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GiI THIU H THNG NH V TON CU

GPS
GPS l g ?

G
Global
(Ton cu)

P
Positioning
(nh v)

S
System
(H thng)

H THNG NH V TAN CU

1. Khi qut v H thng nh v ton cu


H thng nh v tan cu ( GPS ) do B Quc phng M pht trin v iu hnh. H thng gm 3 phn :

GPS

Phn v tr ( Space segment ) Phn iu khin ( Control Segment ) Phn s dng ( Use Segment )

Phn v tr :
Gm 24 v tinh quay xung quanh tri t hai ln trong ngy trong qu o rt chnh xc. cao v tinh so vi mt t l 20.183 km, chu k quay quanh tri t l 11 gi 5758.

Phn v tr s bo m cho bt k v tr no trn qu t u c th quan st c 4 v tinh gc trn 15 ( nu gc ngng 10 th c th quan st c 10 v tinh v gc ngng 5 c th quan st c 12 v tinh.

Nhim v ch yu ca cc v tinh.

GPS
Ghi nhn v lu tr cc thng tin c truyn i t phn iu khin. X l d liu c chn lc trn v tinh. Duy tr chnh xc cao ca thi gian bng cc ng h nguyn t. Chuyn tip thng tin n ngi s dng. Thay i qu o bay ca v tinh theo s iu khin t mt t.

Phn iu khin
Gm mt trm iu khin chnh. 5 trm thu s liu. 3 trm truyn s liu. Trm u khin chnh t ti Colorade Springs (M) c nhim v thu thp cc d liu theo di v tinh t cc trm thu s liu x l. Cng ngh x l gm : Tnh lch thin vn, tnh v hiu chnh ng h, hiu chnh qu o iu khin, thay th cc v tinh ngng hat ng bng cc v tinh d phng. 5 trm thu s liu c t ti Hawai , Colorade Springs , Ascension (Nam i Ty Dng) , Diago Garia (n Dng) , Kwayalein (Nam Thi Bnh Dng). C nhim v theo di cc tn hiu v tinh kim sat v d an qu o ca chng. Mi trm c trang b nhng my thu P-code thu cc tn hiu ca v tinh, sau truyn v trm iu khin chnh. 3 trm truyn s liu t ti Ascension , Diago Garia , Kwayalein c kh nng chuyn s liu ln v tinh gm lch thin vn mi, hiu chnh ng h, cc thng ip cn pht, cc lnh iu khin t xa.

Phn s dng

GPS

Phn s dng gm :
- Nhng my thu tn hiu GPS c anten ring ( my nh v ). - Cc thit b t ghi ( b ghi s liu ). - My tnh ( phn mm x l s liu ).
My thu GPS tnh tan n v vi tn sut mi giy mt v tr v cho chnh xc t di 1m 5m. Khi ta di chuyn hay dng ti ch , my thu GPS nhn tn hiu t v tinh ri tnh tan nh v. Kt qu tnh c l ta hin th trn mn hnh b ghi s liu. B ghi s liu l my cm tay, c phn mm thu thp s liu. B ghi s liu c th ghi v tr hoc gn thng tin thuc tnh vi v tr. My tnh, phn mm x l s liu : H thng GPS c km theo phn mm x l s liu. Sau khi thu thp s liu thc a, phn mm chuyn s liu v tr v thng tin thuc tnh sang my tnh (PC), sau phn mm s nng cao chnh xc (bng k thut phn sai). Phn mm x l s liu GPS cn c chc nng bin tp hoc v. Phn mm ny cng h tr thu thp cc yu t a l v thng tin thuc tnh cho GPS hoc cc c s d liu khc.

2. Mt s lai my nh v ang c s dng ph bin trong ngnh lm nghip :


GPS 12XL GPS II Plus GPS III Plus

GPS III PlusI

GPS II Plus

GPS 12XL

GPS V GPSMAP 76S GPSMAP 60CS

GPS V

GPS Map 76S

GPS 60CS

3. ng dng ca GPS.

GPS
Ngy nay h thng nh v tan cu c ng dng rng ri
trong nhiu lnh vc nh giao thng vn ti ( lp bn giao

thng..), thy li ( ng ng nc, ng nc thi, knh


mng nc..), xy dng , in, vin thng (ng dy in thai..), nng lm nghip, iu tra ti nguyn, bo v mi trng... c bit l trong cc lnh vc o c bn .

GPS v RS (Remote Sensing) ang phc v c lc cho cng ngh GIS.