Está en la página 1de 67

HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG C S TI THNH PH H CH MINH

KHOA VIN THNG II


_____________

N TT NGHIP I HC
CHUYN NGNH: IN T - VIN THNG H CHNH QUY NIN KHA: 2007-2012

ti:

T K MANG FTTH THEO PHN TI CH THI CNG NGH GPON


12407160163

M s ti:

Sinh vin thc hin: MSSV: Lp: Gio vin hng dn:

HUYNH VN TU 407160163 07VA3 Th.S VN VIT EM

01/2012 TP.HCM 2012

HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG C S TI THNH PH H CH MINH

KHOA VIN THNG II


_____________

N TT NGHIP I HC
CHUYN NGNH: IN T - VIN THNG H CHNH QUY NIN KHA: 2007-2012
ti:

T K MANG FTTH THEO CNG PHN TI CH THI NGH GPON


M s ti: NI DUNG
Chng I: TNG QUAN MNG TRUY NHP FTTH. Chng II: TM HIU CNG NGH PON. Chng III: BI TON THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH GPON. I TOA N THIT K Chng IV: PHN TICH KT QUA BA

12407160163

Sinh vin thc hin: MSSV: Lp: Gio vin hng dn:

HUYNH VN TU 407160163 07VA3 Th.S VN VIT EM

01/2012 TP.HCM 2012

MUC LUC
MUC LUC ............................................................................................................................. MUC LUC HNH .................................................................................................................. MUC LUC BNG ................................................................................................................. LI M U ..................................................................................................................... 1 CHNG I: TNG QUAN V MNG TRUY NHP FTTH ........................................ 4 1.1. FTTH, AON, PON ...................................................................................................... 4 1.1.1 Cng ngh AON ............................................................................................ 4 1.2. So snh gia AON v PON ........................................................................................ 9 CHNG II: TM HIU CNG NGH PON................................................................. 11 2.1. BPON chun ITU-G.983 .......................................................................................... 11 2.1.1. 2.1.2. Kin trc cc lp .......................................................................................... 11 nh dng khung truyn dn ....................................................................... 13 2.1.2.1. 2.1.2.2. 2.1.2.3. 2.1.3. 2.1.4. Khung ATM ............................................................................... 14 Khung hng xung ................................................................... 15 Khung hng ln ........................................................................ 16

Bo mt trong BPON ................................................................................... 17 Chuyn mch bo v trong BPON .............................................................. 18 Kin trc cc lp trong EPON ..................................................................... 19 2.2.1.1. 2.2.1.2. 2.2.1.3. Lp vt l ................................................................................... 20 Giao din mi trng Gigabit c lp ....................................... 22 Lp lin kt d liu .................................................................... 22

2.2. EPON chun IEEE-802.3ah...................................................................................... 19 2.2.1.

2.2.2. 2.2.3.

Cu trc khung truyn dn ca EPON......................................................... 23 Giao thc iu khin a im (MPMC) trong EPON ................................. 24 Kin trc cc lp trong GPON .................................................................... 26 2.3.1.1. 2.3.1.2. GPON Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) Layer ................... 28 GPON Transmission Convergence (GTC) Layer ...................... 29 Cu trc khung hng xung ..................................................... 30 Cu trc khung hng ln .......................................................... 32

2.3. GPON chun ITU-G.984 .......................................................................................... 26 2.3.1.

2.3.2.

nh dng khung truyn dn trong GPON .................................................. 30 2.3.2.1. 2.3.2.2.

2.3.2.3. 2.3.3.

Phn tch mo u ca GEM ...................................................... 34

Phn b bng tn ng (DBA) trong GPON ............................................... 35

CHNG III: BI TON THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH GPON ........ 36 3.1. Tnh kh nng phc v ca mt OLT ....................................................................... 36 3.2. Tnh ton tnh kh thi v m hnh khuyn ngh vi b khuch i .......................... 39 I TOA N THIT K .................................... 45 CHNG IV: PHN TICH KT QUA BA 4.1. Phn tich bai toan Tinh kha nng phu c vu cua OLT ............................................. 45 4.2. Phn tic h bai toan Tin h kha thi va m hin h khuy n nghi ..................................... 50 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 Phn tich 1: Anh hng cua ti l chia ......................................................... 51 Phn tich 2: Anh hng cua khoang cach t OLT n ONT ...................... 54 Phn tich 3: S anh hng cua cng su t phat ln m hinh tri n khai ...... 55 Phn tich 4: Trng hp c n chu y khi thi t k .......................................... 56

KT LUN ....................................................................................................................... 58 T VIT TT ....................................................................................................................... TI LIU THAM KHO .....................................................................................................

MUC LUC HINH


Hnh 1.1: Cu trc AON ...................................................................................................... 5 Hnh 1.2: Cu trc AON Ethernet ....................................................................................... 5 Hnh 1.3: Cu trc mng FTTH da trn cng ngh PON .................................................. 6 Hnh 1.4: Nguyn l thu/pht ONT ...................................................................................... 8 Hnh 1.5 Cc kiu kin trc ca PON ................................................................................ 8 Hnh 1.6: Vng ODN .......................................................................................................... 9 Hnh 2.1 Kin trc cc lp trong BPON ........................................................................... 12 Hnh 2.2: C u truc khung ATM ......................................................................................... 14 Hnh 2.3: C u truc khung hng xu ng cua BPON .......................................................... 15 Hnh 2.4: inh da ng cell PLOAM hng ln ................................................................... 17 Hnh 2.5: M hin h chuy n ma ch bao v trong PON ......................................................... 19 Hnh 2.6: Ki n truc cac lp trong EPON ........................................................................... 20 Hnh 2.7: C u truc khung truy n dn cua EPON .............................................................. 23 Hnh 2.8: Bn tin GATE hng xung .............................................................................. 25 Hnh 2.9: Bn tin REPORT hng ln .............................................................................. 26 Hnh 2.10: Ki n truc cac lp trong GPON ........................................................................ 27 Hnh 2.11 : Phn lp ong khung GTC ............................................................................. 29 Hnh 2.12: C u truc khung hng xu ng .......................................................................... 30 Hnh 2.13: C u truc khung GTC hng ln ...................................................................... 33 Hnh 2.14: Cu trc khung v mo u ca khung GEM ................................................. 34 Hnh 3.1: S phn b OLT ................................................................................................ 38 Hnh 3.2: M hin h ki n truc 2 t ng splitter ....................................................................... 40 Hnh 3.3: Lin k t v t li t OLT n ONT ........................................................................ 41 Hnh 3.4: Cc vng suy hao ca si quang ....................................................................... 42 Hnh 3.5: B khu ch a i SAO 11b ..................................................................................... 44 Hnh 4.1: P-OLT 7432 ....................................................................................................... 46 Hnh 4.2: M hin h 2 .......................................................................................................... 52 Hnh 4.3: M hinh kha thi ................................................................................................. 53 Hnh 4.4: M hin h 3 .......................................................................................................... 55

MUC LUC BNG


Bng 2.1: Cc m PTI ....................................................................................................... 34 Bng 3.1: Ti l chia v cc mc tc in hnh ............................................................. 37 Bng 3.2: Thng s cac loa i connecter .............................................................................. 41 Bng 3.3: Tiu chu n ITU -T G.652 v suy hao s i quang ................................................ 42 Bng 3.4: Thng s splitter PLC ....................................................................................... 43 Bng 3.5: Vng bc song khuch i ca OFA .............................................................. 44 Bng 4.1: Bng suy hao ca splitter .................................................................................. 50 Bng 4.2: Thng s khuy n nghi cua ONT va OLT ......................................................... 51

LI M U
Ti Vit Nam, nhu cu s dng dch v Vin thng ngy cng cao do mc sng c nng ln ng thi cng vic v nhu cu gii tr ngy cng i hi cht lng cc dch v phi khng ngng c tng ln. Chng ta co th ly s gia tng nhu cu v Internet ra lm mt v d. Theo Bo co Netcitizens Vit Nam nm 2011 ca Cimigo, xt v tc tng trng, Vit Nam l quc gia co t l tng trng Internet nhanh nht trong khu vc v nm trong s cc quc gia co t l tng trng cao nht trn th gii. T nm 2000, s lng ngi s dng Internet nhn ln 120 ln. Cch y 10 nm, t l s dng Internet ca Vit Nam nm cch xa hu ht cc nc Chu khc. Chnh v nhng nhu cu khng ngng tng ln cng vi yu cu v cht lng t ra cho Vin thng bi ton tng tc truyn dn. Ngy nay ngi ta quen vi mt cng ngh xut hin t 10 nm trc Vit Nam l ADSL(Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line ng dy thu bao s bt i xng). ADSL ra i tr thnh mt im nhn trong tc truyn dn ti Vit Nam. Tuy nhin, hin nay vi yu cu bng thng ngy cng cao th ADSL hu nh ui sc. Ti Vit Nam, n "a Vit Nam sm tr thnh nc mnh v cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng" ca Th tng Chnh ph ti Quyt nh s 1755/Q-TTg ngy 22/09/2010 chi ra nh hng, tm nhn cho s pht trin ngnh bng rng ti Vit Nam n nm 2015 l: C bn hon thnh mng bng rng n cc x, phng trn c nc, kt ni Internet n tt c cc trng hc, ti l ngi dn s dng Internet t trn 50%. V vy, Trong nm 2010, ngi ta noi nhiu ti vic bng rng di ng m c th l 3G ln ngi s khin cho ADSL phi suy thoi. Nhng theo nhiu chuyn gia, y li khng phi l iu ng lo ngi nht, m i th s nh hng trc tip ti nng lc pht trin ca ADSL trong nm 2011 v cc nm ti li l FTTx (cng ngh truyn dn cp quang) v FTTH (Internet cp quang chun). Theo Bo co vin thngVit Nam, trong nm 2009 trn th gii co 39,4 triu h gia nh s dng FTTH, con s ny tng ln 51,4 triu h trong nm 2010 v d kin s t gn 90 triu h gia nh s dng cp quang vo nm 2012. D on, FTTH s l ngnh kinh doanh ct li ca cc nh cung cp dch v Internet.[8] Tuy nhin, FTTH vn cn kho khn khi gi cc t hn ADSL nn vic trin khai ti Vit Nam vn cn nhiu kho khn nht nh. FTTH l mt trong nhng cng ngh ca FTTx. FTTx l cng ngh mng truy nhp s dng ng truyn bng cp quang, cho tc upload v download cao hn v n nh hn ADSL. FTTx co cc dng: FTTN (Fiber To The Node); FTTC (Fiber To The Curb); FTTB (Fiber To The Building); FTTH (Fiber To The Home), c hiu ln
SVTH: HUNH VN TU LP: 07VTA3 Trang 1

lt l: Cp quang ti giao im; Cp quang ti t thit b; Cp quang ti ta nh; Cp quang ti tn nh. FTTx co th l mng truyn dn quang th ng PON (Passive Optical Network), trong o tt c cc thnh phn quang ch ng (active) gia tng i CO (Central Office) v ngi s dng s khng cn tn ti m thay vo o l cc thit b quang th ng (passive), iu hng lu lng trn mng da trn vic phn tch nng lng ca cc bc song quang hc ti cc im u cui trn ng truyn. Mc khc, FTTx cng co th l mng truyn dn quang ch ng AON (Active Optical Network). Trong 4 dng FTTx, th FTTH l hon chinh nht v cng ngh, tiu chun quc t v ti u tin ch cho ngi dng. Trong FTTH gm co EPON (Ethernet PON), BPON (Broadband PON) v GPON (Gigabit PON). Xt trn phng din tc truyn dn th EPON co tc 1Gbps cho c 2 hng (IEEE 802.3 (802.3ah)), BPON co tc 155,52 Mbps cho hng ln, 155,52 hoc 622,08Mbps cho hng xung (ITU-T G.983). GPON co tc cao nht ln ti 2,488 Gbps cho c 2 hng (ITU-T G.984).

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 2

T K MANG V vy em chn ti lm n tt nghip lPHN TI CH THI FTTH THEO CNG NGH GPON nhm lm r cc vn chnh sau: Nu ro c nhng u i m cua PON ng thi lam ro cac chu n cng ngh c dng trong PON nh BPON , EPON va GPON v t c truy n dn , c u truc khung truy n va cac v n c c p trong cac chu n c ITU -T va IEEE a ra . a ra hai bai toan thi t k thc t da trn cng ngh GPON va phn tich k t qua ca hai bi ton y nhm lm r nhng vn nht nh trong vic chn GPON lm cng ngh truy n dn , cung c p dich vu cho khach hang . Vi cc ni dung chnh nh trn, hon thnh mc tiu, bi bo co c phn lm cc chng vi cc mc c th nh sau: Chng I: TNG QUAN MNG TRUY NHP FTTH Chng II:TIM HIU CNG NGH PON Chng III:BI TON THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH GPON T QUA BA I TOA T K N THI Chng IV:PHN TI CH K

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 3

CHNG I: TNG QUAN V MNG TRUY NHP FTTH

CHNG I: TNG QUAN V MNG TRUY NHP FTTH


1.1. FTTH, AON, PON Nh noi trn,mng FTTH l mng truy nhp cp quang. Trong o co hai phng n trin khai FTTH l PON v AON. Mi phng n u co u, nhc im ring. Mt nhc im rt ln ca mng quang tch cc AON chnh l thit b chuyn mch. Vi cng ngh hin ti, thit b chuyn mch bt buc phi chuyn tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in phn tch thng tin ri tip tc chuyn ngc li truyn i. iu ny s lm gim tc truyn dn ti a co th trong h thng FTTH. Nu xt v chi ph bo dng thit b th PON li th hn hn khi cc thit b ch ng trong AON c thay bng cc thit b th ng. ng thi, AON co nhiu u im nh: tm ko dy xa (ln n 70km m khng cn b lp (repeater)), tnh bo mt cao (do vic can thip nghe ln (eavesdropping) trn ng truyn gn nh l khng th), d dng nng cp bng thng thu bao khi cn, d xc nh li. Tuy nhin, cng ngh AON cng co khuyt im l chi ph cao do: vic vn hnh cc thit b trn ng truyn u cn ngun cung cp, mi thu bao l mt si quang ring, cn nhiu khng gian cha cp. Trong khi o, vi PON ng truyn chnh s i t thit b trung tm OLT (Optical Line Termination) qua mt thit b chia tn hiu (Splitter) v t thit b ny mi ko n nhiu ngi dng (co th chia t 32 64 thu bao). Splitter khng cn ngun cung cp, co th t bt k u nn nu trin khai cho nhiu thu bao th chi ph gim ng k so vi AON. Do Splitter khng cn ngun nn h thng cng tit kim in hn v khng gian cha cp cng t hn so vi AON. Tuy nhin, PON cng co nhiu khuyt im nh kho nng cp bng thng khi thu bao yu cu (do kin trc im n nhiu im s nh hng n nhng thu bao khc trong trng hp dng ht bng thng), kho xc nh li hn do mt si quang chung cho nhiu ngi dng, tnh bo mt cng khng cao bng AON (co th b nghe ln nu khng m hoa d liu). 1.1.1 Cng nghAON

AON co cu trc point to point (im - im), trong o kt ni gia khch hng v CO thng qua thit b u cui ONT l mt kt ni trc tip trn mt si quang. Nhng yu cu kt ni t pha khch hng thng qua s nh tuyn ca cc router, switch, multiplexer ti CO s i ra mng dch v bn ngoi. AON s dng bc song 1550nm truyn tn hiu hng xung (t CO n pha khch hng) v 1310nm truyn tn hiu cho hng ln (t pha khch hng n CO). Mt cu trc ca AON n gin c th hin trong Hnh 1.1.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 4

CHNG I: TNG QUAN V MNG TRUY NHP FTTH


1550 nm Central office 1310 nm ONT

ONT

OLT

ONT

Hnh 1.1: Cu trc AON Mt nhc im rt ln ca mng quang ch ng chnh l thit b chuyn mch. Vi cng ngh hin ti, thit b chuyn mch bt buc phi chuyn tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in phn tch thng tin ri tip tc chuyn ngc li truyn i, iu ny s lm gim tc truyn dn ti a co th trong h thng FTTX. Ngoi ra do y l nhng chuyn mch co tc cao nn cc thit b ny co chi ph u t ln, khng ph hp vi vic trin khai i tr cho mng truy cp. Vic cng lc x l cc yu cu truy nhp hng ln ca ngi dng ra mng dch v bn ngoi cng nh vic phn tch chuyn lung d liu t cc dch v n ngi dng co th gy qu ti trong x l hoc xung t ti OLT ca CO. trnh xung t tn hiu on phn chia t nh cung cp ti ngi dng, cn phi s dng mt thit b in co tnh cht m cho qu trnh ny. T nm 2007, mt loi mng cp quang ph bin ny sinh l Ethernet tch cc (Active Ethernet). o chnh l bc i u tin cho s pht trin ca chun 802.3ah nm trong h thng chun 802.3 c gi l Ethernet in First Mile (EFM). Mng Ethernet tch cc ny s dng chuyn mch Ethernet quang phn phi tn hiu cho ngi s dng. Nh o, c pha nh cung cp v khch hng tham gia vo mt kin trc mng chuyn mch Ethernet. Cc Ethernet Switch s gip gim xung t do x l tn hiu ti CO, no cn cp ngun hot ng. Vic chuyn mch ti y da trn lp 2 v lp 3 ca cu trc khung Ethernet. Mng AON nh va noi co th c miu t trong Hnh 1.2.
Central Office
Switch quang OLT ONT ONT

ONT

Hnh 1.2: Cu trc AON Ethernet

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 5

CHNG I: TNG QUAN V MNG TRUY NHP FTTH

1.1.2

Cng nghPON

PON Passive Optical Network, hay cn c gi l mng quang th ng, mt trong nhng cng ngh c s dng trong FTTH. Nh noi trn,trong PON tt c cc thnh phn quang ch ng (active) gia tng i CO (Central Office) v ngi s dng s khng cn tn ti m thay vo o l cc thit b quang th ng (passive), iu hng lu lng trn mng da trn vic phn tch nng lng ca cc bc song quang hc ti cc im u cui trn ng truyn. PON l cng ngh truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian (TDMA), cc user vi yu cu truy nhp ca mnh c phn bit bng cc khe thi gian. Cu trc mt mng truy nhp FTTH da trn cng ngh PON co th c trnh by trong Hnh 1.3.
SBC management systems
VGW EMS FTTH EMS PON

SFU ONT SFU ONT

IP Transport Network

OLT system

Video coupler

ATM network

Splitter 1:N

SBU ONT

PSTN/ TDM network

VGW

MTU ONT MDU ONT

Video/ audionetwork

V-OLT

Hnh 1.3: Cu trc mng FTTH da trn cng ngh PON

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 6

CHNG I: TNG QUAN V MNG TRUY NHP FTTH

Cc thnh phn trong mng FTTH trn cng ngh PON gm co: OLT (Optical Line Termination) t trung tm chuyn mch (CO Central Office) co nhim v giao tip vi cc mng dch v v kt ni cc yu cu truy nhp ca ngi dng ra cc mng ny. Co hai chc nng chnh: truyn d liu t mng dch v v phn phi cho user. ng thi s ghp knh cc d liu user trc khi gi ra cc mng dch v. Dung lng m 1 ONT co th phc v c da trn s card hng xung ca mi ONT. Nu mi ONT co X card, mi card co Y port, v ti l Splitter l 1:N th s thu bao (s kt ni gia ONT v OLT) c tnh: S thu bao = X x Y x N V d: P-OLT 7432 ca hng Alcatel co 14 card hng xung, mi card co 4 port, ti l Splitter l 1:64 th s ONT co th phc v ln n: 14 x 4 x 64=3584 ONT ONT (Optical Network Termination) t cui ng dy, trc thit b ngi dng ong vai tr nh ngi thng dch cho cc d liu cng nh cc cc yu cu truy nhp t pha ngi dng chuyn ln. Gm co cc loi: - SFU ONT: l thit b t bn ngoi nh thu bao, dng cho cc h gia nh nh. Co hai giao tip chnh l giao tip POTS cho in thoi v giao tip 10/100 bT Ethernet. - MDU ONT: phc v cho khu dn c, cc ta nh, chung c vi nhiu yu cu v dch v. No s cung cp nhiu giao tip hn 1 SFU ONT v h tr giao tip dch v nhiu hn. - B-ONT: cc ONT loi B thng c cung cp cho cc doanh nghip hoc mt cm cc doanh nghip loi nh. No co kh nng giao tip dch v triple play (voice, data, video). Nu nhn trn phng din vt l, ONT co nhim v chuyn i quang-in tn hiu t nh cung cp dch v xung khch hng v ngc li. Tuy nhin, bc song hng ln v hng xung khc nhau m tn hiu chi c truyn trn m t si quang duy nht nn ti ONT, xen gia qu trnh chuyn i quang in s co qu trnh tch/ghp bc song m c th l bc song 1310 nm v 1490 nm. Qu trnh y co th c din gii trong Hnh 1.4.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 7

CHNG I: TNG QUAN V MNG TRUY NHP FTTH


B pht 1310 nm

Diplexer Optical block

B nhn

1490 nm

Hnh 1.4: Nguyn l thu/pht ONT VGW (Voice Gateway): giao tip gia PON ti mng PSTN/TDM. V-ONT (the Voice ONT): nhn v khuch i/ khi phc tn hiu video t mng Video/Audio. EMS (The Element Management Systems): giao tip t cc mng khc n mng li SBC. ODN (Optical Distribution Network): mng phn phi quang, l tp hp nhiu splitter c sp xp theo kiuCy, Bus, Ringty theo mc ch phc v ca nh cung cp dch v. (Hnh 1.5) Kin trc thng c s dng hin nay l cu trc hnh cy, nh Hnh 1.6.

(a) Kin trc hnh cy (s dng b 1:N)

(c) Kin trc vng ring (s dng b ghp 2x2)

(b) Kin trc bus (s dng b ghp 1:2)

(d) Kin trc hnh cy vi mt trung k tha (s dng b chia 2:N)

Hnh 1.5 Cc kiu kin trc ca PON

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 8

CHNG I: TNG QUAN V MNG TRUY NHP FTTH


1310 nm
Splitter 1:16

n 16 ONT ONT
Splitter 1:16

1490 nm

Splitter 1:4 Splitter 1:16

OLT
Splitter 1:16

ti a 20 Km

Hnh 1.6: Vng ODN Vi AON nh noi trn, chiu di ca on ny co th ln ti 70 Km. Tuy nhin vi FTTH da trn cng ngh PON noi chung, khong cch ny h tr ti a 20 Km. Trong vng ODN, hai thnh phn kt ni quan trng nht d nhin l si quang v Spliter. Splitter: co th hiu y l thnh phn quan trng trong mng quang th ng gip gim thiu s lng si quang s dng trong truyn dn. Mt si quang t CO s ni ti splitter v u ra cung cp cho nhiu kt ni. Co nhiu t l chia cho splitter nh 1:2; 1:4; 1:16; 1:32; 1:64. Tuy nhin trong mng PON hai t l thng c s dng l 1:32 v 1:64. 1.2. So snh gia AON v PON Trong phn ny, s phn tch nhng c im gia PON v AON da vo nhng cc tiu ch: tc h tr ti a, khong cch truyn dn, vn gia s lng si quang s dng vi s thu bao, vn vn hnh bo dng, vn bo mt, vn cung cp bng thng t o rt ra kt lun v sao PON li c la chn trin khai mnh m hn AON. Xt v khong cch truyn dn v tc h tr ti a V khong cch: AON co th h tr chiu di ti a 70 km v PON h tr ti a 20 km t OLT n ONT. Tuy nhin, nu xt trn phm vi phc v cho mt vng dn c nh mt thnh ph, th m t OLT pha nh cung cp dch v hon ton co th chn la a im ph hp vi cng ngh PON. Mt khc, mt nh cung cp dch v thng trin khai nhiu CO nhm ph rng mt vng phc v v nhm mc ch d phng nn vi khong cch m PON h tr hon ton co th trin khai tt trn thc t.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 9

CHNG I: TNG QUAN V MNG TRUY NHP FTTH

V tc h tr ti a: hin nay AON h tr ti a t 100 Mbps-1 Gbps cho mi thu bao hng xung, trong khi PON vi chun GPON co th h tr ln n 2,488 Gbps cho c 2 hng ln v hng xung (nu khng dng splitter, trin khai theo m hnh point to point). Xt v s lng si quang s dng vi s thu bao phc v V s lng si quang s dng, co th thy mt iu r rng rng s si quang c s dng trong AON nhiu hn s si quang s dng trong PON nu xt v chiu di vi cng s thu bao. Vn bo dng Cc thit b nh Acess Node trong AON cn cp ngun v s lng si quang nhiu nn AON cn khng gian cha cp ln nu nh trin khai. Trong khi o vi PON, mt si quang t CO s c chia s vi cc thu bao qua mt thit b th ng (khng cn cp ngun) l Splitter. Vn tng bng thng cho thu bao i vi AON vic tng bng thng cho mt thu bao nu co yu cu th n gin hn PON rt nhiu. Bi v, vi AON, vic tng bng thng ca mt thu bao khng nh hng n bng thng ti a ca cc thu bao khc, nhng vi PON, nu bng thng ca mt thu bao tng ln, ng ngha rng bng thng ti a cho cc thu bao khc s gim xung.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 10

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON


Nu xt v phng thc truy cp trong PON th PON gm co hai loi chnh: truy cp phn chia theo thi gian (TDM/TDMA-PON) v truy cp phn chia theo bc song (WDM/WDMA-PON). Trong bi bo co n Tt nghip ny, cng ngh truy cp PON c phn tch l TDM/TDMA PON vi cc cng ngh APON/BPON (ATM PON/Broadband PON, GPON(Gigabit PON) v EPON(Ethernet PON). 2.1. BPON chun ITU-G.983 Cn c gi l APON (ATM PON). BPON s dng phng php truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian cho cc user, v s dng cell ATM trong truyn dn. Khong cch truyn dn t cc OLT n cc ONT l t 10 20 km. BPON s dng bc song 1310 nm cho hng ln v 1490 nm cho hng xung. Ring bc 1550 nm c dng cho lung video hng xung. Theo khuyn ngh G 983.1 nm 1988 quy nh tc download cho BPON l 622,08 Mb/s v upload l 155,52 Mb/s. G 983.1 thng 05/2005 qui nh thm tc 1244,16 Mb/s cho hng download. ng thi quy nh r s dng hai si quang cho mt kt ni, tuy nhin v bc song s dng hng xung v hng ln khng ging nhau nn trn thc t co th dng chung mt si quang. Co ba loi thit k cho ODN (mng phn phi quang) gia OLT v cc ONT ph thuc vo suy hao ca ODN. - Loi A: 5 20 dB - Loi B: 10 25 dB - Loi C: 15 30 dB 2.1.1. Kin trc cc lp

BPON gm co hai lp chnh: lp vt l (Physical Medium Layer) v lp hi t truyn dn (Transmission Convergence Layer). Trong lp hi t truyn dn chia lm hai lp con: lp con thch nghi (Adaptation) v lp con truyn dn PON (PON Transmission).

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 11

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON


BPON OSI
Application Presentation

Path layer
Transmission convergence layer

Adaptation
PON transmission

Session Transport Network Data Link

Physical medium layer

Physical

Hnh 2.1 Kin trc cc lp trong BPON Lp vt l: Chnh l ODN, kt ni vt l gia OLT v cc ONT. Lm nhim v chuyn i quang - in, iu ch, gii iu ch cc bc song 1310 nm, 1490 nm v 1550 nm truyn i trn mi trng vt l. ng b gia truyn v nhn chui tn hiu trn c s ng b gia u thu v u pht. Cc qui nh cho lp vt l: - Khong cch gia OLT v ONU ti a l 20km. - Bc song 1260 - 1360 nm cho hng ln, 1480 - 1580 nm cho hng xung. - Tc bit: 155,52 hoc 622,08 Mb/s cho hng xung v 155,52 Mb/s cho hng ln. - Dng lu lng: song hng cho tn hiu s v chi duy nht hng xung cho tn hiu analog dng truyn video. - T l splitter: h tr n 1:32, gii hn bi suy hao ca ODN. Lp hi t truyn dn (Transmission Convergence Layer - TC): Co bn chc nng chnh l phn nh t bo, to chui xc thc kim sot li header, tch tc t bo v to thch ng cho khung truyn dn. TC gm co hai lp con: Lp con thch nghi (Adaptation) l lp ph thuc mi trng truyn dn, ong vai tr chc nng trung gian gia lp vt l v lp cao hn. No s chun b mt cell ATM truyn trong ba bc. u tin a cc mu ng b ti trng payload. Tip theo, thm vo trng SN (Sequence Number) v SNP (Sequence Number Protection) nhm cho u thu bit nhn c cell ng th t hay khng. Cui cng thm vo cc byte gi sao cho vng Payload 48 byte v mt cell ATM lun c nh 48 byte Payload v 5 byte Header.
SVTH: HUNH VN TU LP: 07VTA3 Trang 12

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

Lp con truyn dn PON (PON Transmission) chu trch nhim ng b bit, ng b byte. i vi hng truyn, thc hin ghp header v sau o chuyn khung truyn dn xung lp vt l. i vi hng nhn, thc hin tch header, sau o chuyn dng cell ATM ln lp cao hn x l. Lp tuyn (Path layer) BPON da trn ATM l mt kt ni co hng, ng ngha rng phi co mt knh o trong qu trnh truyn d liu. Lp tuyn s quy nh r iu ny bng hai thng s trong mt khung ATM l VPI (Vitual Path Identifier) v VCI (Vitual Curcuit Identifier). Cc cell ATM s c chuyn mch da trn hai thng s trn. 2.1.2. nh dng khung truyn dn

Ty theo tc truyn dn m mt khung BPON cng co cu trc khc nhau. Tuy nhin chiu di mi khung u l 125 s. i vi tc 155,52 Mb/s s co 56 cell trong mt khung (gm co 53 cell ATM v 2 cell PLOAM - Physical Layer Operation, Administration and Maintenance). i vi tc 622,08 Mb/s (gp 4 ln) th s cell trong mt khung s tng ln 4 ln l 224 cell (gm 216 cell ATM v 8 cell PLOAM). Vi khuyn ngh G 983.1 thng 05/2005 co khuyn ngh thm mt tc truyn dn hng xung l 1244,16 Mb/s (8 x 155,52 Mb/s) th s lng cell s l 448 cell (co 432 cell ATM v 16 cell PLOAM). Cell PLOAM ong vai tr ht sc quan trng trong hot ng truyn dn ca BPON. khung hng xng, trong trng hp vic gn bng thng ng (DBA) c thit lp cell PLOAM qui nh cc Grant cho php cc ONT gi mt hay nhiu cell k tip n cc TCON. cc khung hng ln, PLOAM cha cc thng tin do cc ONT gi cho cc OLT v trng thi hng i, h tr cc OLT trong vic gn bng thng ng. Co hai vn gy nn s khc bit gia khung hng xung v khung hng ln: i vi khung hng xung, chnh v co n ba tc (155,52;622,08;1244,16 Mb/s) nn s lng cell ATM cng nh cell PLOAM trong mt khung thi gian cng khc nhau nh noi trn. Nhng i vi hng ln, cn ch n y l cu trc mt cell PLOAM hng ln th khc cu trc mt cell PLOAM hng xung.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 13

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

2.1.2.1.

Khung ATM

D liu c truyn dn trong BPON c ong vo cc khung ATM. V th cn hiu r cell ATM trc khi noi n khung truyn dn trong BPON.
GFC VPI VPI
VPI

Header (5 bytes) 53 by tes Payload (48 bytes) 8 bits ATM cell

VPI
VPI

I VCI
VPI

VCI
VPI

PT I HEC

CLP

PT I HEC

CLP

Payload (48 bytes)

Payload (48 bytes)

ATM UNI cell

ATM NNI cell

Hnh 2.2: C u truc khung ATM Cell ATM co cu trc nh hnh trn, gm co 48 Byte phn Payload cha d liu v 5 Byte header dng chuyn mch cc khung ATM. Co hai loi cell ATM l ATM UNI (cell do thit b u cui gi ln node chuyn mch) v ATM NNI (cell gia hai node chuyn mch), cell ATM NNI khng co trng GFC. Trong Header ca ATM co nhng thnh phn sau: GFC (Generic Flow Control):Cung cp chc nng mang tnh cht ni b khi co nhiu thit b (thng l thit b u cui) chia s chung mt giao din ATM. Trng ny thng khng c thit lp, co gi tr mc nh l 0 (nh phn: 0000). Virtual Path Identifier (VPI):Cng vi cc VCI s chu trch nhim xc nh ch k tip khi cc cell c chuyn qua mt dy cc b chuyn mch ATM trn ng n ch cui cng ca no. Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI):Cng vi cc VPI s chu trch nhim xc nh ch k tip khi cc cell c chuyn qua mt dy cc b chuyn mch ATM trn ng n ch cui cng ca no. Payload Type (PT): Bit u tin ca PT dng chi nh cell cha d liu ngi dng hay thng tin iu khin (nu cell cha d liu ngi dng th no co gi tr l 0 v s co gi tr 1 nu cell cha thng tin iu khin). Bit th hai cho bit trng thi tc nghn (co gi tr l 0 nu khng tc nghn v bng 1 nu co tc nghn). Bit th ba xc nh xem cell co phi l cell cui cng ca chui cell trong khung hay khng (nu co gi tr l 1 l cell cui cng ca khung).
SVTH: HUNH VN TU LP: 07VTA3 Trang 14

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

Cell Loss Priority (CLP):Trong qu trnh truyn i trn mng s co hin tng tc nghn xy ra, CLP cho bit liu cell no s c b v cell no s tip tc c chuyn i n ch nu co tc nghn nghim trng (CLP=0 c u tin v cell co CLP=1 s phi b trong trng hp ny). Header Error Control (HEC):L gi tr ca checksum ca 4 byte u tin trong header, HEC co th sa c mt li trong 5 byte ca header v th co th gi c cc cell thay v loi b no do li. 2.1.2.2. Khung hng xung

nh dng khung truyn hng xung tc 155,52 Mb/s


125s; 56 cell; 53 bytes mi cell
PLOAM 1 Cell ATM 1 .. Cell ATM 27 PLOAM 2 Cell ATM 28 .. Cell ATM 54

1 khe thi gian

nh dng Cell PLOAM hng xung


53 bytes 0000 header H 1 2-3
ID E E C N T SY NC

7 grants

7 grants

7 grants

6 grants

10 message field 47 48

4-10

C R C

11

12-18

C R C

19 20-26 27 28-33 34 35 36 C C MS M
R C R C G_ ES PO SA N_ G ID E_ ID

C R C

BI P

S th t ca byte trong khung

Hnh2.3: C u trc khung hng xung ca BPON

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 15

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

Cell PLOAM (Physical Layer Operation, Administration and Maintenance): Qun l v bo dng lp vt l. Mi cell PLOAM theo sau no l 27 cell ATM. 5 byte header: 4 byte u tin co gi tr c nh l 0000, byte HEC (header error correction) tip theo dng sa li (nu co) ca header nhm xc nh chnh xc bit u tin ca khung PLOAM. Trng IDENT cho bit liu cell PLOAM ny co phi l cell u tin trong lung hng xung hay khng. Hai byte ng b khung SYNC c s dng cc OLT pht mt tn hiu tham chiu 1Khz n cc ONT. Mt cell PLOAM co tng cng 27 grant, mt b 6 hoc 7 byte grant c bo v bng chui CRC (cyclic redundancy check). Mt grant s cho ONT bit khi no c gi mt chui cell ATM d liu hoc cng co th yu cu ONT chy li tin trnh ranging. MSG_PON_ID s noi cho mt Node bit l cell ny co phi l dnh cho node y khng v MSG_ID chi ra loi thng tin cha trong trng thng ip 10 byte (10 message field) theo sau. 10 message field: OLT s noi cho ONT bit thi gian ranging c thay i hoc cng co th dng cho cc ci t khc ty thuc vo mc ch. BIP (Bit-Interleaved Parity): gip cc ONT gim st ti l bit li bng phng php kim tra bit chn l. 2.1.2.3. Khung hng ln

D l cell ATM hay cell PLOAM hng ln th trc cell o u co 3 byte overhead. Trong o 4 bit u tin co chc nng to mt khong thi gian bo v nhm trnh xung t trong trng hp qu trnh Ranging co s sai lch. ng thi 3 byte overhead ny to mt khong thi gian cn thit cc OLT c bin ca tn hiu, cung cp mt khong thi gian cho qu trnh ng b byte cho cc cell ATM.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 16

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

Trong khung hng ln mt cell PLOAM co cu trc nh Hnh 2.4.


nh dng Cell PLOAM hng ln
header
4 fixed bytes

header
10 message bytes

53 bytes header
17 laser control field (LCF) bytes 16 receiver control field (RCF) bytes

1 2 3
HIDMSM E E G_ES C NPOSA T N_ G ID E_ ID

4 - 13

14
C R C

15 - 31

32 - 47

BI P

48

S th t ca byte trong khung

Hnh 2.4: inh da ng cell PLOAM hng ln Cng co 5 byte header v tip theo l 1 byte IDENT xc nh bit u tin ca khung. MSG_PON_ID v MSG_ID cng c dng cho mc ch tng t nh hng xung l xc nh ONT v chi r loi thng tin iu khin c cha trong cell PLOAM ny. 10 message byte field: trng ny cha cc thng tin OAM (Operation, Administration and Maintenance) cng nh cc bo hiu khc ca ONT gi ln cho OLT. 10 byte ny c kim sot li da vo 1 byte CRC tip theo. LCF (laser control eld trng iu khin laser): 17 byte ca trng ny co nhim v cung cp cc thng tin v mc cng sut laser v ti l suy hao, vic y gip cho OLT iu chinh cng sut pht laser hp l nhm m bo cng sut cho u thu (pha ONT). RCF (receiver control eld trng iu khin my thu): 16 byte ca trng ny s gip cho OLT bit c mt mc ngng hp l nhm iu chinh phn bit c hai mc tn hiu 0 v 1 trong tn hiu. BIP (bit-interleaved parity): co cng nhim v nh trng BIP trong cell PLOAM hng xung, gim st ti l li bit trong cell ny. 2.1.3. Bo mt trong BPON

BPON co hai c ch bo mt, hay noi cch khc cc c ch ny nhm chc chn rng lung d liu hng xung c nhn bi ONT c chi nh ch khng phi bt k ONT no khc. Churning: Trong qu trnh chuyn dng d liu xung cho cc ONT, OLT s xo trn trt t cc cell v s cho ONT c chi nh bit cch sp xp li bng mt khoa. Khoa ny khng phi do OLT cp, khi c yu cu t OLT,
SVTH: HUNH VN TU LP: 07VTA3 Trang 17

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

ONT s gi mt cell co cha khoa (3 byte). Khoa ny s thay i theo chu k mi giy. M ha: lung d liu s c m hoa trong qu trnh truyn nhn. Tuy nhin, co mt vn cn noi y l c mi ln mt ONT gi d liu ln th s co tn hiu phn x quay tr li nh mt bn sao ca chnh no (phn x t cc splitter, mi hn, connector), cc ONT khc co th pht hin v k xu co th phn tch dng d liu ny. V khng co mt qui chun c th cho vn ny, iu ny chi c khuyn ngh rng trong vn thit k, lm sao cho phn suy hao do phn x t cc Splitter, connector v cc mi hn phi nh hn 32dB. 2.1.4. Chuyn mch bo v trong BPON

Lung d liu truyn trn mt mng cn c lin tc. iu g xy ra nu tuyn truyn dn vt l m y l si quang b t? Chnh iu y khng nh s cn thit cho vn chuyn mch bo v. Trong khuyn ngh G.983.1 co ba phng n cho chuyn mch bo v trong PON. M hnh 1: Splitter c dng l loi 1:N, chi co mt ng vo nhng co hai si quang t OLT kt ni n splitter nn trc khi a vo splitter, hai si phi c ghp chung li. Khi mt trong hai si b t, OLT s iu khin lu lng chuyn qua si cn li. M hnh 2: Ti OLT by gi c trang b hai b thu pht tn hiu, mt b hot ng v mt b d phng. Hai si quang t hai b ny kt ni n splitter loi 2:N. Khi si quang ang hot ng b t, OLT s iu khin b d phng hot ng v lu lng s c chuyn qua kt ni gia b ny v splitter. M hnh 3: C OLT v ONT u c trang b hai b thu pht tn hiu, mt b hot ng v mt b d phng. Splitter by gi l loi 1:N nhng c lp t hai b. Khi mt trong hai si quang gia OLT v splitter hoc gia splitter v ONT b t th OLT v ONT s iu khin cho b thu pht d phng hot ng ng thi s co cnh bo t ONT cho OLT v ngc li trong trng hp ny. Trong c ba m hnh, nu xy ra mt trong ba trng hp OLT, ONT hoc cc splitter b hng th d nhin lu lng s b mt. ng thi, trong c ba m hnh trn, khi si quang b t th chc chn rng s co mt phn no o lu lng s b mt. Vic lu lng b tht thot nhiu hay t ty thuc vo kh nng x l chuyn mch nhanh hay chm.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 18

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON


ONT Electrical

Electrical

OLT
Optical ONT 1:N splitter Electrical

M hnh 1
ONT Electrical

OLT
Electrical

E/O E/O
Optical ONT 2:N splitter Electrical

M hnh 2

O/E O/E

ONT
Electrical

OLT
Electrical

E/O
Optical 1:N splitter

E/O

ONT
O/E O/E 1:N splitter

Electrical

M hnh 3

Hnh 2.5: M hin h chuy n ma ch bao v trong PON 2.2. EPON chun IEEE-802.3ah EPON Ethernet passive optical network co th hiu l PON m d liu c ong thnh cc khung v truyn i da trn chun Ethernet. y, bi bo co phn tch EPON da trn chun IEEE-802.3ah vi cc mc chnh: kin trc cc lp trong EPON, nh dng khung truyn dn, giao thc iu khin a im v vn RANGING. 2.2.1. Kin trc cc lp trong EPON

Cc lp trong EPON c gp thnh hai nhom, tng ng vi hai lp u tin trong m hnh OSI 7 lp lLp vt l (Physical layer) v Lp lin kt d liu (Data Link layer).
SVTH: HUNH VN TU LP: 07VTA3 Trang 19

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

iu o ng ngha rng, d liu ca user s c x l vi giao thc ca nm tng trn khng co g khc so vi khung truyn dn IP v ATM. Tuy nhin hai lp Physical layer v Data Link layer trong EPON s m nhn trch nhim ong goi d liu thnh nh dng truyn theo khung Ethernet, ng thi thng nht gia truyn nhn chuyn d liu yu cu truy nhp ca user hng uplink v tch d liu t khung Ethernet chuyn n cho user hng downlink.
MAC client MAC client Multipoint MAC Control (MPMC) layer MAC instance MAC instance Reconciliation layer MAC instance MAC client

GMII
PCS PMA PMD

Hnh 2.6: Ki n truc cac lp trong EPON 2.2.1.1. Lp vt l

Trong lp vt l gm co ba lp con chnh nh sau. Lp con m ha vt ly - The physical coding sublayer (PCS) Co th hiu lp con ny s m hoa chui d liu t cc lp cao hn trc khi truyn n hng uplink. ng thi s gii m v kim sot t s BER hp l trc khi a d liu ln cc lp cao hn vi hng downlink. M c s dng l m khi Reed-Solomon, trong o tng ny x l d liu theo phng thc nh sau: i vi d liu t cc tng cao hn c chuyn xung, no s a vo b m, sau o tch ra tng khi 239 byte, thm vo 16 byte parity thnh khi d liu 255 byte trc khi chuyn ra. V no s lm iu ngc li i vi d liu c chuyn n, co ngha rng, no s bin i khung 255 byte thnh 239 byte d liu trc khi chuyn ln cc tng cao hn. Nu t s bit li qu trnh nhn l 10-4 hoc cao hn, no s x l t s ny gim xung cn 10-12 trc khi a ln tng trn.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

Vt l

LP: 07VTA3

OSI Physical

OSI Data Link

Trang 20

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

Lp con gn vi mi trng vt l - The Physical Medium Attachment (PMA) Sublayer Vic qu nhiu mt chui bit 0 hay bit 1 lin tip c truyn i co th gy ra vic mt ng b gia u thu v u pht do khng th khi phc xung clock chnh xc. PMA sublayer s khc phc tnh trng trn bng cch dng m hoa ng dy 8b10b ca FranaszekWidmer. Phng php m hoa ng dy ny co th hiu nh sau: vi mt chui d liu c chuyn t tng trn xung, tng khi 8 bit trc khi c a qua PCS sublayer, no s c thm vo 2 bit chuyn thnh khi 10 bit. V no s lm iu ngc li trc khi d liu t PCS sublayer chuyn ln. Trong EPON yu cu, tc ng downstream v upstream cn bng l 1,0 Gbps. Sau khi m hoa ng dy, d liu s c tng ln 25%, tng ng tc bit lc ny l 1,25 Gbps.

Lp con ph thuc mi trng vt l - The Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) Sublayer Lp con ny ph trch kt ni si quang ra bn ngoi, ng thi iu khin laser v photodetector v cng sut, khuch i, lng t trong qu trnh truyn nhn. Cc thng s trong EPON c PMD m nhn [1] - Tc bit: 1,25 Gb/s c hai lung hng ln v hng xung. - Bc song: 1260 to 1360 nm chiu ln, 1480 to 1580 nm chiu xung. - Loi lu lng: tn hiu s. - T l chia: ti thiu l 1:16, co th nhiu hn khi s dng sa li FEC (Forward Error Correction) - S suy hao ti a cho php trong mng phn phi quang ODN (Optical Distribution Network) l: Lung hng ln ti bc song 1310 nm: 5 20 dB hoc 10 24 dB tng ng vi chiu di ca ODN l 10 hoc 20 km. Lung hng xung ti bc song 1550 nm: 5 19.5 dB hoc 10 23.5 dB tng ng vi chiu di ODN l 10 hoc 20 km. - Di cng sut phong hng xung: -3 2 dBm hoc 2 7 tng ng vi 10 hoc 20 km chiu di ODN. - Di cng sut phong hng ln: -1 4 dBm vi 10 hoc 20 km chiu di ODN. - T l nhy/ qu ti ca my thu:

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 21

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

Hng xung: -24/+4 dBm v -27/+4 dBm tng ng 10 v 20 km chiu di ODN Hng ln: -24/+2 dBm v -24/+7 dBm tng ng 10 v 20 km chiu di ODN - T l bit li cho php: 10-12 - T l suy hao laser: >6dB - rng ph ca laser: Hng xung ti 1490 nm: 0,6 v 0,3 nm tng ng 10 v 20 km chiu di ODN. Hng ln ti 1310 nm: 3,5 v 2,5 nm tng ng 10 v 20 km chiu di ODN. 2.2.1.2. Giao din mi trng Gigabit c lp (GMII) v Lp con ti gii iuch (RS) Co th hiu rng, vi mi yu cu truy cp dch v ca mi user, OLT sgn tng ng cho user mt cp MAC instance v MAC client. Lp con ti gii iu ch(RS): s thc hin mt chc nng c bit ti OLT tng ng vi vic nh tuyn, a cc goi tin ra ung mng li dch v tng ng m user yu cu. V trc khi d li u c a ra ma ng loi , GMII s m nhn nhim v ghp tt c cc d liu yu cu truy nhp t cc user chuyn ln truyn ra cc giao tip vt l vi tc Gigabit. Hay noi cch khc, GMII v RS c cu hnh thc hin nhim v ca OLT. 2.2.1.3. Lp lin kt d liu MAC ( Media Access Control) MAC gm co hai phn MAC (Media Access Control) v LLC (Logical Link Control). - MAC bao gm cc thng s thng nht gia truyn v nhn gia OLT v ONU, bao gm c cu trc khung s c chuyn i v khe thi gian c cp pht. - LLC l lp con c lp vi mi trng truyn. ong vai tr nh l mt giao tip gia lp lin kt d liu v tng mng, lm nhim v framing bao gm vic ong goi hng truyn v gii goi hng nhn.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 22

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

iu khin MAC a im - Multipoint MAC Control (MPMC) Trong kin trc phn lp ca EPON co nhiu i tng MAC client, nhng chi co mt i tng MPMC. iu o ng ngha rng vi nhiu giao thc a truy nhp t cc user s c MPMC layer x l sao cho cc yu cu truy nhp ny trn ng upstream s khng xung t hoc chng lp ln nhau. Mun lm c iu y th trong ln khi u u tin s co mt qu trnh t ng pht hin v gn cc LLID (logical link ID) cho mt cp MAC instance (ca OLT) v MAC client (ca ONU). Do o mi LLID l duy nht trong qu trnh x l ca MPMC layer. 2.2.2.
8 bytes Preamble / SFD

Cu trc khung truyn dn ca EPON


6 bytes Destination address
Preamble / SFD

6 bytes Source address


Preamble / SFD

2 bytes Length / type

46 - 1500 bytes Data

4 bytes FCS

23 bit

24 bit

Fixed 2 bytes

SLD 1 bytes

Fixed 2 bytes

Mode + LLID

LLID 8 bits

CRC 8 bits

Mode 1 bits

LLID 7 bits

Hnh 2.7: C u truc khung truy n dn cua EPON Trong EPON, khung Ethernet c s dng truyn d liu vi cu trc khung nh Hnh 2.7. Trng 8 bytes Preamble/SFD - SLD (start of frame delimiter) 1 byte co nhim v phn cch gia hai trng Fixed 2 bytes. - Fixed 2 bytes: nh ngha im bt u mt khung Ethernet.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 23

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

- Mode + LLID: vi 1 bit u tin c nh ngha nhm phn bit d liu ng ra t mt OLT hay t mt ONU. Mode bit s bng 1 nu l ng ra t mt ONU v bng 0 nu t OLT. - 7 bit LLID tip theo nhm phn bit cc chi s LLID, no co th phn bit 27=128 a chi MAC Instance ngun v ch v 28=256 MAC client. - CRC (cyclic redundancy check) 8bit: kim sot li cho trng LLID. Trng 6 bytes Destination address v 6 bytes Source address - a chi y chnh l a chi MAC. Mi thit b u co mt a chi MAC duy nht. - C Destination address v Source address u co chiu di l 48 bit (6 bytes), trong o 1 bit u tin cho bit khung Ethernet l multicast/ broadcast (co gi tr bng 1) hay unicast (co gi tr bng 0) - 47 bit tip theo c chia thnh 2 khi: 23 bit cao c gn cho nh sn xut, 24 bit thp hn c gn cho thit b. Trng Length/ type 2 bytes nhm m t loi loi khung OAM (Operation, Administration and Maintenance) v chiu di d liu trong vng Data Trng Data co chiu di khng c nh, ti thiu l 46 bytes v ti a l 1500 bytes. Trng FCS (Frame Check Sequence trng kim tra li) 4 bytes: bo v trng d liu bng phng php pht hin li trong khung d liu nhn c. 2.2.3. Giao thc iu khin a im (MPMC) trong EPON

Co nhiu loi yu cu dch v theo hng uplink t cc user buc cc OLT phi phn b khe thi gian v bng thng hp l, thng bo v iu khin cc ONU chng co th truyn d liu ng khe thi gian c cp. lm vic y, giao thc iu khin a im MPMC (Multipoint MAC Control) trong EPON c thc hin di hai c ch ca hai bn tin iu khin MAC l GATE v REPORT. Bn tin iu khin GATE hng xu ng - Khi mt OLT trong mng EPON khi ng ln u tin, no s truyn cc bn tin GATE theo hng Downstream dng broadcast nhm pht hin ra cc ONU t cc bn tin phc p ngc li. - Vi mi ONU s co duy nht gi tr LLID c gn. - T Hnh 2.8, c ch thc hin mt bn tin GATE c hiu n gin nh sau: OLT s gn mt cp gi tr Start time v Stop time co chiu di 64

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 24

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

bytes, ng thi mt gi tr xung ng h ti thi im y s c ghi vo bn tin ny thc hin qu trnh ng b vi cc ONU. - Co th hiu bn tin GATE l mt bn tin mang tnh cht pht hin cc lin kt lun l v cp pht mt cch cng bng nhng yu cu trn lin kt lun l y. - Ngoi cc bn tin GATE cp pht khe thi gian cho cc LLID xc nh, OLT cng s pht ra cc bn tin GATE ngu nhin nhm pht hin cc ONU mi kt ni v h thng. Bn tin iu khin REPORT hng ln - Khi cc ONT c xc nh qua cc lin kt lun l LLID, iu y ng ngha rng t y cc ONT co th yu cu OLT cp pht khe thi gian da trn vic bo co thng tin trng thi ca no v hng i v thng tin ng h nhm gip ti u qu trnh ng b. - thc hin c iu y, cc bn tin iu khin REPORT 64 bytes vi cu trc nh sau s c gi t cc ONT ti OLT. - T Hnh 2.9, thng tin ca bn tin iu khin REPORT vi thng tin v hng i nhm cho OLT bit mt yu cu hin ti ca no v khe thi gian v bng thng m no cn. ng thi mt gi tr xung ng h ti thi im y s c ghi vo bn tin phc v cho vic ng b. - S co trng hp xung t xy ra do nhiu bn tin REPORT c gi ra cng lc, lc ny cc ONT s khng nhn c bn tin GATE cp pht khe thi gian cn thit no truyn d liu. Trong trng hp y, no s gi li bn tin REPORT sau mt khong thi gian ngu nhin.
OLT
MAC Control Client Generate GATE message
MA_CONTROL.request (GATE)
Start Stop

ONT
MAC Control Client

MA_CONTROL.indication (GATE)

MA_DATA.request ()

MAC Control
Clock register
TS Start

MAC Control
Write registers
TS Start Stop

Clock register

Timestamp GATE message

Stop

Slot stop register

Laser ON/OFF

MAC PHY

MAC PHY

Hnh 2.8: Bn tin GATE hng xu ng

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 25

Upstream Data Path

Slot start register

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON


OLT
MAC Control Client
Q1 Q0

ONU
MAC Control Client Generate REPORT message
MA_CONTROL.request (REPORT)
Q1 Q0

MA_CONTROL.Indication (REPORT)

MAC Control
Clock register RTT register Measure Round Trip Time
TS Q1 Q0

MAC Control
Clock register
TS Q1 Q0

Timestamp REPORT message

MAC PHY

MAC PHY

Hnh 2.9: Bn tin REPORT hng ln 2.3. GPON chun ITU-G.984 Cng nh BPON v EPON, phn tip theo s phn tch cng ngh GPON da vo cc tiu ch: Kin trc cc lp, nh dng khung tuyn dn v i su phn tch nhim v cc trng trong khung truyn dn ca GPON. 2.3.1. Kin trc cc lp trong GPON

GPON l t vit tt ca Gigabit Passive Optical Network, l mt trong s nhng cng ngh c s dng trong cng ngh FTTH noi chung v PON noi ring. V c bn, GPON co hai lp chnh: lp hi t truyn dn Transmission Convergence (TC) Layer v lp ph thuc mi trng vt l Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) Layer. TC layer v PMD layer tng ng vi hai lp Data link v physical trong m hnh OSI.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 26

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

ATM Client
User ATM cells

GEM Client
User Frame (Packets)

Transmission Convergence (TC) Adaptationsublayer GPON TC Framing sublayer GPON Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) Layer

Transmission Convergence (TC) Layer

ATM Client

GEM Client

(TC) Adaptation sublayer VPI/VCI Filter Cel ls ATM TC Adaptor GEM TC Adaptor
Port ID, PTI (payload type) filter

GE M Fra me s
GTC framing sublayer

Alloc-ID filter

Alloc-ID filter

Trans missi on Conv erge nce layer

PLOAM partition

ATM partition

GEM partition

Frame header

Multiplexing/Demultiplexing based on frame location

Hnh 2.10: Ki n truc cac lp trong GPON

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 27

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

2.3.1.1.

GPON Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) Layer

Lp ny khng ging nh cc lp cao hn, tt c u l phn cng (hardware), khng phi phn mm (software). V cc qui nh v thng s ca lp PMD trong GPON c nh ngha trong chun G.984.2: Tc bit: 1,24416 hoc 2,48832 Gb/s hng xung v 0,15552 hoc 0,62208 hoc 1,24416 hoc 2,48832 Gb/s hng ln. Bc song: 1260 n 1360 nm cho hng ln v 1480 n 1500 nm cho hng xung. Loi tn hiu truyn: chi truyn tn hiu s. Ti l chia ca spliter: h tr n 1:64 v ph thuc vo suy hao ca ODN. Da vo suy hao ca ODN, qui nh co ba lp: - Lp A: - Lp B: - Lp C: 5 n 20 dB 10 n 25 dB 15 n 30 dB

Chnh lch suy hao ln nht gia cc ONU: 15 dB Khong cch si quang ti a: 20 Km nu dng ngun pht DFB (Distributed Feedback Laser) v 10 Km nu dng ngun pht l Laser Fabry-Perot cho hng ln. Cng sut pht trung bnh cho hng xung trn 1 si quang ti tc 1,2Gb/s: - Lp A: -4 n 1 dBm - Lp B: - Lp C: - Lp A: - Lp B: - Lp C: - Lp A: - Lp B: - Lp C: - Lp A: - Lp B: - Lp C: 1 n 6 dBm 5 n 9 dBm 0 n 4 dBm 3 n 7 dBm 5 n 9 dBm -3 n 2 dBm -2 n 3 dBm 2 n 7 dBm 0 n 4 dBm 3 n 7 dBm 5 n 8 dBm
LP: 07VTA3 Trang 28

Cng sut pht trung bnh cho hng xung trn 1 si quang ti tc 2,4Gb/s:

Cng sut pht trung bnh cho hng ln trn 1 si quang ti tc 1,2 Gb/s:

Cng sut pht trung bnh cho hng ln trn 1 si quang ti tc 2,4 Gb/s:

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

Ti l li bit ln nht: 10-10 2.3.1.2. GPON Transmission Convergence (GTC) Layer

GTC Layer gm co phn lp ong khung GTC (GTC framing sublayer) v phn lp thch ng hi t truyn dn (transmission convergence (TC) adaptation sublayer). truyn lu lng, trong GPON s dng khung GEM (GPON encapsulationmethod) hoc ATM. nh hng ng ln, lu lng l c mang trong cc Tconts (Transmission containers). Bt k mt T-cont u co th mang duy nht lu lng ATM hoc duy nht lu lng GEM, khng th mang c hai cng lc. kt hp mang c hai lung lu lng ATM v GEM trong cng T-cont th cn phi c h tr bi mt vi loi ATM T-cont v T-cont khung GEM khc. ch kp c hai loi lu lng c mang i trong khong thi gian mt khung 125s. Phn lp ng khung GTC Lung GEM di 125s trong khung GPON.Khung d liu ca ngi dng co chiu di ngu nhin. Giao thc ong goi GEM h tr phn mnh cc khung d liu ngi dng ng thi chn cc mo u v gi tr PTI c nh nhn dng ra cc goi phn mnh, nhm gip qu trnh ghp li d dng v khng mt mt d liu. Qu trnh ong goi GEM c thc hin qua cc trng hp sau:
User Frame
GEM Hader vi PTI=000
User Frame

GEM Hader vi PTI=001

GEM Frame

GEM Frame

GEM Frame
GEM Hader vi PTI=001

a) b)

GEM Hader vi PTI=001

GEM Frame

c)

Hnh 2.11 : Phn lp ong khung GTC Trng hp nu khung ca ngi s dng trng khp hoc ngn hn khung ca GEM th s c t vo khung GEM m t hnh 2.11a) v hnh 2.11 c). Trng hp nu khung ngi s dng di hn khung GEM th s c phn thnh cc mnh nh t vo khung GEM. Hnh 2.11 b). Chc nng: Ghp knh v phn knh:Phn ti PLOAM v GTC c ghp knh vo khung ca TC ng xung theo cc nh dng khung qui nh. nh hng ng ln, mi thnh phn c tch t mt nhom ng ln ph hp n Bwmap tng ng ghp vo khung ng ln.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 29

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

To mo u v giai m: Mo u khung GTC c to v c nh dng trong khung ng xung. Cm mo u ng ln c gii m. Ngoi ra, OAM c t vo l thc thi. Chc nng nh tuyn ni b da trn Alloc- ID: c thc hin cho d liu n hoc t b thch ng hi t truyn dn GEM (GEM TC Adapter) i. Phn lp thch ng hi t truyn dn Phn loi: co ba loi [ITU-T G984.3] B thch ng hi t truyn dn ATM (ATM TC adapter) B thch ng hi t truyn dn GEM (GEM TC adapter) B thch ng giao din iu khin qun l ONU (OMCI adapter) 2.3.2. nh dng khung truyn dn trong GPON 2.3.2.1. Cu trc khung hng xung
125us PCBd Phn ti n PCBd Phn ti n+1 PCBd n n+1 n+2 Phn t bo Phn GEM, TDM ATM v cc phn on

Hnh 2.12: C u truc khung hng xu ng Khung co chiu di ti a l 125s bao gm cc khi iu khin ng xung (PCBd) ca 4 byte cho ng truyn xung v mt phn ti. Khi iu khin ng xung (PCBd) gm: Khi PCBd c OLT gi i n cc ONU bng kiu qung b.
PSync Ident PLOAMd BIP PLend PLend US BW Map 4 bytes 4 bytes 13 bytes 1 bytes 4 bytes 4 bytes Nx 8 bytes Khi iu khin ng xung PCBd

Trng ng b vt l (Psync): Trng ny c nh 32 bit v l phn bt u ca mi PCBd v no gip cho cc ONU tm ra phn bt u ca khung.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 30

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON FEC Ind Reserve Superframe counter 1 bit 1 bit 30 bits Trng ng b vt l

Trng Ident c 32 bit: Mc ch ca trng ny l cho php la chn mt s khung GPON ca mt nhom ln hn v c gi l siu khung (superframe). Trng sa li FEC vi bit u tin chi ra co hay khng co li trong lin kt ng xung. Bit th hai dng trong lu tr v 30 bit cn li dng cho b m siu khung (superframe). Trng thng tin vn hnh, qun l v bo dng lp vt l PLOAM ng xung (Physical layer Operation Administration and Maintenance) gm:
ONU ID Msg ID Bn tin CRC 1 bytes 1 bytes 10 bytes 1 bytes Cu trc trng PLOAM

- 1 byte nhn dng ngi nhn ONU (ONU-ID) - 1 byte dnh cho nhn dng bn tin.(Msg ID) - 1 byte dnh cho trng kim tra d tha vng bit c s ton vn ca khung - Trng CRC dng kim tra li - 10 byte dnh cho bn tin ca trng PLOAM Trng xen k bit chn l BIP (Bit Interleaved Parity): 1 byte cho php ONU gim st c tc bit li. Trng chiu di phn ti ng xungPlend (payload length): di 4 byte ngoi lm chc nng bo v bng cch kim tra cc d tha cc bit theo chu k (CRC) v phn ny cn c truyn li hai ln trong d liu ng xung. Trng USBW map l ni m OLT gi tin hiu qung b xung tt c ONU gm co cc trng: - Cp pht ID - Trng Flag - Trng bt u v dng Trng CRC

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 31

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

2.3.2.2.

Cu trc khung hng ln

di khung ng ln bng vi di khung ng xung v bng 125s. Mi khung co th truyn dn cho mt hoc nhiu ONU hng ln OLT (hnh 2.13) a) b) c) d) e) f) Cu trc khung Mo u hng ln lp vt l Khung PLOAM hng ln Bo co bng thng ng hng ln Thnh phn ti khung GEM hoc phn mnh Header khung GEM

Cc trng trong cu trc ny: Mo u lp vt l ng ln (PLOu) Qun l, vn hnh, bo dng lp vt l ng ln (PLOAMu) Chui nh mc cng sut ng ln (PLSu) Phn T-cont gm: Phn ti (Payload) Bo co bng tn ng ng ln (DBRu) Bao cao bng tn ng ng ln (DBRu ) gm c hai trng con: Trng cp pht bng tn ng DBA (Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment) chim 1, 2 hoc 4 byte Trng CRC chim 1 byte Phn tai c cu trc GEM gm: Mo u ca GEM Cc phn on khung phn ti Phn mo u cua GEM c 40 bit gm cac thnh phn: Phn chi th chiu di ca ti PLI co 12 bit Nhn dng cng Port ID 12 bit Nhn dng loi ti PTI 3 bit Kim tra li mo u 13 bit Phn tai gm c: Phn ATM cells : 53 byte trn cell Phn GEM bn cnh mang d liu cn ng b nh SONET hoc khung d liu ca cc mnh trong goi d liu Ethernet

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 32

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON


a)
Pa yl T- oa CON d T 3 D BR U 3 ONU( B) Fra me frag men t GEM head er

125 s

PL O u
CRC 1 Byty es DBA 1, 2 or 4 byte s.

Full Nam e GEM head er

Pa yl T- oa CON d T 2 D BR U 2 Pa yl T- oa CON d T 1 D BR U 1

HEC 13 bits PTI 3 bits Port _ID 12 bits PLI 12 bits

b)
Ind 1 byte ONU _ID 1 byte

d)
ONU( A)

c)
CRC 1 Byty es Mess age 10 byte

Fra me frag men t GEM head er

e)

PL Su
PLOu

BIP 1 Byte Deli mite rb byte s Prea mble a byte s

f)
Msg_ ID 1 byte

PL O A M u PL O u

ONU _ID 1 byte

Hnh 2.13: C u truc khung GTC hng ln

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 33

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

2.3.2.3.

Phn tch mo u ca GEM


Khung GEM Mo u GEM 5 bytes Phn ti GEM L bytes

PLI Port ID PTI HEC 12 bits 12 bits 12 bits 13 bits Hnh 2.14: Cu trc khung v mo u ca khung GEM

Chc nng ca cc thnh phn trong mo u GEM: PLI (12 bits): chi th chiu di ca phn ti.Kch thc 12 bit cho php phn mnh khung d liu ln n 4095 bytes. Nu khung d liu ngi dng ln hn khung ny, th s c chia thnh cc phn mnhco kch thc 4095 byte hoc nh hn. Port ID (12 bits): c s dng cung cp 4096 danh nh lu lng co gi tr duy nht trong PON. Qu trnh ghp knh s da vo gi tr ca Port ID.Mi Port ID c s dng duy nht cho mt ngi dng.Mi Alloc ID hoc T-cont co th truyn mt hoc nhiu Port ID cng mt lc. PTI (3 bits): c s dng chi ra loi ni dung cha trong phn ti. Gi tr ny co th thay i c cho ph hp vi tng loi ni dung trong ti. Cc gi tr ng vi tng PTI. HEC (13 bits): cung cp vic pht hin li v co chc nng sa li cho mo u. M PTI 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 M t Phn on d liu ngi s dng, khng kt thc ca mt khung Phn on d liu ngi s dng, khng kt thc ca mt khung ng k ng k GEM OAM, khng kt thc ca mt khung GEM OAM, khng kt thc ca mt khung ng k ng k Bng 2.1: Cc m PTI
SVTH: HUNH VN TU LP: 07VTA3 Trang 34

CHNG II: TIM HIU CNG NGH PON

2.3.3.

Phn b bng tn ng (DBA) trong GPON

Nu theo phng php thng thng, khng p dng phn chia bng thng ng cho cc thu bao th hin nhin bng thng c chia u cho cc thu bao. Tuy nhin, nu trin khai thc t theo hng y th bi ton v bng thng khng ti u v hiu nng s dng v cc thu bao vi cc yu cu dch v khc nhau cng nh yu cu bng thng cng khc nhau cho cc thi im. Theo chun G.983.4 qui nh, co hai loi phng thc gn bng thng ng cho BPON v GPON o l OLT ong vai tr ch ng v ONT ong vai tr ch ng. OLT ong vai tr ch ng: OLT s tin hnh vic gim st nhu cu s dng bng thng ca ONT ti cc thi im khc nhau.Da trn s cell ATM nhn ri v khung GEM nhn ri m no nhn trong khung GTC hng ln. Vi cch thc hin nh vy, phng thc ny cn c bit vi tn gi iu chinh bng thng ng theo hng iu chinh cell nhn ri. Ngoi ra no cn c gi l iu chnh bng thng theo hng bo co khng trng thi (NSR-Non-Status Reporting). ONT ong vai tr ch ng: ONT bo co trng thi b m n OLT. Do vy no c gi l bo co trng thi b m hay bo co trng thi - SR (Status Reporting). Chi th nhu cu bng thng trong loi T-cont th c truyn trong vng overhead lp vt l c th hn l vng bo co bng thng ng DBRu. OLT s dng thng tin bo co trng thi quyt nh phn b bng thng ph hp cho mi v tr ID.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 35

CHNG III: BI TON THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH GPON

CHNG III: BI TON THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGHGPON


Trong chng ny s phn tch hai bi ton thit k mng FTTH da trn cng ngh GPON. Trong o bao g m ca vi c thi t k dung l ng m t OLT va xet n kha nng tinh kha thi tri n khai cho thi t k d inh . 3.1. Tnh kh nng phc v ca mt OLT Trn thc t, mi OLT gm co nhiu card hng xung, mi card li gm nhiu Port, v mi mt port s kt ni vi Splitter. Mt khc, vi mi kin trc (m y l kin trc da theo chun ITU-T) th ti l splitter cng phi co mt ti l nht nh. Trong chun G984.3 cho GPON qui nh ti l ny ln nht l 1:128 v khoang cach ln nht t OLT n ONT l 20 km. Hn na, y chng ta cn phi phn tch xem, chng ta thit k cung cp dch v g, t o tnh ton bng thng cn thit cho mi thu bao. Nh v y , vi c c n thi t y la chung ta phai a ra c cac loa i dich vu cung c p ho c cac m c bng thng co th cung cp . T o , s tnh ton mi OLT co th h tr t i a bao nhiu thu bao cho mi loa i dich vu , c n bao nhiu splitter cung c p loi dch o vi ti l chia mi splitter l bao nhiu . Trong bai toa n 1 chi p dng tnh ton vi 1 t ng splitter. Trong m hinh nay , mi OLT s cung cp y loi dch v nh c thit k . Tuy nhin, mi OLT se c n bao nhiu card cho loa i dich vu o tuy thu c vao s thu bao cua loa i dich vu o nhi u hay it v d nhin phi co card d phng cho nhng trng h p phat sinh thu bao ngoai d ki n , ap ng tai cho m t card b t ki nao o bi s c . Trong hinh ve di y , bi bo co s i su phn tch v hng thi t k t hc t trc khi tin h toan nh sau: Bc 1:Xc inh loa i dich vu cung c p hoc mc t c cung c p . Vi c u tin la phai xac inh ro m hinh thi t k cung c p cho loa i hinh dich v hoc loi tc nh th no , sau o se ti n hanh phn tic h dung l ng phu c vu cua mi OLT. Tuy nhin, co th thy mt vn pht sinh xy ra y khi th phn tch theo chi u hng nh sau : gi s nh cung cp dch v mu n cung c p cho mi thu bao t c 10 Mbit/s hng xu ng, nh v y vi t c m t port hng xu ng l 2,5Gbit/s cung c p c cho 250 thu bao. Nh v y c n m t ti l chia splitter l 1:250. i u nay khng phu h p theo qui inh ti l chia ln nh t cho GPON la 1:128.
SVTH: HUNH VN TU LP: 07VTA3 Trang 36

CHNG III: BI TON THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH GPON

Nh v y , vi c xac inh bng thng cho mi thu bao khng phai la tuy ti n ma da trn t c hng xu ng va ti l splitter ma chung ta inh dung . Tuy nhin , nh cung cp dch v vn co th a ra cc vng cung cp dch v khc nhau da trn t c phn b cho mi thu bao ap ng vi nhu c u thc t tng thi i m, tng vung mi n, ty vo m hinh tri n khai va hng m r ng dich vu . Bc 2:Xc inh s lng card cung c p cho m i loai hinh dich vu cho OLT Theo nh mong mu n ban u , mi OLT se co nhi m vu cung c p u loa i hin h dch v nh thit k . V v y, bi ton chi xt n vn gn bng thng c nh cho mi thu bao cho nn chung ta phai phn inh ro s l ng card ph trch cho mi loi dch v trn OLT l bao nhiu . Mu n phn b h p li thi phai hoan toan da vao phn tic h nhu c u cua cac loa i thu bao . Trong bai toan thi t k nay , ta se l y ra m t s trng h p i n hin h nh sau thi t k cho h th ng da vao bang sau : T c hng xu ng Ti l chia 1:128 2,5 Gbit/s 1:96 1:64 1:32 T c t i a mi thu bao 19,125 Mbit/s 25,5 Mbit/s 38,25Mbit/s 76,5 Mbit/s

Bng 3.1: Ti l chia v cc mc tc i n hin h Theo lin minh vin thng qu c t ITU -T, b ph n FSAN (Full Service Access Network) th bng thng hng xung cung cp cho dich vu triple -play cho m t thu bao n le la 73 Mbit/s. Bao g m 3 knh HDTV (3 x 20Mbit/s=60Mbit/s), truy c p Internet t c cao (10Mbit/s), h i nghi truy n hinh (2Mbit/s),cc dch v iu khin t xa (1 Mbit/s). Dch v ADSL2+ co tc hng xung t i a la 24 Mbit/s. Nh v y , vi t c hng xu n g t i a 2,5 Gbit/s va ti l chia cua Splitter , hon ton co th cung cp c nhng nhu cu dch v cn thit .

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 37

CHNG III: BI TON THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH GPON

Bc 3:Xc inh cach phn b OLT cung c p

Hnh 3.1: S phn b OLT Trong bai toan nay , chng ta phn tch m t m hnh vi ba OLT m nhn ba vng v tr khc nhau m bo cc iu kin nh sau : M t OLT se am nh n cung c p dich vu cho hai vng cn li, no s khng cung c p dich vu cho vung ia li ma no ang ng . Khong cch t OLT vng A n ranh gii vng v bin xa nht ca vng B va C n m trong khoang khng qua 20Km va tng t cho cac OLT vung B va C . Nh a phn tic h trn , y chng ta s l i m t s card d phong cho hai trng h p chinh : m t trong nhng card ang phu c vu bi s c , khng co kha nng phu c vu va danh cho trng h p co thu bao phat sinh vung dich vu nao o ma h th ng vn cha tri n khai m r ng ki p ap ng . Vi mong mu n thi t k r ng , khi s l ng thu bao tng ln , chng ta cn phi tng s lng OLT phu c vu va hoan tra la i s card d phong a m n ta m trn mi OLT p ng nhu cu hi long trong c p dich vu cho khach hang .

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 38

CHNG III: BI TON THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH GPON

V vy trong bi ton ny, s a ra cng thc tnh ton s thu bao m mi OLT co th phc v da trn loi dch v o: Thng s u vo - S Card cung c p cho mi dich v v s port trn mi card - Kin trc s dng(theo G984.3) cho GPON - Tc mi ng hng xung - Ti l chia ca splitter Thng s u ra - S thu bao phc v ti a ca OLT da trn loa i dich vu (ho c bng thng ) chn la. - S Splitter cn s dng. L thuyt tnh ton Qui c gi cc thng s nh sau: - S card: - S port trn mi card hng xung: - Tc mi ng hng xung: - Ti l chia ca splitter: - S ng hng xung: - S thu bao phc v ti a: - S splitter: C P T (Gb/s) 1: N C x P = D ng C x P x N = X thu bao X/N = S splitter

- Bng thng cung cp cho mi thu bao: B (Mb/s) Da trn thng s u vo v yu cu v u ra ta s tnh ton nh sau:

3.2. Tnh ton tnh kh thi v m hnh khuyn ngh vi b khuch i Trn thc t, cc nh cung cp dch v vn p dng khong cch truyn dn ti a cho mng phn phi quang (t OLT n ONT) ti a l 20 Km v ti l chia splitter nh chun qui nh nhng hu nh khng p dng mt tng phn chia splitter v l do lng phn b dn c dng FTTH hin nay cha cao, nn khng th phn b tp trung c. Thay vo o, thng l chia ra hai tng splitter nh hnh minh ha di y phn b:

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 39

CHNG III: BI TON THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH GPON


1310 nm
Splitter 1:16

n 16 ONT ONT
Splitter 1:16

1490 nm

Splitter 1:4 Splitter 1:16

OLT
Splitter 1:16

ti a 20 Km

Hnh 3.2: M hin h ki n truc 2 t ng splitter Nh vy, gi s nh chng ta chn ti l phn chia splitter l 1:64, thay v chn mt tng splitter (chi co mt splitter 1:64) th y ta chn phng n dng hai tng splitter loi 1:16 v loi 1:4 phn phi. Chnh iu ny ny sinh mt vn mi trong thit k thc t l suy hao ca mng phn phi s tng ln v co kh nng khng trin khai c. Nh vy, trong bi ton ny ta s chn phng n thit k 2 t ng splitter vi cc thng s v tnh ton l thuyt nh sau: Thng s u vo - S tng splitter - Cng sut pht hng xung: - Cng su t phat hng ln: - Suy hao ca splitter: - Suy hao ca connector: - Suy hao ca si quang: - Chiu di ODN: - nhy ca ONT: - nhy ca OLT: Thng s u ra - Cng sut thu c ti ONT: - Cng su t thu c ta i OLT : - Kt lun v tnh kh thi:
SVTH: HUNH VN TU

Pd(dBm) t OLT Pu (dBm) t ONT As (dB) Ac (dB) Ao (dB/Km) L=20 Km Sont (dBm) Solt(dBm)

- Margin d phong cho h th ng : Am (dB) Pont (dBm) Polt (dBm) trin khai c hay khng
LP: 07VTA3 Trang 40

CHNG III: BI TON THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH GPON

- Nu khng, a ra m hnh khuyn ngh vi b khuch i sau u pht vi li G. L thuyt tnh ton(m hinh k t n i da trn hinh 3.3)

Hnh 3.3: Lin k t v t li t OLT n ONT Cng sut nhn c ONT: Pont = Pd As Ac Ao1 Am Cng su t nh n c OLT : Polt = Pu As Ac Ao2 Am Trong : Ac l tnh tng suy hao ca cc conector. y s chn 4 loi connector in hnh thng c dng trong thi t k la : ST, MPO, FDDI, MTRJ. Suy hao cua cac loa i se c li t k trong bang bn di : Loi Connector ST MPO FDDI MTRJ Suy hao 0,3 dB 0,35 dB 0.5 dB 0.7 dB (3.1) (3.2)

ST

MPO

FDDI

MTRJ

Bng 3.2: Thng s cac loa i connecter


SVTH: HUNH VN TU LP: 07VTA3 Trang 41

CHNG III: BI TON THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH GPON

Ao1 = 1 x L (vi 1 l h s suy hao ca si quang hng xung) Ao2 = 2 x L (vi 2 l h s suy hao ca si quang hng ln) V bc song hng xung l 1490nm va bc song hng ln la suy hao cua cua s i quang hng ln va hng xu ng cung khac nhau . 1310nm nn

Da vao ITU -T G.652 v th suy hao ca si quang di y ta co suy hao ca bc song hng xu ng 1490nm la 1 = 0,35dB/Km; bc song hng ln 1310nm co suy hao 2 = 0,5dB/Km.

Bng 3.3: Tiu chu n ITU-T G.652 v suy hao s i quang

Hnh 3.4: Cc vng suy hao ca si quang y, suy hao tng cng ca m tsplitter c tnh theo cng thc: 10log(N), m t khc cn co cc loi suy hao khc nh suy hao xen , suy hao vt mc, suy hao do phan h i, suy hao do phn cc (PDL). Trong o , hai loi suy hao nh hng ng k nht ca splitter l suy hao xen v suy hao phn cc .

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 42

CHNG III: BI TON THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH GPON

Tuy nhin , ph hp vi thc t y ta s c hn thit k trn Splitter loi PLC ca hng LinkStar . Loi ny thng c ng dng trong FTT H noi chung va PON noi ring.

PLC Splitter

Bng 3.4: Thng s splitter PLC Aml suy hao d phng cho h thng (Margin) g m co Margin cho s i quang va Margin cho thi t bi . y ta chn gi tr Am= 4dB da vao ITU-T G.709 (qui inh cac thng s cho ma ng truy n tai quang ). Nu cng su t nh n c ONT hay OLT nho hn nha y cua thi t bi thi chung ta khng th tri n khai c , phi cn co b khuch i t sau hng pht nhm b li cng sut b thiu . y co mt vn pht sinh l s dng b khuch i loi no . Co hai loa i b khu ch a i c dung nhi u nh t hi n nay la khu ch a i quang s i (OFAOptical Fiber Amplifier) v khuch i quang bn dn (SOA-Optical Semiconductor Amplifier). Tuy nhin , loi khuch i quang si co nhiu loi (ty theo loi t him c pha bn trong vung khu ch a i ) nhng mi loa i la i co vung b c song khu ch a i qui inh .

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 43

CHNG III: BI TON THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH GPON

Loi OFA EDFA (Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier) PDFA (Praseodymium-Doped FiberAmplifie) TDFA (Thulium-Doped Fiber Amplifier) NDFA (Neodymium-Doped Fiber Amplifier)

Vng bc sng khuch i 1530nm 1565nm 1280nm 1340nm 1440nm -1520nm 900nm, 1065nm hoc 1400nm

Bng 3.5: Vng bc sng khuch i ca OFA Nh v y, n u dung OFA khu ch a i thi phai dung loa i TDFA cho hng xu ng (bc song 1490nm) v loi PDFA cho hng ln (1310nm). Tuy nhin , 2 loi ny hu nh cha c dung trong cc h thng mng truyn dn quang , chi co loi EDFA c chu n hoa va dung r ng rai ,nhng loa i nay khng ap ng c cho bai toan thi t k ny. Bi ton s dng loi SOA khuch i cho c 2 hng ln ho c hng xu ng ho c cho ca 2 hng, ty theo trng hp . V SOA co vng bc song khuch i rt r ng. C th y s dng b khuch i SOA loi SAO 11p ca han g Alphion thi t k vi vung bc song c khu ch a i t 1000nm n 1600nm, vi l i n m trong khong t 5-30dB va cng su t ngo ra bao hoa P sat = 12dBm.

Hnh 3.5: B khu ch a i SAO11b

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 44

T QUA BA I TOA T K N THI CHNG IV: PHN TI CH K

CHNG IV: PHN TCH KT QU BI TON THIT K


Trong Chng 3 a phn tic h c s ly thuy t cung nh cac thng s tham chi u thi t k 2 bi ton thc t . Trong chng nay , s phn tch cc kt qu cng nh nu i m ha n ch ma chng trnh thit k cha trin khai c lm tin cho hng nghin cu m r ng . 4.1. Phn tich bai toan Tnh kh nng phc v ca OLT m phong cho bai toan th nh t , bi bo co s dng chng trnh Matlab lm chng trnh h tr giao din v tnh ton .

Bi bo co s dng loi OLT ca hng Alcatel co s hiu P -OLT 7432 lm c s m phong vi cac thng s nh sau : S card hng xu ng max: 14 card S port trn 1 card: 4 port Co 3 loi ti l chia s c chn dng y : 1:32; 1:64 v 1:128 cho m phong tng ng vi 3 mc t c ma nha cung c p dich vu co th a ra . Vi 3 ti l chia y , ng vi mi ti l chia s dng 4 card cung c p , nh v y s co 4 x 3 = 12 card dung cung c p dich vu va con la i 2 card cho v n d phong nh a noi Chng 3.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 45

T QUA BA I TOA T K N THI CHNG IV: PHN TI CH K

Alarm Control Unit Card

2 Card k t n i mng loi

Card hng xu ng

P-OLT 7432

Card hng xu ng P -OLT 7432

Hnh 4.1: P-OLT 7432

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 46

T QUA BA I TOA T K N THI CHNG IV: PHN TI CH K

Vi ti l splitter 1:32

Thng s u vao: S card: S port trn 1 card: Ti l chia: T c hng xu ng:

C=4 P=4 N = 32 V = 2,5 Gb/s

Thng s u ra: ::: S thu bao t i a = C x P x N = 4 x 4 x 32 = 512 thu bao ::: T c t i a cho m i thu bao la: (vx1000)/N = 78,125 Mb/s ::: S splitter 1:32 c n thi t = C x P = 16 splitter Da theo phn tich chng 3, nh cung cp dch v nu dng s card nh trn v ti l chia l 1:32 th hon ton co th cung cp dch v Triple -play cho 512 thu bao.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 47

T QUA BA I TOA T K N THI CHNG IV: PHN TI CH K

Vi ti l splitter1 :64 Tng t nh trn, i vi ti l 1:64 ta co:

Thng s u vao: S card : S port trn 1 card : Ti l chia : T c hng xu ng :

C=4 P=4 N = 64 V = 2,5 Gb/s

Thng s u ra: ::: S thu bao t i a = C x P x N = 4 x 4 x 64 = 1024 thu bao. ::: T c t i a cho mi thu bao la : (vx1000)/N = 39,0625 Mb/s. ::: S splitter 1:64 c n thi t = C x P = 16 splitter. Vi k t qua nh trn , nh cung cp dch v co th dng 16 splitter vi ti l chia 1:64 cung c p cho 1024 thu bao vi t c t i a cho mi thu bao la 39 Mb/s.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 48

T QUA BA I TOA T K N THI CHNG IV: PHN TI CH K

Vi ti l splitter 1:128 Vi ti l chia 1:128, y la ti l chia ln nh t c khuy n cao bi ITU -T cho GPON, cng ng ngha rng y l mc tc thp nht m GPON co th cung cp cho m t thu bao.

Thng s u vao: S card : S port trn 1 card : Ti l chia : T c hng xu ng :

C=4 P=4 N = 128 V = 2,5 Gb/s

Thng s u ra: ::: S thu bao t i a = C x P x N = 4 x 4 x 128 = 2048 thu bao ::: T c t i a cho mi thu bao la : (vx1000)/N = 19,5313 Mb/s ::: S splitter 1:128c n thi t = C x P = 16 splitter Da trn k t qua m phong , vi ti l chia ln nh t la 1:128, GPON co th cung c p t c nho nh t cho mi thu bao la 19,5 Mb/s. Tom li , ty theo ti l chia ca Splitter m nh cung cp dch v co th cung cp cc goi tc khc nhau . y , bi bo co dng tc 2,5Gb/s cho ca hng xu ng v hng ln nn khi noi n tc ca mi thu bao la noi n t c ca 2 hng nh nhau. Nh v y , hon ton co th t ngc li mt v n r ng: n u khach hang mu n m t goi dch v co tc c nh l X chng hn th nh cung cp dch v co th khng ap ng c v nh bi ton ny t ra , t c cung c p cho mi thu bao phu thu c hon ton v o ti l chia ca splitter . Nhng thc t cung c p dich vu vin thng hi n
SVTH: HUNH VN TU LP: 07VTA3 Trang 49

T QUA BA I TOA T K N THI CHNG IV: PHN TI CH K

nay cho th y r ng : nh cung cp dch v a ra cc goi t c va khach hang cho n la goi tc ph hp ch khng co hng ngc li l khch hng yu cu goi tc v nh cung cp dch v thit k cung cp . Tuy nhin , mang t m vi m thi bai toan thi t k con phai quan tm n v n cung c p bng thng cho thu bao m t cach linh hoa t , co nh vy th mi co th bin FTTH noi chung va GPON noi ring lam cng ngh truy n dn chin h trong tng lai c. 4.2. Phn tich bai toan Tnh kh thi v m hin h khuy n nghi Nh a phn tic h Chng 3, y bi bo co s tha y i 3 thng s chin h cua m t k t n i t OLT n ONT : cng su t phat , khong cch v ti l chia ca splitter . Cc thng s khac nh loa i connector , loi splitter khng phn tic h y v cc loi ny co th thay i d dang . V s t ng splitter , vn gi nguyn la 2 t ng cho thi t k , v thc t cac nha cung c p dich vu thng khng dng ln hn con s ny . Thng s cu a cac thi t bi splitter , connector, suy hao cua s i quang c noi ro Chng 3. (Hnh 3.3) T thng s trn cua splitter , bi bo co xy dng bng suy vi 2 t ng splitter nh sau: T ng ti l chia Suy hao (dB) 128 24,7 96 23.6 72 22.7 64 21 48 20,5 32 17,5 24 16,8 16 14,6 12 13,8 8 11,2 4 7.9 Bng 4.1: Bng suy hao ca splitter

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 50

T QUA BA I TOA T K N THI CHNG IV: PHN TI CH K

V nha y cua ONT va OLT bi bo co tham kho bng IV .1/G.984.2 ITUT.Theo bng ny th OLT v ONT co nhy -34 dBm vi chinh xac la 3dB. Nhng trn thc t , cc nh cung cp dch v thng s dng thit b OLT v ONT co nha y -29dBm. V cng sut pht nh noi mc 2.3 ca Chng 2, ph thuc vo suy hao cua ODN .

Bng 4.2: Thng s khuy n nghi cu a ONT va OLT 4.2.1 Phn tich 1: Anh hng cua ti l chia Trong trng h p nay , bi ton s th thay i ti l chia trong khi gi nguyn cng su t phat va khoang cach nh m anh gia s anh hng cua thng s n y ln h th ng nh th nao vi cac thng s nh p vao nh sau : ::: Cc thng s u vao: Cng su t phat ta i OLT : 9 dBm Cng su t phat ta i ONT : 8 dBm Khong cch t OLT n ONT : 20 Km D nhy b thu OLT v ONT : -29 dBm Loi connector : ST Loi splitter : PLC ::: Cc thng s u ra c tinh toan nh sau : Suy hao do cac splitter (As): y ta dng hai splitter cho m t c ng ra ta i OLT, trng h p u tin vi ti l chia la 1:128 ta co su y hao do splitter gy ra la 24,7 dB. Suy hao do connector ST gy ra: Ac = 5 x 0,3 = 1,5 dB

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 51

T QUA BA I TOA T K N THI CHNG IV: PHN TI CH K

Suy hao cua s i quang :

- Hng xu ng: Ao1 = 20 x 1=0,35 x 20=7 dB - Hng ln: Ao2 = 20 x 2 = 0,5 = 10 dB

T ng suy hao cua ODN : Hng xu ng: AODNdown = As+Ao1+Ac+Am= 24,7+7+1,5+3 = 36,2 dB Hng ln: AODNup = As+Ao2+Ac+Am= 24,7+7+1,5+3 = 39,2 dB Da vao cng thc 3.1 v 3.2, ta co: Cng su t thu c ONT: Pont = Pd AODNdown = 9 36,2 = -27,2 dBm Cng su t thu c OLT : Polt = Pu AODNup = 8 39,2 = -31,2 dBm

Nh v y , y bi ton dng cng sut pht ln nht cho hng xung v hng ln, khong cch ln nht v ti l chia ln nht . K t qua cho th y , cng su t phat hng ln d ln nht vn b thiu 2,2dBm va c khuy n nghi dung M hnh 2 (dng b khu ch a i sau sau u phat ONT ).

Hnh 4.2: M hin h2


SVTH: HUNH VN TU LP: 07VTA3 Trang 52

T QUA BA I TOA T K N THI CHNG IV: PHN TI CH K

xet tin h anh hng cua ti l chia ln tin h kha thi (khng dung b khu ch a i cho h th ng ) bi thit k gim ti l chia xu ng vi ca c ti l nho hn nh 1:96; 1:72; 1:64

V vi ti l chia 1:64 th cng sut thu cho c 2 hng thoa man ln hn nhy, ngha l khng cn dng b khuch i .

Hnh 4.3: M hin h kha thi Vi k t qu ny , nh cung cp dch v co th cung cp 4 x 4 x 64= 1024 thu bao vi t c 2 hng la 39 Mb/s (da trn phn tich cua mu c 4.1). N u mu n cung c p nhi u hn s thu bao thi phai giam khoang cach va co th dung m hin h khuy n nghi vi cac b khu ch a i mi co th ap ng c . th y c i u o , bi bo co phn tic h trong trng h p th 2 nh sau.
SVTH: HUNH VN TU LP: 07VTA3

Trang 53

T QUA BA I TOA T K N THI CHNG IV: PHN TI CH K

4.2.2 Phn tich 2: Anh hng cua khong cch t OLT n ONT Bi bo co ly trng h p cua phn tic h 1 nh trn , trng h p ti l chia la 1:128, cng su t phat hng ln d ln nht vn b thiu 2,2dBm va c khuy n nghi dng M hnh 2 (dng b khuch i sau sau u pht ONT ). Nh v y, mu n dung ti l chia nay ma khng c n dung b khu ch a i thi phai giam khoang cach t OLT va ONT v cng sut pht cho c 2 hng la ln nh t v khng th tng ln thm . y , vi khong cch l 15 Km thi cng su t nh n c b thu OLT v ONT ln hn nhy nh hnh minh ha m t . Nh v y vi khoang cach nay , nh cung cp dch v co th cung c p 4 x 4 x 128 = 2048 thu bao vi t c 2 hng la 19,5 Mb/s (nh a phn tich mc 4.1).

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 54

T QUA BA I TOA T K N THI CHNG IV: PHN TI CH K

4.2.3 Phn tich 3: S nh hng cua cng sut pht ln m hinh trin khai Trong Phn tch 1, bi bo co cho thy rng , vi ti l chia splitter 1:64 v khong cch 20Km thi thi t k kha thi ma khng c n dung b khu ch a i . Tuy nhin, o la vi cng su t phat hai u la cc a i . By gi n u trong trng h p kha thi cua phn tich 1 vi khoang cach OLT n ONT la 20Km va ti l chia la 1:64 nhng giam cng su t phat xu ng 1 mc nao o th b thu OLT v ONT u khng thu c m c tn hiu nh hn nhy nh trong hnh bn di minh ha .

T k t qua nay co th th y r ng v i m t ti l chia nh t inh , m t khong cch nht inh thi m hinh kha thi (khng c n dung b khu ch i ) vi m t ngng cng su t pht. Nh trong trng h p nay , cng su t phat ta i O LT khng th be hn 3,5 dBm va cng su t phat ta i O NT khng th be hn 6,5 dBm.

Hnh 4.4: M hin h3

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 55

T QUA BA I TOA T K N THI CHNG IV: PHN TI CH K

4.2.4 Phn tich 4: Trng hp c n chu y khi thi t k Co mt trng h p sau y r t c n chu y trong khi thi t k h th ng . Vi gia s nh sau: nh cung cp dch v cn ti l chia 1:128, khong cch ti a l 20Km va phat cng su t t i a , sn sang dung b khu ch a i cho ca 2 hng n u mc cng su t thu khng u phu r ng vung cung c p dich vu . K t qua c th hi n trong hinh bn di. Nh v y, cng su t hng xu ng c n b thm hng xung l 0,2 dBm va cng su t c n bu cho hng ln l 4,2 dBm, ng nghia vi vi c cng su t phat hng xu ng t i thi u la 9,2 dBm va cng su t pha t hng ln t i thi u la 12,2 dBm. Vi b khu ch a i loa i SAO 11p c cho n dung trong thi t k vi mc cng su t ng ra bao hoa la 12dBm thi ro rang r ng khng th nao ap ng c cng su t phat cho hng ln . Trong trng h p nay nha cung c p dich vu co th thay i loa i connector vi suy hao nho hn thi t k vn co th ap ng c nh hnh di minh ho a . Tuy nhin , n u xet v lu dai , cng su t phat a ln t i a , b khu ch a i cho cng su t ngo ra bao ha nh vy nhng vn khng cho cng sut thu ln hn nhy nhiu th nu h th ng gia tng s lao hoa, gia tng s m i han thi ki n truc nay hoan toan khng th kha thi.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 56

T QUA BA I TOA T K N THI CHNG IV: PHN TI CH K

Tom li,nh cac trng h p a phn tic h nh trn , vi c tin h toan cng su t phat , ti l chia hay khoang cach , loi connector c dng , loi splitter hay s i quang cho h th ng u phai h t sc c n tro ng , trnh trng hp m hnh thit k a ra co cng sut thu ta i b thu cua OLT va ONT qua be .

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 57

T LUN K
Thng qua ni dung b n chng c a bi bo co, cng ngh mng quang truy nhp FTTH v bi ton thit k mng FTTH da trn cng ngh GPON c gii thiu mt cch r rng nht trong kh nng ca ngi vit. Cng ngh FTTH da trn cng ngh GPON nh c trin h bay trn, vi mng phn phi quang th ng,chi m u th trong vi c trin khai mnh cc dch v bng rng vi tc co th ln n 2,5 Gbps cho ca hai hng . Tuy nhin, hin ti cc dch v nh VoIP v truyn hnh cp h u nh cha c trin khai trn cng ngh nay ti Vit Nam. Nhn nhn khch quan t li ch m mng truy nhp FTTH da trn cng ngh GPON co th mang li. Co th khng nh rng: cng ngh ny s gii quyt vn kht bng thng trong tng lai v gii quyt cc yu cu ca cc doanh nghip ln hin nay. Nu trin khai cho a s ngi dng th cc nh cung cp dch v noi chung phi gii quyt ng b nhiu vn gi c dch v gn gi hn vi ti tin ca ngi dn. Ni dung bi bo co c gng bm st n i dung chinh cua cng. Tuy nhin, cn nhn nhn r rng ni dung vn cn nhiu vn cha lm r c . Xt v m hnh ki n truc ca PON , bi bo co cha lm r c kt ni t OLT l n ma ng loi cung c p dch v v tnh d phng m bo cung cp d liu lin tc cho khch hng . V bai ton thit k vn cha xt c cc thng s khc nh hng ln h thng nh ti s tn hi u trn nhiu va ti l l i bit cung nh m i lin quan gia cac thng s nay vi t c v khong cch truyn dn . o cung chin h la hng m cho bai bao cao . Nh li kt, em xin gi li cm n su s c nh t n thy Vn Vit Em, trang b cho em kin thc v mng truyn ti quang cng nh trc tip phn tch ni dung chnh cn thc hin cho bi bo co. Chnh nhng kin thc ny xy dng nn vn ct li ca bi bo co. Cm n bn Nguyn Thy Vn Lp 07VTA3, Hc Vin CN Bu Chnh Vin Thng, c s H Ch Minh h tr bi bo co hon thnh ng thi hn.

SVTH: HUNH VN TU

LP: 07VTA3

Trang 58

T VIT TT
ADSL APD APON ATM BPON CO CRC DBA DBRu EMS EPON FCS FEC FSAN FTTH GEM GMII GPON GTC HEC IEEE IPACT ITU-T LLID MAC MIB MPCP MPCPDU NMS OAM ODN OLT Asymmetric digital subscriber line Avalanche photodiodes ATM-passive optical network Asynchronous transfer mode Broadband passive optical network Centre office Cyclic redundancy check Dynamic bandwidth allocation Dynamic bandwidth report upstream Element management system Ethernet passive optical network Frame check sequence Forward error correction Full service access network Fiber to the home GPON encapsulation method Gigabit Media Independent Interface Gigabit-capable passive optical network G-PON transmission convergence Header error control Institute of electrical and electronics engineers Interleaved polling with adaptive cycle time International telecommunication standardization Logical link identifier Medium access control Management information base Multi-point control protocol Multi-point control protocol data unit Network management system Operation, Administration and maintenance Optical distribution network Optical line terminal union telecommunication

OMCC OMCI ONT ONU OSI P2MP P2P PCBd PDU PHY PLI PLOAM PLOAMu PLOu PLSu PMD PON POTS PTI RS RTD RTT SFD SLA SLD TDM VCI VPI WDM

ONT management and control channel ONT management and control interface Optical network terminal Optical network unit Open system interconnect Point-to-multi-point Point-to-point Physical control block downstream Protocol data units Physical layer Payload length indicator Physical layer OAM Physical layer operations administration and maintenance upstream Physical layer overhead upstream Power leveling sequence upstream Physical medium dependent Passive optical networks Plain old telephone service Payload type indicator Riconciliation Sublayer Round-trip delay Signal round trip time Start frame delimiter Service level agreement Start LLID delimiter Time division multiplexing Virtual Channel Identifier Virtual path identifier Wavelength division multiplexer

TI LIU THAM KHO


[1] Fiber To The Home The New Empowerment,Paul E. Green, Jr, Wiley, 2005 [2] PhD final thesis, Ching Hung Chang [3] T-REC-983.1 [4] T-REC-984.3 [5] T-REC-984.2 [6] T-REC-G.983.2 [7] T-REC-G.652 [8] Tpch Bu chnh Vin thng, http://www.tapchibcvt.gov.vn/News/PrintView.aspx?ID=23984 [9] n Tt Nghip -H ng ng Ngo c n -07VTH1-THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH MNG QUANG THU NG