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B Thng Tin v Truyn Thng Trng C CNTT Hu Ngh Vit Hn

Khoa:Tin hc ng dng Lp:VT02A

Chng 8. THIT B THU

NHM 8: 1.Bi Vn Thng 2.L nh Tn 3.Hong Th Thm 4.Nguyn Th ThanhThy

MC LC Chng 8: THIT B THU


Trang:

8.1 Nhng c tnh thit b thu...................................................1 8.2 Nhng kiu Thit b thu........................................................1
8.2.1 S ng cng tinh th............................................................1 8.2.2 Tn s v tuyn c iu hng..........................................3 8.2.3 My thu i tn......................................................................6

8.3 B giao ng ni ti..............................................................7 8.4 Trn v dao ng ..................................................................7 8.5 My khuch i tn s v tuyn...........................................8 8.6 Nhng mch khuch i trung tn......................................8
8.6.1 Mch khuch i trung tn PM...............................................8

8.7 S t iu chnh khuch i.................................................9 8.8 FM mch khuch i trung tn..........................................11 8.9 Hiu ng bt FM..................................................................11 8.10 S t iu chnh tn s......................................................12 8.11 S Th Thit b thu...........................................................12
8.11.1 Tnh Chn lc.....................................................................12 8.11.2 Tnh Nhy cm...................................................................13 8.11.3 Tn hiu Gi mo................................................................13

8.12 Nhng cu hi Tng quan.................................................14

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8.

THIT B THU

Mt thit b thu l thit b la chn mt khong hp mong mun m tn s tng ng ti u ra ca my pht. N phi loi b c nhng nhiu v nhng tn hiu khng mong mun tn ti ti nhng tn s khc,n khuych i tn hiu v gii iu ch thu c tn hiu gc. 8.1 nhng c tnh thit b thu C mt s tham s cha kha m phi c gi trong tm tr khi nhng thit b thu ang c bn lun. y hnh thnh c s cho mt tho lun trn liu mt thit k tt hn l:
1. Tnh nhy cm. y l mt tn hiu bo yu. Mt Thit b thu c th sn xut mt

tn hiu thng minh sau khi gii iu.N c o bng micrvn. Chng hn, mt thit b thu shortwave 1.5 micrvn c th to ra ti u ra m thanh l 10 dB mnh m hn. 2. Tnh chn lc l di thng m thit b thu s chn c tn hiu khng mong mun. Tnh Chn lc l s m t nhng ci lc ca thit b thu. 3. Tn hiu gi mo l nhng tn s tn hiu khng mong mun m nhn c. Thng y l mt vn ca mi s lc ngho Auntie, S trn thm trong nhng my khuch i phi tuyn. anten gii iu hnh ci lc bng my khuch i cao tn s my khuch i h tn ngi ni, ng thu

Hnh 8.1 Nhng thnh phn C bn ca mt thit b thu.

8.2 Nhng kiu Thit b thu


Bt chp ca kiu s gii iu, phn ln nhng c trng ca thit b thu c xc nh bi mch pha trc ca b hon iu. Vi cch tip cn khc c th c dng n khi gp nhng yu cu ny. Tt c c th li ti mt thi gian khc trong nm v mt ny sinh khi tnh tri thit k .Gi trong tm tr m, u tin, chng ti ang i n s tranh lun ti chung (ca) nhng thit b thu khng c vic lo lng kiu s gii iu m s c s dng. Kiu gii iu s yu cu mt s s khc nhau ni chung thit k nhng y s c kho st sau .

8.2.1 S ng cng tinh th Trong chng 1 chng ti nhn thy c bn nht ca mi thit b thu l s ng cng tinh th. N c s dng bi v tuyn in nhng mt sau vo 1901 nhn din ting ku rc rc yu v nhng ting hut t nhng my pht l hng ngi trai l (ca) anh y; v N c s dng Bi Nhiu ngi (vt) k t khi nghe ti gn - Bi L nhng my pht. Mt s ng cng tinh th, trong mu (dng) n gin nht (ca) n, nhng s s dng Auntie S khuch i.nh vy l thit b thu duy nht kh d vo nhng ngy sm (ca) rai trc khi nhng ng chn khng c pht trin. Mch c s, nh a vo Hnh 8.2, gm c mt ci lc bng n gin la chn phm vi (ca) nhng tn s c mong mun v c gii thot ca tt c mi ci khc. Ri mt thit b phi tuyn (adiode) c bao gm lm s gii iu cn thit. Nhng hnh ng t
(in) (th) hai nh mt b lc thng thp loi b nhng tn hiu tn s cao cn li v sau s sng st m thanh c th c nghe vi nhng ng nghe.

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Hnh 8.2 Thit b thu tp hp tinh th khng s dng s khuch i. Thit b thu ny lm vic kh sau tt vo nhng ngy khi ph tn s khng qu ng c v nhng ngi nghe khng nh ng nghe tr khng cao c cht thnh ng trn nhng ci tai ca h. Thm ch hm nay, nu mt ngi nghe gn mt nh ga mnh m khng c bt k nhng ngi (ci) khc no gn trong hoc tn s hoc khong cch vt l, nhng kt qu c th l cc tr tt.

Hnh 8.3 S thay i ca in tr thun.

Nhiu thit k (ca) mt s ng cng tinh th phi quay trn xung quanh nhng c trng (ca) it. Nu chng ti trng ngi ng ti it. Nu chng ti trng ngi ng ti ng cong hin thi in p (ca) it, chng ti nhn thy m tht s l khng phi bt k im t ngt no ni s chng c thay i T Nh Ti Cao. (thng ngm bn c, (k) thp hn s chng c) . Thm ch (cho) nhng chnh tn
hiu yu thay i sao cho s gii iu no s xy ra. Vn l, (cho) hiu qu cc i ri ch ni it c tn hiu (ca) n (mch iu hng c) v ch ni tn hiu i (ng nghe) c hai phi c nhng tr khng hi cao hn so vi m ca it.T l tng trn mch iu hng c v tr khng (ca) ng nghe phi c la chn vi gi tr ny v s mt mt tn hiu kt qu trong tm tr.

8.2.2 Tn s v tuyn c iu hng


S ci tin hin nhin nht ti s ng cng crytal c bn s thm li ch no . Rt cuc. Nhng tn hiu nhn c c th rt yu. Li ch cng c th b sung trc khi hoc sau it, hay c hai. Nhng ng chn khng u tin ( V Sau , Nhng tranzito u tin) C th ch x l nhng m tn v v th li ch c th ch c t c sau khi it. Kt qu n gin l mt tinh th n o hn c t. Ri nh nhng ci ng v nhng tranzito tt hn c pht trin, li ch tn s v tuyn c th (th) b sung pha trc pha trc ca it. Mt l do (th) hai l bt k my khuch i no cng ng vai Mt thit b " c lp " gia u vo (ca) n v nhng mch ra. (Ci) ny lm kh d d dng xy dng nhng ci lc tinh t hn khng c vic phi lo

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lng s tng tc iu hng. V cng c th phn chia nhng tr khng b lc t nhng tr khng it. Mt thit b thu ciruit tn s v tuyn (TRF) c iu hng c a vo Hnh 8.4.Kt qu l thit b thu tn s v tuyn (TRF) c iu hng. Vi s lc tinh t hn n bn in ri c th d dng hn gn gi cch nhau nhng tn s v tuyn. N c th chn ra nh ga mong mun v c hiu qu hn gim bt sc mnh (ca) th khng cn n k bn i vi N. (Ci) ny dn n " chn lc " tt hn so vi s ng cng tinh th. Li ch b sung pha trc ca mch gii iu cng s cng ci thin sc mnh (ca) li ch yu pha trc ca nh mch gii iu Ci thin sc mnh (ca) nhng tn hiu yu v v th " nhy cm " cn phi cng c tin b. Tuy nhin, bn c th gi li t Chng 1 m mi my khuch i thm ting n no ca mnh, v vy tnh nhy cm kh nng nghe thy nhng tn hiu yu trn nh ting n tin b ch khi ting n b sung ny b gi ti mt cc tiu.

Hnh 8.4 Thit b thu tn s v tuyn s dng nhng mch iu hng c ng nht bi my khuch i tn s v tuyn thu c tnh nhy cm v tnh chn lc.

Hnh 8.5 mch cng hng n ca s ng cng tinh th thay v ba mch trng thic ng nht trong thit b
thu TRF. Thit b thu TRF vn hnh c l tt. Vi thit k thch hp, n c th hon ton nhy cm. Khi ln (ca) mi thit b thu ng chn khng sm thit k s dng thit k some ny vi nh nhiu ngi (vt) nh nm c nhn ha hp (iu ha) nhng mc(khu vc). Nhng thit k TRF (th) him khi c s dng hm nay. Ti sao? Ci g l s khng n vi n?.

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Vn chnh l tnh chn lc, Hay Kh, Thiu ca n. Thit k sn xut mt nhiu thng di k la o so vi mch iu hng c bi ht (ca) tinh th t thit k nhng n thiu hnh dng. nh c th tht s qu sc. T nhng mch iu hng tt c phi bin thin, (ci) ny lm cho gn khng th t c t hnh dng thng di v chiu rng v gi h trin min ngang qua nhiu c chy l phm vi.

Hnh dng v nhng vn di thng c vi nguyn nhn. Some sn sng cha c; Some Khng phi. Mt mch cng hng c th (th) c iu hng bi iu chnh t (in) (ca) n hoc cun cm (ca) n. T (in) theo truyn thng l d dng ca hai lm bin thin v, trong iu ny trng hp, gy ra mt vn . Vi mt cun cm c nh v
t bin i c, in khng (ca) mi phn t tng khi mch c iu hng i vi nhng tn s bc cao. (Ci) ny dn n np Q Ca bc cao hin thn mch pha thp ca di sng pht thanh (540 kHz) so vi n ti kt thc khc (1600 kHz). in tr song song ngn chn hng s khi l nhng in tr thin lch ch yu phi tr cho (ca) nhng my khuch i k bn. (Ci) ny lm nhng di thng rt hp ti nhng tn s thp hn v rng nhiu hn ti bc cao tn s khng phi l nhiu hon cnh ng c mong nht. (Hng s p).

Mt cch tip cn tt hn s lm cho nhng cun cm bin thin v l cy l nhng t (in) c nh. Gi in khng (ca) mi phn t gim bt khi mch c iu hng i vi nhng tn s Bc cao.. Vi s chng c paralle c nh, (k) np Q nh cng. Tng sao cho di thng s li c l hng s. Vn duy nht l cng hn lm mt s ng cng (ca) nhng cun cm bin i c m iu chnh cng nhau.
Ti Q = R Gi chng ti c mt nhiu thng di contant hn. Ci g quanh hnh thnh? Nhng mch iu hng c Nhiu c c lp vi nhng my khuch i n gin sn xut mt nh sc m l tng (ca) nhng nh ring l. Be full " Ch cm (ca) feedack ghp ni. bi vy, n (th) kh to ra mt u bng ng c mong v nhng cnh ngm v gi h contant nh nhng tn s khc c iu hng ti.

V d 8.1:
Mch iu hng c di phi iu chnh t 540 n 1600 kHz. Nhng gi tr cho (cho) cng hng ti 540 kHz. Chnh cun cm khng c nhng s mt mt v 15 K paral- lel seistor l ti duy nht.

(A) nu ch gi tr t (in) s c gim bt mch di ting ti 160 kHz. Ci g Kt qu Q V Di thng Build? ( T (in) thay i ti 45.6pf). gi tr cun cm li. Bi vy :. (. ). 262 nhng cng ngh thng tin lin lc in t. (. )
262 nhng cng ngh thng tin lin lc in t. (B) nu, thay vo , ch gi tr cun cm s c gim bt mch di ting ti 1600 kHz ci g kt qu Q v di thng build? ( cun cm thay i ti 24.7 .H) nhng vt tch gi tr capasitor c nh. Bi vy :. (.) (C) ci g Q v di thng (ca) mch nguyn bn khi n c iu hng i vi 540 kHz?. (.). Bi vy, s iu hng cun cm- bin thin gi di thng trin min qua phm vi iu hng y . Mt prolem cui cng ( Trong khi nu chng ti khng c already0. nhng my khuch i trong nm mc thit k TRF u vn hnh ti tn s nhn c. V Worm- sistors V nhng ng chn khng mt li

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ch nh tn s lm vic ca h tng, (ci) ny c th dn n mt s mt mt potentinal (ca) li ch v mt s tng kh d trong ni chung mc n.

8.2.3 my thu i tn. Nu bn c i theo sau tho lun cho n lc ny bn s nhn thy rng tnh nhy cm l vn c loi tr. Rects tim my thu i tn S thiu ht cui cng ny. Khi sy chn ln nht vi thit k TRF l mi nhng ci lc (ca) n phi l iu hng c. My thu i tn vi Nguyn l t khi ln (ca) (k) khuch i lc ti tn s c nh gi l tn s trung gian trung tn Nu) Gi nhng u lc v nhng my khuch i li ch- cao tinh t c th xy dng d dng. Cho trm nh thu di sng pht thanh , tiu chun Nu tn s l 455 kHz. (Cho) FM pht sng thit b thu, l 10.7mHz. Vi tn s c nh (cho) nhng my khuch i v nhng ci lc, bc tip theo s thm mt mch pha trc ca iu ny vo s chn la tn s thch hp s c nhn c v di chuyn n xung Ti Nu Tn s. Bc ny bao gm mt my trn phi tuyn cng vi mt b dao ng tn s bin i c. Mch kt qu c a vo mu (dng) s khi trong hnh 8.7. C hai my trn v b dao ng tn s bin i c c bn lun trong nhng chng trc y nhng mt t tng quan khng lm au. Mch trn cn phi gi ra c trng nh c gii thch trong nhng chng 1 v 5. nh nh vy, n s sn xut, ti u ra (ca) n, mi bn chnh nhp vo nhng tn s cng vi nhng tng ca h v nhng s khc nhau c cm hai ti mt thi im. Nu mt tiu chun Nu tn s ca 455 kHz c s dng v tn s mong mun s c nhn c l 1.0 Mgahec, ci g Nhu cu tn s b dao ng Bigly build? C hai cu tr li kh d. N Tn s b dao ng l 1.455 Mgahec, s khc nhau gia hai u vo l (k) ng Nu tn s. Kh nng khc l mt tn s b dao ng ca 545 kHz. Ln na, s khc nhau s l 455 n gin hn thit k nhng b dao ng iu hng c ti cnh thn tn s bc cao cnh thp hn (ca) (k) mong mun bo hiu. Nu chng ti s dng mt tn s dao ng ca 1.455 KHz V Mt tn s trung gian, trung tn ca 455 KHz, l mi tn s khc m c th cng c throngh my trn v c khuych i Print Nu Mc(khu vc)? Mt kh nng l Mt tn s- Trong trng hp ny 1.910 Mgahec. ci c bit nh tn s bong.
Gi chng ti nhn thy ti sao c mt mch iu hng c bi ht gia u vo v my trn trong s khi (ca) hnh 8.7. cng vic (ca) n s kh b y " (k) khc " nhng tn s iu c th vo trong Nu. Ch rng y l mt lc requicement khc so vi m thc hin bi nhng mch iu hng trong s ng cng tinh th v TRF thit k. Trong my thu i tn. S loi knh bng c lm d dng hn nu tn s bng c th b gi cng xa ra khi t tn s mong mun cng tt. (Ci) ny t n xa xung trn ng cong suy gim (ca) ngi thi so. Nhng phng tin nh v m nhng tn s trung gian, trung tn cao ny cn phi Trn mp thp hn (ca) n - N khng th lm cho singnals mnh m khng trc tip vo Nu.Nhng nh bnh thng khc lit hn khi thit b thu c iu hng i vi tn s hightest (ca) n mt khi nh th ri l " ngi ng " trn mt c s phn trm .

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8.3 B giao ng ni ti Dao ng tn s cc bin xng ng mt s nhn xt. Nhng b dao ng trong nhng tn s chung v bin c tho lun trong Chng 5. i vi cc ng dng my thu i tn, Dao ng ny l bnh thng c gi l Dao ng a phng, m ch n gin c ngha l n l bn nhn. Nhng yu cu cc b dao ng phi p ng kh n gin. N s c iu chnh c 455kHz tn s cao hn bt c iu g c th nhn c v phi li m khng tri. l liu tri, ngi nhn s phi lang thang trn mt s trm khc. i vi PM lm vic ban nhc pht sng, l bnh thng vn hnh b dao ng ni ti mt tn s cao hn tn hiu mong mun. V vy, iu chnh cc ban nhc y t 540 n 1600kHz, cc Dao ng phi c du dng 995-2.055 kHz (gi nh mt tn s 455kHz trung gian). T l cao nht n tn s thp nht cho b dao ng l ch hn 2-1. y l mt thit k tng i d dng. Dao ng cng c th c chn hot ng di y 455kHz tn s tn hiu mong mun. i vi cc ban nhc pht sng AM, iu ny c ngha l cc b dao ng s phi iu chnh 85-1.145 kHz. y l cng s kHz t thp nht n tn s cao nht m chng ti c trc nhng by gi t l thp nht n tn s cao nht l hn 13-1 l mt thit k nhiu hn! y l l do chnh ca dao ng ni ti thng c chn hot ng di tn s cao hn. By gi cho mt vn php l. K t khi nhn c mt b dao ng, n c th hot ng nh mt b truyn v nh, do , cn thu sng radio khc. Tt c cc mu thit k my thu cn c kim tra xem c bao nhiu tn hiu ny bc x vo khng gian trng xung quanh n. Hu ht cc nc c stanhards rng t mt gii hn v sc mnh ca tn hiu ny chiu. Nhng vn ny c th c gim thiu bng cch hn ch s lng DC nng s mch Dao ng chnh n, bng cch s dng cung cp nng lng thch hp lc t, gim dy di v, cui cng, nu cn thit, che chn. 8.4 Trn v dao ng V d 8.9 ca my trn v Dao ng cho mt b tip nhn my thu i tn. B trn ny s dng mt bng bn dn c tc dng l n c th cung cp gn nh l tng ca php lut hnh vung trn c im. Ti nh ga ca khu ca mnh, mt bin mch iu chnh chn phm vi chung ca cc tn hiu RF nhn c. (Ban nhc chnh xc ca tn s c chn bi b lc). Cc chnh ny mch tn hiu khng mong mun iu chnh phi elimitnate l tn s hnh nh. Ti ngun ca n hin th l mt Colpitts du dng thit k vi cc thng tin phn hi t nh su tp ca mnh cho cc ngi pht thanh. Sn lng ny c ly t ngi pht thanh nh thi im ny l mt tr khng thp trong mch.C hai dao ng v u vo ca mch trn phi c du dng trong thc t, h phi c du dng vi nhau, ngha l, h phi theo di ln nhau v ngoi 455 kHz. Cc t in iu chnh cn thit lm iu ny th hin trong hnh 8,9. Phn in dung ln hn s c s dng iu chnh tn s thp hn u vo v trn dung phn nh s c s dng bi Dao ng ny. Ngay c vi mt t in o c bit nh c hin th, iu chnh theo di c th c kh khn thit k v thit lp. Bnh thng, mt s ng cng nh (ca) cha vt cng iu chnh nh nhng t tnh chnh trim c bao gm trn t iu hng chnh lm d vn .

Nhng l do (ca) kinh t, hai mch ring l c th c kt hp vo trong mt mch tranzito tn hiu m dao ng v nhng s trn cng lc. iu ny c th hin trong
hnh 8.10. Mch ny c gi l mt cng c chuyn i hoc trn - t- in. N l mt thit k vi nhng kh khn c c mc no, tuyn tnh, Au trn v thng c s dng cho my thu pht sng r PM.

8.5 Tn s radio ca mch khuch i(My khuch i tn s v tuyn) B trn phn ca ting n my thu khng c mt thng s ting n rt thp. i vi tn s cho ting n my thu dao ng di y khong 3 MHz, iu ny khng phi l mt vn v c qu nhiu ting n bn ngoi gy nhiu nhn ra rng con s ting n thp hn s l mt s lng ph tin bc. c bit bn ngoi b thu,h s tp m gy tn tht . khc phc iu ny bng cch s dng quyn hn my pht cao v gi thit b truyn cao c cng sut ca h kh gn thp ng-ten. Tuy nhin, trn khong 30 MHz, cc con s ting n bn ngoi gy ra st p v c tnh nhy cm tt hn vi ng truyn. Do ,di bng tn v tuyn, pht sng FM, v thit b thu
8

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truyn hnh, vv ... thng bao gm mt hoc nhiu tn s radio (RF) khuch i pha trc ca b trn. Mt v d v iu ny c th hin trong hnh 8.11. yu cu thm phc tp bi v hin nay c ba mch iu chnh v phi theo di mi mch khc nh nhn c iu chnh RF b khuch i, b trn, v b dao ng. Tuy nhin, vn khng xu v n c th xut hin bi v RF v b trn ca mch iu chnh s lun lun c iu chnh cng mt tn s v do c th s dng nhng gi tr thnh phn tng t. T iu hng s by gi c ba khu vc cn c o . Hai phn in dung ln hn s cng c nh vy. 8.6 Nhng mch khuch i trung tn Nhng mch khuch i trung tn cung cp s lng ln li ch ca thit b thu v to hnh dng s truyn li di thng ca n. y l khu vc chnh m ta xc nh tnh chn lc ca thit b thu. Nhng giai on u pha trc ca iu ny thit yu cho mch iu bin bin v iu bin tn s ca my thu . Nhng gi nhng s khc nhau bt u xut hin . Chng ta s quan st mt my khuch i FM (iu bin tn s)cho trn mt my thu bin iu bin u tin. 8.6.1 Mch khuch i iu ch bin (Mch khuch i trung tn PM) Pha trc nhng mch in ca thit b thu c mt b chn lc s b di tn s xp x gn t c nh gi tr mong mun. Phm vi chung quanh by g c di chuyn xung i vi nhng tn s trung gian, trung tn v tn hiu nhn c phn c khuych i .Tuy nhin, s vn cn l nhiu tn ti nhng tn hiu khng cn n v sc truyn ca tn hiu mong mun c th l thc trng ca bt c vn g, ph thuc vo tn hiu v khong cch Ca ng Truyn. Nu iu ch bin (AM)h hng, bi vy: Cung cp s lc tt to hnh dng di thng mong mun v loi b bt k tn hiu ln cn no Cung cp mt li ch ln m bin thin lp li. Mnh m hn Tn hiu ban u ca b chn thp hn n s c khuych i

S lc c th qui nh vic s dng bt k phng php thng di no a vo Chng 3. Phng php gc s s dng nhng tranzito ring bit vi nhng mch iu hng c iu chnh ring l m tp hp to hnh dng di thng mong mun hnh 8.12. S bt li ln ca cch tip cn ny c sp xp theo thi gian sp x cn s dng thit y . Mt cch tip cn hin i hn s s dng thit b gm, tinh th, Mt b lc c hc v sau thm Mt b khuch i mch t hp c li ch. Cch tip cn ny c a vo Hnh 8.13. N tranzito b gin on nhng t trung ho nhng thit b s dng ring bit thng cho tip xc Mt pha ngoi - Ca - Tn hiu pha cng c t u ra (ca) mi giai on n u vo. Ci ny hng ti hy b s phn hi bn trong xuyn qua colector- in dung tip gip c s m c th lm my khuch i hng ti dao ng.

K thut mch in t

Bi tp nhm 8

Hnh 8.12 AM khuch i s dng transistor ri rc v b lc. 8.7 S t iu chnh ca mch khuch i Nh cp trc nhng tn hiu vo ca nhng mch khuch i trung tn c th c mt phm vi cng tn hiu rng. Li ch phi c iu chnh tng ng. N c hon thnh s dng mt s t iu chnh ca mch khuch i (AGC). Chng ta nhn thy pha sau trong Chng 2, khi ni v tranzito, li ch ca mt tranzito ph thuc vo s chnh lch hin thi. Bi vy, li ch ca mt my khuch i c th c lm thay th nu im thin lch ca tranzito ring l c th c iu chnh. T mc ch ca mch khuch i khng quan tm n tn hiu vo, y l im m in p hng ro c t ln. Vi Mt Gii iu bin L tn hiu, l thnh phn mt chiu m cn bng vi sc mnh ca tn hiu v sau mch khuch i phn m i din cho tn hiu bin iu. Chc nng ca mch khuch i,dng in mt chiu thnh phn s dng gim bt li ch Nu L my khuch i. Mnh hn tn hiu mt chiu ti b bin iu , nhiu li ch hn,gn hn. y l mt mch lin h ngc v th, nh tin ch gn, CD Thnh phn Cng gn tr phi khng nhiu thnh phn. Thnh phn CD ti u ra my d tm s lun lun l mt mu tn hiu mnh hn Nu u vo so vi tn hiu ngho. Hnh 8.14 cho thy rng thao tc ca mt mch khuch i trong s khi hnh thnh. y, in p CD ti u ra my d tm c lc loi b dng in xoay chiu Thnh phn V c khuych i vi my khuch i dng in mt chiu in p mnh hn c dng gim bt tin ch ca mch khuch i trung tn. Khi khng c u ra ti my d tm, N tin ch cn t mc cc i. in tr v t in dng lc thnh dng in mt chiu ca mch khuch i trc y c xt. Hng s thi gian ca h s phn x r rng phi l ln hn loi b thnh phn m thanh hay li ch khc s dao ng ln trn v xung trong bc sng thp hn nhng m tn. Tr phi h hng theo thi gian cng iu tit Vic thay i nhng cng tn hiu nhn thy c, chng hn bi mt tn s v tuyn trong mt xe chuyn ng hay mt my v tuyn m ang c iu hng ngang qua bng tn v gp nhng trm khc. Mt hng s thi gian ca h s phn x trn giy c p ng.
10

K thut mch in t

Bi tp nhm 8

Thao tc ci thin iu khin thu t ng c th c tn ti nu hai hng s thi gian ring bit c s dng Mt cng tn hiu ngn ang tng V Di hn mt khi n ang ri. N cung cp mt ao c " nhanh chng tn cng chm lm d phn r cc c tnh " c trng. Bc x n gin l thit b thu bnh thng phi s dng mt hng s thi gian kp nh vy khng c thnh phn mt chiu ti u ra my d tm bi v tn hiu khng i hng c ngi pht hin ra hiu sut bn vng Cng tn hiu phi, v vy d on s vn chuyn lm vic vi sc mnh m thanh. Khi cng tn hiu ti thit b thu tng, thi tn hiu s t l tn hiu trn tp m ti u ra my d s tm thy. N c a vo Hnh 8.15. Nguyn nhn cho ton b u ra ca tn hiu tng s khng tng bi nhiu l do: s lng li ch gia nhng thit b u vo v u cui anten v s lng thit b d tm s c gim bt. Bt k tn hiu n t nhng ngun ngoi s khng c khuych i. Mt cu hi cui cng. c mt my khuch i li ch bin thin, n phi phi tuyn. S thay i trong li ch ang tn ti, nh chng ti ni, bng vic di chuyn ti nhng tn hiu khc trn c trng hnh cong ny xuyn qua mt s iu chnh thin lch. Nhng, c trng ca c tuyn vo ra, tt c cc tn hiu khng quan trng c loi b, s pht sinh nhng s bin m v trn ln nhng nhng tn hiu u ra v lm cho chng bin dng khc. S d bin thnh c ch khi khng c bt k s bin dng no xy ra nh th ? Cu tr li c tm thy bng vic quan st nhng tn s khc m tng tn hiu khc nhau, nhng s khc nhau v nhng s bin m xut hin ti .nhng iu xut hin do m thanh v do s lp li nhiu ln ca tn s. s lc thng di ko di nu tn s tn ti sau khi c iu khin t ng v trc giai on v trc my d tm th nhng tn hiu ny s khng bao gi xut hin. Nu nhng tn s c la chn cao gip s chuyn qua bng tn l t hn hai ln tn s thp hn bn cnh. Bi vy, s loi b nhng bin m s d dng hn.

8.8 FM mch khuch i trung tn Nu thit b thu l Fm th c vi s khc nhau trong mc khu vc FM l ra. u tin, di thng phi rng hn, m n gin l c mt s thay i trong nhng ci lc. Nu s dng tn s IF cao th di thng rng hot ng d dng hn bi v Qs np t nhng cun dy. Th Hai, nhng ci lc c mt thi gian truyn pha di hn ngang qua di thng. iu ny lm nhng ci lc hot ng tt hn mt cch ng k. Cao hn mt my thu bin iu tn s l my khuch i cn gi l " my khuch i gii hn ". N cho ra nhng li ch v cng cao,sao cho n bo ha v loi b bt k s bin i bin , tn hiu no c th c thu nhn trong khng gian ca n v ri b ch s bin i tn s. y c gii iu bin bi b hon iu kiu FM no (nhn thy Chng 6).

11

K thut mch in t

Bi tp nhm 8

Thc t mi mch khuch i trung tn FM s dng mt my khuch i tng hp. Mt v d (ca) Mt s in hnh c a vo Hnh 8.16. Ngi pht hnh kt i nhng b khuch i vi sai mu (dng) nhng cp m c thin lch ti mt cch tng i nhng mc hin thi thp. Vi tn hiu i xng c nhp vo, nhng tranzito ring l s i vo trong hnh chiu ng di trc khi n i vo trong s bo ha. Gii hn i xng xy ra bng vic xen k ct t mt cp tranzito. nhng tn hiu yu hai cp u tin s ng vai tr l my khuych i tuyn tnh v cp cui cng s thc hin s gii hn. Nu cng tn hiu u vo tng, s gii hn s xut hin n ng vai tr l nhng giai on v ng vai tr ti u vo. Khng c AGC cho nhng my khuch i th n hot ng bt chp cng tn hiu. AGC c th cn cho my khuch i ny nh cht qu nng chnh n hoc mch trn. in p AGC khng th c tn ti t my d tm trong mt my thu bin iu tn s bi v mi s bin i my khuch i s loi b c nhng gii hn. Nhng mch t hp s cung cp mt u ra cng tn hiu m c bt ngun t dng trung bnh xuyn qua gii hn. 8.9 Hiu ng thu FM Ci g xy ra nu hai tn hiu FM gp nhau trn cng tn s v mt bit tn hiu ny mnh hn tn hiu khc hoc l yu hn tn hiu khc? N c th xy ra nu bn sng gia hai thnh ph c khong cch xa nhau ti tng trm vi mt i pht thanh trn cng tn s. Cu tr li ch l trm thu mnh hn s thu c v tn hiu khc hon ton c phc ra min l c s khc nhau gia hai cng tn hiu. Cc tiu ny ph thuc trn thit b thu ring l v trn my khuch i c bit. Mc d hai my pht trn cng gn mt tn s, vt mang chng thng yu hn vi tn s bt k tc khc no v s iu bin ca chng s khc nhau. V vy hai tn hiu s thc hin thm vect vi mt kt qu m n gn nh l mt tn hiu AM. Nhng, t mt tn hiu tt hn cc tn hiu khc, s khng bao gi b xa b hon ton. My khuch i gii hn s loi b s bin i bin c trm thu mnh hn. Ci ny cng gii thch c ti sao nhng di bin t mt knh ln cn c th c php m rng vo trong ci bn mun nghe. Mt my thu bin iu tn s tt s c truyn i bng rai khong 1.0dB. N c ngha rng mt trm thu min l t vo khong thp nht 1.0dB mnh hn trm thu nhiu sng n s c nghe thy.

8.10 S t iu chnh tn s Ti nhng tn s bc cao nhng nt iu chnh my thu hnh pht thanh FM v truyn hnh UHF vn hnh, lch ca b dao ng ph hp vi chng trnh. Thit b thu s yu cu hng s khng ng k gi trm thu mong mun. Mt phng php m c th c s dng trc tin l n dng mt tinh th thch anh cho b dao ng. Tuy nhin, iu ny lm thay i cc trm l rt kh. Vi s bin thin trn iu ny c s dng nh mt vng lp tng hp pha kha l da trn mt tham chiu tinh th thch anh. Chng ti s kho st iu ny trong chng tip theo. Mt giai phap n gian la tao ra mt s loai h thng thng tin phan hi se di chuyn v tn s dao ng khi no chch hng. Nhng mt s h thng nh vy cn co mi quan h vi nhau. iu ny c th thc hin c nh s kim tra nhn thy
12

K thut mch in t

Bi tp nhm 8

tn hiu c t gia IF di thng. Bt chp liu c phi thit b thu FM (frequency modulation-iu ch tn s) hay AN (Access Network-Mang truy nhp) thao tc, b phn bit (Hinh 6.30) c th c dng pht ra mt in p mt chiu ti l vi tn s trung bnh cua tn hiu bn trong di thng. in p ny c th c dng thay i in dung ca mt it tham s v ln lt s chuyn tn s cua b dao ng ti ngun phat. (Nu n c chuyn chnh xc va c cng c, thi khng co bt k in p mt chiu nao dich chuyn c). H thng hoat ng n nh hn khi nhng b dao ng nay s dung mch iu hng c trong b phn bit s vn hnh tt hn. 8.11 Phn tich thit b thu Trong khi chng ti vi chng trc y trn nhng my pht, phn cui chng ny se m t mt s phng phap cn phi c thc hin khi mt thit b thu mi thit k ang c lm vic trn Hay Mt Vic tn ti nhn c ang c sa cha.Hu ht c trng l nhng s th c nh ngha. 8.11.1 Tnh Chn lc. Tnh Chn lc l tiu chun c trng ca di bng tn ca thit b thu v ch yu c xc nh bi b lc trung tn IF(intermediate frequency-trung tn). Nhng mch u cui ca thit b thu c nhim v chn lc trong phn ny.S thc nu s dng mt my to sng, qut sng tt s c c tn s mong mun. N c ni ti nhng thit b u cui anten v b phn hin th c ni ti u ra b iu bin.Tuy nhin c vi vn . u tin, nu y l mt my thu bin iu bin th b iu khin thu t ng s c iu khin. Nu n nhn c nhng tn hiu yu v i sat mp ca bng tn th b iu khin thu t ng s cho php i vo v v th s a ra nhng kt qu khng chnh xc. Vn khc vi mt my thu bin iu bin l tn s v tuyn ca n c nhp vo. Trong trng hp ny, b iu ch bin b suy gim v tn hiu ly c s khng chun v vy cn phi s dng nhng thit b thit lp nhng du hiu kim tra trn thit b hin hnh. Vn tng ca my thu trung tn.Tn hiu khng th truyn xuyn qua gii hn ca my khuch i, v n n gin mu thun vi b ngoi phc tp ca mch vi s bin i bin v kt qu tn hiu c ng truyn rt rng v c bit phng. Nu b lc c t vo trc bt k gii hn no khi nh v th tn hiu c th c pht hin ra ti im vi mt u d ca tn s v tuyn RF ring bit. 8.11.2 Tnh nhy cm y l tiu chun ca my thu tn hiu yu c th bt c sng m khng b xa sch ting n. N s ty thuc vo h s ting n ca thit b thu v chiu rng di thng ca b lc trung tn IF. V vy, bt k vic phc hi no v mc ny cn phi c nhy cm cao. Tiu chun cn thit gm c ni mt my to tn hiu c iu ch ti dng in chy vo v sau gim bt cng tn hiu ca thit b thu cho n khi s iu bin ch bt u mt dn vo trong ting n. u ra ca my pht ra trong micrvn l tnh nhy cm ca thit b thu. Trn thc t, tiu chun cn phi c lm cn thn hn so vi ci ny v n khng chnh xc khi ni u ra ch bt u mt dn khi vo ni c nhiu ting n. Thng thng, sau mt mt m thanh c ni ti
13

K thut mch in t

Bi tp nhm 8

im thch hp no ti mch m thanh ca thit b thu. Khng tn hiu RF (tn s v tuyn) no c p dng, mc n m thanh ng ch . Khi tn hiu RF vi 50% iu bin th c tng ln cho n khi s tng m c xc nh (thng thng 10 dB). nhy cm c trng c th l 2.3 micr vn ca tn hiu cho mt t l tn hiu ra trn tp m l10 Db. Mt nh ngha chnh xc hn ca tnh nhy cm c tm thy trong Hip hi cng nghip in t (EIA) tiu chun RS-204A. Mc tn hiu RF c iu bin tng cho n khi rai ca ton b u ra m thanh (s iu bin cng vi nhng thnh phn khng chnh xc ca m thanh) l 12dB mnh hn ting n ch cng vi nhng sn phm bin dng. nhy cm c o bng cch ny c gi l - 12Db t l SINAD (tn hiu , ting n v s bin dng). N bao gm cc vn tt yu m s bin dng no c iu bin tn hiu s xut hin trong my thu v s bin dng ny s ch xu nh ting n ngu nhin. Thit b th hi phc tp hn mt khi u c phi o ton b m thanh gi ra vi thnh phn iu bin mong mun loi b vic s dng mt b lc sc nt. Vi nh sn xut lm mt SINAD mt m bao gm tt c cc my khuch i v b lc cn thit. 8.11.3 Tn hiu Gi mo. Ton b tng ca thit b thu s c chn lc trn mt phm vi mong mun ca tn s v gii thot ca bt k vt khc. Tuy nhin, c th c vi tn s khc m c th xoy bn trong do nhiu l do. S kim tra n gin nht l t thit b thu ti mt tn s. S bin thin tn s my pht RF vi s iu bin ca n c bt ti u vo ca thit b thu ri iu chnh my pht ngang qua mt phm vi rng ca tn s v tun theo nhng u ra khng cn n. Sa son nhng tn s kim tra tn s trung tn v tn s bng. S cn tr phc tp hn l yu cu vic s dng hai my to tn hiu kim tra s bin iu cho. C hai my pht c ni xuyn qua mt mch tng hp in tr, ti thit b thu c nhp vo nhng thit b u cui. Mt my pht c t khng c s iu bin ti cng tn s ca thit b thu c quay v. Khc vi s iu bin y v mt mc tn s v tuyn mnh, c bin chuyn qua mt phm vi rng trn v di tn s mong mun. Bt k tn hiu lc no bo hiu nhn c th kt qu ngu nhin trn ln ca s trn ngu nhin trong nhng giai on rt sm ca thit b thu.

8.12 Nhng cu hi Tng quan. 1. M t tnh nhy cm. Nhng phn no ca mt thit b thu l a s tham gia vo xc nh tnh nhy cm? 2. M t tnh chn lc.nhng phn no ca mt thit b thu xc nh c c trng ny? 3. Ti sao tnh nhy cm tt l khi nhng tn hiu v tuyn tn s khong 3 MHz? 4. S ng cng tinh th l g? 5. Nhng vn ca thit b thu TRF c gii quyt vi thit b thu my thu i tn l g?
14

K thut mch in t

Bi tp nhm 8

6. S ng cng tinh th gm mt mch cng hng n.in cm l 200 H v t l bin t 400 n 60 pF.Thun tr trn mch iu hng c a cho anten, it v nhng ng nghe l mt hng s 10, 000 .Tn s cng hng v di thng ti hai cc tr ca t bin i c gi l g? 7. Trong mt my thu i tn, b dao ng ni ti c t ti 1.35 MHz.Nhng mch khuch i trung tn c iu hng vi 455 kHz.Ba tn s kh d c th vo my trn v chuyn qua mch khuch i trung tn l g? 8. Mt my thu v tuyn, my thu i tn s chn mt trm nht nh khi tn s ca n c thit lp l 11,9 MHz v yu hn khi tn s cho 10,1 MHz.Ti sao vic thc hin iu ny li xy ra? Tn sut thc s ca trm l g?Tn s IF l g ? 9. Tn s hnh nh v IF tn s cho mt b tip nhn iu chnh n 5,2 MHz v vi mt b dao ng ang chy 4,15 MHz? 10. a ra ba nhn t m phi c xem xt khi la chn IF cho mt thit b thu tn s mi?. 11. Thit b no cn phi a AFC vo mt my thu bin iu bin?. 12. M t nhng thao tc v li ch ca AVC khi ng dng vo mt my thu bin iu bin?. 13. S theo di l g? 14. Phn no ca mt my thu bin iu tn s xc nh t l bt ca n?

15