
feedback about Learner task • Demonstrate procedure measurement of volume
assessment task • Measuring medicines and units
• Discussion about
apparatus
SUGGESTED WORK SCHEME

PERIOD 11 PERIOD 12 PERIOD 13 PERIOD 14 PERIOD 15


Investigation • Consolidation about • Check corrections for Assessment task for LO1 Learner writing and
Learner task measuring amount of writing task Learners do investigation: drawing task to record
• Measure and calculate water • Prepare learners for To measure how much their investigation
the amount of water • Learner writing task assessment task water will fil my container?
that will fit into about: We measured how • Ask learners to bring • NB. Decide when to give
different containers much liquid we have containers from home feedback about
assessment task

25
26
GR 4 M&M 2008

PERIOD 16 PERIOD 17 PERIOD 18 PERIOD 19 PERIOD 20


Group reflection about the Learning exp. 7 Learner task • Consolidation Learner extension task
accuracy of the • Introduce: How can we • Measuring mass and • Learner writing task to Measuring the mass of
10/20/08

investigation measure the amount of recording compare the masses of other objects
matter we have? • Check measuring and different objects • Recording
• Explain concept of mass recording
3:26 PM

and units
• Demonstrate how to use
a beamer balance
Page 26

PERIOD 21 PERIOD 22 PERIOD 23 PERIOD 24 PERIOD 25


Learner extension task Learning exp. 8 • Learners draw and write • Prepare learners for Assessment task for LO3
continued Introduce: How can we about measurements on assessment task Learners do assessment
• Drawing a graph measure the amount of gas bottles • Discussion about task on: The gases in our
• Consolidation gas we have? • Explain about the devices that work with lives
• Discussing questions • Discussion about amount of gas matter in gas • NB Decide when to give
measuring the amount different bottle sizes • Prepare learners to look feedback about
of gas at home for devices assessment task
• Prepare learners to look that need gas to work
at gas bottles at home
This is SUGGESTED WORK SCHEME (cont.)

M
a

ustment
s.
assumes heme. It

own adj ake your


periods. 0-minute
work sc suggested
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 27

Section 2
Teacher Resources
Task cards to Photocopy
1. Task card 1. Solids, liquids and gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
2. Task card 2. Assessment for LO2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
3. Task card 3. How do we measure solids liquids and gases . . . . . .30
4. Task card 4. How much can a medicine spoon hold? . . . . . . . . . . . .31
5. Task card 5. How can we measure the quantity of a liquid? . . . . . .32
6. Task card 6. Assessment for LO1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
7. Task card 7. How do we measure the amount of matter we have? 35
8. Task card 8. Measuring the mass of different objects . . . . . . . . . .37
9. Task card 9. Assessment for LO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

Traditional story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40

27
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 28

LEARNER TASK CARD 1 TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

Solids, liquids and gases

Sorting, drawing and writing


1. Sort the things in your box into solids, liquids and gases.
2. Write and draw pictures to show which things are solids, which things are liquids, and which
things are gases.

Solids Liquids Gases

What can all solids do? What can all liquids do? What can all gases do?
a All solids keep their shape. a All liquids can pour. a All gases take the shape
a All liquids take the shape of their container.
of the container. a All gases can escape
into the air.

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GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 29

ASSESSMENT TASK CARD 2 TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

What solids, liquids and gases are around us?

Assessment task card for LO2

Some things around us are a combination of solid, liquid and gas.


Instructions
1. Bring as many things as you can from your home, which are a combination of solid,
liquid and gas.
Explain to your group about the solid, liquid and gas in each one.
2. Write and draw in your book about the solids, liquids and gases from your home.
Your writing and drawings must show everything you understand about solids, liquids
and gases.
When you write, use some of the words from the word game.

29
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 30

LEARNER TASK CARD 3 TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

How do we measure solids, liquids and gases?

Measuring medicines
1. Bring some empty medicine boxes and bottles to your class. Look for the instructions found
on them. Sometimes there is a paper with instructions inside a medicine box.
2. Read the instructions and find out what how much of the medicine must be taken.
3. Then make a list in your books like this:

MEASURING MEDICINES

Name of medicine Dose: Amount of medicine

For a child For an adult


Panado syrup
Panado tablets
Grandpa powders
Borstal
Enos

Discuss
Discuss these questions with your group
Questions
5. Why do we have to measure some medicines before we take them?
6. Why is the dose different for children and for adults?
7. What will happen if a child is given an adult’s dose?
8. What will happen if an adult is given a child’s dose?
5. How will you find out what the dose is of a medicine?

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GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 31

LEARNER TASK CARD 4 TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

How much can a medicine spoon hold?

Measure the quantity of liquid or solid in a medicine spoon


How much water in one medicine spoonful?
1. Take 1 medicine spoon of water.
2. Suck it up into a syringe.
3. Read how much water is in the syringe. Volume =
4. Squirt the liquid from the syringe into a measuring cylinder.
5. Read how much water is in the measuring cylinder volume.
Volume =

Use the same procedure to measure medicine spoonfuls of other liquids.

Record:
Liquid Syringe Measuring cylinder
1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml
1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml
1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml

Now use the same procedure to measure medicine spoonfuls of powder.


You will not be able to suck the powder into the syringe. You must pour it into the back.

Powder Syringe Measuring cylinder


1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml
1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml
1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml

How much can a medicine spoon hold?

.........................................................................

.........................................................................

.........................................................................

31
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 32

LEARNER TASK CARD 5 TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

How can we measure the quantity of liquid?

Group activity Measure and calculate


a Measure and calculate the amount of water that will fill different
containers
Remember 5ml of water can fill 1 medicine spoon.
a Use the water and containers to measure how much water will fill each
container.
a Record your findings.

PREDICT DO COUNT CALCULATE


How many do you think This is what you must How many did fit into How much water did
will fit into the bottle? do the bottle? you measure? (ml or l)
How many medicine Pour water How many medicine spoons How much water is
spoons of water will of water did it take to fill there now in the
bottle? fill the baby food the baby food bottle?
bottle?

How many baby food Pour water How many baby food How much water is
bottles of water bottles of water did it take there in the bigger
will fill the to fill the small fruit juice bottle?
small fruit
juice bottle?

How many baby Pour water How much water is there How much water is
food bottles in the small milk bottle? there in the bigger
of water did bottle?
it take to fill
fill the small
milk bottle?

How many baby Pour water How many baby food bottles How much water is
food bottles of of water did it take to fill there in the bigger
water will fill the big milk bottle? bottle?
the big milk
bottle?

32
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 33

LEARNER TASK CARD 6 TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

Investigation
How much water will fill my container?
Learner Assessment Task Card for LO1
To measure how much water will fill my container
1. Bring any container from home.
2. Talk about how you will find out how many millilitres (ml) of water will fill your container.
3. Carry out your plan.
4. Draw and write to tell how you found out.

This is my container

Predicting:
I think my container will hold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Doing:
This is what I did . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..........................................................
..........................................................
..........................................................
..........................................................
..........................................................
Calculating:
This is my calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..........................................................
I calculated that my container holds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of water
My prediction was correct/incorrect
Was your prediction a good one? Explain why to your group.

33
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 34

Learner Assessment Task Card (cont).

Group reflection
Discuss these questions with your group
These questions will help you to think about what you have done.
1. Compare your prediction and your final answer. How good was your prediction?
2. Was it easy to measure the quantity of liquid in your container?
How accurate were your measurements?
3. Was it easy to make accurate measurements? What was difficult to do?
4. How important is it to make accurate measurements and calculations?
5. What would have helped you to be more accurate?

34
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 35

LEARNER TASK CARD 7 TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

How do we measure the amount of matter we have?

1. Draw a picture of a beamerbalance to show when the masses are


balanced on both sides.
2. Use a beamer balance to measure how much matter
6 medicine spoons hold.
3. Bring some substances from home that you would
like to measure.

Beamer balance
MEASURING
Substance What quantity (volume) How much matter
do you have? (ml) mass do you have? (g)

6 medicine spoons of rice

6 medicine spoons of ……………

6 medicine spoons of ……………

6 medicine spoons of ……………

6 medicine spoons of ……………

6 medicine spoons of ……………

6 medicine spoons of ……………

6 medicine spoons of ……………

6 medicine spoons of ……………

6 medicine spoons of ……………

6 medicine spoons of
…………………………………………

35
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 36

Graph to show how much mass there is in 6 medicine spoons of


different kinds of matter
y
mass (g)

x
rice
6 teaspoons of matter

Questions about your graph


a Which substance has the most matter in 6 medicine spoons?
a Which substance has the least matter in 6 medicine spoons?
a Did any substances have the same amount of matter in 6
medicine spoons?
a Do all substances have the same amount of matter?

36
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 37

LEARNER TASK CARD 8 TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

Measuring the mass of different objects


1. Bring some objects from home or school. Find big things and small things.
2. Find the mass of each object.
3. Record the mass.
4. Draw a graph showing the different masses. Sequence the masses from the smallest to the largest
on the graph.

Record the mass


Object (Draw or name) Mass (g)

Graph to show the mass of different objects


y
mass (g)

different objects

37
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 38

Questions
a Do all objects have the same amount of matter?
a Do all objects have the same mass?
a Do bigger objects always have a bigger mass?
a Do smaller objects always have a smaller mass?
Conclusion
Different objects have different amounts of matter. The amount of matter
which something has, does not depend on its size.

38
GR 4 M&M 2008 10/20/08 3:26 PM Page 39

Assessment
LEARNER TASK CARD 9 TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

The gases in our lives

Assessment Task Card for LO3

u We use gas to make some things work

u Devices that use gas are useful to us

Assessment Task
The purpose of this task is for you to understand that we use gas to make things
work.

Discuss
1. Think about the places where you live. Are there any things
that use a gas to make them work?

Look at home
2. Look at home for all the things that need a gas to make them
work.
Think about how the gas makes each thing work.
3. Explain to your group how each thing works.
4. Explain what each thing is used for.

Do
5. Draw and write about the things that use a gas to make them work. You must
show that you understand how gas helps each of the things to work. You must
also show how these devices are useful to us.

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Traditional story about measuring


Umgwebi uSokhetye
Kwathi kekaloku ngantsomi, kwakukho iimpuku ezimbini. Zaye zangena ndlwini ithile
zagqogqa, zagqugqisa zifuna ezingakutyayo. ‘Yiza uzekubona. Nasi isonka samasi!
Esingaka sona! Sizakutya sonele!’ Yasebeza yatsho enye ibiza ugxa wayo. Zazama
ukwahlulelana ngesisonka kodwa suka zaxabana. ‘Hayi suka ucinga ukuba ndingafumana
isonka esingaka ukubasincinane ndakugqiba ukuza necebo lokuya kuzingela?’ Yatsho
enye impuku ingonelisekanga sisabelo sayo. ‘uNotshe! Ndim osibhaqileyo esi sonka
samasi. Ndimele ukufumana isixa esikhulu kunawe!’ yatsho le mpuku iligqabi
ngumsindo. ‘Khawukhe ume ngomsindomfondini. Ndicinga ukuba khesiye kumgwebi u
Sokhetye asisombululele le ntsumantsumane.’
Zanduluka zigxalathelana ukusinga kwaSokhetye. Zifike zawubeka umcimbi kuSokhetye
umgwebi omkhulu. ‘Ndinikeni isonka eso, ndinahlulele ngokulinganayo kuba ibe
imiyizamo yenu nobabini ukuze nisifumane esisonka samasi’
Wasithabatha isonka umgwebi waluma amaqhekeza amabini wawabeka esikalini sakhe.
Kuthe kuba lamaqhekeza ebe engalingani, wazama ukuwalinganisa ngokuthi alume afake
kuye emlonyeni. Waqhuba ezama ukuwalinganisa. Grenye-grenye watsho ngomkhulu
umthamo, wafaka emlonyeni.
‘Yoo! Saphela isonka sethu madoda! Sinike Mgwebi nokuba azilingani,’ bakhale batsho
oompukwazana, batsho basithi hlasi isonka sabo samasi babaleka naso.

What comes up from this story is the importance of knowing how


to use a meausuring instrument properly.

The Great Judge


Retold by Nontsikelelo Mahote
Once upon a time there were two little mice. They went into a farmer’s house searching
for food. ‘Come and see,’ whispered one of them to his friend. ‘I’ve found some cheese.
It’s so big we shall eat and feast!’
The two mice tried to share the cheese but soon they quarrelled. ‘I deserve better! I
came up with the idea of hunting in the first place,’ argued one of them. ‘But I found
the cheese and I deserve a bigger share!’ shouted the other angrily. ‘Hold on, I have a
better idea! Let’s go to the Great Judge to sort out our argument.’
So off they went to the Great Judge with the pieces of cheese. The Great Judge listened
to the two mice as they told him about their argument. He reprimanded them for nearly
destroying their friendship over a small piece of cheese. Then he put both pieces of
cheese on a balance. ‘Gr-u-m, gr-u-m, gr-u-m.’ The Great Judge deliberately bit a
mouthful off one of the pieces of cheese as he tried to balance the cheese. One side of
the balance went up and he had to take another bite. This time he took a bite from the
other piece of cheese, as he tried to get the two pieces to balance.
‘No! No! No! Stop! You’re finishing our cheese. Give it back to us, even if they’re not
equal,’ screamed both mice. And they grabbed what was left of the two pieces of cheese
and ran away.

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Section 3
Extracts from the National Curriculum Statement for Natural Sciences Grades R-9
1. Core knowledge and concepts for Matter and Materials (NCS) . . . . . . . .42–44
2. Learning Outcomes and assessment standards (NCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44–49

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Matter and Materials

The paragraphs below have been extracted from the NCS policy
documents. We have numbered each paragraph and supplied a
heading for each paragraph. This makes the paragraphs easier to work
with.The paragraphs describe the knowledge and concepts the learners
must know.

CORE KNOWLEDGE AND CONCEPTS IN


MATTER AND MATERIALS

Structure, Reactions and


Properties and Uses of Materials
Changes of Materials
Unifying statement: We can classify materials by their Unifying statement: We can modify materials in
properties, in order to establish types and patterns. ways we choose, through our understanding of their
Properties determine the selection of materials for sub-structure.
particular uses.

Foundation Phase
1. Sorting materials according to their different 2. Mixing different substances
properties Substances can be mixed and sometimes changes
Materials have different properties such as texture, can be seen, such as the dissolving of a solid, or new
colour, strength and heaviness, and can be classified by colours when food colourings/paints are mixed.
these properties. We make things with materials which
have the properties we want.

Intermediate Phase
1. Boiling and melting points of different substances 4. Temporary and permanent changes to materials
Pure substances have melting temperatures and boiling Some changes to materials are temporary but other
temperatures which are characteristic for each changes are permanent.
substance, and help us to identify the substance. 5. Changes brought about by heating
2. Materials, their properties and classifying them Substances change when they receive or lose energy
Materials are evaluated and classified by their as heat. These changes include contraction and
properties (such as hardness, flexibility, thermal expansion, melting, evaporation, condensation and
conductivity or insulation, electrical conductivity or solidification. (Links with Energy and Change)
insulation whether they can be magnetised, solubility 6. Dissolving-factors that affect the speed of
and rusting). dissolving
3. Metals, ceramics, polymers and composite The dissolving of a substance in a solvent depends
materials on variables which affect the rate of dissolving.
Major classes of materials are metals, ceramics
(including glasses) and polymers (including plastics and
fibres). Composite materials combine the properties of
two or more materials.

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Structure, Reactions and


Properties and Uses of Materials
Changes of Materials

Senior Phase
9. Particle model of matter
1. Different states of matter and their properties A particle model of matter can explain
Substances in different states (‘phases’) have distinct properties physical changes of substances such as
such as crystalline structures, or compressibility/incompressibility, melting, evaporation, condensation,
or tendency to diffuse. solidification, diffusion and heating by
2. Absorption and radiation by different surfaces conduction.
Dark-coloured surfaces get hotter than light-coloured surfaces 10. Acids and bases, reaction of acids
when exposed to radiating sources of energy like the Sun. Dark- Many household substances are acidic or
coloured objects radiate their energy as heat more readily than basic. Indicators are substances that react
shiny light-coloured objects. (Links with Energy and Change) with acids and soluble bases to produce
3. Magnetism and electrical charging products that have distinctive colours. Acids
Some materials are magnetised by electric currents or magnets. and bases neutralise one another to form
Some materials can be electrically changed by rubbing them with a salts. Acids have characteristic reactions with
different material. (Links with Energy and Change) metals, metal oxides, hydroxides and
4. Conductors and resistors carbonates.
Some conductors and circuit components reduce the current in an 11. Energy in chemical reactions
electric circuit to a significant extent and are called resistors. Many chemical reactions need some energy to
Resistors can be selected or designed to control currents. get started; many chemical reactions give off
5. Separating and purifying mixtures energy as they happen.
A pure substance cannot be separated into different substances 12. Atoms, elements and compounds
while a mixture can be separated usually by physical means. Elements are made of just one kind of atom,
Differences in properties can be used to separate mixtures of whereas compounds are made of two or more
different substances (by methods such as filtration, distillation, kinds of atoms in fixed proportions. Elements
evaporation, chromatography or magnetism). (Links with Matter may react to form compounds, and
and Materials) compounds may be decomposed into their
6. Oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen – properties reactions elements. Energy input is needed to break a
and commercial uses compound into its elements, whereas energy
Specific gases may be separated from the air or produced in is given out when elements react to form a
reactions, and have many uses in industry and other sectors of the compound.
economy. Oxygen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide have characteristic 13. Reactions with Oxygen
properties and reactions by which we can identify them. Oxygen has characteristic reactions with
7. Extraction of raw materials metals and non-metals, forming oxides. Some
Extracting useful materials from raw materials depends on of these oxides dissolve in water to form
chemical reactions and methods of separation. acidic or alkaline solutions. Some metals react
8. Processing and producing raw materials – effect on the more readily with oxygen than other metals.
environment Corrosion of iron is an economically important
Raw materials, from which processed materials are made, must be reaction which can be prevented through an
mined, grown or imported from other countries. Raw materials that understanding of the reactions between iron,
are mined are non-renewable and mining has environmental costs. water and oxygen.
Growing raw materials involves choices about the use of arable 14. Cellular Respiration
land and water catchment areas The reaction of oxygen with food releases
energy in the cells of living things. (Links with
Life and Living)

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WESTERN CAPE PRIMARY SCIENCE


PROGRAMME (PSP)
The Western Cape Primary Science Programme (PSP) has been operating since 1985.
The PSP is an in-service education organisation that aims to improve the quality of
teaching and learning in the most disadvantaged primary schools. We develop teachers’
knowledge and skills and support them in their work with learners.
We focus on the critical learning areas of the Natural Sciences (including Environmental
Education), Language, Mathematics and the Social Sciences.
The PSP offers a variety of courses, develops learning experiences together with teachers
and offers support in their classes.
Based on this interaction with teachers, the PSP produces innovative materials, including
teacher resource books, learner task cards and display material. All our materials are
written in easily accessible language; include careful concept progression; many activities
and investigations, and include good suggestions for assessment.
The PSP has a vision of an excellent primary schooling for all South Africa’s children,
where all educators are highly skilled, committed and confident; and are well prepared
and resourced to teach.
Contact us for more information
Western Cape Primary Science Programme (PSP)
Edith Stephens Wetland Park
Lansdowne Road
Philippi.
PO Box 24158
Lansdowne 7779
South Africa
Tel: 021 691 9039
Fax: 021691 6350
Email: info@psp.org.za
Website: www.psp.org.za
NPO: 015-822