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iu khin chng tc nghn trong mng NGN ton IP

Bi Th Kim Hoa
Trng i hc Quc gia H Ni; Trng i hc Cng ngh Chuyn ngnh: K thut in t; M s: 60 52 70 Cn b hng dn khoa hc: PGS.TS inh Th Cng Nm bo v: 2012
Abstract. Tng quan v iu khin tc nghn trong mng NGN ton IP. Nghin cu nguyn l iu khin tc nghn trong mng NGN ton IP. Trnh by cc phng php iu khin tc nghn trong mng NGN ton IP. Phn tch cc phng php iu khin tc nghn v ng dng. Keywords: K thut in t; Mng truyn thng; Mng NGN; Tc nghn mng Content. M u Khi nim mng th h sau (NGN - Next Generation Network) hin khng cn mi m trn th gii nh mt vi nm trc y. Xu hng pht trin ca vin thng l tin ti hi t v mng, hi t v dch v, ng dng. Ti nguyn ca mng c gii hn trong khi nhu cu truyn thng tin ngy cng tng. Hin tng tc nghn mng l kh trnh khi.

gii quyt vn ny c hai cch l: Tng ti nguyn ca mng v iu khin chng tc nghn mng. Vic tng ti nguyn mng chi ph u t ln v khng th thng xuyn c. Trong khi , vic iu khin chng tc nghn mng s dng cc giao thc, cc thut ton iu khin chng tc nghn mng. Tuy nhin, vn iu khin chng tc nghn mng rt phc tp nht l khi mng ngy cng pht trin rng ln, dch v gia tng nhanh, cc dch v mi ngy cng nhiu, s lng ngi s dng tng ln nhanh chng km theo vn lu lng tng vt v bin i ng. V vy, vn iu khin chng tc nghn ngy cng tr nn cp thit. ti iu khin chng tc nghn trong mng NGN ton IP tp trung nghin cu cc vn v mng NGN ton IP, cc vn v iu khin tc nghn v h thng cc phng php iu khin chng tc nghn cng nh kh nng ng dng ca nhng phng php ny trong mng NGN ton IP. Cu trc ca lun vn gm 4 chng: Chng 1: Tng quan v iu khin tc nghn trong mng NGN ton IP. Chng 2: Nguyn l iu khin tc nghn trong mng NGN ton IP. Chng 3: Cc phng php iu khin tc nghn trong mng NGN ton IP. Chng 4: Phn tch cc phng php iu khin tc nghn v ng dng. CHNG 1- TNG QUAN V VN TC NGHN TRONG MNG NGN TON IP 1.1. C s k thut mng IP Mng IP c xy dng da trn cc tiu chun ton cu ca IETF. Do , thit b ca cc nh sn xut khc nhau c th d dng

tng hot. Hin nay, nu ni ti tiu chun truyn thng ph bin nht th chnh l giao thc IP. 1.1.1. B giao thc TCP/IP TCP/IP l b giao thc c pht trin bi Cc cc d n nghin cu cp cao (ARPA) ca b quc phng M. Chng giao thc TCP/IP c chia thnh bn tng: giao din mng (network interface), lin mng (internet), giao vn (transport) v ng dng (application). 1.1.2. a ch IP a ch IP l s hiu nhn dng c s dng tng lin mng ca b giao thc TCP/IP hay IP l mt a ch ca mt trm khi tham gia vo mng nhm gip cho cc trm c th chuyn thng tin cho nhau mt cch chnh xc, trnh tht lc. i vi phin bn IPv4, a ch ny l mt s nh phn 32 bt. a ch IP theo phin bn IPv6 s dng 128 bit (16octet) m ho d liu, n cho php s dng nhiu a ch hn so vi IPv4. 1.2. Mng th h sau NGN (Next Generation Network) Mng PSTN da trn nn tng cng ngh TDM v h thng bo hiu s 7 (CCS7). V c bn, mng ny vn c kh nng cung cp tt cc dch v vin thng bnh thng nh thoi hay Fax vi cht lng kh n nh. Song nhu cu ca bn thn nh cung cp dch v ln khch hng ngy cng tng lm bc l nhng hn ch khng th khc phc c ca mng hin ti. Vi yu cu v thay i cng ngh mng nh trn, mng th h sau NGN c gii thiu v ng dng mt s quc gia. 1.2.1. S cn thit phi chuyn i sang mng NGN

1.2.2. Khi nim mng NGN Khi nim mng NGN c nu trong khuyn ngh Y.2001 ca ITU-T nh sau: Mng th h sau (NGN) l mng gi c kh nng cung cp cc dch v vin thng v to ra nhiu ng dng bng thng rng, cc cng ngh truyn ti m bo cht lng dch v v trong cc chc nng dch v c lp vi cc cng ngh truyn ti lin quan pha di. N cho php truy nhp khng gii hn ti mng, cc nh cung cp dch v v/hoc cc dch v theo mun. N h tr tnh di ng cho cc dch v cung cp ti ngi s dng sao cho ng nht v m bo. 1.2.3. c im ca mng NGN Mng NGN c bn c im chnh: - Nn tng l h thng mng m. - Dch v phi thc hin c lp vi mng. - NGN l mng chuyn mch gi, da trn mt b giao thc thng nht. - NGN l mng c dung lng ngy cng tng v tnh thch ng cao, c nng lc p ng nhu cu ca ngi s dng. 1.2.4. Nguyn tc t chc v cu trc ca mng NGN Mng th h sau c t chc da trn nhng nguyn tc c bn sau: - p ng nhu cu cung cp cc loi hnh dch v vin thng phong ph, a dng, a dch v, a phng tin. - Mng c cu trc n gin. - Nng cao hiu qu s dng cht lng mng li v gim thiu chi ph khai thc, bo dng.

- D dng m rng dung lng, pht trin cc dch v mi. - linh hot v tnh sn sng cao, nng lc tn ti mnh. Cu trc mng NGN c a ra c c im chung l bao gm cc lp chc nng sau: Lp kt ni (truy nhp v truyn dn) Lp trung gian hay lp truyn thng Lp iu khin Lp qun l Mng NGN cho php trin khai cc dch vu mt cch nhanh chng v a dng, p ng s hi t gia cc thng tin thoi, truyn d liu v Intemet, gia c nh v di ng vi gi thnh hp l. ng dng mng NGN cho php gim thiu thi gian a dch v mi ra th trng; nng cao hiu sut s dng v truyn dn vi cng ngh ghp knh bc sng quang DWDM chim lnh lp vt l v cng ngh IP/MPLS lm nn tng cho lp mng. Mng NGN cho php cc nh cung cp dch v tng cng kh nng kim sot, bo mt thng tin ca khch hng. Mng NGN l c th c pht trin bi cc nh khai thc mi khng yu cu c sn c s h tng hay ch cn nng cp, m rng trn cu trc mng sn c. 1.2.6. Mng NGN ton IP Trung tm ca mng NGN ton IP chnh l s hi t ca 3 yu t: hi t mng (Application Convergence), hi t dch v (Service Convergence), hi t ng dng (Network Convergence). ng thi cho

1.2.5. Li ch ca mng NGN

php cung cp cc dch v tch hp vi IP l cng ngh nn tng. chnh l l do cho s ra i ca mng NGN ton IP. 1.2.7. Vn m bo cht lng dch v trong mng NGN 1.2.7.1. Cc tham s nh gi cht lng mng NGN Mng NGN l mng h tng thng tin da trn cng ngh chuyn mch gi nn vic nh gi cht lng mng ch yu da trn 4 tham s c bn l: bng thng, tr gi, trt (jitter) v t l mt gi. 1.2.7.2. Cc m hnh m bo cht lng dch v trin khai QoS trong mng vin thng, cc m hnh QoS (hay k thut QoS) khc nhau c xut bao gm: M hnh Best Effort: M hnh Best Effort l m hnh n v ph bin trn cc mng IP ni chung, cho php ng dng gi d liu bt c khi no vi bt c khi lng no n c th thc hin v khng i hi s cho php hoc thng tin v mng, ngha l mng phn phi d liu nu n c th m khng cn s m bo v tin cy, tr hoc kh nng thng mng. M hnh tch hp dch v (IntServ): M hnh ny khng nhng p ng cc dch v Best Effort m cn h tr cc ng dng thi gian thc ngy cng tng trn mng IP. Vic a ra m hnh IntServ c v nh gii quyt c nhiu vn lin quan n QoS trong mng IP. Tuy nhin trong thc t m hnh ny khng m bo c QoS t u cui ti u cui (end to end). c nhiu c gng nhm thay i iu ny nhm t mt mc QoS cao hn cho mng IP, v mt trong nhng c gng l s ra i ca DiffServ.

M hnh phn bit dch v (DiffServ): DiffServ s dng vic nh du gi v xp hng theo loi h tr dch v u tin qua mng IP. Mc tiu pht trin ca m hnh Diffserv l cung cp c ch phn bit cc dch v thnh cc lp dch v khc nhau tng ng vi yu cu QoS khc nhau. Diffserv ch phn bit i x ti cc lp lu lng khc nhau nn khng cung cp mc QoS c th. u im ca m hnh DiffServ so vi m hnh IntServ l kh nng m rng mng cao v phc v a dch v, ph hp vi mi trng mng NGN. 1.3. Cc vn v tc nghn mng Tc nghn l mt hin tng rt quen thuc trn mng, m nguyn nhn ni chung l do ti nguyn mng gii hn trong khi nhu cu truyn thng tin ca con ngi l khng c gii hn. 1.3.2. Nguyn nhn gy ra tc nghn Nguyn nhn chnh l do bn cht t nhin ca d liu ngi dng a vo mng. Khi mng khng kp ng ph vi s gia tng t ngt ca lu lng tc nghn s xy ra. Tc x l chm, cu hnh b nh tuyn km cng l mt nguyn nhn quan trng gy nn tc nghn, bi v chng c th s lm hng i b trn ngay c khi lu lng gi s liu n nt mng nh hn nng lc vn ti ca ng truyn i ra. 1.3.3. Vn tc nghn trong mng NGN ton IP Gm cc nguyn nhn c bn sau: - Trn b m. - Li do ng truyn v tuyn - Do nghn c chai 1.3.1. Tc nghn l g?

- Nhu cu bng thng cao ca cc dch v a phng tin v cc loi hnh dch v mi - Lu lng ln, thay i t bin v bin i ng. - Tnh bin ng ca mng, hnh trng mng. CHNG 2- NGUYN L IU KHIN TC NGHN TRONG MNG NGN TON IP Vn iu khin tc nghn ni chung iu khin tc nghn lin quan n k thut v c ch c th ngn nga tc nghn trc khi xy ra hoc loi b tc nghn sau khi xy ra. Mc tiu ca c ch iu khin tc nghn ch n gin l s dng mng mt cch hiu qu nht c th. 2.2. Nguyn l iu khin tc nghn - Nguyn l chung iu khin tc nghn l: - Duy tr im hot ng ca mng lun mc lu lng a vo nh. - m bo cc b m ca b nh tuyn khng b trn. - m bo pha gi d liu nhanh m pha nhn vn c th x l, gip s dng ti nguyn mng mt cch hiu qu nht. 2.3.
2.3.1.

2.1.

Phn loi cc phng php iu khin tc nghn Phn loi theo l thuyt iu khin Theo quan im ca l thuyt iu khin, cc h thng iu khin

c th c chia thnh 2 loi: iu khin mch vng h (Open loop control) v iu khin mch vng ng (Close loop control).

2.3.1.1.

iu khin chng tc nghn vng h Trng hp ny s dng cc thit k tt c gng ngn chn tc

nghn xy ra. khng xy ra tc nghn, cc h thng u cui cn phi m phn vi mng lu lng a vo mng khng c ln hn kh nng x l ca mng, trnh xy ra tc nghn. 2.3.1.2. iu khin chng tc nghn vng ng iu khin chng tc nghn vng ng c thc hin da trn c s thng tin phn hi (feedback-based). Trong trng hp ny, cc thit b u cui cn nhn c thng tin phn hi t mng v tnh trng tc nghn hin ti. Khi , h thng u cui s phn ng vi cc du hiu tc nghn bng cch hn ch lng ti a vo mng, ph hp vi dung lng hin c ca mng gim bt tnh trng tc nghn. iu khin tc nghn vng ng bao gm iu khin phn hi n v iu khin phn hi r.
2.3.2.

iu khin tc nghn trn c s ca s hay tc iu khin da trn tc : iu khin mt cch trc tip tc

truyn ti pha gi (ngun gi tin). Ngi nhn hoc thit b nh tuyn thng bo cho ngi gi thng tin phn hi iu chnh tc gi d liu khng vt qu tc cho php. iu khin da trn kch thc ca s: iu khin gin tip tc truyn thng qua vic thay i kch thc ca s. Ngi gi thc hin gi s lng nht nh cc gi tin hoc byte c php trc khi c thng tin phn hi mi n. Pha nhn s nhn v m cc gi tin n v thng bo cho ngi gi bit rng c php tng kch thc ca s ln mt s lng nht nh.

2.4.

Cc tiu ch nh gi phng php iu khin chng tc nghn Nhng tiu ch c bn nht dng cho phn tch, nh gi cc

phng php iu khin chng tc nghn bao gm:


2.4.1.

Tnh hiu qu (Efficient) Tnh hiu qu c nh ngha l t s gia tng ti nguyn phn

phi cho cc ng dng v tng ti nguyn mong mun ti im gy knee ca mng, ngha l trc thi im mng xy ra bo ha.
2.4.2.

Tnh bnh ng (Fairness) Khi nhiu ngi s dng chia s ti nguyn, tt c ngi s dng

trong cng mt lp dch v phi c chia s nh nhau v ti nguyn. Ch s ny ch biu din tnh bnh ng gia cc ngi s dng mng ni chung m cha th hin c bn cht a dch v trong mng th h mi.
2.4.3.

Tnh hi t (Convergence) S hi t c nh gi bi thi gian cn h thng t n

trng thi mong mun t mt trng thi xut pht bt k. Mt cch l tng, h thng t ti trng thi ch nhanh v c bin dao ng rt nh xung quanh n.Thi gian t c trng thi cn bng xc nh nhy v mn ca phng php iu khin.
2.4.4.

Tnh phn tn (Distributedness) y l iu cn thit bi v mt m hnh tp trung i hi thng

tin y v trng thi ca mng cng nh cc lung ring l, v iu ny l khng th khng c i vi mng c ln.

2.5.

Thut ton tng gim Nguyn l ch o ca iu khin chng tc nghn l da trn

thut ton tng gim. Thut ton tng cng/gim nhn (AIMD) tr thnh thut ton c la chn rng ri nht iu khin chng tc nghn. Hu ht cc phng php da trn nguyn l iu khin chng tc nghn tuyn tnh truyn thng ny. Tuy nhin, thc t cho thy thut ton AIMD c xy dng trn gi thit bin i lu lng rt t v mng ch c dch v truyn ti d liu thun tu nh TCP. R rng nguyn l iu khin tuyn tnh khng cn p ng y th hin c tnh ng ca mng, s bin thin ca lu lng trong mng NGN vi nhng ng dng a phng tin v cc ng dng mi. 2.6.
2.6.1.

Phng php phn hi tc nghn ti b nh tuyn Cc c im ca phng php phn hi tc nghn ti b nh tuyn Hai phng php phn hi tc nghn ti b nh tuyn kh ph bin

hin nay l RED v ECN. Mt s phng php phn hi tc nghn ti b nh tuyn khc (EWA, FEWA, CSFQ..) c th iu khin tt hn cc ca s gi TCP trong trng hp xy ra tc nghn trong mng.
2.6.2.

Cc nguyn tc thit k v cc c ch lin quan Mt vi phng php phn hi tc nghn ti b nh tuyn, v d

2.6.2.1. nh hng truyn ti thng tin mng RED v ECN, truyn thng tin mng ch theo mt chiu t cc b nh tuyn n pha gi. Cc phng php ny c th c xem cc phng php phn hi tc nghn mt chiu. Tuy nhin, cng c cc phng php phn hi tc nghn ti b nh tuyn khc thc hin chia s thng tin

mng hai chiu gia cc b nh tuyn v pha gi, c phn loi l cc phng php phn hi chng tc nghn hai chiu. 2.6.2.2. C ch truyn ti thng tin mng Cc c ch c th c s dng trin khai cc phng php phn hi tc nghn ti b nh tuyn: Thng tin mng c th c truyn bng cch s dng cc c ch Thng tin mng cng c th c truyn trong cc bn tin giao ca giao thc truyn ti TCP. thc b sung. Cc bn tin giao thc mi ny c th c truyn km vi cc bn tin giao thc chun, hoc tch ring thnh gi d liu mi. Phng php ny i hi cc gii thut TCP tiu chun trong cc h thng u cui phi c s thay i t nhiu h tr cc chc nng phn hi chng tc nghn mi. Pht trin mt giao thc truyn thng hon ton mi, c th trn Thng tin phn hi c s TCP.. 2.6.2.3. Thng tin mng c th chia s r hoc n gia cc b nh tuyn v cc h thng u cui. 2.6.2.4. phc tp phc tp bao gm thi gian v khng gian chim dng b nh ca b iu khin phn hi tc nghn nm trong cc b nh tuyn v cc b iu khin tc nghn thch ng nm trong cc h thng u cui.

CHNG 3 - CC PHNG PHP IU KHIN TC NGHN TRONG MNG NGN TON IP Trong mi trng mng NGN, cc phng php iu khin tc nghn hiu qu khng th khng thc hin trn c s tp hp v nh gi cc thng tin mng. Cc c ch v c im ca cc phng php phn hi tc nghn ti b nh tuyn c cp n trong chng ny bao gm: RED (Random Early Detection), ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification); EWA (Explicit Window Adaptation); FEWA (Fuzzy Explicit Window Adaptation), XCP (Explicit Control Protocol), CSFQ (Core-Stateless Fair Queueing), FBA-TCP (Core-Stateless Fair

Bandwidth Allocation for TCP), QS-TCP (TCP Quick-Start), ETCP (Enhanced TCP). Trc ht, ni dung cp n vn c bn v c ch iu khin tc nghn ca giao thc TCP. 3.1. iu khin tc nghn trong TCP Qun l chng tc nghn TCP da trn thut ton tng cng gim nhn (AIMD). iu khin chng tc nghn trong TCP thuc loi iu khin vng kn phn hi n [5]. 3.1.1. Cc pha iu khin tc nghn iu khin chng tc nghn trong TCP c thc hin theo hai pha nh sau: Pha 1: Pha bt u chm (SS - Slow Start): Pha 2: Pha chng tc nghn (CA - Congestion Avoidance): 3.1.2. C ch ca s trt Vic iu khin tc nghn trn c thc hin da trn c ch iu khin lung u cui bng ca s trt. C ch ca s trt cho

php TCP truyn nhiu gi tin trc khi dng li i ACK, do tng tc truyn tin. 3.1.3. TCP Tahoe (Fast Retransmit) Khi pht hin mt gi tin, Tahoe pht li gi tin b mt, t thresh = cwnd hin ti v khi ng li SlowStart vi cwnd bng 1. 3.1.4. TCP Reno (Fast Recovery) Khi pht hin mt gi tin bng ACK lp th 3, Reno pht li gi tin b mt v khi ng li Congestion Avoidance vi cwnd bng 1/2 hin ti khi nhn c ACK ca gi tin ny (mt ACK mi). 3.1.5. TCP NewReno TCP NewReno ci tin k thut fast Recovery ca Reno, thot khi fast Recovery v khi ng Congestion Avoidance khi ton b gi tin truyn trc khi khi ng Fast Recovery nhn c ACK tng ng. 3.1.6. TCP Vegas Vegas l mt thut ton tc ng trc (proactive), cho php d on tc nghn trc khi n xy ra iu chnh hot ng nhm trnh xy ra tc nghn. 3.2. RED (Random Early Detection) Phng php iu khin tc nghn RED (Pht hin sm ngu nhin) thc hin pht hin tc nghn v loi b gi tin ngu nhin t b m. Trong hnh 3.4, h trc ta bao gm phn trm b m y , v kh nng loi b gi tin p. Cc gi tin khng b loi b v RED cha c kch hot khi nh hn gi tr chn di min th xc sut loi b l 0, thm gi tin mi vo hng i. RED c kch hot khi vt qu

min. Nu vt qu gi tr chn trn max th xc sut loi b gi l 1, gi tin mi n b loi b, hng i bt u thc hin ch ct bt phn ui o. Nu nm trong gii hn min v max th nh du hoc loi b gi tin ngu nhin ty theo hm xc sut p.
Xc sut loi b gi tin p
Khng loi b gi tin Loi b ngu nhin
Loi b gi tin mi n (ui)

min

% b m hin thi

max RED kt thc

% b m y

RED kch hot

Hnh 3. 1. Loi b gi tin RED theo xc sut p

3.3.

ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) Phng php thng bo tc nghn hin ECN l mt phng php

iu khin tc nghn c ng dng cho cc lu lng TCP. Trong ECN, du hiu bt u tc nghn c truyn thng ti h thng u cui bng cch nh du cc trng tiu gi tin IP v TCP cng vi du hiu tc nghn c thm vo gi tin thay v loi b cc gi tin. im

khc bit ch yu gia RED v ECN l trong RED cc gi tin b loi b ngu nhin trong khi trong ECN cc gi tin c la chn ngu nhin cho php truyn i cng vi du hiu tc nghn c nh du thng bo cho h thng u cui bit. Mt thut ton tng t nh thut ton loi b gi tin sm RED c s dng lu chn cc gi tin c du hiu tc nghn. thc hin, cc b nh tuyn cn phi c kh nng thng bo cho pha gi rng tc nghn sp xy ra pha gi iu chnh tc gi trnh hoc ti thiu ha vic xy ra tc nghn v mt gi tin. ECN truyn nhng thng tin ny trong d liu c bit bao gm trong tiu mng ca cc gi tin. 3.4. EWA (Explicit Window Adaptation) Phng php EWA (Explicit Window Adapation) c pht trin gi thng bo r rng v bng thng kh dng trn mi lin kt c nt c chai da trn phng php iu khin lung ca giao thc TCP tng hiu nng tng th ca vic iu khin tc nghn t u cui u cui. N c thc hin mt cch trong sut truyn thng tin phn hi t b nh tuyn n pha gi. V vy, phng php EWA yu cu vic nh tuyn i xng trong mng m bo cc phn on d liu (data segments) v cc bo nhn ACK ca mt kt ni TCP i qua cng cc b nh tuyn trong ng i. EWA cho thy cc kt qu hot ng tt trong cc b nh tuyn trng ti ln, nhng gii thut EWA khng xem xt cc trng hp hng i ti b nh tuyn EWA nh hn ngng thp trong mt khong thi gian di. L do nm vic tnh ton , n t qu nhiu vo trng ti

trc ca b nh tuyn, v vy n khng th phn ng li nhanh i vi nhng thay i ln ca cc iu kin ti trong b nh tuyn. 3.5. FEWA (Fuzzy Explicit Window Adaptation) Mt bin th EWA mi, c gi l EWA m (FEWA Fuzzy EWA), c nghin cu pht trin, n khc ch yu l vic tnh ton . Trong EWA, do vic tnh ton t qu nhiu trng s vo ti trc ca mt B nh tuyn nn n khng th phn ng li nhanh khi c s thay i ln ca cc iu khin ti. FEWA (Fuzzy EWA) ra i khc phc hn ch trn ca EWA bng cch s dng mt b iu khin m tnh da trn di hin ti v gn nht ca mt hng i trn b nh tuyn. Vi vic thay i cch tnh gi tr ny em li hiu sut t u cui n u cui c th t c ln hn so vi EWA. 3.6. CSFQ (Core-Stateless Fair Queueing) tng ca CSFQ (Core-Stateless Fair Queueing) l phn on mng trong mt vng b nh tuyn v phn bit gia bin v li trong 1 vng (min). CSFQ nhm mc ch t c mt s phn b bng thng hp l trong b nh tuyn m khng yu cu s tnh ton cho mi lung hoc trng thi mi lung trong b nh tuyn li ca phn mng CSFQ. Cc b nh tuyn nm bin c lng tc n ca mi lung a vo min, v dn nhn thng tin ny vo mi gi. Cc b nh tuyn li tnh ton mt rng bng thng hp l chia s cho tt c cc lung da trn s kt hp ca tc n v chuyn tip. Tuy nhin, CSQF khng ging mt c ch phn hi tc nghn r. Ch cc gi tin b mt ti cc b nh tuyn li v bin ca phn mng 3.5.1. c im ca FEWA

CSQF c s dng nh thng bo n ti ngi gi v tnh trng tc nghn sp xy ra trong mng. FBA-TCP l mt c ch phn hi tc nghn r c m rng t c ch ca CSQF. 3.7. TCP) FBA-TCP (phn b bng thng hp l cho TCP) s dng c ch CSFQ (Core-Stateless Fair Queueing) ci tin vic iu khin tc nghn trong cc kt ni TCP. V vy, cc c im ca CSFQ u c trong FBA-TCP. c tnh mi ca FBA-TCP so vi CSFQ l b nh tuyn bin pha nhn ca lung khng xo nhn khi mi gi. B nh tuyn bin t nhn ca gi vo trong phn tiu IPv4 (hay tiu m rng ca IPv6) truyn trong sut nhn ny n TCP pha nhn qua phn mng khng c kh nng CSFQ. Nu h thng u cui pha nhn ca kt ni TCP gi gi tr ny n TCP pha nhn tnh ca s gi mi. 3.8. ETCP (Enhanced TCP) tng ca ETCP (Enhanced TCP) l s dng phn hi FEWA) tnh ca s tc nghn mi. ETCP pha gi khng thc hin chu trnh bt u chm (slow start) v chng tc nghn (congestion avoidance), m bt u vi mt ca s gi khi to v cp nht ca s tc nghn mi theo ca s nhn thng bo nh sau: ETCP1: Ca s tc nghn mi ca ngi gi ETCP c thit lp ti gi tr ca ca s nhn thng bo hin thi: cwnd = rwnd FBA-TCP (Core-Stateless Fair Bandwidth Allocation for

ETCP 2: Ngi gi TCP thc hin khi ng chm hai ln ca s tc nghn sau khi nhn bo nhn cwnd. Tnh nng ny ca TCP c m phng bi ETCP. V vy, ca s tc nghn mi ca ngi gi ETCP hi t ti mt gi tr gp i sau khi ngi gi ETCP nhn c bo nhn cwnd: cwnd = min{ cwnd. 21/cwnd, rwnd} ETCP3: Mt ca s tc nghn mi ca ngi gi ETCP hi t ti ca s nhn thng bo sau khi ngi gi ETCP nhn c bo nhn cwnd:
rwnd cwnd 1/ cwnd cwnd .(rwnd / cwnd ) XCP (eXplicit Control Protocol)

nu cwnd > rwnd khc

3.9.

Giao thc iu khin chng tc nghn XCP l khi qut ha cc xut trong Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN). Thay v mt bt thng bo tc nghn s dng trong ECN, XCP xut s dng bo hiu tc nghn r, mng thng bo cho pha gi v tnh trng tc nghn trong mng v cch thc phn ng li vi tc nghn. Nu TCP s dng gii thut AIMD (p ng chm nhng hi t n s cng bng) iu chnh tc gi gi tin th XCP s dng gii thut MIMD vi p ng nhanh v mc s dng cao hn. Ging nh TCP, XCP l mt giao thc iu khin tc nghn da trn ca s. Pha nhn XCP tng t nh trong TCP chp nhn khi thc hin bo nhn gi tin, n s sao chp tiu tc nghn vo bo nhn ca n.

Thc hin XCP trong h thng u cui l tng i n gin. Ch thay i 1 t trong m ngun ca TCP pha gi v TCP pha nhn lm cho chng c kh nng XCP. Trang b b nh tuyn vi kh nng XCP kh tn km, s phc tp ca XCP trong b nh tuyn l tng i cao. Tuy nhin, XCP l ng c y ha hn trong vic ci thin iu khin tc nghn trong mng c s IP trong tng lai. 3.10. QS-TCP (Quick Start TCP) Bt u nhanh cho TCP (QS-TCP) c xut nm 2002 bi Jain v Floyd nh l mt cch tng ca s khi to ca mt kt ni TCP. Trong th tc thit lp kt ni TCP (TCP SYN v TCP SYN/ACK) pha gi TCP chn mt yu cu QS (QS Request) vo gi TCP n bao gm tc khi to m pha gi mun truyn. Mi b nh tuyn dc theo ng truyn xc nhn liu n c th p ng yu cu lu lng mi ny. Nu n c th p ng yu cu mi ny th n s truyn yu cu QS Request i, ngc li n s gim tc d liu n mt gi tr m n c th h tr. Khi yu cu QS ti TCP pha nhn, mt p ng QS (QS response) tng ng c to ra v chn vo mt thng bo nhn c gi tr v pha gi. Nhn c p ng QS, TCP pha gi iu chnh ca s chng tc nghn khi to theo tc d liu ch ra trong p ng QS.. Trong khi xut QS-TCP ban u nhm mc ch xc nh ca s TCP khi to, mt cp nht gn y ca QS-TCP cng cp n mt s m rng y tim nng cho pht trin QS. Cc s m rng c th khc cho php mt kt ni a ra mt l n i ln hay i xung, hoc kch hot mt tn hiu khi im nh km vo mt nt u cui thay i, v d do IP di ng (mobile IP).

CHNG 4 PHN TCH CC PHNG PHP IU KHIN TC NGHN V NG DNG


4.1. Phn tch mt s kt qu m phng

Phn ny gii thiu chng trnh v kt qu m phng c thc hin bi Dr. Subarna Shakya v Anup Sainju so snh hiu nng ca cc gi tin ECN so vi cc phng php khc nh Droptail v RED. Kt qu ca m phng ch ra rng, khi cc iu kin tin quyt ca mng c p ng, ECN hn ch vic loi b gi tin v v vy ti u ha mc s dng ti nguyn mng v thng lng d liu. Droptail l t hiu qu nht trong c ba phng php. ECN khc RED bng vic s dng nh du gi tin thng bo cho cc node mng v tnh trng tc nghn. l mt h thng phn hi thng minh, thc hin ti u ha thng lng mng v mc s dng ti nguyn trong khi gim thiu vic loi b gi tin. 4.2. So snh cc phng php iu khin tc nghn Cc thuc tnh v chc nng chnh ca cc c ch ny c tng kt v so snh trong Bng 4.2. Phng php no c s dng trong mng NGN cn tu thuc vo mc tng thch vi cc giao thc truyn ti TCP v UDP trong cc h thng u cui. XCP l mt phng php mnh nht ci thin hot ng tng th ca cc mng tc cao. Tuy nhin, XCP yu cu s p ng cn thit ca giao thc lp truyn ti trong cc h thng u cui. Khc vi XCP, (F)EWA khng i hi bt k s thay i no cc h thng u cui. Nhng (F)EWA khng mnh bng XCP, v vi (F)EWA ca s gi ca pha gi TCP khng th c iu khin mt cch chnh xc nh l XCP. ETCP c th xem nh mt s m rng ca (F)EWA khc phc iu ny.

CSFQ khng cung cp phn hi r cho pha gi. V vy, hiu nng ca phng php ny tng ln mc hn ch. Nhng FBA-TCP l mt m rng ca CSFQ c th l ng c vin sng gi cho vic ci thin iu khin chng tc nghn trn mng NGN. Cc thit k ca FBA-TCP cho thy, phng php ny kh nng so snh c vi (F)EWA trong vic tng hiu nng ca mng. Nhc im chnh ca FBA-TCP l cc b nh tuyn bin trong min CSFQ phi lu thng tin trn mi lung nhn cho cc gi tin trong lung. C th thy mi phng php c nhng u nhc im ring ca n, tuy nhin nu cn c vo cc tiu ch p dng cho mng NGN, ta c th thy c hu ht cc phng php cn da trn nguyn l iu khin chng tc nghn tuyn tnh truyn thng, c th l tng cng - gim nhn. Duy c XCP c xut theo hng s dng tng nhn - gim nhn nhm tng tc truyn d liu v tn dng hiu qu ti nguyn. R rng nguyn l iu khin tuyn tnh khng cn p ng y th hin c tnh ng ca mng, s bin thin ca lu lng trong mng NGN vi nhng ng dng a phng tin v cc ng dng mi.

Bng 4. 1. So snh cc phng php phn hi tc nghn ti b nh tuyn.


H tr cc lung TCP/UDP Trong sut i vi pha gi/nhn nh hng truyn ti thng tin mng Cung cp phn hi r/n c s dng tng/gim tc gi Cung cp phn hi lin tc Cn trng thi mi lung ti mt vi b nh tuyn Cn nh tuyn i xng C c ch pht trin tng bc Kh nng ng dng trong mng hin ti phc tp trong h thng u cui/b nh tuyn Hiu nng mong mun tng so vi TCP chun (F)EWA c/khng c/c mt chiu c/c khng/c c khng c khng c thp/trung bnh (+)++ ETCP c/khng khng/ c mt chiu c/c c/c c khng c c khng thp/trung bnh ++++ XCP khng/ khng khng/ khng hai chiu c/c c/c c khng khng khng khng thp/cao +++++ CSFQ c/c c/c mt chiu khng/c khng/c c c khng khng c thp/cao ++ FBA-TCP c/khng c/ khng mt chiu c/c khng/ c c c khng khng c thp/ cao +++ QS-TCP c/khng khng/ khng mt chiu c/c c/c khng khng khng c khng thp/ trung bnh + ECN c/khng khng/khng mt chiu c/c khng/c c Khng Khng Khng c thp/ trung bnh +

4.3. Kh nng ng dng ca cc phng php iu khin tc nghn trong mi trng mng

NGN ton IP
4.3.1.

(F)EWA u im chnh ca (F)EWA c so snh vi cc phng php phn hi tc nghn ti b

nh tuyn khc l (F)EWA c th c trin khai tng bc trn mng. Nu trin khai thnh cng, th hiu nng mong mun tng ln ca (F)EWA s khng b gim i. Ngoi ra, mc phc tp ca thut ton (F)EWA trong cc b nh tuyn thp, c th so snh vi XCP.
4.3.2.

ETCP Kh nng ng dng ca ETCP ph thuc vo vic trin khai ca (F)EWA trong tt c cc b

nh tuyn hoc ti thiu l ti b nh tuyn tht c chai trn mng. V vy, cc kh nng ng dng ca (F)EWA u c gi tr cho ETCP. Mt nhc im ca ETCP l khng th trin khai ETCP pha gi trong mng nu khng phi tt c b nh tuyn tht c chai c trang b (F)EWA. Do ETCP i hi cc thay i nh nhng c bn trong thut ton iu khin chng tc nghn ca pha gi TCP, kh c th trin khai mt cch ton din phng php phn hi tc nghn ti b nh tuyn ny trong cc mng trn c s IP hin nay.
4.3.3.

XCP Mc d XCP l mt trong cc phng php ha hn nht trong s cc phng php phn hi

tc nghn ti b nh tuyn nhng s trin khai ca XCP trong cc mng trn c s IP hin nay gp kh khn, bi v cc h thng u cui v cc b nh tuyn cn phi c trang b cc thut ton iu khin tc nghn mi XCP. Hiu nng ca XCP trn mng ch c th t c nu phn ln cc b nh tuyn v cc im u cui c trin khai gii thut XCP. XCP s dng thm mt tiu chng tc nghn mang thng tin iu khin tc nghn t pha gi XCP n cc b nh tuyn c kh nng XCP v thng tin phn hi tc nghn theo hng ngc li. Nu tiu chng tc nghn ny c phn bit vi d liu trong giao thc truyn ti v loi tr m ho ca d liu giao thc truyn ti (ch truyn ti IPSec) th XCP khng b nh hng bi tt c cc c ch bo mt lp truyn ti trong cc mng trn c s IP hin nay. Nhng XCP khng th s dng vi ch IPSec ng hm.
4.3.4.

CSFQ CSFQ c pht trin ci thin cng bng gia cc lung lu lng trong mng hoc

phn mng cc b nh tuyn c kh nng CSFQ. V vy c th trin khai t t CSFQ trong cc mng trn c s IP. Tuy nhin, CSFQ khng cung cp thng tin phn hi tc nghn r rng t b nh tuyn ci thin hn na hiu nng ca cc lung lu lng t u cui u cui. Nh vy, kh nng s dng ca phng php ny c mt s gii hn. Cc b nh tuyn bin ca min CSFQ cn lu tr trng thi ca lung xc nh cc lung, o tc lung hin ti v nh du cc gi tin ca lung theo tc lung hin ti o c. V vy, kh nng m rng v kh nng ng

dng ca CSFQ b hn ch i vi cc phn mng c mt phn nh ca lung lu lng i qua b nh tuyn bin.
4.3.5.

FBA-TCP V FBA TCP l phng php m rng ca CSFQ, cung cp thng tin phn hi r t min

CSFQ ci thin iu khin tc nghn ca ngi gi TCP. V vy, cc c tnh v gii hn ca CSFQ u ng vi FBA TCP. Thm vo , khi thng tin phn hi r t min CSFQ c truyn dn ti pha nhn TCP, phng php FBA-TCP khng th cng hot ng vi ch m ha IPSec ng hm.
4.3.6.

QS-TCP Phng php QS-TCP khng xc nh bt k gii thut no ti cc b nh tuyn m ch c

mt s nguyn tc v quy nh thit k chung c a ra. Nhng c th gi s rng phc tp ng dng ca QS-TCP trong cc b nh tuyn l c th so snh c vi (F)EWA. QS-TCP l khng trong sut vi cc h thng u cui. N i hi cc thay i nh hn pha nhn TCP v cc thay i ln pha gi. V vy, vic trin khai QS-TCP trn mng trn c s IP hin nay l kh khn hn so vi cc phng php khc (v d (F)EWA). V hiu nng tng ln mong mun ca QS-TCP cng hn ch hn so vi cc phng php phn hi tc nghn khc do QSTCP ch s dng trong pha bt u ca kt ni TCP vi mt ca s tc nghn khi to ln hn trng hp TCP chun. Ngoi ra, vic trin khai dn dn ca QS-TCP trong mng cng c cc hn ch c th so snh v kh nng s dng v hiu nng mong mun so vi vic trin khai dn dn ca XCP. QS-TCP c kh nng hot ng cng vi c ch bo mt IPSec trong ch truyn ti IPsec. Nhng QS-TCP khng th hot ng cng vi cc lung IP c m ha trong ch m ha IPSec ng hm.
4.3.7.

Tng kt c trng ca cc phng php iu khin tc nghn Mc d XCP l phng php c ha hn nht trong ci thin hiu nng ca mng, kh nng

trin khai ca XCP trong mng cng b hn ch. V vy, kh nng trin khai ca XCP l mt nhim v lu di hn l ngn hn. Phng php phn hi tc nghn ti b nh tuyn tt c k vng tip theo tng hiu nng mng l ETCP. Nhng ETCP li yu cu c mt s thay i ti pha ngi gi TCP nn kh nng trin khai ton b ca phng php ny trong mi trng mng IP cng kh t c. Nu xem xt c hai kh nng v trin khai trong mng v tng hiu nng mng ca mt phng php phn hi tc nghn ti b nh tuyn th FEWA c th c xem l la chn u tin. FBA-TCP c hiu nng mng tng ln c th so snh vi FEWA nhng thiu st ca FBA-TCP l mt s b nh tuyn yu cu trng thi/lung v FBA-TCP khng th s dng cng c ch bo mt IPsec. CSFQ v QS-TCP hn ch hiu nng mong mun so vi cc phng php khc. Thm vo , CSFQ khng th s dng cng c ch bo mt IPsec v vic trin khai dn ca QS-TCP kh t

c. V vy CSFQ v QS-TCP khng th c xem l la chn u tin ca phng php phn hi tc nghn ti b nh tuyn cho mng trn c s IP hin nay. Tm li la chn phng php phn hi tc nghn ti b nh tuyn trong mi trng mng hin nay cn xem xt n 2 kha cnh: (a) trin khai d dng trong mi trng mng mi; (b) hiu nng t c ti a. Do , cc phng php FEWA (ETCP, QS-TCP + FEWA) v XCP s l cc ng c vin sang gi cho trin khai iu khin tc nghn trong mi trng mng mi. KT LUN iu khin chng tc nghn l mt vn phc tp, nht l khi mng ngy cng pht trin rng ln, dch v gia tng nhanh, cc dch v mi ngy cng nhiu, s lng ngi s dng tng vt v bin i ng. y l mt lnh vc ang rt c quan tm nhm tm ra gii php ti u trong vic s dng hiu qu ti nguyn mng, c bit quan trng khi ng dng trong quy hoch, thit k, iu hnh v qun l mng. Lun vn tp trung vo vic tm hiu v trnh by cc vn v mng NGN, cc nguyn l iu khin tc nghn v cc k thut, phng php iu khin tc nghn trong mi trng mng hin nay. Cc kin thc c tng hp v phn tch trong lun vn c th lm tin cho cc kt qu nghin cu su hn v cc phng php iu khin tc nghn trong mi trng mng mi. Trn c s nhng kt qu t c ca lun vn, hng pht trin l nghin cu su hn v cc phng php iu khin tc nghn, xy dng cc cng c m phng v thc nghim trong phm vi ni dung ny. Do kin thc cn hn hp nn ni dung lun vn khng th trnh khi thiu st. Em rt mong c s ng gp kin ca cc thy, c v nhng ngi quan tm n lnh vc ny.

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Ting Anh

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