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Penetrationofphotovoltaicsin distributionnetworksinSpain,and respectiveproblems,issuesand concerns

MateoDomingo,Carlos

11May 2011

Index
1. 2. 3. 4.

Introduction DistributionNetworksinSpain Integratingphotovoltaicsinthedistributionnetworks, generalissuesandconcerns Conclusions

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Penetration of photovoltaics in distribution networks MateoDomingo,Carlos 11May 2011

INTRODUCTION

11May 2011

Distributionnetwork Characteristics

Voltagelevels

High,mediumandlowvoltage(HV/MV/LV) Demandorgenerationpeak Overvoltages,undervoltages andovercurrents Rural,urban,semiurban

Sizingofinstallations Technicalconstraints Typeofzones TraditionallypowerflowsgofromHVtoLV

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Penetration of photovoltaics in distribution networks MateoDomingo,Carlos 11May 2011

DISTRIBUTIONNETWORKSINSPAIN

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DistributedGenerationinSpain
Generation (2009) ENERGIADistributed VENDIDA DEL RGIMEN ESPECIAL EN 2009
< 1kV 100% 136 kV 3672,5 kV 72,5145 kV 145400 kV

ENERGIA VENDIDA Energy GWh GWh (%) (%)

80%

60%

[FRIAS10]
Source:CNE2010

40%

20%

0%

Cogeneration

Hydroelectric

Waste proc.

C A

LA R

E LI C A

AS A

Biomass

Waste

U LI

U O

AT .R ES ID U

Wind

AC

SO

Solar

BI O M

R ES ID

TO

C O G

WhatisDistributedGeneration(DG)?
Lowsize Directlyconnectedtothedistributionnetwork [EuropeanElectricityDirective2009/72/EC]

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Penetration of photovoltaics in distribution networks MateoDomingo,Carlos 11May 2011

TR

Total

EN ER

H ID R

TA L

O S

DistributedGenerationinSpain
Distributed Generation (2011)
Number 971 54,452 1,141 1,033 154 35 52 57,838 Installed Power (MW) 6,103 4,344 19,895 1,997 705 604 658 34,306 Energy sold (GWh) 4,046 923 7,846 1,152 568 505 729 15,769

Technology Cogeneration Solar Wind Hydroelectric Biomass Waste Waste Proc TOTAL

Source: CNE2011

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Penetration of photovoltaics in distribution networks MateoDomingo,Carlos 11May 2011

DistributionNetworksinSpain

Year2009 Residential SME(LV) MV(<36KV) HV(>36KV) Total

Consumers 26,677,308 1,200,111 91,889 1,992 27,971,300

GWh 74,468 43,937 69,153 58,250 245,808

Source:CNE2009

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Penetration of photovoltaics in distribution networks MateoDomingo,Carlos 11May 2011

ReferenceNetwork Model Scope


Network structure Type of facilities
Transmission substations
>15

HV

(36 - 220) kV
HV/MV substations HV customers / DG
>150

MV

MV

(1 - 36) kV
MV/LV transformers MV customers / DG
>15000

LV

LV

<1 kV
LV customers / DG
>106

Customer / DG

Transformer

Network

InputData:LocationandpowerofHV,MVandLVcustomers,andtransmissionsubstations Resultsofthemodel:LV,MV&HVnetwork,HV/MVandMV/LVsubstations
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Penetration of photovoltaics in distribution networks MateoDomingo,Carlos 11May 2011

ReferenceNetworkModel Main Features


Large scale planning tool ( > 1 million customers) Both urban & rural areas Detailed Geographical Features: Settlements identification Automatic street map building Forbidden ways through Aerial/underground areas Voltage, capacity & reliability constraints Detailed standardized equipment and parameter library

Itcanassessimpactsinthedistributionnetwork
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INTEGRATINGPHOTOVOLTAICSINTHE DISTRIBUTIONNETWORKS,GENERAL ISSUESANDCONCERNS

11May 2011

DistributedGeneration

Impactinenergylosses
20,000 18,000 16,000

Losses [kW]

14,000 Prdidas [kW] 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 0% 30% 70% 100% 130% 170%

INV

ZoneA:Costsdecreasebyareductionofpowerflows INV:Startsinversionofpowerflowsense ZoneB:Costsincreasebyinversepowerflows


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DistributedGeneration

InstantPowerFlows
Line Load DG

S Load DG DG DG DG DG
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S S

Load Load Load Load

DecreaseofPowerFlow StartinginversionofPowerFlowsense

S=0 S

IncreaseofPowerFlow
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Penetration of photovoltaics in distribution networks MateoDomingo,Carlos 11May 2011

DistributedGeneration

VoltageRegulation
Feeder

Without distributed generation Voltage (p.u.)

With distributed generation Voltage (p.u.)

Feeder

Feeder

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ImpactinGeneration

Aggregatedcurves
Demand
1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400
1600

Demanda [MW]

Agregated
1400

200 0

10 Hora

15

20

25

1200 1000 800 600 400 200

300

250

Fotovoltaica [MW]

200

150
0 0 5 10 Hora 15 20 25

100

50

10 Hora

15

20

25

Photovoltaics
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Agregado [MW]

15

ImpactinDistributionNetworks Localbalance
1500 1000 Agregado [MW] 500 0

10 Hora

15

20

25

1400
150

1200

1000
100

Agregado [MW]
50 0 0 5 10 Hora 15 20 25

Agregado [MW]

800

600

400

200

10 Hora

15

20

25

30

20

10 Agregado [MW]

-10

-20

-30

10 Hora

15

20

25

Transformer

Customer

Photovoltaic

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ElectricalDistributionnetworks Impactdependsonthetypeofzone

Ruralareas

Urbanareas

Largedistances Demandisscattered

Shortdistances Highconcentrationofthedemand

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ElectricalDistributionnetworks Impactdependsonthetypeofzone

Ruralareas

Urbanareas

Largesize Farfromloads Requiresspecificnetworkinstalattions RequirespowerflowsfromDGtoload

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Smallsize Directlylinkedtotheloads Powerlossesreduction Networkinstallationsaremore expensive

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Penetration of photovoltaics in distribution networks MateoDomingo,Carlos 11May 2011

Photovoltaic Technicalimpactsonthepowersystem [WEIDONG10] 1. LargescaleHVphotovoltaic


Electricityquality:harmonics&voltageregulation PowerFlowControl:unidirectionalvs bidirectionalflows VoltageandFrequencyStability:randomgeneration DistributionSystem:protectionrelay,reliability,monitoring Simulationtechnology Standards
2.

MVorLVphotovoltaic
Islandingwouldrequirecoordinationsystems ImpactsofLVphotovoltaicaremodest

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Incipienttechnologies

ActiveNetworkManagement(ANM)
KopvanNoord Hollandregion,TheNetherlands Rural/suburbandistributionarea.80000customers.675km2 HighpenetrationofDG(eolic) [COSSENT10]

Itrequires:
Controlsystem Communicationnetwork

Itreducesnetworkinvestmentcosts
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Incipienttechnologies

Electricvehicles

Highincreaseofdemand.
Moregenerationwillberequired. Renewabletechnologiesshouldplayanimportantrole.

Electricvehiclebatteries
Storagesystem.Impactontheinstantenergybalance. Costshavetogodowntobeeconomicallyinteresting. Theycanhelptotheinstantaneousbalanceofenergy. Theycanbeusedto"transfer"energyfromonehourtoanother one.

30 20 10 Agregado [MW]

-10

-20

-30

10 Hora

15

20

25

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CONCLUSIONS

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Conclusions

Distributionisalocalproblem
Demandorgenerationpeak Localbalancedemand generation

Technicalconstraints
Voltageslimitshavetobesatisfied Currents:powerflowmaydecreaseforsmallormedium penetration,diminishingpowerlosses

Urbannetworks
Networkinstallationsaremoreexpensivethaninruralareas Theyareexpectedtobeabletoadmitmorephotovoltaic generation

Newtechnologies
Theyrequirecomplexcommunicationsystemsandcontrols Theymayreducetheinvestmentsinnetworkreinforcements

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References

[WEIDONG10]Y.Weidong,X.Zhou,X.Feng.ImpactsofLargeScaleandHighVoltageLvel PhotovoltaicPenetrationontheSecurityandStabilityofPowerSystem,PowerandEnergy EngineeringConference,2010 [LEUVEN03]G.Pepermans,J.Driesen,D.Haeseldoncks,R.Belmans,W.Dhaeseleer. Distributedgeneration:definition,benefitsandissues,EnergyPolicy,2005 [COSSENT10]R.Cossent,L.Olmos,T.Gmez,C.Mateo,P.Fras,"Mitigatingtheimpactof distributedgenerationondistributionnetworkcoststhroughadvancedresponseoptions", 7thConferenceontheEuropeanEnergyMarket EEM10.Madrid,Espaa,2325Junio2010 [PIELTAIN10]L.Pieltain,T.Gmez,R.Cossent,C.Mateo,P.Fras,"Assessmentoftheimpact ofpluginelectricvehiclesondistributionnetworks",IEEETransactionsonPowerSystems. Diciembre2010. [MANJARRES10]L.Manjarres,EconomicAssessmentoftheImpactofSolarPhotovoltaic IntegrationInDistributionNetwork,TesisdeMaster,2010 [MATEO11]C.Mateo,T.Gmez,A.Snchez,J.Peco,A.Candela,"AReferenceNetwork ModelforLargeScaleDistributionPlanningWithAutomaticStreetMapGeneration",IEEE TransactionsonPowerSystems.vol.26,no.1,pp.190197,Febrero2011 [MATEO10]C.MateoStructureofdistributiongridandimpactsofthesolarelectricity generation,inMadrid,ASIFPVLEGALConference,6Oct2010 [FRIAS10]P.FrasIntegracindelageneracindistribuidaenlasredeselctricasde distribucindelfuturo,UnidadEditorialConferenciasyFormacin,2010 [PECO01]J.P.Peco,"ModelodeCoberturaGeogrficadeunaReddeDistribucindeEnerga Elctrica,"inDepartamentodeElectrotcniaySistemas.Madrid:UniversidadPontificia Comillas,2001,pp.249.
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