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LABORATORIUM SISTEM DISTRIBUSI TENAGA LISTRIK

WORKBOOK

PRAKTIKUM PROTEKSI SISTEM TENAGA LISTRIK


PROTEKSI SISTEM TENAGA LISTRIK

Email : supriyanto_suhono@yahoo.com.sg 5/26/2012

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PERCOBAAN RELE ARUS LEBIH ABB tipe IKC 194

Diskripsi

Modul ini berkaitan dengan materi praktikum pengujian dan analisis rele arus lebih Karakteristik Inverse dan Instantanous.

Tujuan

Mahasiswa mampu melakukan penanganan proteksi. operasi

analisis, mempraktekan

pengujian dalam mensetting rele arus lebih dalam konteks dan pemeliharaan peralatan

Sasaran

Setelah mempelajari modul ini peserta didik diharapkan mampu Mendeskripsikan karakteristik Inverse dan Instantanuos pada OCR. Mengidentifikasi kode dan symbol yang digunakan pada rele OCR. Menganalisa setting rele proteksi arus lebih.Melakukan pengujian dan melakukan setting OCR.

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I. Dasar Teori Karakteristik Umum Relai arus lebih dengan karakteristik waktu kerja tertentu . Relai arus lebih dengan karakteristik waktu kerja tertentu mempunyai waktu tunda yang tidak tergantung oleh besarnya arus yang menggerakkan. Pola ini menggabungkan peralatan start, peralatan waktu tunda, relai sinyal, dan relai bantu. Pada gambar 1. merupakan diagram saluran runggal dari pola pengaman arus lebih dengan karakteristik waktu kerja tertentu yang telah dikombinasi dengan relai waktu tunda, relai sinya, dan relai bantu.

KARAKTERISTIK TUNDA WAKTU TERTENTU ( DEFINITE TIME )

t SET

I SET

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KARAKTERISTIK INSTANT = MOMENT

t SET

I
I SET MOMENT

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Relai arus lebih dengan karakteristik waktu kerja terbalik. Relai dengan karakteristik waktu kerja terbalik adalah jika jangka waktu relai mulai kerja sampai selesainya kerja relai diperpanjang dengan nilai yang berbanding terbalik dengan besarnya arus yang menggerakkan. Gambar 2 merupakan gambar diagram saluran tunggal untuk relai pengaman arus lebih dengan karakteristik waktu kerja terbalik. Fungsi dari peralatan starting ( relai arus lebih ) dan waktu tunda dapat digabung dalam satu unit relai. Salah satu keunggulan relai jenis ini disamping pola pengamanannya sederhana, juga keuntungan mendekati invers yang proporsional dari waktu pengoperasian pengaman terhadap besarnya arus yang melewati relai.

KARAKTERISTIK TUNDA WAKTU INVERSE

t SET

I SET

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KARAKTERISTIK KOMBINASI INSTANT DENGAN TUNDA WAKTU TERTENTU (DEFINITE TIME )

t SET

I SET

I SET MOMENT

KARAKTERISTIK KOMBINASI INSTANT DENGAN TUNDA WAKTU INVERSE

I SET

I SET MOMENT

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PRINSIP SETTING OCR

Iset Tunda waktu * Is = k In * Plug Setting Waktu kerja * Definite ( Langsung atau dengan Tms ) * Inverse ( Td atau Tms dan Mps = I / Is) In = Arus Nominal k = Faktor pabrik

tk

Tms ( td )

Td = Time dial setting Tms = Time multiple seting Mps = Multiple plug setting . X Is

Mps = 4 x Is Is instant ( moment ) * Is instant = k In atau k Is In = Arus Nominal

x Is

Is = Arus setting tunda waktu k = Faktor pabrik * Plug setting

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KURVA / KARAKTERISTIK

@ STANDARD / NORMAL INVERSE ( SI )


t 0 ,14 I
0 , 02

tms

@ VERY INVERSE ( VI )
t 13 , 5 I 1 tms

@ EXTREMELY INVERSE ( EI )
t 80 I
2

tms

@ LONG TIME INVERSE ( LTI )


t 120 I 1 tms

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SAMBUNGAN ( WIRING ) OCR dan GFR

PMT
P1

OCR R
S1 S2

OCR S

GFR E

T OCR

CT
P2

3 1

Buah OCR Buah GFR

PMT
P1

OCR R
S1 S2

GFR E

T OCR

CT
P2

2 Buah OCR 1 Buah GFR

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JENIS / ITEM PENGUJIN

Arus pick up dan arus drop off , dan arus drop off Karakteristik Arus Waktu Karakteristik Instantaneous

rasio arus pick up dengan

Arus pick up [ arus awal / mula ] arus minimum yang menyebabkan relai bekerja Arus drop off [reset/ kembali ] Arus maksimum yang menyebabkan relai tidak bekerja. Rasio arus pick up dengan drop off

KD

ID IP

100 %

I
I pick up I reset I beban t gangguan

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II. Prosedur Percobaan 1

Menguji system sinyal out put rele; start, delay, instantanous

2 Menguji Karakteristik Prestting rasio

3 Menguji Karakteristik rele terhadap fungsi arus beban dengan setting I = 2 setting I 0,4 A (Waktu tunda), K = 10 tms = 0,1

5 Menguji Karakteristik Instantanous rele terhadap fungsi arus beban dengan setting I = 2 ; setting I =4 skala pengali waktu (tms) bervariasi = 0,1; 0,5, 1 ( k=10, 50, 100)

4 Menguji Karakteristik rele terhadap fungsi arus beban dengan setting I = 0,4 A (Waktu tunda), skala pengali waktu (tms) bervariasi = 0,1; 0,5, 1 ( k=10, 50, 100)

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III. Data dan Pengamatan. Tabel Pengamatan 1.


No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Out Put Relay NO Ready indicator NC Ready indicator NO Start NC Start NO (I NO (I & I & I ) ) Keterangan/ Indikator/ Fungsi

Tabel Pengamatan 2 : Presetting Rasio Setiing Arus Uji


A( Ampere)
I = 2 Iset = 0,4A I = 0 K = 10 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,6 2,0 2,4 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4.0 4,5

Iuji / Iset

Ioperasi
A( Ampere)

Ipelepasan
A( Ampere)

Presetting Rasio

.
CAT : PERHATIKAN RANGE ARUS TERTINGGI KOMPONEN DAN ALAT UKUR YANG DIGUNAKAN

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Tabel Pengamatan 3 : Karakteristik Waktu Pemutusan = F(Arus Beban)


Seting
Arus Uji Iuji Iset

T (Waktu Pemutusan) ( DETIK )


K = 10 K = 50 K = 100

A (Ampere)

TMS = 0,1
Perhitungan (Det.) Pengukuran (Det.)

TMS = 0,5
Perhitungan (Det.) Pengukuran (Det.)

TMS = 0,5
Perhitungan (Det.) Pengukuran (Det.)

I I

= 2 = 0

0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,6 2,0 2,4

1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4.0 4,5

Tabel Pengamatan 3b : Karakteristik Waktu Pemutusan = F(Arus Beban)


Seting
Arus Uji Iuji Iset

T (Waktu Pemutusan) ( DETIK )


K = 10 K = 50 K = 100 TMS = 0,1
Perhitungan (Det.) Pengukuran (Det.)

A (Ampere)

TMS = 0,5
Perhitungan (Det.) Pengukuran (Det.)

TMS = 0,5
Perhitungan (Det.) Pengukuran (Det.)

I I

= 3 = 0

0,6 0,9 1,2 1,5 1,8 2,1 2,4 2,7 3,0

1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5

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Tabel Pengamatan 4 : Karakteristik Instantanous


Seting

Arus Uji

T (Waktu Pemutusan) ( DETIK )


K = 10 K = 100

A (Ampere)

TMS = 0,1
Perhitungan Pengukuran

TMS = 0,5
Perhitungan Pengukuran Indikator Yang Bekerja

(Det.)

(Det.)

(Det.)

(Det.)

I I

= 2 = 2

0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,6 2,0 2,4

I I

= 3 = 2

0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,6 2,0 2,4

I I

= 2 = 3

0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,6 2,0 2,4

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Analisa/Pengamatan 1. Hasil pengamatan table 1


a. b. c. Output Relay Ready menunjukan indikasi . Output Relay Start menunjukan indikasi . Output Relay I & I menunjukan indikasi .

2. Hasil pengamatan table 2 Presseting Rasio relay (Rasio arus pick up dengan drop off) =

2. Buat grafik dari Tabel 3 Waktu operasi relay = f ( I uji / I set ) ( Buat dalam satu grafik untuk K atau TMS bervariasi) K = 10 K = 50 K = 100 TMS = 0,1 TMS = 0,5 TMS = 1

3. Buat grafik dari Tabel 3b Waktu operasi relay = f ( I uji / I set ) ( Buat dalam satu grafik untuk K atau TMS bervariasi) K = 10 K = 50 K = 100 TMS = 0,1 TMS = 0,5 TMS = 1

4. Lakukan analisis Grafik 1 dan 2 Bagaimana karakteristik pemutusan rele terhadap arus beban ? Bagaimana fungsi pengali waktu terhadap proses pemutusan rele? Apa perbedaan grafik 1 dan 2. 5. Lakukan analisis terhadap Tabel 4 Bagaimana kerja instantaneous terhadap TMS? Apakah korelasi seting dengan waktu trip delay dan instantaneous?

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100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30

20

WAKTU PEMUTUSAN

10 9 6 4 2 1 0,05 0,04

0,02

0,01 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

I uji / I set

Grafik 1: Karakteristik Pemutusan

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100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30

20

WAKTU PEMUTUSAN

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

1 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

I uji / I set

Grafik 2 : Karakteristik Pemutusan

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IV.

Soal dan Pertanyaan 1. Apa yang dimaksud dengan arus pick up? arus drop off? Rasio arus pick up dengan drop off? 2. 3.
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30

Apa pengertian waktu start, dan waktu operasi? Gambarkan kurva inverse dengan Iset = 0,5 Amp, dengan TMS=0,5, dan arus pengujian 1,5 A, 2A, dan 2,5 Amp.

20

WAKTU PEMUTUSAN

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

1 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

I uji / I set

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PERCOBAAN RELE ARUS LEBIH DAN GANGGUAN TANAH MCGG52

Diskripsi

Modul ini berkaitan dengan materi praktikum pengujian dan analisis rele arus lebih pada berbagai Karakteristik Inverse , definite dan Instantanous.

Tujuan

Mahasiswa mampu melakukan penanganan operasi

analisis, mempraktekan

pengujian dalam mensetting rele arus lebih dalam konteks dan pemeliharaan peralatan proteksi.

Sasaran

Setelah mempelajari modul ini peserta didik diharapkan mampu Mendeskripsikan Beragam karakteristik Inverse dan Instantanuos pada OCR. Menganalisa setting rele proteksi arus lebih.Melakukan pengujian dan melakukan setting OCR.

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I. Dasar Teori Konstruksi

Konstruksi Relai OCR MCGG52

Keterangan : 1. Identifikasi Relai 2. Tombol Reset 3. Kurva Karateristik 4. Nilai Kurva Karakteristik 5. Phasa 6. Led Instantaneous 7. Led Time Delayed 8. Led I pick Up 9. Setting Arus Relai 10. Kurva Karakteristik 11. Setting TMS 12. Setting Instantaneous 13. Kontak Input 1 14. Kontak Input 2 15. Kontak Input 3 16. Suplay 110v DC 17. Kontak gangguan phasa time delayed 18. Kontak gangguan phasa instantaneous 19. Kontak ganguan phasa-tanah time delayed 20. Kontak ganguan phasa-tanah instantaneous

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Wiring Relai OCR MCGG 52

PMT OCR R P1 S1 CT P2 S2 T OCR GFR E

2 buah OCR 1 buah GFR Wiring Relai OCR/GFR tipe 52 Pada Jaringan Tenaga Listrik

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Metode Setting OCR MCGG 52 Setting Arus Waktu Tunda

Keterangan :

= Nilai setting pada relai I = Besar setting arus relai hasil perhitungan In = Arus nominal relai pada nameplate ( In = 5Amp )

Tujuh switch biru paling atas digunakan untuk mengatur setting sensitivitas arus yang dibutuhkan. Setiap switch dapat diposisikan ke kiri atau kanan, tingkat pengaturan dapat ditunjukkan secara horizontal sama seperti switch, ke kiri atau kanan dari switch. Pemilihan Kurva Karakteristik Tiga switch hitam diposisikan pada kelompok atas yaitu digunakan untuk memilih kurva waktu yang diperlukan dari empat pilihan kurva waktu inverse dan tiga kurva waktu definite. Persamaan kurva karakteristik tercantum di bawah ini. Saklar kedelapan kombinasi pengaturan relay ke dalam mode trip test.

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Dimana I adalah rasio yang diterapkan saat ini untuk pengaturan arus Is.

Setting TMS xt = Swith setting TMS berupa enam switch biru diposisikan di bagian bawah kelompok switch bagian atas. Waktu yang diberikan oleh masing-masing operasi karakteristik time delay harus dikalikan dengan waktu pengali untuk memberikan operasi yang aktual. Pengaturan ini diperoleh dengan menambahkan nilai-nilai yang ditunjukkan dari pengaturan switch itu sendiri dan ditandai oleh x t = . Setting Arus Instantaneous Iinst = Keterangan : Iinst Is x Is = Nilai setting pada relai = Besar setting arus Instantaneous hasil perhitungan = Besar setting arus Time Delay hasil perhitungan

Kelompok yang terpisah lebih rendah dari enam switch biru digunakan untuk memilih yang pengaturan arus instantaneous antara 1xIs dan 31xIs. Pengaturan yang dipilih diperoleh dengan menambahkan nilai-nilai yang ditunjukkan oleh pengaturan switch tersebut. Nilai ini dikalikan dengan pengaturan arus time delay untuk memberikan hasil pengoperasian arus instantaneous.

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Jika elemen instantaneous tidak diperlukan, maka semua switch harus diset ke kiri ( penunjukan nol ), atau saklar bawah harus diset ke kanan ( penunjukan tak hingga). Contoh setting OCR MCGG 52 :

Arus nominal pada nameplate : In = 0.5 Iset = 1.2A Kurva karakteristik = Standard Inverse TMS = 0.5 x Setting arus instantaneous = 12A

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Rangkaian Pengujian

CURRENT INJECTOR

MODUL PRAKTIKUM RELE MCGG 52

00 :00

A
RELE OUTPUT TIMER SWITCH CURRENT INJECT

110V DC

POWER

+
_

SUPPLY DC 110 V

SUMBER VARIABEL DC SETTING 110V DC

PROSEDUR PERCOBAAN 1) On-kan power supply DC dan setel sampai sebesar 110 V untuk mengaktifkan rele MCGG 52. 2) Hubungkan power supply DC ke terminal masukan sumber DC pada modul praktikum rele. 3) Tekan tombol reset pada rele MCGG 52, jika semua lampu indikator kerja rele menyala maka rele dalam kondisi ON dan siap untuk diuji. 4) Rangkai sesuai dengan gambar rangkaian uji dengan menggunakan current injector 1 phasa. 5) Lakukan setting pengujian karakteristik dengan nilai Is time delayed OCR/GFR sebesar 1 A. Rumus Iset adalah = x In. Maka nilai set = Iset / In = 1 / 5 = 0,2

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0.1 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.8

0.05 0 0 0 0 0 0

Setting Is OCR (phasa R dan T) Set kurva sesuai uji karakteristik yang dibutuhkan, sebagai contoh pada posisi kurva Standard Inverse. Untuk memilih kurva yang diinginkan dilakukan dengan cara mengeset dial option yang berbentuk kode biner yang keterangannya dapat dilihat pada tabel. Tabel .1 Setting kurva karakteristik SI 0 0 0 VI 1 0 0 EI 0 1 0 LTI 1 1 0 D2 0 0 1 D4 1 0 1 D8 0 1 1

TRIP TEST :

CURVA SI :

0 0 0

1 1 1

0 0 0

1 1 1

Gambar 3 Setting kurva Standard Inverse dengan tunda waktu

6) Dikarenakan keterbatasan komponen pencatat waktu pada perangkat current injector untuk mencatat waktu pemutusan rele yang sangat cepat maka untuk

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alternatif, set TMS pada rele diperbesar hingga 0,6 sehingga waktu pemutusan rele masih dapat diamati

0,025 0 0 0 0 0

0,05 0,05 0,1 0,2 0,2 0,4

Setting TMS 7) dan Iset instant dibuat 0, sehingga nilai = 0.

0 0 0 0 0 0

1 2 4 8 16

Setting kurva I set Instant/Moment 8) Berikan simulasi arus gangguan dan ukur secara bertahap dengan cara memutar tuas ulir pada bagian atas current injector sesuai nilai arus gangguan pada tabel hasil uji. Lakukan langkah diatas untuk masing - masing setting karakteristik kurva waktu tunda rele inverse, diantaranya : Standard Normal Inverse Very Inverse Extremely Inverse Long Time Inverse

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9) Susun hasil uji diatas pada tabel data hasil uji. 10) Lalu lakukan perhitungan waktu kerja dengan rumus macam - macam karakteristik Relay Inverse yaitu : Standard Normal Inverse
t 0 ,14 I
0 , 02

tms

Very Inverse
t 13 , 5 I 1 tms

Extremely Inverse
t 80 I
2

tms

Long Time Inverse


t 120 I 1 tms

11) Catat hasil perhitungan dan susun pada tabel hasil perhitungan untuk dibandingkan nilainya. Lalu buat kurva perbandingan hasil uji dan hitung.

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DATA DAN PENGAMATAN T (Waktu Pemutusan ( detik) ) Iuji 0,25 Amp Iuji Iset 1,5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 SI hitung ukur 10.3 6 3.8 2.9 2.6 2.3 2.1 2 1.9 1.8 VI hitung ukur 16.2 8.1 4.05 2.7 2 1.6 1.3 1.2 1 0.9 EI hitung ukur 38.4 16 6 3.2 2 1.4 1 0.8 0.6 0.5 LTI hitung ukur 144 72 36 24 18 14.4 12 10.3 9 8

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Pengamatan 1. Buat grafik Waktu operasi relay = f ( I uji / I set ) dalam satu grafik karakteristik SI, VI, EI, LTI.

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20

WAKTU PEMUTUSAN

10 9 6 4 2 1 0,05 0,04 0,02

0,01 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

I uji / I set

Grafik Karakteristik Pemutusan

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SIMULASI PROTEKSI PENYULANG

Diskripsi

Modul ini berkaitan dengan materi praktikum pengujian dan analisis koordinasi proteksi pada penyulang.

Tujuan

Mahasiswa mampu melakukan penanganan operasi penyulang .

analisis, mempraktekan

pengujian dalam mensetting rele arus lebih dalam konteks dan pemeliharaan peralatan proteksi

Sasaran

Setelah mempelajari modul ini peserta didik diharapkan mampu 1. 2. 3. 4. Dapat merangkai simulasi gangguan yang mungkin terjadi pada jaringan distribusi tenaga listrik. Dapat merangkai rangkaian simulasi kerja relai MCGG 52 pada jaringan distribusi tenaga listrik. Mengetahui cara untuk menentukan setting relai. Menganalisa kerja relai pada simulasi kerja saat terjadi gangguan pada jaringan distribusi tenaga listrik.

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I. Dasar Teori

Setting Relai Arus Lebih Hal-hal yang harus diperhatikan dalam menentukan setting relai arus lebih adalah sebagai berikut : 1. Arus kerja minimum relai harus lebih besar dari arus beban maksimum dan lebih kecil dari arus gangguan hubung singkat terkecil, yaitu arus gangguan hubung singkat dua fasa di ujung seksi. 2. Penentuan setting dari seksi yang paling ujung dan secara bertahap dilakukan untuk seksi-seksi berikutnya kearah sumber. Untuk menentukan setting waktu relai perlu diketahui beda waktu koordinasi minimum yang di perbolehkan sesuai dengan spesifikasi relai dan pemutus daya yang dipakai. 3. Pada saat lebih besar. Setting Arus Untuk Waktu Tunda ( I>) (1) Iset =
kS kD

melakukan setting waktu relai inverse, lakukanlah pada saat arus

gangguan maksimum karena untuk arus yang lebih kecil waktu kerja relai akan

x In

(2) Iset = 0,8 x I HS 2 Iset diambil dari nilai terkecil diantara persamaan (2.7) dan (2.8)
kS
kD

= 1,1 > 80 %

1,2

In = Arus beban nominal

Setting Arus Untuk Instantaneous ( I>>) Di sisi down stream (hilir) maka : (1) I HS 2 (2)
I SET
2

min

I SET 1

I HS 3 min

I kemampuank

abel

Iset diambil dari nilai terkecil diantara persamaan (2.9) dan (2.10) Di sisi Up stream (hulu) maka :
I SetInst

= 1,2 x

I HS 3 max didownstre

am

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Setting TMS
t (( Tms I fault I set )
0 , 02

1)

0 ,14

II.
RST

RANGKAIAN PERCOBAAN
CB 2

CB 4

CB 6

CB 8

r1 r3 r5

r2 r4 r6

CB-B

MCGG 52

Simulator CB -CT

+
110 DC

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CB3

CB 4

CB 7

Gardu Distribusi TR

CB8

r1 r3 r5 z1 z3 z5

r2 r4 r6 z2 z4 z6 c2 c4 c6

CB5

CB 6

c1 c3 c5

CB 2

220 127
Gardu Distribusi TM

20 0

100

420 400 380 360 340 220

PE

L KONTAKTOR 220 Vac

CB 1

R S T

Gambar : Rangkaian Uji Hubung Singkat 3 Phasa


Gardu Distribusi TR

CB3

CB 4

CB 7

CB8

r1 r3 r5 z1 z3 z5

r2 r4 r6 z2 z4 z6 c2 c4 c6

CB5

CB 6

c1 c3 c5

CB 2

220 127
Gardu Distribusi TM

20 0

100

420 400 380 360 340 220

PE

L KONTAKTOR 220 Vac

CB 1

R S T

Gambar : Rangkaian Uji Hubung Singkat 2 Phasa

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CB3

CB 4

CB 7

Gardu Distribusi TR

CB8

r1 r3 r5 z1 z3 z5

r2 r4 r6 z2 z4 z6 c2 c4 c6

CB5

CB 6

c1 c3 c5

CB 2

220 127
Gardu Distribusi TM

20 0

100

420 400 380 360 340 220

PE

L KONTAKTOR 220 Vac

CB 1

R S T

Gambar : Rangkaian Uji Hubung Singkat 1 Phasa ke Tanah

CB 3

CB

CB 7

Gardu Distribusi TR

CB 8

r1 r3 r5 z1

r2 r4 r6 z2 z4 z6 c2 c4 c6

z3 z5 c1 c3

CB-B CB
2

MCGG 52

c5

220 127
Gardu Distribusi TM

Simulator CB -CT

+
420 400 380 360 340 220

110 DC

PHASA KONTAKTOR 220 Vac

CB 1

Gambar : Rangkaian Uji Simulasi Kerja Relai MCGG 52 di Jaringan Distribusi

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III.

PROSEDUR PERCOBAAN

1. On-kan power supply DC. 2. Set power supply DC pada nilai 110 Vdc. 3. Hubungkan power supply DC ke terminal masukan sumber DC pada OCR MCGG 52. 4. Tekan tombol reset pada rele MCGG 52, jika semua lampu indikator kerja relai menyala maka relai dalam kondisi ON dan siap untuk diuji. 5. Matikan kembali sumber DC. 6. Lakukan pengukuran arus nominal pada penyulang kemudian catat besarannya. 7. Lakukan pengujian hubung singkat pada modul praktikum Simulasi Distribusi Tenaga Listrik (3 phasa, 2 phasa, 1 phasa ke tanah) sesuai dengan gambar rangkaian ujinya. 8. Ukur dan catat besar arus gangguan hubung singkatnya pada sisi beban. 9. Setelah didapat data hubung singkat, matikan power supply AC ke modul praktikum simulasi distribusi. Seting OCR MCGG 52 Setting Arus Relai Invers (1) Iset =
kS kD

x In

(2) Iset = 0,8 x I HS 2 Setting Relai Instantaneous (1) I HS 2 min (2) I SET 2
I SET 1
abel

I HS 3 min

I kemampuank

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ETAP 5.0
Protective Device Coordination

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Agenda
OC Protective Device Coordination
Concepts & Applications

STAR 5.0.0 Overview


Features & Capabilities
STAR Example 1

Advance Topics
STAR Example 2

PD Sequence of Operation Device Libraries ETAP ARTTS


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Definition
Overcurrent Coordination
A systematic study of current responsive devices in an electrical power system.

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Objective
To determine the ratings and settings of fuses, breakers, relay, etc. To isolate the fault or overloads.

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Criteria
Economics Available Measures of Fault Operating Practices Previous Experience

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Design
Open only PD upstream of the fault or overload Provide satisfactory protection for overloads Interrupt SC as rapidly (instantaneously) as possible Comply with all applicable standards and codes Plot the Time Current Characteristics of different PDs
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Analysis
When: New electrical systems Plant electrical system expansion/retrofits Coordination failure in an existing plant

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Protection vs. Coordination


Coordination is not an exact science Compromise between protection and coordination
Reliability Speed Performance Economics Simplicity
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Protection
Prevent injury to personnel Minimize damage to components
Quickly isolate the affected portion of the system Minimize the magnitude of available short-circuit

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Spectrum Of Currents
Load Current
Up to 100% of full-load 115-125% (mild overload)

Overcurrent
Abnormal loading condition (Locked-Rotor)

Fault Current
Fault condition Ten times the full-load current and higher
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Coordination
Limit the extent and duration of service interruption Selective fault isolation Provide alternate circuits

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Coordination
C t D B A A C D B

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Equipment
Motor Transformer Generator Cable Busway
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Capability / Damage Curves


t I22t It
2

I2t

I2t

Motor Gen

Xfmr

Cable

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Transformer Category
ANSI/IEEE C-57.109

Minimumnameplate (kVA) Category Single-phase Three-phase I 5-500 15-500 II 501-1667 501-5000 III 1668-10,000 5001-30,000 IV above 1000 above 30,000

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Infrequent Fault Incidence Zones for Category II & III Transformers


Source Transformer primary-side protective device (fuses, relayed circuit breakers, etc.) may be selected by reference to the infrequent-faultincidence protection curve Infrequent-Fault Incidence Zone* Category II or III Transformer Fault will be cleared by transformer primary-side protective device Optional main secondary side protective device. May be selected by reference to the infrequent-faultincidence protection curve Fault will be cleared by transformer primary-side protective device or by optional main secondaryside protection device Feeder protective device Frequent-Fault Incidence Zone* Feeders Fault will be cleared by feeder protective device

* Should be selected by reference to the frequent-fault-incidence protection curve or for transformers serving industrial, commercial and institutional power systems with secondary-side conductors enclosed in conduit, bus duct, etc., the feeder protective device may be selected by reference to the infrequent-fault-incidence protection curve.
Source: IEEE C57
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Transformer
FLA

200

Thermal
(D-D LL) 0.87

t (sec)

I2t = 1250
Infrequent Fault

(D-R LG) 0.58

Frequent Fault

Mechanical
K=(1/Z)2t
Inrush

2.5

Isc

25

I (pu)

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Transformer Protection
MAXIMUM RATING OR SETTING FOR OVERCURRENT DEVICE PRIMARY SECONDARY Over 600 Volts Over 600 Volts 600 Volts or Below Transformer Rated Impedance Not more than 6% More than 6% and not more than 10% Circuit Breaker Setting 600 % Fuse Rating 300 % Circuit Breaker Setting 300 % Fuse Rating 250% Circuit Breaker Setting or Fuse Rating 125% (250% supervised) 125% (250% supervised)
source: NEC

400 %

300 %

250%

225%

Table 450-3(a)

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Protective Devices
Fuse Relay (50/51 P, N, G, SG, 51V, 67, 46, 79, 21, ) Thermal Magnetic Low Voltage Solid State Trip Electro-Mechanical MCP Overload Heater
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Fuse
Non Adjustable Device Continuous and Interrupting Rating Voltage Levels Characteristic Curves
Min. Melting Total Clearing

Application
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Total Clearing Time Curve

Minimum Melting Time Curve

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Current Limiting Fuse (CLF)


Limits the peak current of short-circuit Reduces magnetic stresses (mechanical damage) Reduces thermal energy

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Let-Through Chart
Peak Let-Through Amperes
15% PF (X/R = 6.6)
230,000

300 A
12,500

100 A 60 A

5,200

100,000

Symmetrical RMS Amperes


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Fuse
Generally: CLF is a better short-circuit protection Non-CLF (expulsion fuse) is a better Overload protection

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Selectivity Criteria
Typically: Non-CLF: CLF: 140% of full load 150% of full load

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Molder Case CB
Thermal-Magnetic Magnetic Only Integrally Fused Current Limiting High Interrupting Capacity Types Frame Size Trip Rating Interrupting Capability Voltage

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Thermal Maximum

Thermal Minimum

Magnetic (instantaneous)

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LVPCB
Voltage and Frequency Ratings Continuous Current / Frame Size
Override (12 times cont. current)

Interrupting Rating Short-Time Rating (30 cycle) Fairly Simple to Coordinate

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LT PU

CB 1
LT Band

CB 2
CB 2
480 kV

ST PU

CB 1

IT If =30 kA ST Band

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Motor Protection
Motor Starting Curve Thermal Protection Locked Rotor Protection Fault Protection

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Motor Overload Protection


(NEC Art 430-32)

Thermal O/L (Device 49) Motors with SF not less than 1.15
125% of FLA

Motors with temp. rise not over 40


125% of FLA

All other motors


115% of FLA
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Locked Rotor Protection


Thermal Locked Rotor (Device 51) Starting Time (TS < TLR) LRA
LRA sym LRA asym (1.5-1.6 x LRA sym) + 10% margin

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Fault Protection
(NEC Art 430-52) Non-Time Delay Fuses
300% of FLA

Dual Element (Time-Delay Fuses)


175% of FLA

Instantaneous Trip Breaker


800% of FLA*

Inverse Time Breakers


250% of FLA

*MCPs can be set higher


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(49) 2 IT

tLR ts Starting Curve (51)

O/L

MCP

200 HP

MCP (50)

LRAs

LRAasym

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Overcurrent Relay
Time-Delay (51 I>) Short-Time Instantaneous ( I>>) Instantaneous (50 I>>>) Electromagnetic (induction Disc) Solid State (Multi Function / Multi Level) Application

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Time-Overcurrent Unit
Ampere Tap Calculation
Ampere Pickup (P.U.) = CT Ratio x A.T. Setting Relay Current (IR) = Actual Line Current (IL) / CT Ratio Multiples of A.T.
CT

= IR/A.T. Setting = IL/(CT Ratio x A.T. Setting)

IL

IR
51

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Instantaneous Unit
Instantaneous Calculation
Ampere Pickup (P.U.) = CT Ratio x IT Setting Relay Current (IR) = Actual Line Current (IL) / CT Ratio Multiples of IT
CT

= IR/IT Setting = IL/(CT Ratio x IT Setting)

IL

IR
50

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Relay Coordination
Time margins should be maintained between T/C curves Adjustment should be made for CB opening time Shorter time intervals may be used for solid state relays Upstream relay should have the same inverse T/C characteristic as the downstream relay (CO-8 to CO-8) or be less inverse (CO-8 upstream to CO-6 downstream) Extremely inverse relays coordinates very well with CLFs
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Fixed Points
Points or curves which do not change regardless of protective device settings: Motor starting curves Transformer damage curves & inrush points Cable damage curves SC maximum fault points Cable ampacities
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Situation
4.16 kV CT 800:5
CB
50/51

Relay: IFC 53

Cable CU - EPR
Isc = 30,000 A DS
5 MVA 6%

1-3/C 500 kcmil

Calculate Relay Setting (Tap, Inst. Tap & Time Dial) For This System

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Solution
Transformer:

IL =

5,000kVA = 694 A 3 4.16kV 5 IR = IL = 4.338 A 800


R

IL IR

I Inrsuh = 12 694 = 8,328 A


Set Relay:

CT

125% 4.338 = 5.4 A TAP = 6.0 A TD = 1 (6/4.338 = 1.38) 5 = 52.1 A => 55 A 800

Inst (50) = 8,328

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Question
What is ANSI Shift Curve?

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Answer
For delta-delta connected transformers, with line-to-line faults on the secondary side, the curve must be reduced to 87% (shift to the left by a factor of 0.87) For delta-wye connection, with single line-toground faults on the secondary side, the curve values must be reduced to 58% (shift to the left by a factor of 0.58)
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Question
What is meant by Frequent and Infrequent for transformers?

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Answer
Infrequent Fault Incidence Zones for Category II & III Transformers
Source Transformer primary-side protective device (fuses, relayed circuit breakers, etc.) May be selected by reference to the infrequent-faultincidence protection curve Infrequent-Fault Incidence Zone* Category II or III Transformer Fault will be cleared by transformer primary-side protective device Optional main secondary side protective device. May be selected by reference to the infrequent-faultincidence protection curve Fault will be cleared by transformer primary-side protective device or by optional main secondaryside protection device Feeder protective device Frequent-Fault Incidence Zone* Fault will be cleared by feeder protective device

Feeders
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Question
What T/C Coordination interval should be maintained between relays?

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Answer
B t A
CB Opening Time + Induction Disc Overtravel (0.1 sec) + Safety margin (0.2 sec w/o Inst. & 0.1 sec w/ Inst.)

I
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Question
What is Class 10 and Class 20 Thermal OLR curves?

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Answer
Class 10 for fast trip, 10 seconds or less Class 20 for, 20 seconds or less There is also a Class 30 for long trip time

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Answer

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Viewing a TCC in Star


This tutorial provides a brief overview of the basic operation of the Star Protective Device Coordination module. It will cover how to create a new Star View and how to add a new device to an existing Star View. You will need to contact OTI with your Return Key Code so that you can activate this module.

Creating a New Star View


Start ETAP Demo and select the option New Project for this tutorial. Click the Edit button on the Mode toolbar.

Click the Overcurrent Relay button presentation. Double-click the Overcurrent Relay element to open the Relay editor.

from Edit toolbar and drop it into the OLV1

Go to the OCR page and then click the Library button. This will display the Library Quick pick - Relay dialog box. Select manufacturer GE Multilin and model 735/737 and click OK. GE Multilin 735/737 relay data is populated in the OCR page.

Set the relay as shown in the figure; ensure that Link TOC + IOC for this level is checked for OC1. To learn more about relay settings, refer to the Relay section in Instrumentation Elements chapter of the User Guide or click the Help button.

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Click the Input page. Enter primary and secondary ratings for Phase CT (800:5) and Ground CT (50:5) as shown below. CT ratios can be entered directly in the Relay Editor where no CT is connected to the relay. You will need to drop a CT into the one-line-diagram under Edit Mode and connect the Relay to the CT before running calculations but viewing a TCC curve does not require the presence of a CT. From the Mode toolbar, click the Star Protective Device Coordination button to switch to the Star mode.

To generate the Star View, select the relay, and then click the Create Star View button from the right-hand side Star Mode toolbar.

This opens a new Star TCC View with the selected Relay1 curve. Star Views for other protective devices can be generated in a similar manner. Keep Star1 open for the next section of the tutorial. Right click on the label tag associated with the curve and check the Settings options. This will show more infromation related to the relay settings in the label tag.

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Adding a Device Curve to a Star View


Switch to Edit mode and then drop a fuse into the one-line-diagram view OLV1.

Double-click the fuse symbol to open the Fuse editor. Go to the Rating page and click the Library button to display the Library Quick Pick Fuse dialog box. Select manufacturer S&C, and model SMU-20, at 27 Max. kV, with standard speed and size 13E.

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Switch to Star Mode using the Mode toolbar. Select Fuse1 and click on to Append to Star view button open the Star View Selection editor. Select Star1to append Fuse1 to Star1 view and click OK.

Star1 view opens with the Fuse1 curve added. Element or group of elements on the one-line-diagram can be appended to one or more Star views in a similar manner.

Helpful Tips
A faster method to add a new device to a star view is to select the device on the one-line-diagram, hold the Shift key down, and drag it to the active Star View. The color of each TCC curve can be assigned by pressing the Plot Options button on the right hand toolbar.

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ELTECHS E&C CORPORATION

ETAP TECHNICAL INFORMATION POINTERS


ETAP TIP No. 013

Display the Curve of a Phase Overcurrent Device in a Ground Time-Current Curve (TCC) Plot
Applicable ETAP Versions: 6.0.0 (For lower versions, some of the descriptions and procedures below may differ in some ways) Sometimes it is desirable to show the phase overcurrent (OC) element of a certain protective device in a Ground TCC plot to ensure that coordination is met against the ground OC element of another device. For example, in a Delta-Wye solidly secondary grounded transformer, the ground relay at the secondary side must be coordinated with a phase relay at the primary side since the primary side phase OC element sees a fraction of the ground fault current at the secondary side. The plot shown in Fig. 1 is a Ground TCC plot. The ground OC curve of OCR3 and OCR4 relays are shown. Doing the following steps will show the phase OC curve of the OCR3: 1. icon on Click the Plot Option the Star View TCC toolbar or rightclick anywhere inside TCC plot area and select the Plot Option.. in the pop-up menu. See Fig. 1 On the Plot Option dialog window, do the following steps (see Fig. 2):

3.b Ground Mode

2.

a. Click Devices tab. b. Double-click OCR3 node in the


tree

c. Click Phase node d. Click Preferences tab e. Check Ground Mode f. Click OK
3. See Fig. 3, the OCR3 phase overcurrent element is displayed.

Fig. 1

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ELTECHS E&C CORPORATION

ETAP TECHNICAL INFORMATION POINTERS

b c d

Fig. 2

Note: The suffix appended to the ID of a multi-function relay indicates the type of the element that is shown on the TCC. For example OCR4-N, the N indicates that the curve is the Neutral element of OCR4 relay.

Fig. 3

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