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Cxapter 9 Angular Motion ‘A. rotation 1. axis of rotation BB. general motion Measurement of Angles A. angle 1 vertex B. instantaneovs joint center C. nie of measurement 1 degree 2. revolution 3. radian i I. Types of Angles I AC relative al i 1 law of cosines i; 2 inverse cosine I B, absolute angle 1. tangent ofan angle 2. inverse tangent IM. Representation of Angular Motion Vectors ‘A. Right Hand Rule Angular Kinematics Angular Motion ‘A. angular distnce and displacement 1B. angular velocity © angular acceleration Mi Lower Extremity Joint Angles A. hip anele| B. kee angle ankle angle D. react angle Vil. Relationship Between Anguler and Linear Motion ‘A. angular and lines displacement 1 radius of rotation B mngular aed linea etocity 1 tangential velocity (©. angulat and linear acceleration 1. tangeatial acceleration 2 centripetal or radial aceleration VI. Angte-Angle Diagrams DX Angular Kinematics of Running X. Chapter Summary == Student Objectives ‘Ate reading this chapter, the student should be able to 1 Distinguish between Finest, angular, nd general Deiermin relative and absolute angles. Determine the dtection of angular motion vectors, ‘Discuss the relationship among the mglar kinematic quantities of angular distance and displacement, ang- lar velocity, and angular acceleration 5. Discuss the conventions for the caleuaton of lower extemity angles 6, Diseuss the relationship beeen angular and Tinear ‘motion, particularly the relationships between angular and linear displacement, angular an linear velocity, and angular and linear acceleration 7. Interpret angle-angleaiagrams, 8 Discuss selected research studies that have used an angular Kinematics epproach 9. Solve quantitative problems that employ angular kine ‘atc principles, Angular motion occars when all parts ofa body move ‘through the same angle but do not undergo the same linear Aisplacement. The sub-set of kinematics that deals with fanguler motion is called angidar kinematics. Angula ‘inematies is the description of angular motion without regard to the causes of the motion. Consider a bicycle ‘wheel as an example (Figure 9-1), Pick any point close co the center of the wheel and any point close tothe edge of the wheel. The point close tothe edge undergoes a greater linear displacement than the point close to the center asthe ‘wheel spins. Thus, the wheel will undergo rotation. The ‘motion ofthe whe! is called angular motion. Angular motion occurs about an axis of rotation that is fine perpendicular fo the plane in which the rotation cccurs. For example, the bicycle wheel spins about its axle which is its axis of rotation. The axle of the wheel is perpendicular to the rim of the wheel that describes the plane of rotation (Figure 9-1). ‘An understanding of angular motion is ttieal to com- pretend how one moves. Nesly all human movement Involves the rotations of body segments. The segments rotate about the joint centers that form the axes of rotation for these segments. When an individual moves, the seg- ‘ments generally undergo both rotation and translation. ‘When the combination of rotation and translation cceurs, itis described as general motion. Figure 9-2 illustrates the combination of linear and rotational motions. The gymnast undergoes translation as they move across the ‘ground, At the sare time, te gymnast i rotating Measurement of Angles ‘An angle is composed of two lines tha intersect at a point called the vertex. In a biomechasical analysis, the intersecting fines are generally body segments, If you consider the longitudinal axis ofthe leg segment as one side of an angle andthe longitudinal axis ofthe thigh seg- ‘meat as the other sie, te werlex would be the Join ce. {er of the knee. Angles can be determined from the same coordinate points as were described in Chapter 8, Coordinate points doscribing the joint centers determine the sides and the verex of the angle. For example, an angle atthe knee ean be constructed using the thigh and Jeg segments, The coordinate points describing the ankle and knee joint centers define the leg segment, while the ‘coordinate points describing the hip snd knee joint een- ters define the thigh segment. The vertex ofthe angle is, the knee joint center, 88 Spoke poston " y ‘Spoke postion ta “ ‘axis of rotation FIGURE 81. A byl heal ean example ot lation Inton Povo Band Consign aout at fran gu ung doen near alacant thc thaopong te paws. ‘The definition ofa segment by placing markers onthe subject atthe joint centers makes a technically incorrect (| sstimption. This incomect assumption is that the joint Mechanica! Analysis of Human Motion center at the vertex of the angle does not change through> fut the movement. Because of the asymmetries in the shape of the articulating surfaces in most joints, one ot both bones constituting the joint may displace relative to cach otner. For example, while the knee is often consid- ered a hinge join itis not. tthe knee joint, the medial and latzral femoral condyles are asymestic, causing the {ibiato rotate along its long axis and about an exis through the knee fom front to back as the nee flexes and extends. ‘The location of the joint center, therefore, changes throughout any motion ofthe knee. The center of rotation of joint at an instant in time is called the instantaneous Joint center (Figure 93) tis difficult to locate this mov- ing axis of rotation unless special techniques such asx-ay ‘meusurements are used. These measurements are not practical in most situations; thus, the assumption of a sta tic instantaneous joint center must be made. Units of Measurement In angular motion, there are three units used to mes sure angles. It is important to use the correct units in ‘order for biomechanisis to communicate the results of their work clearly, and to compare values from study 10 study. Ibis also essential to use the correct units because angle measurements may be used in further calculations. The frst and most commonly used isthe degree (*). A circle, describing one complete rotation, ranseribes an arc of 360" (Figure 9-4a). An angle of 90°, for example, FIGURE 9:2. A gymnast completing a cartwheel as an example of general motion i “The gymnasi simultaneously undergoes both translation and rotaion,