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GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

MC LC Trang Li m u.............................................................................................. .7 Chng I : Tng quan v mng truy nhp quang..............................8 I. Gii thiu v mng truy nhp ..............................................................8 II. Mng truy nhp quang ........................................................................8 III. Gii thiu v cp quang .................................................................... 9 1. Cu trc cp quang ....................................................................... 9 2. Phn loi cp quang ......................................................................10 IV. u, nhc im ca mng truy nhp quang .................................... 42 1. u im ........................................................................................ 42 2. Nhc im .................................................................................. 42 Chng II : Cu trc mng truy nhp quang .................................... 12 I. Cu hnh tham chiu ca mng truy nhp quang ................................. 12 II. Cc khi chc nng ........................................................................... .13 1. OLT .................................................................................................. 13 2. ONU ................................................................................................ 14 3. ODN ................................................................................................ 15 4. AF .................................................................................................... 15 Chng III : Cc cng ngh truy nhp quang .................................. 16 I. Cc cng ngh mng truy nhp quang tch cc (AON) ...................... 16 1. Kin trc mng truy nhp quang tch cc AON ........................... 17 2. Cng ngh PDH ............................................................................ 17 3. Cng ngh SDH ........................................................................... 19 4. Cng ngh NG-SDH .................................................................. .. 21 II. Mng truy nhp quang th ng PON ............................................... 22 1. Tng quan v mng PON ............................................................. 23 2. c im ca mng PON.............................................................. 25 3, Thnh phn c bn ca mng PON .............................................. 25 3.1 Si quang v cp quang .............................................................. 25 3.2 B tch- ghp quang ................................................................... 26 3.3 u cui ng quang OLT ....................................................... 28 3.4 n v mng quang ONU .......................................................... 30 3.5 ODN ........................................................................................... 31 3.6 B chia Splitter .......................................................................... 32 3.7 M hnh PON ............................................................................ 32
Nhm 6 - 5TVT2 1

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

3.8 Cc cng ngh trong mng PON ............................................... 34 3.8.1 TDM PON............................................................................... 34 3.8.2 WDM PON ............................................................................. 35 III. So snh mng quang tch cc AON v mng quang th ng PON ........................................................................................................... 38 IV. Topology v cc p dng ca mng truy nhp quang....................... 43 1. Aggregated Point to Point using a single channel per Optical Fiber ............................................................................................... 43 2. Aggregated Muntichannel Point to Point ...................................... 43 3. Spatially Distributed WDM .......................................................... 44 4. Arbitrary Mesh .............................................................................. 44 5. Link protection ........................................................................... ..45 Chng IV : ng dng v hng pht trin ca mng truy nhp quang .......................................................................................................... 45 I. ng dng ca mng truy nhp quang ........................................... 45 II. Hng pht trin ca mng truy nhp quang ...............................47 Ti liu tham kho ................................................................................ 48

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Danh mc cc bng:

S hiu bng 1 2 3 4

Tn bng Cc cp truyn dn ca SDH Lit k suy hao ca cc b Splitter Cc cng ngh PON Bng so snh AON v PON

Trang 18 29 38 42

Danh mc cc hnh v S hiu hnh 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Tn hnh Cu to cp quang S khi ca mng truy nhp quang Cu hnh tham chiu ca mng truy nhp quang Cu trc OLT v thit b OTL thc t Cu trc ONU v thit b ONU thc t Kin trc mng AON Cng ngh AON Cu trc Home Run S tch ghp PDH M hnh cung cp dch v mng trn cng ngh NG-SDH M hnh mng quang th ng Cu hnh c bn ca cc loi Coupler Trang

9 13 14 15 15 16 16 17 18 22 24 26

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Coupler 8x8 to ra t nhiu Coupler S khi chc nng OLT Cc giao din quang M hnh cy M hnh Bus M hnh vng M hnh trung k cy Mng PON s dng mt si quang Cu trc ca WDM PON So snh mng PON v AON Aggregated point to point Aggregated multichannel point to point Spatially distributed WDM Arbitrary mesh Link protection Danh mc cc t vit tt

28 28 31 32 33 33 33 35 37 41 43 44 44 45 45

AF ADSL AON ATM APON BPON CO CPE DSL E/O

Adaption function Asymmetric DSL Optical network Asynchronous transfer mode ATM passive optical network Broadband passive optical network Central office Customer premises equipment Digital Subscriber Line Electronic/ Optical

Khi chc nng phi hp DSL bt i xng Mng quang tch cc Phng thc truyn ti khng ng b

Tng i trung tm Thit b tr gip ngi dng ng dy thu bao s in/ Quang

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

EMS EPON EMI FTTB FTTH FTTC FWA GPON GEPON WiMAX

Element management system Ethernet passive optical network Electromangnetic interference Fiber to the building Fiber to the home Fiber to the curb

H thng qun l EPON l mt chun ca IEEE/EFM Nhiu in t Cp quang ti ta nh Cp quang thu bao Cp quang ti khu dn c

WDM HDTV HFC ISDN

Gigabit passive optical network Gigabit Ethernet passive optical network Worldwide interoperability for microwave access Wavelength division multiple High definition television Hybrid fiber/ Coax Intergrated services digital network subcriber line Internet protocol Metropolitan area network Optical line terminal Optical network unit Optical distribution network Operation administrationand maintenance Passive optical network

Kt ni internet bng thng rng khng dy khong cch ln Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng Truyn hnh nt cao Cp quang ghp ng trc Dch v tch hp mng k thut s Giao thc internet Mng th u cui ng quang n v mng quang Mng phi quang

IP MAN NG-SDH OLT ONU ODN OAM

PON
Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

Mng quang th ng
5

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

RFI SONET SDH SPF SDM SNI TDMA

Radio frequency interference Synchronous optical networrk Synchronous digital hierarchy Service port function

Nhiu tn s v tuyn Mng quang ng b H thng phn cp s ng b Chc nng cng dch v Giao din mng dch v Truy nhp ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian Truyn thng v tinh Giao din ngi s dng mng

Service network interface Time division multiple access Time division multiple Ttributary unit Total internal reflection Very small aparture terminal User network interface

TDM TU TIR VSAT UNI

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Li ni u
Ngy nay, trong i sng kinh t - x hi ca tng quc gia cng nh kt ni ton cu, nhu cu truyn thng ngy cng ln vi nhiu dch v mi bng rng/ tc cao v a phng tin. p ng c vai tr ng lc thc y s pht trin ca k nguyn thng tin, mng truyn thng cn phi c kh nng linh hot cao, tc truyn dn ln,bng thng rng, a dch v. Cc nh khoa hc, cc t chc vin thng,cc hng cung cp thit b... v ang nghin cu pht trin v p dng cc gii php cng ngh mi bng rng/tc cao v a phng tin pht trin trong mng vin thng. Cc cng ngh mng truy nhp hin nay ang c s dng nh : mng in thoi truy nhp truyn thng v ISDN , mng truy nhp x.DSL , mng truy nhp HFC v cable modem, mng truy nhp quang, mng truy nhp v tuyn c nh (FWA) , mng truy nhp v tinh VSAT v cc mng truy nhp v tinh di ng v khng dy.Trong , cc gii php cng ngh mng truy nhp quang vi u im v tc cao, bng thng rng ang c tp trung nghin cu v pht trin. Ni dung ca bo co bao gm : Chng I :Tng quan v mng truy nhp quang Chng II : Cu trc mng truy nhp quang Chng III: Cc cng ngh truy nhp ca mng truy nhp quang Chng IV : ng dng v hng pht trin ca mng truy nhp quang Do c s hn ch v nhiu mt nn bo co ca chng em s c nhng thiu st v hn ch. Chng em mong thy v cc bn ng gp thm kin bo co hon thin hn.

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Chng I: Tng quan v mng truy nhp quang. I. Gii thiu v mng truy nhp Trc khi tm hiu v truy nhp quang chng ta tm hiu th no l mng truy nhp? -Mng truy nhp v tr cui ca mng vin thng, trc tip u ni vi thu bao, n bao gm tt c cc thit b v ng dy c lp t gia trm chuyn mch ni ht(tng i) vi thit b u cui thu bao. -Mng truy nhp gm cc chc nng : ghp knh, ni cho, truyn dn. -Cc cng ngh truy nhp bao gm : + Truy nhp hu tuyn : truy nhp cp ng v truy nhp cp quang + Truy nhp v tuyn : truy nhp v tuyn c nh v truy nhp v tuyn di ng. - Da trn bng thng , ta c : truy nhp bng rng v truy nhp bng hp. + Truy nhp bng hp : Truy nhp bng quay s ( Dial-up Access) + Truy nhp bng rng : DSL, Cable Modem, cp quang, v tuyn... Cc cng ngh truy nhp bng rng u c nhng u im v bng thng, tc truyn ti d liu, tnh bo mt... Tuy nhin, ta cng c th thy c nhc im ca cc cng ngh bng rng nh DSL, cable modem hay WiMAX l khng ti u vn chuyn lung d liu. + ADSL : khng phc v tt c nhng ng dng thoi, d liu v video. Thm vo , khong cch vt l m CO c th bao ph vi DSL b gii hn khong 18000 ft (5,5 km) + Cable Modem: .ch mt vi knh tn s v tuyn c ch nh cho d liu, trong khi phn ln bng thng phc v cho dch v truyn hnh tng t. + WiMAX : tuy c tc truyn cao v phm vi ph sng ln. Nhng vn cha ti u bng so vi s dng mng truy nhp si quang. Hu ht cc nh vn hnh mng nhn thy rng cn c mt gii php truy nhp mi vi d liu tp trung l cn thit. N phi r hn, n gin, v c kh nng phn phi thoi, d liu v dch v truyn hnh n khch hng trn mt mng duy nht, kin trc mi ny s c ti u cho lung d liu IP- giao thc thng tin ang thnh hnh hin nay. Gii php truy nhp quang : si quang vi nhng u im nh bng thng cao, suy hao thp, t xuyn nhiu s l gii php bng rng l tng cho mng truy nhp II. Mng truy nhp quang (OAN - Optical Access Network ) Mng truy nhp quang l mng truy nhp m h thng truyn dn (TS) l
Nhm 6 - 5TVT2 8

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

h thng truyn dn quang. Mng truy nhp quang ch yu s dng cp quang lm phng tin truyn dn. -Mng truy nhp quang c chia lm 2 loi c bn l : mng truy nhp quang tch cc AON v mng truy nhp quang th ng PON. + Mng AON s dng cc thit b tch cc nh cc b chia tch cc hoc cc b ghp knh on phn b ca mng truy nhp. + Mng PON khng cha bt k mt phn t tch cc no m cn phi c s chuyn i in - quang. Thay vo , PON s ch bao gm : si quang, cc b chia, b kt hp, b ghp nh hng, thu knh, b lc,... iu ny gip cho PON c mt s u im nh: * Khng cn ngun in cung cp nn khng b nh hng bi li ngun * C tin cy cao v khng cn phi bo dng do tn hiu khng b suy hao nhiu nh i vi cc phn t tch cc. Mng truy nhp quang s dng si quang lm mi trng truyn dn ch yu. Sau y, ta s nghin cu v cp si quang. III. Cp quang 1. Cu trc cp quang:

Hnh 1 : Cu to cp quang Cp quang gm cc thnh phn: + Li : trung tm phn chiu ca si quang ni nh sng i qua, ng knh nh c ph bng mt lp t trong sut v c bao bc bng lp v + Cladding : vt cch quang bn ngoi bao bc li m phn x nh sng tr li vo li + Buffer coating : lp ph do bn ngoi bo v si khng b hng v m t, d bn,co xc.. + Jacket : hng trm hay hng nghn si quang c t trong b gi l cp

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

quang.Nhng b ny c bo v bi lp ph bn ngoi ca cp c gi l jacket. suy hao ca si quang thp hn cc loi cp ng do tn hiu b mt trong cp quang t hn trong cp ng,nn c th ti cc tn hiu i xa hng ngn km. Dung lng ti ca cp quang cao hn v si quang mng hn cp ng, nhiu si quang c th c b vo vi ng knh cho hn cp ng. iu ny cho php nhiu knh i qua mt si cp. Cp quang cng s dng in ngun t hn,bi v tn hiu trong cp quang gim t,my pht c th s dng ngun thp hn thay v my pht vi in th cao c dng trong cp ng. Cp quang khng chy,v khng c in xuyn qua cp quang,do khng c nguy c xy ra ha hon.Tuy vy,cp quang v cc thit b i km li rt t tin so vi cc loi cp ng. nh sng lan truyn dc theo li bng mt qu trnh TIR (Total Internal Reflection) . iu ny c c l nh vo hai lp thy tinh c chit xut khc nhau. Li thy tinh bn trong c chit xut ln hn chit xut ca lp thy tinh bn ngoi. Suy hao dc theo si l b v tn hiu khng b nh hng bi nhiu in t trng nh i vi cc phng tin truyn dn khc :radio,cp kim loi. Tuy vy,tn hiu vn b suy gim bi s tn sc v cc hiu ng phi tuyn. 2. Phn loi cp quang Cp quang hin nay c hai loi chnh l Multimode v Singlemode :

Cp quang Multi mode: c ng knh ln hn Single mode ( khong 6-8 ln), c th truyn c nhiu mode sng trong li. hin nay c s dng rng ri trong cc ng dng truyn d liu vi khong cch 5Km, thng c cc doanh nghip, c quan s dng trong cc h thng mng ni b, truyn thng trong cng nghip,... Cp quang Single mode l loi cp c ng knh li nh (<10 Micron),do ch truyn c nt mode sng nn single mode khng b nh hng ca s tn sc nh sng .v th n truyn c d liu vi khong cch khng gii rt xa, c cc n v vin thng s dng truyn d liu trong h thng ca h. Hin nay cc dch v vin thng hin nay c rt ng o ngi dn s dng nn cc nh cung cp
10

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

dch v lin tc phi m rng h thng truyn dn quang ca h c th p ng nhu cu ca khch hng, do vy lm cho cp quang Singlemode tr nn rt ph dng, h thnh h i rt nhiu. - C 3 loi kch c si quang c s dng trong truyn d liu l 50/125, 62,5/125 ,8,3/125. Trong 50/125 v 62,5/125 micron l si a mode v 8,3/125 micron l si n mode. V. u im v nhc im ca mng truy nhp quang. 1. u im ca mng truy nhp quang : + rng bng thng cao,dung lng ln :cc si quang c kh nng truyn nhng lng ln thng tin. Vi cng ngh hin nay trn hai si quang c th truyn c ng thi 60.000 cuc m thoi. Mt cp si quang (c ng knh ngoi 2 cm) c th cha c khong 200 si quang, s tng c dung lng ng truyn ln 6.O0O.OOO cuc m thoi. So vi cc phng tin truyn dn bng dy thng thng, mt cp ln gm nhiu i dy c th truyn c 500 cuc m thoi. mt cp ng trc c kh nng vi 10.000 cuc m thoi v mt tuyn viba hay v tinh c th mang c 2000 cuc gi ng thi. + Suy hao thp (si n mode s dng rng ri ngy nay c suy hao 02 dB/km) nn c ly truyn dn xa hn so vi cp ng + Bo mt cao : Si quang cung cp bo mt thng tin cao. Mt si quang khng th b trch ly trm thng tin bng cc phng tin in thng thng nh s dn in trn b mt hay cm ng in t, v rt kh trch ly thng tin dng tn hiu quang. Cc tia sng truyn lan tm si quang v rt t hoc khng c tia no thot khi si quang . Thm ch nu trch vo si quang c ri th n c th b pht hin nh kim tra cng sut nh sng thu c ti u cui. Trong khi cc tn hiu thng tin v tinh v viba c th d dng thu gii m c + Chng nhiu tt hn: Truyn dn bng si quang khng b nh hng bi nhiu in t (EMI) hay nhiu tn s v tuyn (RFI) v n khng to ra bt k s nhiu ni ti no. Si quang c th cung cp mt ng truyn sch" nhng mi trng khc nghit nht. Cc cng ty in lc s dng cp quang, dc theo cc ng dy in cao th cung cp ng thng tin r rng gia cc trm bin p. Cp si quang cng khng b xuyn m. Thm ch d nh sng b bc x ra t mt si quang th n khng th thm nhp vo si quang khc c.

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

11

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

+ Kch c ca cp quang cng nh nh hn cp ng do d dng lp t, hao ph sc lc cng nh cc thit b chuyn ch cp. + Trnh c hin tng st lan truyn trong ng dy thu bao lm h hng cc thit b trong tng i + Tnh hnh th trng rt tt + Cht lng truyn dn tt 2. Nhc im Mng truy nhp quang c nhng u im vt tri, nhng n cng c mt s nhc im. l : + Vn bin i in- quang : tn hiu in phi c bin i thnh sng nh sng v ngc li. Chi ph cc thit b bin i cao, cn c xem xt khi thit k mng. + ng truyn thng : iu ny khng thch hp cho cc vng rng ni hay cc ni c a hnh phc tp. + Yu cu lp t c bit do si ch yu lm bng thy tinh. + i hi phi c k nng tt trong cng tc lp t v bo dng.

Chng II : Cu trc mng truy nhp quang


I. Cu hnh tham chiu mng truy nhp quang Da trn cc khuyn ngh ca ITU-T v tiu chun c lin quan a ra cu hnh tham chiu ca mng truy nhp quang: - Mng truy nhp quang dng si quang lm mi trng truyn dn ch yu. -Thng tin trao i ca tng i chuyn mch v thng tin nhn c ca thu bao u l tn hiu in Cn phi c bin i E/O pha tng i v bin i O/E n v mng quang c th thc hin truyn dn tn hiu quang :

Hnh 2: S khi mng truy nhp quang

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

12

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Hnh 3: Cu hnh tham chiu mng truy nhp quang - Cu trc trn bao gm 4 khi c bn : + u cui ng quang (OLT) +Mng phi dy quang (ODN) +Khi mng quang (ONU) +Khi chc nng phi hp (AF) - im tham chiu ch yu gm c : + im tham chiu pht quang S + im tham chiu thu quang R + im tham chiu gia cc nt dch v + im tham chiu u cui thu bao T + im tham chiu a gia cc ONU. - Giao din bao gm : giao din qun l mng Q3 v giao din gia thu bao vi mng UNI. II.Cc khi chc nng H thng truyn dn truy nhp cp quang m bo mt lot ng lin kt truy nhp v gm cc module : OLT, ODN , ONU , AF. 1. OLT - Optical Line Terminal - OLT cung cp giao din quang gia mng vi ODN, ng thi cung cp bin php cn thit truyn cc dch v khc nhau. OLT c th chia thnh dch v chuyn mch v dch v khng chuyn mch, qun l bo hiu v khng gian gim st iu khin n t ONU. T cung cp chc nng bo dng cho ONU.
Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

13

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

- OLT c th lp t giao din tng i chuyn mch ni ht cng c th lp t u xa. V mt vt l n c th l thit b c lp cng c th nm trong mt thit b tng th khc.OLT gm n v trung tm ,n v dch v v n v chung to thnh:

Hnh 4 : Cu trc ca OLT v thit b OLT thc t Trong chc nng ca tng n v nh sau: - n v trung tm : + Ni cho s + Ghp knh truyn dn + Chc nng giao din ODN :chc nng ny cn c vo cc loi si quang ca ODN cung cp cc giao din quang vt l, ng thi thc hin bin i E/O v O/E. - n v chung: +Chc nng cp in: chuyn i ngun in cung cp t bn ngoi thnh tr s in yu cu ca ni b. + Chc nng OAM : thng qua giao din tng ng, thc hin s vn hnh, qun l v bo dng i vi tt c cc khi chc nng v i vi qun l mng lp trn. - n v dch v: +b phn dch v l u vo ca cc dch v +yu cu cc dch v phi c tc s cp ca ISDN +c m nhn ng thi hai dch v khc nhau tr ln 2. ONU - Optical Network Unit

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

14

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Hnh 5 : Cu trc ca ONU v thit b ONU thc t Chc nng ca tng n v nh sau: -n v trung tm: +giao din ODN :cung cp mt lot cc giao din quang vt l,ni vi ODN ng thi hon thnh vic bin i E/O v O/E. +chc nng ghp knh truyn dn : x l v phn phi thng tin +chc nng ghp knh thu bao v dch v: tp hp v phn phi cc thng tin t/ n cc thu bao khc. - n v chung : cp in v OAM, tnh cht chc nng b phn chung ging nh trong OLT. - n v dch v: cung cp chc nng ca thu bao, bao gm phi hp nx64 Kbps v chuyn i bo hiu. 3. ODN - Optical Distribution Network Mng phn phi quang t gia ONU v OLT. Chc nng ca n l phn phi cng sut ca tn hiu quang.ODN ch yu l linh kin quang khng ngun v si quang to thnh mng phn phi ng quang th ng. Thng thng p dng cu trc hnh cy 4. AF - Adaption Function Ch yu cung cp chc nng phi hp ONU vi thit b thu bao. AF c th thuc ONU hoc c lp. Kt lun : chng ny cho chng ta thy m hnh tham chiu v chc nng ca tng khi trong mng truy nhp quang.

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

15

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Chng III: Cc cng ngh truy nhp quang I. Cc cng ngh mng truy nhp quang tch cc (AON) 1. Kin trc mng AON

Hnh 6 : Kin trc mng AON

Hnh 7 : Cng ngh mng truy nhp AON AON c nhiu u im nh ko dy xa, tnh bo mt cao, d dng nng cp bng thng thu bao, d xc nh li,... Tuy nhin, n c chi ph cao do vic vn hnh cc thit b trn ng truyn u cn ngun cung cp, mi thu bao l mt si quang ring, cn nhiu khng gian cha cp.

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

16

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Hnh 8 : Cu trc Home run Trong cc gii php truy nhp quang AON th FTTH-AON c p dng ph bin nht. - Cc cng ngh AON bao gm : cng ngh SDH , PDH, NG-SDH 2. Cng ngh truyn dn cn ng b (PDH). Nguyn l ca cng ngh truyn dn cn ng b l ghp cc lung s c s 2,048Mbit/s (hoc 1,544Mbit/s) thnh cc lung s c tc cao hn: 8Mbit/s,34Mbit/s,140Mbit/s (theo tiu chun Chu u) cc lung s ny c a n b bin i in quang truyn trn si quang. Ti u thu qu trnh din ra ngc li. Cng ngh ghp knh PDH thch hp vi mng c dung lng truyn dn thp, cu trc mng n gin (im ni im). Vi yu cu t chc mng phc tp, dung lng truyn dn cn cao hn th phng thc truyn dn ny bc l nhiu nhc im. S tch ghp PDH c m t trn hnh sau:

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

17

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Hnh 9: S tch ghp PDH * Nhc im ca h thng PDH: - Mng PDH ch yu p ng cc dch v in thoi, i vi cc dch v mi nh: mng ISDN, truyn dn data, dch v in thoi hn nh ,th mng PDH p ng hn ch. - Mng PDH khng linh hot trong vic thit k trong vic kt ni cc lung lin tc. Khi c nhu cu xen r lung t mt lung c dung lng ln th phi qua cc cp trung gian h tc t cao xung thp tng ng. Cng nh vic ghp lung phi tri qua y cc cp t thp ln tc cao. iu ny r rng l khng mm do, khng thun tin cho vic kt ni, cn phi c cc cp thit b gii php lung do khng tit kim v kh thc hin ng thi i hi nhiu thit b phc tp. - Cc lung thng tin v bo tr khng c lin kt trn ton tuyn thng tin m ch i vi tng on truyn dn ring l. Th tc bo tr cho ton tuyn phc tp . - Cha c tiu chun chung cho thit b ng dy, cc nh sn xut mi ch c tiu chun c trng ring cho thit b ring ca h. - C nhiu thit b ghp lung. mt lung 2Mbit/s c th s i qua nhiu
Nhm 6 - 5TVT2 18

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

hng trc khi i n ch do vn qun l lung ti mi trm phi ng b v cht ch.Trong thc t nhiu khi sinh ra li lm trong thc t hoc u ni khng ch nh hng n lung ang kt ni m c th gy ra mt lin lc cho nhng lung khc ang khai thc - H thng PDH thiu cc phng tin gim st, o th t xa m ch tin hnh ngay ti ch. 3 . Cng ngh SDH. SDH l vit tt ca t Synchronous Digital Hierarchy, xut hin vo cui nhng nm 1980 v n u nm 90 CCITT ( ITU-T) a ra nhng khuyn ngh v chun ca SDH. SDH c nhng u th trong vic ghp knh n gin, linh hot, gim trang thit b trn mng, bng tn truyn dn rng, cung cp giao din tc ln hn cho cc dch v trong tng lai, to ra kh nng qun l mng tp trung. u im: Trong PDH vic ghp knh c tin hnh ti mi cp, qu trnh ghp phi ln lt qua cc mc trung gian t 2 ti 140Mb/s. Vic truy cp trc tip n mt lung 2Mbit/s trong mt lung 140Mbit/s l khng th thc hin c. Chng hn nh khi cn ni cho cc lung 2Mb/s th phi thc hin h knh t lung 140Mb/s qua nhiu cp xung ti 2Mb/s ri mi dung cp nhy thc hin ni cho. Mng li ny rt cng knh v phc tp v khng linh hot ng thi chi ph vn hnh rt ln do i hi nhiu sc lao ng trong cc khu lp t v chuyn cp. i vi SDH th u im ni bt hn l n gin ha mng li, linh hot trong vic s dng khai thc. Khc vi PDH, trong mng SDH qu trnh ghp knh ch thc hin qua mt gian on, do vic tch mt knh 2Mbit/s trong mt lung tc cao l n gin. Hn na, vic s dng phn mm trong qun l bo dng lung 2Mb/s lm cho vic nh du cho
Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

19

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

cc lung 2Mbit/s tr nn thc s n gin v nhanh chng. Chnh v th vic vn hnh v qun l mng li n gin hn nhiu so vi cng cng vic ny PDH. - Trong SDH tc bit ln hn 140Mbit/s ln u tin c tiu chun ha trn phm vi ton th gii. - M truyn dn ca tn hiu quang c tiu chun ha tng thch cc thit b ca cc nh sn xut. - C cu trc khi. - Tc bit v cu trc khung ca cp cao hn c to thnh t tc bit v cu trc khung ca lung c bn cp thp hn do vic ghp tch lung thng tin d dng. - C cc knh ring cho Gim st, Qun l o th hoc iu khin trong phn mng qun l. - Tt c cc tn hiu PDH c tc thp hn 140Mb/s u c th ghp c vo cp SDH thp nht l STM-1 c tc 155Mbit/s. Nhc im: - K thut phc tp hn do phi ghi li s tng quan v phase gia cc tn hiu lung v overhead - Vic nhi byte-byte tng Jitter hn kiu bit-bit ca PDH - ng h phi cung cp t ngoi - Truyn d tha v thiu mc 8Mb/s Ta c th a ra s ging v khc nhau gia PDH v SDH trong bng sau:

PDH Mng cn ng b B dao ng ni dao ng chy t

SDH Mng ng b B dao ng ni c ng b vi

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

20

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

do Ghp knh khng ng b Cu trc khung c trng Ghp lung theo nguyn l xen bit Truy nhp lung ring l sau khigiair ghp n cp tng ng Tc chun cao nht l 140Mbit/s

ng h ngoi Ghp knh ng b Cu trc khung ng nht Ghp lung theo nguyn l xen byte Truy nhp lung trc tip t khung ng truyn dn ng b STM-1 Tc c s l 155,2Mbit/s

Trong nhng nm gn y, SDH thm nhp vo nc ta vi tc rt nhanh, mng ng trc Bc-Nam c tc 2,5 Gbps, mng ni tnh v thnh ph cng ng dng ngy cng nhiu SDH c tc 155,52 Mbps hoc 622 Mbps. 4. Cng ngh NG-SDH. Cng ngh SDH c thit k ti u cho mc ch truyn ti cc tn hiu ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDM). Vi khuynh hng truyn ti d liu ngy cng tng, h thng SDH truyn thng khng th p ng c nhu cu gia tng ca cc dch v s liu na. SDH th h sau (NG-SDH) c pht trin da trn nn mng SDH hin ti, l mt c ch truyn ti cho php truyn d liu tc cao, bng thng rng v tn ti ng thi cc dch v truyn thng v cc dch v mi trn cng mt mng m khng lm nh hng ln nhau. iu quan trng nht l NG-SDH c th thc hin vic phn b bng thng m khng lm nh hng ti lu lng hin ti. Ngoi ra, SDH th h sau cn c kh nng cung cp cht lng dch v (QoS) thch hp cho cc dch v mi v kh nng truyn ti ng thi nhiu loi dch v khc nhau trong cng mt mi trng. M hnh cung cp dch v mng trin khai trn cng ngh NG-SDH c ch ra hnh sau:

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

21

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

dch v mng: - dch v Iternet tc cao - dch v truyn hnh TV : CATV, SDTV, HDTV - dch v in thoi truyn hnh - VPN - cc dch v thu knh vin thng - cc dch v truyn d liu

Hnh 10 : M hnh cung cp dch v mng trn cng ngh NG-SDH II. Mng truy nhp quang th ng PON PON l t vit tt ca Passive Optical Network hay cn gi l mng quang th ng. Cng ngh mng quang th ng PON cn c hiu l mng cng ngh quang truy nhp gip tng cng kt ni gia cc nt mng truy nhp ca nh cung cp dch v v ngi s dng. Cng ngh PON c bit ti u tin l TPON-Telephony PON c trin khai vo nhng nm 90, tip nm 1998, mng BPON-Broadband PON c chun ha da trn nn ATM. Hai nm 2003 v 2004 nh du s ra i ca hai dng cng ngh Ethernet PON-EPON v Gigabit PON-GPON, c th ni hai cng ngh ny m ra c hi mi cho cc nh cung cp dch v gii quyt hng lot vn truy nhp bng thng rng ti ngi s dng u cui. Thnh vin mi nht trong gia nh PON l WDM PON. Trong cng ngh PON,
Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

22

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

tt c thnh phn ch ng gia tng i CO-Central Office v ngi s dng s khng cn tn ti m thay vo l cc thit b quang th ng, iu hng cc lu lng trn mng da trn vic phn chia nng lng ti cc im u cui trn ng truyn. V vy m ngi ta gi l cng ngh mng quang th ng. V tr ca h thng PON trong mng truyn dn: Mng quang th ng PON l mt dng ca mng truy nhp quang. Mng truy nhp h tr cc kt ni n khch hng. N c t gn u cui khch hng v trin khai vi s lng ln. Mng truy nhp tn ti nhiu dng khc nhau do nhiu l do khc nhau v PON l mt trong nhng dng . So vi mng truy nhp cp ng truyn thng, si quang hu nh khng gii hn bng thng. Vic trin khai si quang n tn nh thu bao s l mc ch pht trin trong tng lai. Vi nhng u im vt tri, mng quang th ng PON-Passive Optical Network l mt s la chn thch hp nht cho mng truy nhp. 1. Tng quan v cng ngh PON Mng quang th ng PON c trnh by nh Hnh 10, s dng phn t chia quang th ng trong phn mng phn b nm gia thit b ng truyn quang OLT-Otical Line Terminal v thit b kt cui mng quang ONU-Optical network Unit.

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

23

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Ngun: Cng ngh v chun ha PON Hnh 11 : M hnh mng quang th ng Trong cc thut ng trong hnh c ch thch nh sau: o Passive slitter: B chia th quang th ng o Feeder Fiber: Cp Feeder o Central office: Vn phng trung tm o Distribution fiber: Phn phi quang o Management system: H thng qun l o Passive splitter: B chia th ng Cc phn t th ng ca PON u nm trong mng phn b quang hay cn gi l mng quang ngoi vi bao gm cc phn t nh si quang, cc b tch /ghp quang th ng, cc u ni v cc mi hn quang. Cc phn t tch cc nh OLT v cc ONU u nm u cui ca mng PON. Tn

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

24

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

hiu trong PON c th c phn ra v truyn i theo nhiu si quang hoc c kt hp li v truyn i trn mt si quang thng qua b ghp quang, ph thuc tn hiu i theo hng ln hay xung ca mng quang th ng PON. 2. c im ca mng PON c trng ca h thng PON l thit b th ng phn phi si quang n tng nh thu bao s dng b chia c th ln ti 1:128. PON h tr giao thc ATM, Ethernet. PON h tr cc dch v thoi, d liu v hnh nh vi tc cao v kh nng cung cp bng thng rng. Trong h thng PON, bng thng c chia s cho nhiu khch hng iu ny s lm gim chi ph cho khch hng s dng. Cng nh kh nng tn dng cng ngh WDM, ghp knh phn chia theo di tn, TDMA v cung cp bng thng ng gim thiu s lng cp quang cn thit kt ni gia OLT v b chia. PON thc hin truyn dn 2 chiu trn 2 si quang hay 2 chiu trn cng 1 si quang. PON c th h tr m hnh: hnh cy, sao, bus v ring. 3. Thnh phn c bn ca mng quang th ng PON 3.1 Si quang v cp quang Si quang l mt thnh phn quan trng trong mng, n to s kt ni gia cc thit b. Hai thng s c bn ca si quang l suy hao v tn sc, tuy nhin si quang ng dng trong mng PON th ch cn quan tm n suy hao khng quan tm n tn sc bi khong cch truyn ti a ch l 20 km v tn sc th nh hng khng ng k. Do , ngi ta s dng si quang c suy hao nh, ch yu l s dng si quang theo chun G.652.

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

25

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Trn thc t, khc phc nhc im trong truyn dn thng tin ca cp ng, t lu ngi ta cho ra i cp quang cng vi nhng tnh nng u vit hn. Khng ging nh cp ng truyn tn hiu bng in, cp quang dng nh sng truyn tn hiu i. Chnh v s khc bit , m cp quang t b nhiu, tc cao v c kh nng truyn xa hn. Tuy vy, phi n giai on hin nay th cp quang mi c pht trin bng n, nht l trong lnh vc kt ni lin lc a, kt ni xuyn quc gia. V vic s dng cng ngh truyn dn hin i ny cng ang bt u thay th dn mng cp ng ADSL phc v trc tip n ngi s dng. 3.2 B tch - ghp quang Mt mng quang th ng s dng mt thit b th ng tch mt tn hiu quang t mt si quang sang mt vi si quang v ngc li. Thit b ny l Coupler quang. n gin, mt Coupler quang gm hai si ni vi nhau. T s tch ca b tch c th c iu khin bng chiu di ca tng ni v v vy n l hng s.

Hnh 12 : Cu hnh c bn ca cc loi Coupler


Nhm 6 - 5TVT2 26

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Hnh 12a: c chc nng tch 1 tia vo thnh 2 tia u ra, y l Coupler Y. Hnh 12b l Coupler ghp cc tn hiu quang ti hai u vo thnh mt tn hiu ti u ra. Hnh 12c va ghp va tch quang v gi l Coupler X hoc Coupler phn hng 2x2. Coupler c nhiu hn hai cng vo v nhiu hn hai cng ra gi l Coupler hnh sao. Coupler NxN c to ra t nhiu Couper 2x2 Coupler c c trng bi cc thng s sau: Tn hao tch: Mc nng lng u ra ca Coupler so vi nng lng u vo. i vi Coupler 2x2 l tng, gi tr ny l 3dB. Hnh 13 minh ho hai m hnh 8x8 Coupler da trn 2x2 Coupler. Trong m hnh 4 ngn nh Hnh 13a, ch 1/6 nng lng u vo c chia mi u ra. Hnh 13b a ra m hnh hiu qu hn gi l mng lin kt mng a ngn. Trong m hnh ny, mi u ra nhn c 1/8 nng lng u vo. Tn hao chn: Nng lng tn hao do s cha hon ho ca qu trnh x l. Gi tr ny nm trong khong 0,1dB n 1dB. nh hng: Lng nng lng u vo b r r t mt cng u vo n cc cng u vo khc. Coupler l thit b nh hng cao vi thng s nh hng trong khong 40-50dB. Thng thng, cc Coupler c ch to ch c mt cng vo hoc mt b kt hp. Cc Coupler loi ny c s dng tch mt phn nng lng tn hiu, v d vi mc ch nh lng. Cc thit b nh th ny c gi l tap coupler.

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

27

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

a.Coupler 4ngn 8x8

b.Coupler 3 ngn 8x8

Hnh 13: Coupler 8x8 to ra t nhiu coupler 3.3 u cui ng quang OLT OLT cung cp giao tip gia h thng mng quang th ng PON v mng quang ng trc ca cc nh cung cp dch v thoi, d liu v video. OLT c th c t bn trong tng i hoc ti mt trm t xa. OLT cng kt ni ti mng li ca nh cung cp dch v thng qua h thng qun l EMS. a) Phn li OLT Phn li OLT bao gm cc chc nng sau: Chc nng kt ni cho c s ha cung cp cc kt ni gia phn mng li vi phn mng phi quang ODN. Chc nng ghp knh truyn dn cung cp kt ni VP gia chc nng cng dch v SFT v giao din ODN.

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

28

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Hnh 14 : S khi chc nng OLT Chc nng ghp knh truyn dn cung cp vic truyn v ghp cc knh trn mng phi quang ODN. Chc nng giao din ODN cung cp mi trng truyn dn quang kt ni OLT vi mt hoc nhiu ONU bng vic s dng thit b th ng. N iu khin qu trnh chuyn i quang in v in quang. b) Giao din ODN u cui ng dy PON x l chuyn i quang in. Giao din ODN chn cc t bo ATM vo. c) Phn dch v OLT Phn dch v OLT th c chc nng cng dch v. Cc cng dch v s truyn t nht tc ISDN v s c th cu hnh mt s dch v hay c th h tr ng thi 2 hay nhiu dch v khc nhau v d nh dch v truyn hnh phn gii cao HDTV, game online, truyn d liu... Bt k khi TUTtributary Unit cng u cung cp hai hay nhiu port c tc 2Mbps ph thuc vo cch cu hnh trn mi port. Khi TU c nhiu port c th cu hnh mi port mt dch v khc nhau. Chc nng cng dch v SPF ng vai tr giao tip vi node dch v. Chc nng cng dch v thc hin chn t bo ATM vo ti trng SDH ng ln, v tch t bo ATM t ti trng SDH ng xung. Chc nng ny phi c d phng, do chuyn mch bo v l cn thit. d) Phn chung OLT

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

29

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Phn chung OLT bao gm chc nng cp ngun v chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng OAM - Operation, Administration and Maintenance. Chc nng cp ngun chuyn i ngun ngoi thnh ngun mong mun. Chc nng OAM cung cp cc phng tin iu khin hot ng, qun l v bo dng cho tt c khi OLT. 3.4 n v mng quang ONU- Optical Network Unit ONU t ti pha khch hng, ONU cung cp cc phng tin cn thit phn phi cc dch v khc nhau c iu khin bi OLT. Mt ONU c th c chia lm 3 phn : a) Phn li ONU ONU gm giao din ODN, cng ngi dng, chc nng ghp knh v phn knh truyn dn, dch v v khch hng v cp ngun. + Giao din ODN x l cc qu trnh chuyn i quang in. Giao din ODN trch cc t bo ATM t ti trng PON ng xung v chn cc t bo ATM vo ti trng ng ln trn c s ng b s nh thi khung ng xung. + Ghp knh : ch cc t bo ATM c hiu lc mi c th i qua b phn ghp knh, do nhiu VP c th chia s bng thng ng ln mt cch hiu qu. Chc nng ghp knh truyn dn cung cp cc chc nng phn phi tn hiu gia ODN v khch hng. + Chc nng ghp khch hng v dch v c nhim v nu v pha khch hng th d liu s c ghp trc khi truyn n ODN, cn nu v pha ODN th cc dch v s tch ra ph hp cho tng user yu cu dch v b) Phn dch v ONU Phn dch v ONU cung cp cc chc nng cng ca ngi dng. Chc nng cng ca ngi dng cung cp cho cc giao din dch v ca khch hng v b thch nghi ca chng l 64Kbps hay n x 64 Kbps. Chc nng ny c th c cp bi mt khch hng hay mt nhm khch hng. N cng cung cp cc chc nng chuyn i tn hiu ty thuc vo giao din vt l. V d : rung chung, bo hiu ... c) Phn chung ONU Bao gm chc nng cp ngun v chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo
Nhm 6 - 5TVT2 30

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

dng OAM. Chc nng cp ngun cung cp ngun cho ONU, v d nh chuyn i xoay chiu thnh mt chiu hay ngc li. Ngun c th c cp ti ch hay t xa. Nhiu ONU c th chia s ngun. ONU c th hot ng bng ngun d phng. Chc nng OAM cung cp cc phng tin iu khin cc chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng cho tt c khi ca ONU. 3.5 ODN ODN cung cp phng tin truyn dn quang cho kt ni vt l gia OLT v ONU. Cc ODN ring l c th c kt hp v m rng nh cc b khuch i quang. ODN bao gm cc thnh phn quang th ng : cp v si quang n mode, connector quang, thit b r nhnh quang th ng, b suy hao quang th ng v mi hn. Giao din quang ODN cung cp ng quang gia OLT v ONU, mi ng quang c nh ngha l khong gia cc im tham chiu ti mt ca s bc sng nht nh. Oru, Ord Giao din quang ti im tham chiu S/R gia ONU v ODN cho ng ln v ng xung tng ng. Olu, Old Giao din quang ti im tham chiu R/S gia OLT v ODN cho ng ln v ng xung tng ng.

Hnh 15: Cc giao din quang

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

31

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

3.6 B chia Splitter B chia l thit b th ng, cng dng ca n l chia cng sut quang t mt si ra nhiu si khc nhau. T OLT n ONU c th s dng nhiu dng b chia c t l chia l 1:2 , 1:4 , 1:8 , 1:16 , 1:32 , 1:64 , 1:128. Hu ht h thng PON s dng b chia l 1:16 v 1:32. Bng 2: Lit k suy hao ca cc b spliter tng ng S cng 2 4 8 16 32 64 3.7 M hnh PON Suy hao Splitter 3 db 6 db 9 db 12 db 15 db 18 db

Hnh 16 : M hnh cy

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

32

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Hnh 17 : M hnh bus

Hnh 18 : M hnh vng

Hnh 19 : M hnh trung k cy Tt c s truyn dn trong mng PON u c thc hin gia OLT v cc ONU. OLT ti tng i hay cn gi l Central Office, kt ni truy nhp quang n mng khu vc th MAN hoc mng din rng WAN cn c gi l mng xng sng, mng ng di chng hn nh mng IP, ATM hay SONET. ONU ti u cui ngi s dng trong gii php FTTH-Fiber To The Home, FTTB-Fiber To The Building hoc ti l ng trong gii php FTTC-Fiber To The Curb v c kh nng cung cp cc dch

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

33

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

v thoi, d liu v video bng rng. Tu theo im cui ca tuyn cp quang xut pht t tng i m cc mng truy nhp thu bao quang c tn gi khc nhau nh si quang n tn nh FTTH, si quang n khu dn c FTTC, si quang n ta nh FTTB... 3.8 Cc cng ngh ca mng PON 3.8.1 TDM PON Trong TDM PON, vic truyn ng thi t vi ONU s gy ra xung t khi n b kt hp. ngn chn xung t d liu, mi ONU phi truyn trong ca s hay cn gi l khe thi gian truyn ca n. Mt thun li ln ca TDM PON l tt c cc ONU c th hot ng cng mt bc sng, OLT cng ch cn mt b thu n. B thu pht ONU hot ng tc ng truyn, thm ch bng thng c th dng ca ONU thp hn. Tuy nhin, c tnh ny cng cho php TDM PON t hiu qu thay i bng thng c dng cho tng ONU bng cch thay i kch c khe thi gian c n nh hoc thm ch s dng ghp knh thng k tn dng ht bng thng c dng ca mng PON. Trong mng truy nhp thu bao, hu ht cc lung lu lng ln v xung khng phi l Peer to Peer. V vy iu ny dng nh l hp l tch knh ln v xung. Mt phng php tch knh n gin c th da trn ghp knh phn chia khng gian SDM m n tch PON c cung cp theo hng truyn ln xung. tit kim si quang v gim chi ph sa cha v bo qun, mt si quang c th c s dng cho truyn theo hai hng. Trong trng hp ny, hai bc sng c dng l: hng ln 1=1310nm, hng xung 2=1550nm. Dung lng knh mi bc sng c th phn phi linh ng gia cc ONU.

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

34

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Ngun: Cng ngh v chun ha PON Hnh 20 : Mng PON s dng mt si quang Cc thut ng trong hnh c ch thch nh sau: o ONU: Offtical Network Unit-n v mng quang o Data transmitsion: D liu vo o Data Receiver: D liu ra o WDM: Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian l phng php c u tin hin nay cho vic chia s knh quang trong mng truy nhp khi m n cho php mt bc sng n hng ln v b thu pht n OLT lm cho gii php ny c u th hn v chi ph u t. 3.8.2 WDM PON WDM-PON l mng quang th ng s dng phng thc a ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng thay v theo thi gian nh trong phng thc TDMA. OLT s dng mt bc sng ring r thng tin vi mi ONU theo dng im im. Mi mt ONU c mt b lc quang la chn bc sng tng thch vi n, OLT cng c mt b lc cho mi ONU. Nhiu
Nhm 6 - 5TVT2 35

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

phng thc khc c tm hiu to ra cc bc sng ONU nh l: S dng cc khi quang c th lp t ti ch la chn cc bc sng ONU, dng cc laser iu chnh c, v ct ph tn hiu. Cc phng thc th ng m theo OLT cung cp tn hiu sng mang ti cc ONU. S dng tn hiu hng xung iu chnh bc sng u ra ca laser ONU. Cu trc ca WDM-PON c m t nh trong Hnh 3.6. Trong , WDM-PON c th c s dng cho nhiu ng dng khc nhau nh l FTTx, cc ng dng cho ng dy thu bao s tc rt cao VDSL v cc im truy nhp v tuyn t xa. Cc b thu WDM-PON s dng k thut lc quang mng ng dn sng. Mt b lc quang ng dn sng c th c t mi trng trong nh hoc ngoi tri. Gii php WDM yu cu mt b thu iu khin c hoc l mt mng b thu OLT nhn cc knh khc nhau. Thm ch nhiu vn kh khn cho cc nh khai thc mng l kim k tng bc sng ca ONU: thay v ch c mt loi ONU, th c nhiu loi ONU da trn cc bc sng Laser ca n. Mi ONU s s dng mt laser hp v rng ph iu khin c cho nn rt t tin. Mc khc, nu mt bc sng b sai lch s gy ra nhiu cho cc ONU khc trong mng PON. Vic s dng Laser iu khin c c th khc phc c vn ny nhng qu t cho cng ngh hin ti. Vi nhng kh khn nh vy th WDM khng phi l gii php tt cho mi trng hin nay. u im chnh ca WDM-PON l n kh nng cung cp cc dch v d liu theo cc cu trc khc nhau nh DS1/E1/DS3, 10/100/1000Base Ethernet, ty theo yu cu v bng thng ca khch hng. Tuy nhin, nhc

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

36

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

im chnh ca WDM-PON l chi ph kh ln cho cc linh kin quang sn xut b lc nhng bc sng khc nhau. WDM-PON cng c trin khai kt hp vi cc giao thc TDMA PON ci thin bng thng truyn tin. WDM-PON c pht trin mnh Hn Quc.

Ngun: Cng ngh v chun ha PON Hnh 21 : Cu trc ca WDM PON Cc thut ng c ch thch trong hnh: o CO :Center office : Vn phng trung tm o FTTH: Fiber to the home-Cp quang thu bao o FTTB : Fiber to the building- Cp quang ti ta nh o FTTC : Fiber to the curt- cp quang ti khu dn c o VDSL switch: Thit b nh tuyn ng dy thu bao s tc rt cao. o Wireless Access point : im truy cp mng khng dy.

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

37

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

APON Tiu chun Khung FSAN ITU-T G.983 ATM

BPON FSAN ITU-T G.983 ATM, Ethernet, phn b Vodee 1,244 G 622 M 32

EPON

GPON

EFM IEEE FSAN 802.3h ITU-T G.984 Ethernet GPON kiu ng gi 1- 10 G 1- 10 G 16 2,488 G 2,488 G 64

WDM PON Cha c Khng ph thuc

Tc xung Tc ln S thu bao/nhn h Bng tn/thu bao Dch v video Gi thnh

622- 1244 M 155- 622 M 16

1- 10 G n knh 1/10 G n knh

20M

20M

60M

40M

1-10G

RF Thp

RF Thp

RF/IP Thp nht

RF/IP

RF/IP

Trung bnh Cao

Bng 3 : Cc cng ngh PON III. So snh mng quang tch cc AON v mng quang th ng PON Mng AON s dng cc thit b tch cc,thng qua cc cng ngh truyn ti nh SDH, NG-SDH thit lp mng truy nhp cung cp dch v cho khch hng. Cng ngh SONET/SDH truyn thng l cng ngh TDM c ti u ha truyn ti cc lu lng dch v thoi. Trong khi cng ngh NG-SDH l cng ngh truyn dn c pht trin trn nn SDH truyn ti lu lng IP, nhng n vn tn dng c c s h tng mng hin c s dng SDH. ng thi n khc phc c nhng hn ch ca SDH c. -Cc h thng PON ang c trin khai trn th gii nh : APON/BPON, WDM PON, GPON v EPON. Trong , APON/BPON l cc h thng truy nhp quang bng rng h tr ch cho lu lng ATM. GPON vi vic ci

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

38

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

thin hn v tc , h tr nhiu tc khc nhau cho c ng ln v ng xung, c bit h tr c ATM v IP... EPON c xy dng trn c s cng ngh mng Ithernet, n ch h tr truyn dn i xng. Mng quang ch ng AON : phn phi tn hiu, mng quang ch ng s dng cc thit b s dng in phn tch d liu nh chuyn mch, router hoc multiplexer. D liu t pha nh cung cp ca khch hng no s ch c chuyn n khch hng . D liu t pha khch hng s trnh xung t khi truyn trn ng vt l chung bng vic s dng cc b m ca cc thit b ch ng. T nm 2007, hu ht cc h thng mng quang ch ng c gi l ethernet ch ng. Ethernet ch ng s dng cc chuyn mch ethernet quang phn phi tn hiu, do kt ni cc cn h khch hng vi nh cung cp thnh mt h thng mng Ethernet khng l ging nh mt my tnh ethernet thng thng ngoi tr mc ch ca chng l kt ni cc cn h v cc ta nh vi nh cung cp dch v. Mi t chuyn mch c th qun l ti 1000 khch hng, thng thng l 400-500 khch hng. Cc thit b chuyn mch ny thc hin chuyn mch v nh tuyn da vo lp 2 v lp 3. Mt nhc im ln ca mng quang ch ng chnh l thit b chuyn mch. Vi cng ngh hin ti, thit b chuyn mch bt buc phi chuyn tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in phn tch thng tin ri tip tc chuyn ngc li truyn i. iu ny s lm gim tc truyn dn ti a c th c trong h thng FTTX. Ngoi ra, do y l nhng chuyn mch c tc cao nn cc thit b ny rt t, khng ph hp cho vic trin khai i tr cho mng truy cp. Phn tch u, nhc im v la chn cng ngh : nhiu chun mng truy nhp FTTx khc nhau v khng tng thch vi nhau. V th c s linh hot v la chn cng ngh,tuy nhin n cng mang li rt nhiu ri ro khi quyt nh u t vo FTTx. ( FTTx l cm t vit tt ca Fiber to the x", bao gm FTTH (fiber to the home), FTTB (fiber to the buiding), FTTN (fiber to the node), FTTC (fiber to the carbinet) FTTx l vic dn ng truyn cp quang ti mt im, im c th l h gia nh, ta nh, im, t,. Thc cht FTTx l h thng cung cp Internet qua ng truyn cp quang ti cc im ni trn. FTTx l mt thut ng chug m t bt k mt kin trc mng bng thng rng no m s dng cp quang thay th mt phn hay tt c mch vng truyn dn bng cp ng thng thng t trm vin thng cui ti khch hng.
Nhm 6 - 5TVT2 39

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

trin khai c cc dch v FTTx ngi ta cn xy dng mng trc truyn dn c bng thng ln, kh nng chuyn mch nhanh, kt ni gia cc im mng(node) bng cc tuyn cp quang v c gi tng qut l mng phn phi quang ODN). V y l mt dch v mng tnh cht k thut cao nn yu t cng ngh mang tnh cht quyt nh sng cn. Vic la chn cng ngh no s ph thuc vo rt nhiu yu t : - Gi thnh, phc tp, - Kh nng v quy m trin khai -S chun ha v thit b. Gia hai cng ngh mng quang trc tip v mng quang chia s ta s dng mng quang chia s. Do mng quang trc tip c chi ph rt ln. Hn na, vic trin khai mng quang trc tip ti thi im ny cn gp mt s vn c v ti chnh v k thut. Trong mng quang chia s ta dng cng ngh mng th ng PON, do cng ngh mng ch ng AON c nhng hn ch v thit b chuyn mch dn n hn ch v tc ca ton mng. Hin ti nhng chuyn mch quang tc cao c gi thnh rt cao ch ph hp cho thit k mng li.

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

40

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Key : A- data or voice a single customer V- video for multiple customers Hnh 22: mng AON v PON

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

41

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Bng 4 : bng so snh AON v PON Cng ngh AON PON Bng thng trn mi thu bao 100Mbps - 1Gbps 2.5 Gbps/1.25 Gbps nu khng dng splitter, trin khai theo m hnh im-im, tuy nhin thng chia thnh 1: 32 (78Mbps) hay 1:64 (39 Mbps) Phc tp Nhiu Chm hn Cao Thp, khng c phng n 2 kt ni trn mt PON

Tng bng thng tm thi cho thu bao S thu bao b nh hng khi c li Thi gian xc nh li Kh nng b nghe nn tin cy ca ng cp n thu bao

n gin

Nhanh Rt thp

Cao, do ty m hnh khch hng c th c kt ni theo dual-homing (c 2 ng truyn khc nhau), vng trn hay 2 kt ni Chi ph trin Cao, do mi thu bao l khai mt si quang ring

Thp, v si quang t OLT s c chia s cho nhiu thu bao qua b chia th ng Chi ph vn Cao, cc thit b nh Thp, do OLT kch thc hnh Access Node cn cp nh v Passive splitter ngun v kch thc cng khng cn ngun. Phc v ln, yu cu khng gian. khong 8000 thu bao ch Khng gian cho cp cng cn khng gian ca mt t cn nhiu rack Chi ph nng Thp, do c tnh im n Cao, do ton b thu bao c p im nn vic nng cp trong mt dy PON (t bng thng n gin, chng OLT qua splitter n ngi hn ch cn thay th thit b dng) phi c nng cp u cui
Nhm 6 - 5TVT2 42

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

IV. Topology v cc p dng ca truy nhp quang C mt s topology truy nhp quang c s dng p ng cho lu lng c tc cao trong mng truy nhp nh: hub and spoke, multidrop ring v mesh. 1. Aggregated Point to Point using a single channel per Optical Fiber (tng hp im s dng knh duy nht cho mi si quang) Chi ph ca cc channel card vi giao tip n thit b CPE hoc PoP/Co c th xung trong trng hp khng c cc lin kt WDM. Cc chi ph qun l c th c gim xung nh vo cc k thut nh tc cu hnh bng phn mm v cc chn on ban u.

Hnh 23 : Aggregated Point to Point 2. Aggregated Multichannel Point to Point (tng hp a knh im ti im). Cc lin kt WDM rng ln lm gim chi ph si quang, v cung cp gii php a knh mt cch hon ton tha ng cho cc lin kt mng truy nhp m d khng c yu cu ghp knh bc sng vi mt s dng cao. N gn ging nh cc h thng a knh c trn ln vi knh n, cc lin kt im- im.

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

43

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Hnh 24 : Aggregated Multichannel Point to Point 3. Spatially Distributed WDM ( khng gian phn phi WDM). Cu hnh multidrop Thng dnh cho c ng dng mng campus v riser.

Hnh 25 : Spatially Distributed WDM 4. Arbitrary Mesh (li ty ). Cc nt trong mng truy nhp cn s lin kt kt ni cc thit b ca mng khch hng. Yu cu c cc lin kt WDM v khng WDM

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

44

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

Hnh 26 : Arbitrary Mesh 5. Link Protection (lin lt bo v).

Hnh 27 : Link protection Chng IV : ng dng v hng pht trin ca mng truy nhp quang I. ng dng ca mng truy nhp quang - Mng truy nhp quang ph hp trin khai cc dch v bng rng ( truy cp internet tc cao, hi ngh truyn hnh, IPTV/ Triple Play, truyn hnh nt cao (HDTV, SDTV ), game online, cc dch v bng rng phc v y t, gio dc,...) gia cc khi kt cui ng dy xa (ONU) v kt cui mng (OLT). - Mng truy nhp quang ng dng trong cc dch v: FTTH

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

45

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

(Fiber-to-the-home) cp quang thu bao; FTTB (Fiber-to-the-building) cp quang ti to nh; FTTC (Fiber-to-the-cabinet) cp quang ti khu dn c; VDSL (Very-hight-bit-rate digital subscriber line) thit b nh tuyn ng dy thu bao s tc rt cao. + FTTC ( Fiber to the cabinet ) : Fibre bng thng rng l mt loi mi ca bng thng rng hin ang c trin lhai Anh BT, Virgin Media v nh khai thc, trong s dng cp quang gip tng tc kt ni bng thng rng ca bn. N thng c gi l " bng thng rng siu nhanh" hoc "bng thng rng th h tip theo" v n cung cp tc nhanh hn ac c sn cho n nay s dng cc mng th h c. N c sn cho c ngi dng gia nh v kinh doanh. + FTTH ( Fiber to the home) : L cng ngh truy nhp Internet tc cao bng cp quang mi nht trn th gii: Tc truy nhp Internet cao, ln n 10 Gbps, nhanh gp 200 ln so vi ADSL 2+ Cht lng tn hiu n nh, khng b nh hng bi thi tit, chiu di cp,... An ton cho thit b ( khng s st nh lan truyn trn ng dy) Nng cp bng thng d dng m khng cn ko cp mi p ng hiu qu cho cc ng dng cng ngh thng tin hin i nh : Hosting Server , VNP (mng ring o), VoD (xem phim theo yu cu), IP camera..... - Dch v Internet FTTH GPON (Gigabits Passive Optical Network mng quang th ng), l dch v truy nhp Internet bng thng rng bng cp quang s dng cng ngh GPON cng ngh tiu chun quc t ca nh cung cp dch cung cp n khch hng. Dch v FTTH GPON h tr a dch v trn mt kt ni quang duy nht vi bng thng c th ln n 2.5 Gbps nhm p ng cc nhu cu pht sinh cc dch v vin thng khc ca khch hng trong tng lai nh: VoIP, Video on Demand, truyn s liu, MPLS.m khng b suy gim cht lng kt ni. + Li ch dch v Internet cp quang GPON Dch v FTTH GPON l dch v s dng cng ngh bng rng mi nht trn th gii m cc nh cung cp dch v ang hng ti nhm p ng xu th nhiu dch v trn mt kt ni. + Dch v FTTH GPON c th h tr a dch v trn mt ng dy duy nht vi bng thng n mi thu bao c th ln n 2.5 Gbps, p ng hon tan cc nhu cu pht sinh ca khch hng trong tng lai nh: VoIP, Video On Demand, IPTV, truyn s liu, MPLS.
Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

46

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

+ Dch v FTTH GPON khng b suy gim cht lng tn hiu theo khong cch, khong cch ti a c th ln ti 20km. + Dch v FTTH GPON c u im s dng cc thit b splitter khng cn cp ngun, c gi thnh thp v c th t bt k u, khng ph thuc v cc iu kin mi trng, khng cn phi cung cp ngun in d phng cho cc thit b gia phng my trung tm v pha ngi dng. II. Hng pht trin ca mng truy nhp quang -Tnh hnh trin khai PON ti Vit Nam: + Nm 2010 VNPT ang trin khai cng ngh GPON ti H Ni v Thnh ph H Ch Minh s dng thit b ca hng Huawei v Alcatel, d kin hai h thng ny c th cung cp c trn 140.000 thu bao FTTx. + Cui thng 1-2010 cng ty C phn H tng Vin thng CMC (CMC TI) la chn Alcatel-Lucent (Euronext Paris v NYSE: ALU) cung cp gii php mng quang th ng gigabit (Gigabit Passive Optical Network - GPON) u tin Vit Nam. Cch y 20 nm, t khi h thng thng tin cp si quang chnh thc c a vo khai thc trn mng vin thng, mi ngi u tha nhn rng phng thc truyn dn quang th hin kh nng to ln trong cng vic chuyn ti cc dch v vin thng ngy cng phong ph. V hin i ca nhn loi, cc h thng thng tin quang vi nhng u im v bng tn rng, c c li thng tin cao c sc hp dn mnh i vi cc nh khai thc. Cc h thng thng tin quang khng ch c bit ph hp vi ccas tuyn thng tin xuyn lc a, ng trc v trung k m cn c tim nng to ln trong vic thc hin cc chc nng ca mng ni ht vi cu trc linh hot v p ng mi loi hnh dch v hin ti v tng lai. Bc vo thin nin k mi, chng ta thy nhng thay i to ln trong ngnh cng nghip vin thng. N pht trin vt bc, cho ra i nhiu loi hnh dch v mi p ng nhu cu ngy cng tng cao ca ngi s dng. Hin nay, s lng ngi s dng cc dch v vin thng ngy cng tng nhanh. Xu hng pht trin ca ca vin thng l cc loi hnh mng vi dung lng cao, bng thng rng, phm vi hot ng ln v c kh nng chng nhiu, bo mt tt. lm c iu ny, mng truy nhp cn phi c s pht trin mng v c quy m v cng ngh. Mt trong nhng nhn t quan trng to nn bc pht trin t ph cho mng vin thng l truy nhp quang. H thng thng tin quang vi nhiu u im vt tri hin ang l mt loi dch v ang c s dng ph bin. N ngy cng c pht
Nhm 6 - 5TVT2 47

GVHD :L Anh Ngc

Mng truy nhp quang

trin hon thin v c th p ng c mi loi hnh dch v hin ti v tng lai. Kt lun Mng quang ra i nh du mt thnh tu ln trong cng ngh vin thng. Dung lng truyn dn ln ca n s tha mn cc nhu cu ca khch hng v nh cung cp dch v. Hin nay, mng truyn dn c bn c quang ha, mng thu bao th dng kt ni LAN tc cao, gii php si quang cho mng truy nhp s khc phc c hin tng nghn c chai bng thng. Ti liu tham kho : 1.Mng Truy nhp Hc Vin Bu Chnh Vin Thng 2.http://doan.edu.vn/do-an/do-an-tim-hieu-cac-phuong-phap-bao-ve-trong-m ang-truy-nhap-soi-quang-17481/ 3.http://luanvan.net.vn/luan-van/luan-van-mang-truy-nhap-quang-da-dich-vu -22146/
4. http://luanvan.co/luan-van/tong-quan-ve-cong-nghe-ng-sdh-35879/

Nhm 6 - 5TVT2

48