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Ingls Bsico 1: El Verbo To Be

Este artculo va dirigido a los principiantes, los estudiantes que no tienen idea del ingls. Voy a hacer una serie de aproximadamente 10 artculos para ellos, en los que presento lo ms bsico del idioma. Empezamos, entonces, con el verbo to be. El verbo to be es equivalente al ser o estar del espaol. Se usa con adjetivos, nacionalidades, maneras de identificar a algo/alguien, etc. Sus formas son: I am tall. = Yo soy alto. You are small. = T eres pequeo. He is Chinese. = l es chino. She is a student. = Ella es estudiante. It is a beautiful day. = Es un da muy bonito. We are bored. = Nosotros estamos aburridos They are in the living room. = Ellos estn en el saln.

Fjate en los pronombres personales: I, you, he, she, it, we, they. En ingls, no tenemos una forma para Usted. Usamos you simplemente. Tampoco tenemos vosotros/ustedes. Tambin sera you. What are you doing? = (Qu ests/estis haciendo?) podra ir dirigido a una persona o a varias, no hay manera de saber. It se refiere a cosas sin gnero. Si queremos hablar de una bicicleta, un tomate, el tiempo, etc, usamos it. Fjate tambin que los pronombres personales son necesarios para cada frase. Eso es porque nuestros verbos no tienen muchas conjugaciones, y para estar claro, tenemos que siempre mencionar la persona. Ms ejemplos del verbo to be: I am an architect. = Soy arquitecto. I am American. = Soy americano. I am at home. = Estoy en casa. You are very beautiful. = Eres muy hermosa. (beautiful suele decirse con mujeres) You are right. = Tienes razn.

You are funny. = Eres gracioso. He is awake. = Est despierto. He is sleeping. = Est durmiendo. He is 23 years old. = Tiene 23 aos. She is drunk. = Ella est borracha. She is annoying. = Ella es molesta. She is in London. = Est en Londres. It is in the fridge. = Est en la nevera. It is frozen. = Est congelado. It is under the bed. = Est debajo de la cama. We are Italian. = Somos italianos. We are interested in jazz music. = Estamos interesados en la msica jazz. We are at the office. = Estamos en la oficina. They are out. = Estn fuera. They are late. = Llegan tarde. They are tired. = Estn cansados.

Algunas de las traducciones no son literales! En ingls, por ejemplo, somos una edad, y no tenemos aos. Shes 18 and Im 29. = Ella tiene 18 aos y yo tengo 29.

Para aprender el ingls, tenemos que aceptar que es distinto al espaol! Y ahora que estamos en ello, tenemos formas abreviadas de to be! Se suelen usar mucho, especialmente en conversacin y en situaciones menos formales. I am = Im You are = Youre He is = Hes She is = Shes It is = Its We are = Were They are = Theyre

Ingls Bsico 2: Negativas y Preguntas con TO BE


Ayer vimos las formas del verbo to be. Podemos estar tranquilos, porque to be es el verbo ms complicado que tenemos en el ingls. De todos modos, hay que memorizar todas las formas. Tambin las negaciones y las preguntas. Aqu har positivo, negativo y pregunta para que veis las diferencias. Utilizo las formas cortas, pero sabemos que hay tambin largas (Im = I am). Im American. Im not Japanese. Am I Japanese? Slo pasan dos cosas aqu: not en la negacin, y el verbo al principio para hacer la pregunta. El resto de las personas tienen dos formas para hacer la negacin: Youre sleepy. Youre not sleepy. = You arent sleepy. Are you sleepy? Hes tall. He isnt tall. = Hes not tall. Is he tall? Tanto you arent come youre not se usan igual. Uno es cortar el not y el otro es cortar el are. Igual con he isnt y hes not y las succesivas formas. Shes young. She isnt young. = Shes not young. Is she young? Its cold. Its not cold. = It isnt cold. Is it cold? Were late. We arent late. = Were not late. Are we late? Theyre funny.

Theyre not funny. Are they funny?

As tenemos preguntas y negaciones para el verbo to be en todas las formas. Todas comparten una pauta: la palabra not en la negacin y el verbo al principio para las preguntas. Todas las preguntas aqu preguntas se contestan yes/no. Ms adelante veremospreguntas con who, what, where, when, why, how etc. De momento, aqu hay ms ejemplos: Hes single. He isnt married. Shes an accountant. She isnt an architect. Im a student. Im not a teacher. Youre not right, youre wrong. (to be right = tener razn. to be wrong = estar equivocado) Its not a beautiful day, its a horrible day. Hes not stupid, hes very intelligent. Are you on the phone? Is he at home? Are they on the bus? Are we on time?

Ingls Bsico 3: Respuestas Cortas con TO BE


Aqu estamos con ms ingls bsico, ahora nos toca hacer las respuestas cortas. Para ver los otros artculos de esta serie, vase Ingls Bsico. Las preguntas que hemos visto hasta ahora son del tipo que se contesta yes o no. En ingls, no se suele constestar solo Yes. Es un poco brusco. Lo que hacemos es repetir el sujeto y el verbo auixiliar de la pregunta para hacer una respuesta ms larga. Q: Is he Brazilian? A: Yes, he is. Q: Is his wife also Brazilian? A: No, she isnt. As a la respuesta yes/no, aadimos un pronombre personal (I, you, he, she, it, we, they) y el verbo auxiliar en la forma correcta. Q: Are you hungry? A: Yes, I am. Q: Are you thirsty? A: No, Im not. Q: Are you sleepy? A:Yes, I am. Q: Are you bored? A: No, Im not. En otras personas funciona de la misma manera: Q: Are they your cousins? A: Yes, they are. Q: Are they at work? A: No, they arent. Q: Are we on time? A: Yes, we are. Q: Are we late? A: No, we arent. Q: Am I right? A: Yes, you are.

Q: Am I sick? A: No, you arent.

Veremos un poco ms adelante que hacemos lo mismo con todos los tipos de preguntas repitiendo siempre el verbo auxiliar: Q: Can you swim? A: Yes, I can. Q: Do you like chocolate? A: Yes, I do. Q: Does he live with his parents? A: Yes, he does.

Ingls Bsico 4: Conversaciones Bsicas


Los idiomas se leen, se escuchan y se hablan. Cada habilidad es distinta y cada habilidad tiene que practicarse. Aqu os presento unas conversaciones bsicas. Algunas usan el verbo to be, que ya hemos visto, otros el presente simple que veremos en los prximos das. De todos modos, podis tranquilamente memorizar las frases aunque no las entendis. La mayora son como frases hechas, y no hace falta entender la estructura profunda. Pongamos que hablamos de dos jovenzuelos americanos, Mary y Joseph, que acaban de conocerse. Mary: Hello, my name is Mary. Whats yours? Joseph: Pleased to meet you, Mary. My names Joseph. Mary: Nice to meet you. Where are you from? Joseph: Im from Michigan. Detroit, specifically. And you? Where are you from? Mary: Im from Las Vegas.

Hasta ahora, todo bien! El verbo to be en afirmaciones y preguntas. Frases hechas como Nice to meet you. Formas cortas del tipo what is = whats. Ningn problema. Seguimos

Joseph: Las Vegas is a very interesting city. What do you do, Mary? Mary: Im an accountant. I work in an office downtown. Joseph: Oh, thats nice. Whats the name of your company? Mary: United Widgets Industries. Joseph: Fascinating! How old are you, Mary? Mary: Im 25 years old. Joseph: Oh, thats good. Im 28.

Aqu tenemos ms del verbo to be, y preguntas como What do you do? Significa a qu te dedicas? y es presente simple. La respuesta suele ser algo como Im a doctor. I work in a hospital. Work = trabajar.

Mary: And what do you do? Joseph: Im unemployed and live with my parents. Mary: Thats nice. What do you like doing in your free time?

Joseph: I like playing videogames and watching TV. What about you? Mary: Im more active. I like rock-climbing and mountain biking. I have a lot of fun. Joseph: Wow. Where do you live? Mary: I live in an apartment close to here. The rent is expensive, but its a nice place.

Nota cultural: En Estados Unidos, no hacemos las cosas como aqu en Europa. Ningn americano de 28 aos vive con sus padres. Quiz la crisis haya cambiado la situacin un poco, pero lo dudo.

En estas frases tenemos ms presente simple. What do you do? sigue la misma pauta que Where do you live? Tenemos tambin What do you like doing in your free time? = Qu te gusta hacer en tu tiempo libre? Usamos like + verbo en la forma -ing tanto en la pregunta como en la respuesta. Eso se llama verb patterns, y lo he mencionado muchsimas veces en otros artculos

Joseph: Wow. Do you like living in this neighborhood? Mary: Yes, I do. I like the night life. Joseph: Of course. And do you have a boyfriend, Mary? Mary: Yes, I do. Hes big, strong and dangerous. He has lots of tattoos! Joseph: Thats nice. Where is he? Mary: Actually, hes just at the bar ordering a beer. Hes a little bit drunk. Joseph: Oh Well, nice to meet you. I have to go now. Mary: Bye!

Aqu tenemos otra vez Do you like + verbo en -ing? Tambin un par de posesivos:he has tattoos; Do you have a boyfriend? Y una obligacin: I have to go. Todos temas que veremos pronto!

Ingls Bsico 5: Presente Simple


Hola a todos! Seguimos adelante con el curso bsico de ingls! Hoy hacemos el presente simple. El presente simple habla de: 1) Hbitos. 2) Cosas que son verdaderas todo el tiempo. Las formas verbales son muy sencillas: I work. You work. He works. She works. It works. We work. They work. Slo cambia la forma en tercera persona, poniendo una -s al final. Si digo It works,work no es trabajar, sino funcionar. Cuando hablamos de hbitos, usamos adverbios como always, usually, sometimes, rarely, never.

She sometimes goes to work by bus. He always walks his dog in the morning. They never drink coffee. I usually visit my parents at weekends. We play basketball every Tuesday. Cuando hablamos de cosas que son verdaderas todo el tiempo, no solemos usar adverbio.

He lives in Chicago. She works in a bank. Penguins eat fish. I like chocolate. You need to study.

Ahora sera un buen momento de empezar a aprender unos verbos comunes. Es mucho mejor verlos en el contexto de una frase sencilla: eat = comer They eat a lot of pizza. drink = beber He drinks tea every afternoon. sleep = dormir She sleeps very late on weekends. fix = arreglar They fix computers. drive = conducir He drives to work every morning. leave =irse, marcharse The train leaves at 9 oclock. go = ir They go to university to study engineering. walk = andar I walk to the market every Saturday. work = trabajar They work very hard. watch = mirar He watches TV for hours every night.

Ingls Bsico 6: Preguntas y Negaciones en Presente Simple


Seguimos! Ayer vimos el presente simple, as que ya sabemos que se usa para hablar de hbitos y para cosas que son verdaderas todo el tiempo. Ahora veremos como hacer las negaciones y las preguntas. El verbo auxiliar para presente simple es do/does. Para las negaiciones usamos dont/doesnt. Como con el verbo to be, ponemos el auxiliar antes del sujeto para la pregunta. I like broccoli. I dont like chocolate. Do you like broccoli? Respuestas cortas: Yes, I do. No, I dont. La tercera persona cambia el auxiliar a does/doesnt: He lives in Argentina. He doesnt live in Brazil. Does he live in Mexico? Yes, he does. No, he doesnt. Ms ejemplos de negaciones: I dont see it. I dont know him. You dont look well. You dont study enough. He doesnt have any brothers or sisters. He doesnt need help. She doesnt wake up early. She doesnt watch TV. It doesnt work. It doesnt cost much. We dont see him very often. We dont have much time. They dont live together They dont eat meat. Ms ejemplos de preguntas y respuestas cortas: Does she speak Italian?

Yes, she does. Does she speak German? No, she doesnt. Does he have a girlfriend? Yes he does. Does he like whisky? No, he doesnt. Do you understand me? Yes, I do. Do you need help? No, I dont. Do we have coffee? Yes, we do. Do we have tickets? No, we dont. Do they like going to concerts? Yes, they do. Do they live in Texas? No, they dont.

Ingls Bsico 6: Preguntas y Negaciones en Presente Simple


Seguimos! Ayer vimos el presente simple, as que ya sabemos que se usa para hablar de hbitos y para cosas que son verdaderas todo el tiempo. Ahora veremos como hacer las negaciones y las preguntas. El verbo auxiliar para presente simple es do/does. Para las negaiciones usamos dont/doesnt. Como con el verbo to be, ponemos el auxiliar antes del sujeto para la pregunta. I like broccoli. I dont like chocolate. Do you like broccoli? Respuestas cortas: Yes, I do. No, I dont. La tercera persona cambia el auxiliar a does/doesnt: He lives in Argentina. He doesnt live in Brazil. Does he live in Mexico? Yes, he does. No, he doesnt. Ms ejemplos de negaciones: I dont see it. I dont know him.

You dont look well. You dont study enough. He doesnt have any brothers or sisters. He doesnt need help. She doesnt wake up early. She doesnt watch TV. It doesnt work. It doesnt cost much. We dont see him very often. We dont have much time. They dont live together They dont eat meat. Ms ejemplos de preguntas y respuestas cortas: Does she speak Italian? Yes, she does. Does she speak German? No, she doesnt. Does he have a girlfriend? Yes he does. Does he like whisky? No, he doesnt. Do you understand me? Yes, I do. Do you need help? No, I dont. Do we have coffee? Yes, we do. Do we have tickets? No, we dont. Do they like going to concerts? Yes, they do. Do they live in Texas? No, they dont.

Ingls Bsico 7: Who, What, Where, When, Why, How etc


Hola a todos! Seguimos con el curso de ingls bsico. Hoy vamos a ver cmo formar preguntas con who, what, where, when, why, how. Tenemos dos tipos bsicos de pregunta. Las preguntas que se contestan yes/no y las preguntas abiertas. Como hemos visto en los artculos del verbo to be y el presente simple, usamos la respuesta corta para las preguntas yes/no. Q: Are you English? A: No, Im not. Q: Are you sleepy? A: Yes, I am. Q: Do you live in Paris? A: No, I dont. Q: Do you work in a shop? A: Yes, I do. Para las preguntas abiertas, tenemos que contestar con ms informacin. Q: Where do you live? A: I live in Dublin. Q: What do you do? A: Im a shop assistant. Usamos who cuando la respuesta es una persona: Q: Who do you live with? A: I live with my brother. Q: Who is that woman? A: Shes my cousin. Q: Who is on the phone? A: Sylvia is on the phone. Usamos what cuando la respuesta es una cosa o actividad: Q: What do you have in your bag? A: I have a sandwich. Q: What do you do in your free time? A: I do sport. Q: What is that? A: Its a wrench.

Usamos where cuando la respesta es un sitio: Q: Where do you work? A: I work in the city center. Q: Where is Mary? A: Shes at the bar. Q: Where are you going? A: Im going to the train station. Usamos when cuando la respuesta es un momento: Q: When is the concert? A: Its tomorrow. Q: When do you start work? A: I start at 9. Q: When do you finish work? A: I finish at 6. Usamos why cuando la respuesta es una razn: Q: Why are you sleepy? A: Because I got up early this morning. Q: Why isnt she here? A: Because shes at work. Q: Why are they leaving? A: Because they have to catch the bus. Usamos how cuando la respuesta es una manera. Q: How do you spell penguin? A: P - E - N - G - U - I - N. Q: How do you get to work? A: By bus. Q: How do I turn on the computer? A: Push this button.

Ingls Bsico 8: Texto (Presente Simple)


Aqu tenemos un pequeo texto para aprender el presente simple. Los verbos estn todos en tercera persona, o sea que terminan con -s. Las negativas se hacen condoesnt + el infinitivo. Para ms presente simple, vase el curso bsico. Bob lives in a small flat in London. In the mornings, he wakes up and has a shower. Then he makes breakfast. He usually has a typical English breakfast with eggs and bacon. After that, he goes to work. He works in an office in the center of London. He sits in front of the computer all day and writes emails. He doesnt like his job very much, but he likes earning money. At 12 oclock he goes to lunch and has a sandwich. After lunch, he comes back to work and writes more emails. At 5 oclock he leaves work. He sometimes sees his girlfriend in the evenings. She lives on the opposite side of London, so he takes the Underground. On weekends, he doesnt have to work. He usually goes out for a few beers with his friends on Friday night. On Saturday he goes shopping. On Sunday he goes to his grandmothers house for tea. On Monday he gets up early and goes back to work. Algunos de los verbos tienen una preposicion o adverbio despus. En ingls pasa a menudo, se llaman phrasal verbs. wake up = levantarse go out = salir come back = volver (aqu) go back = volver (a otro sitio)

Ingls Bsico 9: Practica el Presente Simple


Ya hemos visto como formar frases usando el verbo to be y el presente simple. Sabemos las reglas para hacer preguntas y negativas tambin. Si quieres repasar, tienes todo aqu en ingls bsico. De todos modos, siempre conviene repetir y repasar las reglas gramaticales una y otra vez para memorizarlos y poder usarlos sin pensar. Si estamos en una reunin en nuestra empresa o en una ciudad extranjera, lo ltimo que queremos es tener que pensar en el correcto uso del presente simple. Por eso practicamos hasta que nos salga de forma natural. As, os pongo otros ejemplos tanto de presente simple como del verbo to be, para ir asimilando. French people dont speak Italian, they speak French. Argentinians dont speak Portuguese, they speak Spanish. What language do they Speak in Brazil? In Brazil, they speak Portuguese. Do they speak English in the USA? Yes, they do. ***** Mike doesnt live in Sicily. He lives in Milan. He lives with his wife and his children. Does Mike live in Italy? Yes, he does. Is he married? Yes, he is. Does he have any children? Yes, he does. Is he Italian? No, he isnt. Hes American. ***** Peter eats lunch with his family every Sunday. His mother always makes chicken. Who does Peter have Sunday lunch with? He has Sunday lunch with his family. What does he eat?

He eats chicken.

***** My sister works in a supermarket. She isnt a cashier, shes a manager. What does she do? Shes a manager. Where does she work? She works in a supermarket. Does she have a job? Yes, she does. ***** Samuel is 25 years old. He has 3 brothers and 3 sisters. How old is Samuel? Hes 25. Does he have any brothers and sisters? Yes, he does. How many brothers and sisters does he have? He has 3 brothers and 3 sisters. Does he have a big family? Yes, he does.

***** John plays football every weekend. Where does he play football? He plays at the sports center. Does he play basketball? No, he doesnt. Does he do sport? Yes, he does. ***** Melissa likes going out with her friends. Does she like dancing? Yes, she does. Does she like staying up late?

Yes, she does. ***** I like going to the theatre. Do you like going to the cinema? No, I dont. Do you want to go to the theatre tomorrow? Yes, I do.

Y as succesivamente Siempre es buena idea aprender algo de vocabulario.

Ingls Bsico 10: Can/Cant (habilidad)


Seguimos con el ingls bsico! Ya hemos visto el verbo to be y el presente simple,adems de las preguntas: who/what/where/when/why/how..? Ahora toca el verbo auxiliar can. Can se traduce bsicamente como el verbo poder. Habla de una habilidad, algo que sabes hacer. El famoso know-how. La gramtica del ingls es muy fcil! Lo haba mencionado ya? Pues resulta que can es todo un ejemplo de lo extremadamente fcil que es el ingls. Conjugaciones? No tiene ninguna. Se usa seguido del infinitivo sin to. I can speak English. You can speak English. He can speak English. She can speak English. We can speak English. They can speak English. La negativa es cant. Igual que can, se usa con infinitivo sin to. Es igual para todas las personas. I cant speak Japanese. She cant speak Chinese. They cant speak Italian. etc. Y en la pregunta, can va al principio (antes del sujeto). La respuesta corta se hace con una repiticion del mismo can/cant y el sujeto adecuado. Can you hear me? Yes, I can. Can she speak Chinese? No, she cant. Se hacen preguntas con who/what/where/when/why/how tambin: Where can we buy tomatoes? Who can we ask? What can I do to help? Ms ejemplos: She can walk, but she cant swim. She can ride a bicycle, but she cant drive a car.

He can read, but he cant write. She cant come to the phone. Shes busy. I cant understand you. Can you speak a bit louder? He cant come to work because hes sick. She cant pay you because she doesnt have any money. They cant come to the party because they have to study.

Ingls Bsico 11: El presente continuo


Hoy nos toca el presente continuo. Si has perdido otros artculos de esta serie, todo est aqu en curso de ingls bsico. El presente continuo se usa para cosas que estn pasando ahora mismo y para situaciones no permanentes. Tambin se usa para planes de futuro, pero eso sera un tema para otro da. Shes sleeping. = ahora mismo Shes living with her parents.= algo que no va a durar para siempre. Se forma con el verbo to be como ya he explicado, y el gerundio. El gerundio es la forma del verbo con el sufijo -ing. Las reglas de ortografa son sencillas y no vamos a preocuparnos mucho de ellos, har simplemente una lista de varios verbos en infinitivo y a continuacin en gerundio. liveliving, sleepsleeping, studystudying, trytrying, speakspeaking, workworking, watchwatching, gogoing, leaveleaving, makemaking, do doing, arrivearriving, startstarting, endending, playplaying, hopehoping, etc. As tenemos el presente continuo. Aqu tienes unos ejemplos: He is studying at university. She is working a lot recently. I am making dinner. Hes doing his homework. Theyre playing basketball. Shes leaving.

Were watching TV. The film is ending. Tambin podemos usar las formas cortas para todas las personas: Im making a sandwich. = I am. Shes learning Arabic. = She is. Para hacer la negacin, usamos not. Im not studying Arabic. Shes not speaking to her husband. Hes not thinking about buying a flat. Theyre not playing rugby. En pregunta, ponemos el verbo to be antes del sujeto. Are they playing rugby? Is she speaking German? Am I boring you? Is he working all day? Are they shopping for clothes? Are we leaving? Is the film ending? Es bastante sencillo el presente continuo al final. Lo nico es practicarlo para hacerlo bien sin pensar mucho.

Ingls Bsico 12: Presente simple y continuo


Ayer vimos el presente continuo, hoy seguimos con el presente simple y continuo, y las diferencias entre ambos tiempos. He tocado este tema antes, pero siempre viene bien repasar. Si has perdido algn artculo de esta serie, todos estn aqu: curso bsico de ingls. El presente simple, entonces, habla de cosas que son verdaderas todo el tiempo, o que son hbitos. El presente continuo habla de cosas que estn pasando ahora mismo o una situacin no permanente. El presente continuo en estos ejemplos es la parte de la frase que contiene am/is/are + -ing John usually goes to bed at 11 oclock. However, tonight he isnt sleeping. Hes watching a film on tv. Sandra works in a shop. Today, she isnt working, because its Sunday. Bill usually studies at home, but today hes studying at the park because its a sunny day. I sometimes eat a sandwich for lunch, but today Im having a steak. They occasionally go to work by car. Today theyre going to work on foot. We almost always drink coffee, but today were drinking tea. Un ejemplo importante de presente simple y continuo es la diferencia entre dos preguntas: What do you do? = a qu te dedicas? What are you doing? = qu ests haciendo ahora mismo? Como las preguntas son tan distintas, las respuestas tambin lo son. Q: What do you do? A: Im a teacher. Q: What are you doing? A: Im eating a sandwich. En espaol las dos frases se traducen como Que haces? pero por supuesto, el ingls es diferente al espaol!

Ingls Bsico 13: Ms Conversaciones Bsicas


Antonio: Hi Sylvia! What are you doing? Sylvia: Hi Antonio! Im writing a letter to my grandfather. Aqu usamos presente continuo para hablar de lo que est haciendo Sylvia ahora mismo. Antonio: Oh, thats nice. Where does your grandfather live? Sylvia: He lives in Texas. Hes retired now, so he spends most of his time playing golf. Antonio: Do you have a big family? Sylvia: Yes, I do. I have a lot of cousins. Antonio: Where do they live? Sylvia: All over the United States. American people usually move a lot. So I have cousins in New York, Philadelphia, Kansas City, Portland, Chicago, Las Vegas Antonio: Thats interesting. Do you like Las Vegas? Sylvia: No, I dont. Its so ridiculous and artificial. Todo eso est en presente simple, porque hablamos de hbitos y situaciones permanentes. Antonio: Hm. And what do you think about New York? Sylvia: New York is okay. Its a big city, with people from all over the world. Antonio: And do you enjoy living in Spain, Sylvia? Enjoy + gerundio es un ejemplo de verb patterns, un tema largo que he tratado en muchos artculos. Sylvia: Yes, I do. I like Madrid a lot. Antonio: Do you like Spanish food? Sylvia: Yes, I do! I love the octopus from Galicia. Antonio: Ah yes. Im happy to hear that. Do you want to go have some dinner now? I know a place around the corner that makes some excellent Galician octopus! Sylvia: Okay, but first I want to finish my letter. Want + to + infinitivo es otro verb pattern.

Ingls Bsico 14: Adjetivos Comunes y Como Usarlos


El ingls tiene miles de adjetivos, pero no hace falta aprenderse todos. Aqu son 60! Con algo hay que empezar. Pincha aqu para bajar esta lista en pdf: lista de adjetivos comunes en ingls. Es muy importante entender que el ingls no es igual que el espaol. Los adjetivos en ingls siempre son singulares y no tienen masculino ni femenino. One red car. = Un coche rojo. Two red cars. = Dos coches rojos. One angry man. = Un hombre enfadado. Two angry women. = Dos mujeres enfadadas. Adems, como se ve en los ejemplos, los adjetivos vienen antes del sustantivo!Podemos incluso poner tres o cuatro adjetivos antes de un sustantivo, aunque lo normal es uno o dos. A big messy room. = Una habitacin grande y desordenada. A small black box. = Una caja pequea y negra. A short, ugly, sad woman. = Una mujer baja, fea y triste. A tall, handsome, happy man. = Un hombre alto, guapo y feliz. Aqu tenes los adjetivos! Memorizad! angry = enfadado happy = feliz sad = triste hungry = hambriento sleepy = somnoliento (que tiene sueo) exhausted = muy cansado awake = despierto asleep = dormido good = bueno bad = malo beautiful = hermosa (para mujeres y cosas sin gnero) ugly = feo handsome = guapo (para hombres) lovely = muy hermoso o simptico plain = sencillo, poco atractivo sour = cido bitter = amargo

sweet = dulce delicious = delicioso disgusting = asqueroso black = negro white = blanco red = rojo blue = azul yellow = amarillo orange = naranja green = verde purple = morado grey = gris brown = marrn clean = limpio tidy = ordenado dirty = sucio messy = desordenado hot = caliente warm = caluroso cool = fresco cold = fro wet = mojado dry = seco rainy = lluvioso sunny = soleado snowy = nevado foggy = que tiene niebla early = temprano late = tarde true = verdadero, cierto false = falso fat = gordo thin = delgado tall = alto short = bajo

big = grande small = pequeo full = lleno empty = vaco boring = aburrido interesting = interesante slow = lento fast = rpido

Ingls Bsico 15: Have and Have Got


En ingls tenemos dos maneras de hablar de posesin. Bsicamente significan lo mismo: Ive got a sister named Carol. I have a sister named Carol. Ive es la forma corta de I have. Have es un verbo irregular. Aqu tienes las formas: I have a dog. You have a turtle. He has a bird. She has a cat. It has a lot of hair. We have several pigs. They have horses. Los verbos irregulares en ingls no son tan difciles, have solo cambia a has en tercera persona singular. Usar have/has para hablar de posesin es un uso de presente simple. La negacin se hace con dont/doesnt y la pregunta con do/does. I dont have any pets. You dont have a red shirt. He doesnt have a girlfriend. She doesnt have a car. It doesnt have meat. (It refiere a una cosa sin genero, como un sandwich, por ejemplo) We dont have much time. They dont have a lot of money. Las preguntas se hacen as: Do I have time? Do you have a car? Does he have a girlfriend? Does she have a lot of cousins? Does it have meat? Do we have our tickets? Do they have brothers or sisters?

Y las respuestas cortas se hacen con el auxiliar do/does segn la persona: Does she have a boyfriend? Yes, she does. Does he have a house in the mountains? No, he doesnt. Do you have time to talk? No, I dont.

Ingls Bsico 16: Have and Have Got (2)


Aqu seguimos con posesin. El otro da hablamos de have y sus varias formas: He has a car but he doesnt have a bicycle. Does he have a motorbike? Hoy veremos otra forma de decir lo mismo. Hes got a car but he hasnt got a bicycle. Has he got a motorbike? O usamos do/does como auxiliar para el verbo have, o usamos have/has para el verbo got. Como en presente simple y presente continuo, se hace la negativa poniendo not al auxiliar, y la pregunta poniendo el auxiliar antes del sujeto. I have your book. Ive got your book. I dont have the tickets. I havent got the tickets. Do you have any pets? Have you got any pets? Las formas de have son iguales para esta forma que para la otra: solo have y has. Ygot no cambia en ninguna persona. Hay formas cortas como en otros tiempos verbales. I have got = Ive got You have got = Youve got He has got = Hes got She has got = Shes got It has got = Its got We have got = Weve got They have got = Theyve got Cuidado! No funciona si pones solo have o solo got en una pregunta o negativa! Have you a dog?

Has he a girlfriend? Ambas suenan horrible y todo el mundo angloparlante se burlar de ti si dices semejante disparate. Have you got a dog? Has he got a girlfriend? Aaah. Tan bonito suena, como musica! Ms ejemplos: Hes got the papers, but he hasnt got the money. Shes got some beer, but she hasnt got any wine. Theyve got some time, but they havent got anything to do. Ive got a job, but I havent got a girlfriend. Jimmys got a guitar, but he hasnt got a drum set. Y preguntas: Have you got a guitar? Has he got any wine? Has she got a lot of money? Have you got time to help me? Have they got the tickets? Have we got enough to eat?

Ingls Bsico 17: Have/Has To (Obligaciones)


Para expresar obligacin en ingls, tenemos varias palabras y estructuras. El ms sencillo, de todos modos, es con have to. I have to get up early tomorrow. = Tengo que levantarme temprano maana. She has to go to the doctor. = Ella tiene que ir al mdico. Have to se usa para hablar de una obligacin que nos viene desde fuera. No es algo que queremos hacer, pero es algo que trae consecuencias si no lo hacemos. You have to get a visa to go to the US. She has to lose weight or shell have health problems. He has to pay his rent tomorrow. Las estructuras son parecidas al presente simple, con un verbo en infinitivo despus del have to. I have to brush my teeth. You have to brush your teeth. He has to brush his teeth. She has to brush her teeth. We have to brush our teeth. They have to brush their teeth. Las negativas se hacen con dont y doesnt. She doesnt have to get up early. = Ella no tiene que levantarse temprano. Ten en cuenta que una negativa con have to expresa que no hay obligacin. Puedes hacerlo si quieres, no es igual que una prohibicin. La prohibicin se expresa con shouldnt y mustnt. You mustnt talk so loud. People are trying to sleep. You shouldnt say things like that. Someone might be offended. Ms negativas: I dont have to pay the phone bill till next week. You dont have to cook dinner. He doesnt have to catch the bus in the morning. She doesnt have to study for her exam. We dont have to leave early. They dont have to do anything today. Las preguntas se hacen con do y does. Do I have to get a visa to go to Australia?

Do you have to get up early? Does he have to cook dinner? Does she have to buy the tickets? Do we have to wash the dishes? Do they have to pay their rent?

Todo eso tiene cierto parecido con el posesivo. La diferencia es que para hablar de obligaciones se usa have/has to + infinitivo, mientras que para hablar de posesin usamos have/has + sustantivo. I have a cat. I have to feed the cat. (feed = alimentar) She has a little brother. She has to take care of her little brother. (take care of = cuidar) He has a car. He has to wash the car. Does he have a dog? Does he have to walk the dog? Cuidado! Have es el verbo. El auxiliar es do/does, y se tiene que usar SIEMPRE en preguntas y negaciones. No lo hagas con have simplemente. Have you to pay the rent? (BAD BAD BAD BAD BAD.) Do you have to pay the rent. (GOOD!)

Ingls Bsico 18: El Abecedario


Es importante saberse el abecedario en ingls simplemente porque en ingls nada se escribe como suena. Tenemos muchas letras que no suenan, y muchas cosas que no suenan como parece que deben! As, es normal que cuando alguien dice un nombre o una palabra nueva, queremos saber tambin como se deletrea. Aqu pongo las letras del abecederio del ingls, as como el sonido aproximado de la letra. A - e B - b C - s D - d E - i F - ef G - ll H- eich I - ai J - lle K - que L - el M - em N - en

O - ou P - p Q - ki R - ar S - es T - t U - i V - v W - double i X - ex Y - guay Z -z (or zed in the UK) Como ves, tenemos 26 letras, pero la pronunciacin del ingls es mucho ms complicado: tenemos alrededor de 50 sonidos en total, y las cosas se pronuncian de forma muy distinta de lo esperado muchas veces.

Ingls Bsico 19: There is/There are


There is y there are hablan de la existencia o no-existencia de las cosas, como en espaol hay. Hay caf en el fuego. = There is coffee on the stove. Hay dos personas en el ascensor. = There are two people in the elevator. Usamos there is para singular (y incontable). There is a dog in the park. There is a man at the door. There is a gas station down the street. There is a bus stop on the corner. Usamos there are para plural. There are three bottles of beer in the fridge. There are six cats in the living room. There are several shops on this street. There are some people outside. (People es plural! En singular, se dice person. Hay varios plurales irregulares en ingls que se tienen que saber.) Para negar, se usa isnt/arent, como siempre, segn el sustantivo singular o plural. There isnt any food in the fridge. There arent any cats in the living room. There isnt a church near here. There arent any shops on this street. La pregunta se hace colocando el verbo al principio de la frase, y la respuesta corta se hace repitiendo las mismas palabras en singular o plural, positivo o negativo, segn el caso. Q: Are there any shops on this street? A: Yes, there are. Q: Is there any food in the fridge? A: Yes, there is. Q: Is there a message for me? A: No, there isnt. Q: Are there any people on the train? A: No, there arent.

Tambin podemos hacer preguntas abiertas con how much, how many, etc. Q: How many tomatoes are there in the fridge? A: There are 3 tomatoes in the fridge. Q: How many people are there on the bus? A: There are 10 people on the bus.

Ingls Bsico 20: Going To (futuro)


El ingls tiene varios futuros, pero el ms til es going to, que se usa para hablar de planes y intenciones. Concretamente, se usa to be + going to + infinitivo. El verbo to be cambia segn la persona, como siempre, pero going to y el infinitivo son siempre iguales. Se usa para hablar de planes y intenciones, as que muchas veces se ponen expresiones temporales que describen un momento concreto del futuro. Im going to have a coffee with Bill tomorrow. Youre going to see Sally at the party. Hes going to make dinner tonight. Shes going to wash the dishes after dinner. Its going to rain tomorrow. Were going to watch the football match. Theyre going to buy a new house. La frase Its going to rain tomorrow no es un plan ni una intencin, pero tambin nos vale. Para hacer la negacin, se pone isnt, arent o 'm not segn la persona. Im not going to see her later. Youre not going to have a good time. Hes not going to make dinner. Shes not going to do the dishes. Its not going to rain tomorrow. Were not going to visit Sarah. Theyre not going to eat the pizza. La pregunta se hace, como en todos los tiempos verbales, poniendo el auxiliar antes del sujeto. Am I going to see you later? Are you going to visit me in London? Is he going to eat the sandwich? Is she going to take a walk? Is it going to be hot tomorrow? Are we going to buy the tickets? Are they going to leave?

Nota: los libros de texto que usamos todos (benditos sean sus autores, con sus cmodos salarios y sus casas en Cambridge) dicen que es incorrecto decir going to go y going to come. En cambio, 312 millones de americanos lo dicen. No es totalmente necesario, pero se dice y punto. As que para m, todas estas frases son correctas: Im going to Paris. Im going to go to Paris. Shes coming to the party. Shes going to come to the party. Hes going to go out. Hes going out. Were going to come back tomorrow. Were coming back tomorrow.

He hablado un poco de la diferencia entre will y going to para los que quieren saberlo, pero en la mayora de los casos, si usas going to acertars! Es posible que tu profesor de bachillerato de dijera de siempre usar will Y eso es una historia para otro da!

Will and Going To (tiempos verbales el futuro)


Muchas veces, mis estudiantes han aprendido que en ingls, el futuro se hace con will. Aunque es verdad que will es un tipo de futuro, tenemos dos futuros que son muy diferentes. El otro futuro, algo ms largo, es going to + infinitivo. Es muy importante saber la diferencia entre will y going to, y probablemente no es lo que piensas! Going to se usa para hablar de intenciones y planes para el futuro. As diramos: Im going to make chicken for dinner. Shes going to visit her grandmother tomorrow. Im going to look for a job as soon as I finish university. Las tres frases hablan de un plan.

De la misma manera, usamos going to + infinitivo para preguntar sobre planes para el futuro: What are you going to do this weekend? What film are you going to see at the cinema? What are you going to buy at the supermarket? Las negaciones en esta forma usan not going to + infinitivo para hablar de la intencin de no hacer algo. Im not going to buy anything at the supermarket. Shes not going to come to his birthday party. Theyre not going to listen to you. Will, en cambio, se usa para hablar de decisiones espontneas y en condicionales: The phones ringing. Ill get it! (No habas planeado coger el telfono, lo has decidido ahora, cuando empez a sonar.) If I go to the supermarket, Ill buy some tuna. (No estoy seguro que voy al supermercado.) What will you do if you fail your test? (No piensas suspender.) Para hacer la negacin, usamos wont. Sirve tambin para negarte a hacer algo. I wont speak to him after what he said last time. If it rains, I wont go out. She wont like the idea of spending so much money on the repairs. Will tambin se usa para previsiones (cosas que pensamos que van a pasar). Do you think it will rain tomorrow? I imagine Ill see him later. Hell probably be there. Who do you think will win the football match? I think the Boston Celtics will win the NBA finals. Es muy importante usar bien los tiempos verbales. No nos basta usar solo el presente. Cuesta aprenderlos bien, pero vale la pena.

Will and Going To (futuro ms ejemplos)


Ayer vimos la diferencia bsica entre los futuros con will y going to. Para recordar un momento, usamos going to cuando queremos hablar de planes y intenciones para el futuro. Tomorrow Im going to call John. Im going to buy tickets to that concert this afternoon. What are you going to do this summer? Will, en cambio, se usa para hablar de decisiones espontneas (algo que decides en el momento de decirlo) y para previsiones del futuro y el primer condicional. Im getting hungry. I think Ill make myself a sandwich. (decisin espontnea) Susie, will you marry me? (en teora, Susie tiene que decidir ahora, espontneamente) What will happen if I push this button? (primer condicional) Will we see each other tomorrow? (prevision del futuro) Cuando hablamos de planes, entonces, usamos going to y el presente continuo. Tened en cuenta que going to go se puede decir como voy a ir, pero tambin podemos quitar el segundo go. On my next holiday, Im going to Thailand. Im going to buy my plane tickets tomorrow. Im going to fly into Bangkok on the 5th of April, and Im going to stay in a hotel in the city center. Im going to visit all the important sights, and Im going to spend some time at the beach. O bien Shes going to get married next summer. Shes going to have the ceremony in the church in her mothers town. After the wedding, theyre going to have dinner, and the next day theyre going to leave on their honeymoon. Theyre going to Brazil.

Ingls Bsico 21: Should


El verbo auxiliar should se usa para hacer recomendaciones. Gramticamente, es parecido a can. Los modal auxiliary verbs se parecen todos porque no cambiansegn la persona, se hace la negativa poniendo un simple not o nt, y para hacer la pregunta se pone el auxiliar antes del sujeto. As tenemos: You should call him. You shouldnt call him. Should I call him? Usar shouldnt es, sencillamente, una recomendacin de no hacer algo. No es una prohibicin, y no es igual que dont / doesnt have to. Recuerdate: I dont have to talk to him. = no estoy obligado a hacerlo I shouldnt talk to him. = sera mejor no hacerlo Ms ejemplos: You shouldnt stay up late. You have to get up very early in the morning. You shouldnt eat so much. Youre going to get fat. He shouldnt talk to you that way. Its impolite. A veces should no es exactamente una recomendacin, pero se usa como en espaol debera. My keys should be in my bag, but I cant find them. We can go to the park tomorrow. It should be a nice day. I should have enough money for dinner. Let me look in my wallet. Should I? es preguntar la opinin de otro: Should I walk, or should I take the bus? Should I buy chicken or fish? Tambin usamos mucho Do you think con preguntas (sin poner el should antes del sujeto): Do you think I should call him? Do you think he should pay for it? Do you think I should say anything? Do you think I should buy a whole chicken?

Ingls Bsico 22: Preposiciones (at, to, in, on)


Las preposiciones siempre son un poco ms difciles que otras partes de gramtica, porque no tienen un significado literal, ni una traduccin constante de ingls a espaol. En todo caso, tenemos que aprenderlos, porque aparecen en casi todas las frases, nos guste o no. At (ubicacin) Sallys at home, her fathers at work, and her brothers at school. Ill meet you tomorrow at 7 oclock. Wait for me at the bus stop. (At se usa para horas tambin.) No se usa at para ciudades, ni pases. Sallys at work, and her boyfriend is in Las Vegas. Pedros at home, but his friends are in Portugal. To (direccin) To muchas veces habla de la direccin de un viaje (o desplazamiento) Im going to Paris. Shes going to Rome. Theyre going to London. I went to Londonlast year. Shes going to the cinema with her friends, and Im going to the museum with my cousin. Exception: Hes going home. (go home se usa sin artculo ni preposicin) In (posicin) Para decir que alguien est en una ciudad, o que algo est dentro de una bolsa o caja, etc, usamos in. The milk is in the fridge, and the crackers are in the cupboard. The children are in their rooms, and the baby is in bed. The money is in that box, and the stamps are in that drawer. On (posicin) Tambin usamos on para hablar de la posicin de algo. Se usa cuando est apoyado sobre un superficie. La diferencia entre on y in, entonces, es que in se usa para describir algo dentro de un contenedor, y on para algo encima de una cosa plana. The plates are already on the table.

Leave your shoes on the floor over there. Your clothes are on that chair. The books are on that shelf.

Ingls Bsico 23: Pronombres Posesivos


Los pronombres son palabras que representan un sustantivo. Ya conocemos los pronombres I, you, he, she, it, we, they. I, you, he, she, it, we, they se usan como sujeto de las frases. En otras posiciones de las frases, usamos otros pronombres. Hoy hablaremos de los pronombres posesivos: My = mi Your = tu His = su (de l) Her = su (de ella) Its = su (de una cosa) Our = nuestro Their = su (de ellos) Lo ms problemtico para mis estudiante de ingls suele ser his y her. Como en espaol no se diferencia entre masculino y femenino en este punto, mis alumnos sacan muchas barbaridades del estilo: My brother and her wife went to Barcelona. BAD BAD BAD BAD BAD! Aqu hay una versin mejorada de la misma frase. My brother and his wife went to Barcelona. Como la persona my brother es masculino, el pronombre posesivo tiene que serlo tambin. Aqu hay unos ejemplos: I took off my shoes. You took off your hat. He took off his coat. She took off her scarf. We took off our socks. They took off their gloves. Un ejemplo con it: The plant is losing its leaves.