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o An Mon Hoc 1

GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

LI NOI AU
Trong lnh vc ien t, kha canh ieu khien la mot trong nhng ieu rat ly thu hap dan va mang tnh thc te cao. at biet la ieu khien t xa. Co nhieu cach e ieu khien t xa, thong qua mang ien thoai, dung tia hong ngoai hay dung song vo tuyen v.vTrong o cach dung song vo tuyen to ra co nhieu u iem v no khong can day dan, co the ieu khien vi khoang cach kha xa. Hn na ieu khien bang vo tuyen co the xuyen qua tng va nhieu vat khac. Do o chung em a chon e tai nay. Trong thi gian qua chung em a co gang rat nhieu e thc hien e tai nay. Nhng do kha nang va trnh o han che nen khong tranh khoi nhieu thieu sot. Chung em rat mong nhan c s gop y cua quy thay co va cac ban e chung em co the thc hien e tai nay t t hn. Chung em xin chan thanh cam n nha trng a tao ieu kien cho chung em hoc tap trong suot thi gian qua, ac biet la thay Ta Hong Ha a tan tnh hng dan, giup chung em trong qua trnh thc hien e tai nay. Tp Ho Ch Minh. Thang 12 nam 2009 SVTH Nguyen Anh Viet Tran Quoc Viet

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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o An Mon Hoc 1

GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

MUC LUC
Li noi au. 1 Muc luc...2 Phan 1 : Ly Thuyet. 3 1. He thong thong tin quang ba......3 2. Mach phoi hp tr khang4 3. Mach dao ong.. .6 4. oi tan..... ...15 5. Cap IC ma hoa PT2262 va PT2272.......17 6. ieu che FSK........... ...32 Phan 2 : Thi Cong . 34 1. S o khoi mach phat. ....34 2. S o khoi mach thu. ..36 Phan 3: Bao cao ket qua thi cong..37 Phu luc.. ..37 Tai lieu tham khao.37

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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o An Mon Hoc 1

GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

Phan 1 : Ly Thuyet
1. He thong thong tin quang ba. Tai ai phat, tin tc c truyen qua bo phan gia cong, bien thanh cac ai lng ien tan so thap. Tn hieu loai nay co nang lng nho nen khong the truyen i xa c, v vay ngi ta dung mot song cao tan (song mang) e truyen tin hieu i xa. Qua trnh nay goi la ieu che. Qua bo phan nay, mot trong nhng tham so cua song cao tan (bien o; tan so; goc pha) b thay oi theo quy luat cua tn hieu tan so thap. Sau o chung c khuech ai va a ra anten e bc xa qua moi trng truyen song. Tai bo phan thu, song cao tan nhan c t anten se c chon loc, khuech ai va a en bo tron song e tao nen song co tan so thap hn (song trung tan). Song trung tan nay c giai ieu che, tiep tuc khuech ai va a en bo nhan tin. Tin ieu Gia Khuech tc cong che ai

Anten

Tao song mang Anten Chon va khuech ai THIET B THU Tron K trung song tan Giai ieu che

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet Khuech Trang 3 Nha Tao dao ong ai n tin noi THIET B THU

o An Mon Hoc 1

GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

2. Mach phoi hp tr khang Mot trong nhng van e quan trong cua may phat, may thu la phoi hp tr khang co chon loc tan so gia cac tang, ac biet gia tang cong suat ra cao tan vi anten phat hay gia anten thu vi ngo vao may thu e truyen cong suat cc ai va loai nhieu. Cac
L

R1

R1

mach phoi hp tr khang co dang LC, bien ap hay to hp gia chung.


R1 < R2
Q R
2

R1

XL XC
L

Q. R1 R2 Q

R1

C1

C2

R2

R1 < R2

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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o An Mon Hoc 1

GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha


R2 XC1
R1 R1 R2
. ( Q2 1) 1

XC1

XL

Q Q
2

1 . R. 1 2 . Q XC1 1

C2

R1

C1

R2

R1 < R2
Q R1 XC1
R2 R2 R1
. ( Q2 1) 1

XL

XC2

Q Q
L
2

2 . R. 1 1 Q. XL 1

C2

R1

C1

R2

R1 < R2
Q XL R1

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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o An Mon Hoc 1

GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha


R. ( Q2 1)
1 2

XC2

R2 . 1 R

XC1

XC2 Q. 1 Q. R2

Ngoai ra, ngi ta con dung bien ap e phoi hp tr khang. tan so thap, ngi ta dung bien ap loi sat. tan so cao, ta dung loi sat t hnh xuyen. Kieu bien ap t ngau loi xuyen cung c dung e phoi hp tr khang gia cac tang.
Zi Zl
1 5

Vs

Np
4 8

Ns

ZI ZL

NP NS

NP,NS so vong cuon s cap va th cap. Bien ap loi Ferrite buoc t trng tao bi cuon s cap tap trung vao loi, nh vao o no co mot so u diem quan trong sau : Th nhat la loi Ferrite khong bc xa nang lng cao tan do o khong can boc giap, trong khi loi khong kh th ngc lai v khong tap trung c t trng. Do o phan mach may thu, may phat dung loi khong kh phai boc kim e tranh giao thoa tn hieu vi cac phan mach khac. Th hai la hau het t trng tao bi cuon s cap eu cat qua cuon th cap nen ty so vong day cuon s cap th cap, ty so ien ap vao ra hay ty so tr khang tng t nh bien ap tan so thap. SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet Trang 6

o An Mon Hoc 1

GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

Trong nhieu thiet ke mach cao tan mi, bien ap loi xuyen c dung phoi hp tr khang gia cac tang. oi khi cuon s cap va th cap cua loai bien ap nay c dung lam ien cam cua mach ieu hng. Cuon cam loi xuyen dung RF co u iem hn loi khong kh v o t tham cao cua loi dan en ien cam ln. Ch can them mot so t vong day th gia tr ien cam se tang them rat nhieu. 3. Mach dao ong : a. Nguyen ly mach dao ong : Mach dao ong gom: mach khuech ai, ong thi lam tai chon loc cao tan cua khuech ai. o li khuech ai ien ap khong hoi tiep Av: Vo: ien ap ra mach khuech ai
Khuech ai
v = Vo A i V

i v

= B f

f v o v

o v

Vs

S
Hoi tiep v = f B f o v

f v

Vi: ien ap vao mach khuech ai Mot phan ien ap Vf a ve hoi tiep dng cho mach khuech ai.
f =Vf B o V

He so truyen at hoi tiep Bf: ien ap hoi tiep ghep noi tiep vi nguon ien ap kch khi ban au Vs. Hoi tiep am neu pha cua Vs va Vf ngc nhau, khi o : SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet Trang 7

o An Mon Hoc 1

GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

ien ap ra Vo giam. Hoi tiep dng neu Vs va Vf ngc pha, dan en Vo tang, tc co dao ong.
v = (V v = (V v =A v *V v*B o =V i * A s +Vf ) * A s + B *V o ) * A s + A f *V 0 V

Xet hoi tiep dng :


v*B f = A 1

e co t dao ong th Vs = 0 ==> ieu kien chuan Barkhausen


Khuech ai
i = s f V V V

i v

= B f

f v o v

o v

f v

Hoi tiep v = f B f o v
v*B f A 1

Thong thng mach khuyech ai bu c suy hao


v*B f < A 1

cua mach hoi tiep. Neu mach khong dao ong: Xet mach dao ong tong quat ve mat xoay chieu (AC) gom phan t tch cc khuyech ai va mach hoi tiep gom 3 phan t X1, X2, X3 ong thi la tai cong hng. Bo qua ien dung ky sinh ban dan va ien tr ton hao cua cac phan t khang, coi BJT khong co quan tnh ta co mach tng ng xoay chieu cua bo dao ong: X3

X1

X2 SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet


Mach dao ong ve AC

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GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

ieu kien dao ong : X1+X2+X3 = 0 X1.X2>0 X1.X3<0 Bf = Vf/Vo Av = 1/Bf a. Cac dang mach dao ong LC: i. Mach 3 iem ien cam :
C L2 Q1

L1

Harley

ii. Mach 3 iem ien dung :

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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o An Mon Hoc 1

GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

L3

C1 Q1
C1

C3 Q1

C2
C2

Mach Clapp cho o on nh cao nen thng c dung lam mach dao ong tan so cao. iii. Mach dao ong Thach Anh:
f2 f3

Colpitt

Clapp

R1

R2

R_2n+1

C0

L1

L2

L_2n+1

C1

C2

C_2n+1

Trong mot khoang tan so nho quanh tan so cong hng cua thach anh, mach ien tng ng co s o n gian sau:

Mach ien tng ng Thach anh

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o An Mon Hoc 1
RT LT

GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha


CT

C0

He so pham chat cua Thach Anh rat ln, khoang 10 106 (QTA= XLT/RT). Gia tr LT,CT phu thuoc kch c, chieu cat TA. ien tr RT ac trng cho ton hao cua Thach anh, chu yeu do, ien cc, cau truc rap, ien tr day noi ra. LT khoang (16600)mH. Tr khang tng ng TA : ZTA = (RT nt LT nt CT )// CO Do RT << LT nen : ZTA = (LT nt CT)//CO
5

2 LT CT 1 Z TA j (CT + C O 2 LT CT C O ) ZTA co 1 iem cc va 1 iem Zero tai P (cong hng song song) va S (cong hng noi tiep)

Trong khoang S P , TA co ac tnh cam khang, nen c dung trong mach dao ong TA kieu song song.
+jX

S =

1 LT CT

P =

1 C O CT LT C O + CT

s
S v C O >> CT

Tai S, ta coi nh thuan tr RT, dung trong mach dao ong TA kieu noi tiep. iv. Dao ong Thach anh kieu song song : Thach anh ong vai tro nh cuon cam trong khoang tan so (SP) mach dao ong Colpitt, Clapp. SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet Trang 11

at tnh ien khang cua Thach anh

o An Mon Hoc 1
Rb

GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha


VCC

Cb Q C2 Cn
1n

C1

Re

ieu kien dao ong : ieu kho khan cua dao ong kieu nay cho la RT gm > X C .X C chon phan cc sao cho khong la giam Q. Bat ky ien tr nao mac song song TA cung lam giam Q. Tinh chnh tan so cong hng TA : TA co Q cao , de dao ong , o on nh cao nhng ch cho 1 tan so. Dao ong LC co the chnh nhuyen nhng kem on nh . e thay oi tan so cong hng TA trong pham vi hep, co the mac noi tiep vi no mot ien dung hay ien cam. Tam hieu chnh khoang 0.2% tan so dao ong. Gia s TA noi tiep vi tu ien CS :
1 2

CRYSTAL
Tong tr :

CS

1 1 CT + CO + C S 2 LT CT ( CO + CS ) = j C S C S CO + CT 2 LT CT CO ZS co iem cc va iem Zero tai P vaS : Z S = Z TA +


'P =
CO + CT = P LT CT CO

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet


'S =
CO + CS + CT CT = S 1 + LT CT (CO + CS ) CO + CS

Trang 12

1 <O LeqTA O CS CS << C1C2

o An Mon Hoc 1 o dch tan so :

GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

f f' f ' CT 1 CT = S S = S S = 1+ 1 = fS fS S CO + CS 2 CO + CS

Trong mach dao ong Clapp, tu CS noi tiep vi Thach Anh thoa ieu kien : 1/(w0Co)< w0LeqTA LeqTA : ien cam tng ng TA e giam anh hng ien dung ky sinh CO, ta mac song song TA vi tu CP
CRYSTAL

Cp Z TA = j

2 LT CT 1 (CT + C O + C P 2 LT CT (C O + C P ))
CT 1 = S 1+ S CO + C P (C O + C P )CT LT C O + C P + CT v (C O + C P ) >> CT

'P =

'S = S

Tuy nhien QTA giam. Cac dang mach dao ong TA kieu song song :
Rb 68k 0.1uf 2sc535 C2 Cs 39pf 27MHz C1 120pf Cn 0.1uf 30pf Re 1k Cb
VCC

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha


VCC

R1

Cb

CRYSTAL

Q R2 Re Ce

v. Dao ong Thach Anh kieu noi tiep: Tai S, TA dc coi nh thuan tr RT, rat nho. Do o neu mac TA mach hoi tiep bo dao ong co 0 = S th hoi tiep ve ln nhat thoa ieu kien dao ong. Neu O S , tr khang TA rat ln, mach khong con dao ong. Kieu dao ong TA tan so cong hng noi tiep S thc hien tan so cao (>20MHz) trong khi kieu dao ong TA kieu song song b gii han tan so thap. Hau het cac dao ong hai le TA eu cac tan so cong hng noi tiep (hai 3 t 2060MHz; hai 5 t 60125MHz va cao hn)

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

C1 Cb Crystal C2 Cb R1 R2 Re L Rl

-- VCC

7.

oi tan: a. Nguyen ly oi tan: oi tan la qua trnh dch chuyen tn hieu a ieu che len cao hoac xuong thap ma van gi nguyen cau truc pho cua no.
fi mfo nfi BPF fs = fo +fi

fo fs = fo -fs

fs

mfo nfs

IF

fo oi tan len Tx oi tan xuong oi tan da tren Rx tnh phi tuyen cua phan

t tch cc. Gia s ap tuyen i(v) co dang : i= iO+av +bv2+cv3+dv4+ Trong o v la ien ap at vao phan t phi tuyen. Khi tron hai tn hieu ngo vao bo SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

oi tan, tai ngo ra cua no co nhieu thanh phan tan so: fs, fo, mfo nfs. Bo loc trung tan IF hoac BPF chon loc thanh phan tan so can thiet. Thong thng m= n =1 e mc tn hieu ra la ln nhat. Tn hieu ra co pho giong nh tn hieu ngo vao oi tan nhng c dch chuyen en vung tan so can thiet e thuan tien cho viec x ly tn hieu. Tn hieu vao vS=VS cosSt. tn hieu dao ong noi vO=VO cosOt. ieu kien Vo>>Vs va O>S. Hai tn hieu tren cong lai thanh v=vO+vS => v = Vo cosOt + Vs cosSt. ien ap tong cong at vao phan t tch cc co at tnh phi tuyen sau : i = iO+av +bv2+cv3+dv4+ = iO+a(Vo cosOt + Vs cosSt) +b(Vo cosOt + Vs cosSt)2+c(Vo cosOt + Vs cosSt)3+d(Vo cosOt + Vs cosSt)4+ Gia s ap tuyen co dang bac hai : bv2 = b(Vo cosOt + Vs cosSt)2 = b(V2o cos2Ot +2VoVs cosOt cosSt+ V2s cos2St) trong o : cos2Ot = 0.5(1+ cos2Ot) ; cos2St = 0.5(1+ cos2St) cosOt cosSt = 0.5[cos(O - S )t + cos(O + S )t] Qua bo loc trung tan IF ch con thanh phan : iIF = bVoVs cos(O - S )t =bVoVs cos(IF)t Bien o dong trung tan iIF =bVoVs= gCVs gC=bVo : o ho dan oi tan Bien o dao ong noi Vo can ln e o ho dan tan ln. Tn hieu ra cua bo oi tan co bien o ty le vi bien o tn hieu vao Vs tan so trung tan IF = O - S tc la pho tn hieu cao tan a c dch chuyen xuong vung tan so trung tan ma van gi nguyen dang tn hieu ban au trc khi oi tan. SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet Trang 16

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GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

b. Thong so c ban cua bo oi tan: - o ho dan oi tan gc = IIF / VS - o li oi tan AV = VIF / VS - ien dan oi tan g = IIF / VS - o li cong suat oi tan PD = PIF / PS Mach oi tan dung Diode, BJT, FET :
fs L1.
2 4 1 3 1 2

L2 C2 C1 f0

L3

VCC

Cloc C R1 fs Cn Q Cn R2 fo Re

8 4 6 1 5

f_IF

Ce

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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o An Mon Hoc 1
fs Cn

GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha


1 5

C2 C L Cloc fo
VCC

f_IF

5. Cap IC ma hoa PT2262 va PT2272 a. IC ma hoa PT2262 : ay la IC ieu khien t xa ,i cap vi IC giai ma PT2272. Co chc nang ma hoa d lieu va a ch dang song song thanh ma dang noi tiep e phu hp vi cac module phat vo tuyen va hong ngoai . No co tat ca 12 chan a ch 3 trang thai t o cung cap so ma a ch len en 531.441 (3 12). V the no nang cao tnh bao mat va tranh trng hp truyen sai a ch hoac trung a ch. ac iem : - Tieu thu cong suat thap. - Kha nang chong nhieu cao. - Co kha nang ma hoa 12 bits a ch 3 trang thai. - Co kha nang truyen 6 bits d lieu. - Tam ien ap hoat ong rong : Vcc= 4 ~ 15V. - Dung 1 ien tr tao dao ong. ng dung : - He thong bao ong dung trong xe hi. - ieu khien o chi t xa. - ieu khien tat m quat may t xa ... S o chan:

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GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

S o khoi:

ac iem va chc nang cac chan : - A0 -> A5 (chan 1 -> chan 6): ay la cac chan ma hoa a ch tng ng bit 0 -> bit 5. Moi chan co SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet Trang 19

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GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

the ma hoa thanh mc 0 (noi mass),mc 1 (noi len nguon),hoac e trong (floating). - A6/D5 -> A11/D0 (chan 7 -> chan 13):No co the dung ma hoa a ch (A6 -> A11) hoac d lieu (D5 -> D0). - /TE ( chan 14): ay la chan transmission enable c tch cc mc thap.PT2262 xuat tn hieu a ma hoa ra chan Dout khi chan /TE noi mass. - OSC1 &OSC2 (chan 15,16):ay la 2 chan tao dao ong cho PT2262 khi ta noi ien tr gia 2 chan 15,16.Tan so dao ong phu thuoc ien tr nay. Dout (chan 17): la chan xuat d lieu a ma hoa ra ngoai dang noi tiep.Khi PT2262 khong truyen tn hieu ,chan Dout co mc ien ap thap. - Vcc (chan 18):noi nguon. - Vss (chan 9): noi at. Mo ta hoat ong : PT2262 ma hoa bit d lieu va a ch cac chan A0~A5 va A6/D5~A11/D0 thanh dang tn hieu ac biet va xuat ra chan Dout khi chan /TE c noi mass. Dang tn hieu nay co the dung cho RF modulation hay truyen dan hong ngoai,va c thu bi module RF demodulation hay IR receiver va c khoi phuc thanh dang tn hieu ac biet. PT2272 sau o c dung e giai ma dang tn hieu nay va xuat ra d lieu tng ng. Mo ta chc nang RF: Ma hoa bit: Mot bit ma hoa la thanh phan c ban cua tn hieu ma hoa Address/Data (AD) Bits Waveform: Mot AD bit c set mc 0,mc 1,hayf neu no trang thai ien ap thap,cao hay h tng ng .Mot bit tn hieu bao gom 2 chu ky xung nhp .Moi chu ky xung nhp bao gom 16 chu ky dao ong cua PT2262 tao bi ien tr noi ngoai chan 15 va 16.ieu nay c minh hoa s o ben di:

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

Synchronous Bit Waveform: Bit ong bo co chieu dai 4 bits va c minh hoa nh hnh di

Ma hoa t (T ma): Mot nhom cac bit ma hoa goi la t ma. Mot t ma bao gom 12 AD bits theo sau bi 1 bit ong bo.12 AD bits c quyet nh bi trang thai cac chan A0~A5 va A6/D5~A11/D0 tai thi iem truyen dan. SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet Trang 21

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GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

V du: truyen 3 bits d lieu va 9 bits a ch co cau truc sau:

PT2262/PT2272 co toi a 12 Address bits bao gom 6 Address/Data bits.S o sau minh hoa cac bits ma hoa vi cac chan tng ng.

Code Frame: Mot khung ma hoa bao gom 4 t ma lien tiep.Khi PT2262 do ra mc 0 chan /TE (do /TE tch cc thap),no se xuat 1 t ma ra chan Dout.Neu chan /TE van tch cc thap tai thi iem viec truyen dan khung ket thuc,PT2262 se xuat ra 1 khung ma khac.

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

Signal Resistor Oscillator: Mach tao dao ong ben trong PT2262 cho phep tao ra 1 dao ong chnh xac bang cach ket noi 1 ien tr ngoai gia 2 chan15&16.e PT2272 giai ma chnh xac tn hieu nhan c, tan so dao ong PT2272 phai bang 2.5~8 lan tan so dao ong cua PT2262. Nhng tan so dao ong ien hnh vi cac gia tr ien tr khac nhau cho ca hai IC PT2262 va PT2272 c minh hoa sau:

Gia tr ien tr c e ngh bi nha san xuat nh sau:

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

Tren thc te lam mach, em chon ien tr dao ong cua PT2262 4,7M va cua PT2272 la 470K.

Operation Flow Chart:

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

b. IC giai ma PT2272-L4: IC nay i kem theo IC PT2262 lam nhiem vu giai ma xuat song song 4 bits d lieu khi nhan ung a ch ben phat ong thi phat ra tn hieu bao rang a nhan ung a ch ben phat. ac iem : - Tieu thu cong suat thap. - Chong nhieu tot. - Co 8 chan a ch 3 trang thai giai ma c 6561 (3^8) a ch,co 4 chan data.. - Tam ien ap hoat ong rong : Vcc=4~15V. - Mot ien tr tao dao ong. - Ngo ra dang Latch hay Momentary. ng dung : Tng ng vi PT2262 ben phat S o chan:

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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o An Mon Hoc 1 S o khoi:

GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

ac iem va chc nang cac chan: - A0~A7 (chan 1 -> chan 8): chan a ch can giai ma ung so vi ben phat,moi chan co the set mc 0, mc 1,hay f (floating). - D3~D0 (chan 10 -> chan 13): chan xuat d lieu khi PT2272 nhan ung a ch ben phat. - Din (chan 14): tn hieu ma hoa nhan c t ben phat se vao chan nay dang noi tiep trc khi c giai ma. - OSC1&OSC2 (chan 15&16): ay la 2 chan tao dao ong cho PT2272 khi ta noi ien tr gia 2 chan 15,16.Tan so dao ong phu thuoc ien tr nay. - VT (chan 17): ay la chan Valid Transmission,VT len mc cao khi nhan ung a ch ben phat. - Vcc (chan 18): noi nguon. - Vss (chan 9): noi mass. Mo ta hoat ong : PT2272 giai ma tn hieu nhan c chan Din. Tn hieu nay c giai ma thanh t ma va cha cac bits SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet Trang 26

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GVHD: Thay Ta Hong Ha

address, data, sync. Cac bits a ch sau giai ma c so sanh vi a ch c set tai cac chan A0~A7 cua PT2272. Neu ca 2 a ch nay la phu hp nhau trong 2 khung ma lien tiep th PT2272 se ieu khien. D lieu xuat ra cac chan t D0~D3 tng ng bit d lieu a c giai ma. Chan VT xuat ra mc ien ap cao. Mo ta chc nang RF: Tng t nh PT2262 Valid Transmission: Khi chan Din cua PT2272 nhan 1 t ma c truyen ben phat, no ban au se kiem tra xem s truyen dan nay la ung an hay khong.e mot s truyen dan la ung an: au tien th t ma nhan c phai hoan chnh ,th hai th bits a ch nhan c phai phu hp vi a ch a set cac chan A0~A7. nh th c the hien ro hn hnh sau:

D lieu xuat dang Latch va Momentary : PT2272 s dung ca 2 dang Latch va Momentary e xuat d lieu tuy thuoc vao version cua PT2272. ay chung ta ch noi ve kieu Latch do gii han cua noi dung o an. Kieu Latch (PT2272-Lx) se tch cc d lieu ra trong suot thi gian truyen dan va d lieu nay c duy tr trong bo nh cho ti khi mot d lieu khac c a vao. ieu nay c minh hoa nh sau:

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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Operation Flow chart: Decoder without output pin: - Khi m nguon,PT2272 se trang thai ch. - Bc tiep theo no se ch tn hieu .Neu khong co tn hieu nhan c ,no se tiep tuc trang thai ch ;ngc lai, address bits nhan c se so sanh vi address bits a c set nh a e cap trc. - VT se len mc cao khi s truyen dan la ung an 2 khung ma lien tiep,ngc lai VT se khong len mc cao va PT2272 se trang thai ch. - Sau o address bit c kiem tra lai mot lan na.2 lan kiem tra lien tiep ma a ch khong phu hp PT2272 se disable chan VT va ri vao trang thai ch; ngc lai bits a ch se tiep tuc c kiem tra.

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Decoder with data output pins: - Khi m nguon,PT2272 se trang thai ch. - Bc tiep theo no se ch tn hieu .Neu khong co tn hieu nhan c ,no se tiep tuc trang thai ch ;ngc lai, address bits nhan c se so sanh vi address bits a c set nh a e cap trc. - Moi lan a ch trong mot khung phu hp vi a ch a c set, data bits se c lu trong bo nh.Ngoai ra khi PT2272 xac nh 2 d lieu giong nhau lien tiep co cung address bits, data se xuat va chan VT enable.

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S o khoi thu phat dung PT2262,PT2272 va cac module thu phat:

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6. ieu che FSK: ieu che so la lam bien oi mot trong cac thong so song cao tan (bien o, hoac tan so, hoac goc pha) bi tn hieu so (tn hieu nh phan bang goc). Ta co ieu che so ASK(Amplitude shift keying), FSK(Frequanecy shift keying), PSK(Phase shift keying), QAM (Quadrature amplitude modulation). a. ieu che FSK: Tao FSK :
Binary input FSK Modulator (VCO) Analog FSK output

FSK la trng hp rieng cua FM. Tn hieu FSK co dang : v(t)=VC . cos[(C /2)t] - C : tan so song mang trung tam. SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet Trang 31

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/2 : o di tan. Ty le vi bien o va cc tnh tn hieu nh phan ngo vao.V du bit 1 la +1V, bit 0 la 1V, tao nen o di tan tng ng + /2 va - /2. Toc o dch tan song mang bang toc o bit vao (bps). fM(tan so fMark) ng vi logic 1 nho hn fS (fSpace) ng vi logic 0 Toc o thay oi tan so ra goi la baud. Trong FSK so bit vao bang toc o baud ra.

1 b( t )

0 2

5 t

10

v( t )

10

Ch so ieu che :
FS mFSK 2 fb
2

fM

=>
mFSK FS fb fM

fb : toc oi bit vao. fb/2: tan so c ban cua tn hieu nh phan vao. Trang 32

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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Thong thng: mFSK <1.

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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b. Giai ieu che FSK: Tng t nh tach song FM dung PLL, tach song FSK cung dung PLL. Tan so vao la fS va fM tng ng ien ap ra VO , chnh la mc logic 1 va 0
Analog FSK in PD LPF PLL VCO > VC Binary data out

FM: tan so dao ong t do cua PLL nam gia fS va fM. Chat lng thong tin dung FSK kem hn PSK, QAM. Do o FSK c dung trong ieu che toc o thap nh MODEM. Mot dang khac cua FSK la MSK (Minimum shift keying FSK) .MSK co pha lien tuc (CPFSK : Continuous phase FSK) . Tan so fS va fM ong bo vi tn hieu nao sao cho pha lien tuc bang cach chon fM va fS bang (2n+1)fb/2, tc la fM va fS bang boi le tan so c ban. Neu pha ot bien, bo giai ieu che se khong nhan dang c o dch tan sau, sai so xay ra, MSK co BER tot hn so vi FSK vi cung ty so S/N. Nhc iem cua MSK : can ong bo, do o mach phc tap hn, mac hn.

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PHAN 2 : THI CONG


1) S o khoi mach phat:

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2). S o khoi mach thu:

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Phan 3: Bao cao ket qua thi cong


Module phat, module thu chay tot. Mach phat va mach thu chay tot. Anten thu phat khoang cach ngan ( khoang 15m). Em se co gang khac phuc ieu nay e tiep tuc thi cong mach thu phat nay.

Phu luc
Datasheet PT 2262, Datasheet PT 2272

Tai lieu tham khao:


Ta sanh Giao trnh mach ien t thong tin Electronic circuits discrete and intergrated a ch internet : http://www.google.com http://www.thienlong.org http://www.chipletran.com http://www.alldatasheet.com http://www.dientuvietnam.net http://www.electronic-circuits-diagrams.com/ http://www.electronics-tutorials.com/index.htm Tac gia Thay TS. Hoang nh Chien Donald L. Schilling, Charles Belove

SVTH: Nguyen Anh Viet- Tran Quoc Viet

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