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ISILON FOUNDATIONS

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Course Objectives
Upon completion of this course, you should be able to: Discuss the scale-out NAS solution offered by Isilon Describe Isilons features and software modules Describe Isilon hardware options Explain Isilons architecture List Isilons support features Provide examples of basic Isilon use cases

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Isilon Foundations

Module 1: Isilon Introduction

Upon completion of this module, you should be able to: Provide an overview of Isilon Differentiate between scale-up and scale-out NAS solutions Describe the differences between scale-up NAS solutions and an Isilon scale-out solution

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What Is Isilon?

Network-attached storage (NAS) solution based on scale-out


architecture Enables aggregating multiple nodes together to construct a clustered NAS system
Cluster performs NAS operation as a single entity and is managed

Meets both storage space and performance requirements of Big


Data

centrally

Big Data is a term applied to data sets whose size is beyond the ability of commonly used software tools to capture, manage, and process the data within a tolerable elapsed time. Big Data sizes are a constantly moving target currently ranging from a few dozen terabytes to many petabytes of data in a single data set. *

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Scale-up vs. Scale-out NAS


Scale-up
Capacity scaling by adding storage to existing heads (filers) or installing another NAS system Scalability is limited due to fixed capacity and performance ceilings NAS heads are managed centrally, but each has separate file system

Scale-out
Capacity and/or performance scaling by adding nodes to the cluster Provides theoretically unlimited scalability Uses a single distributed clustered file system that spans across every node in a cluster

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Module 1: Summary
Key points covered in this module: Scale-up versus scale-out NAS Isilons scale-out solution Benefits of Isilons scale-out solution

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Module 2: Isilons Features and Software Modules

Upon completion of this module, you should be able to: Describe Isilons features Describe Isilons software modules

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Module 2: Isilons Features and Software Modules


Lesson 1: Isilon Features
During this lesson the following topics are covered: OneFS Isilon clustering File access protocols User interfaces, administrative access, and authentication

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OneFS Operating System

OneFS is the operating system for Isilons distributed cluster


storage solutions Combines the file system, volume manager, and RAID into one unified software layer that spans the storage system Each node in the cluster is a peer

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OneFS Architecture
Distributed clustered file system
Spans across nodes
Grows dynamically Supports N-way fault tolerance

Runs on all nodes in the cluster Intercommunication between nodes Optimizes processes and applications
Concurrency Shared infrastructure

Improved utilization of resources Compute Storage Memory Networking

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Isilon Nodes

Nodes
Contain common server components Independent enterprise appliances May or may not have disks HDD, SSD, or combination

Node features
CPU RAM Disks Networking

Each node adds its resources to the cluster

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Intra-cluster Communications
Internal Network

InfiniBand provides low-latency


high bandwidth back-end communication 10 Gb/s, 20 Gb/s, or 40 Gb/s Redundant switches for fault tolerance

Isilon Storage Layer

Intra-cluster Communication InfiniBand Layer

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Client Access Protocols

NFS SMB iSCSI HTTP

UNIX/Linux client access Windows client access IP-based block protocol for Windows, Linux, and VMware Web-based file access and administration File Transfer Protocol Hadoop Distributed File System (File System and Name Node Layer)

FTP
HDFS

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Network File System (NFS)

Native to UNIX clients NFS v2, v3, v4 supported NFS v4 includes:


File locking Support for both UNIX permissions and Windows ACLs Stateful design (more like SMB) Mount protocol Kerberos authentication Enhanced performance and scalability

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Windows File Sharing Server Message Block (SMB) Native to Windows clients
Uses SMB protocol instead of CIFS protocol

Supports SMB v1 and v2


Utilizes SIDs for authorization

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Isilon iSCSI

LUN Configuration
LUNs are constructed as files that reside within OneFS Supports provisioning LUNs as thick or thin LUNs may be resized to make them larger, but not smaller Must start LUN numbering with zero (LUN0)

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Isilon iSCSI (Cont)

Three types of LUNs supported


Normal Snapshot Shadow

Data Protection
All protection levels are available 2x mirroring recommended for performance

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HTTP Services

Distributed Authoring and Versioning (DAV) services available 3 modes available


Enabled Disabled Disabled Entirely

Available HTTP authentication


Off Basic authentication only Basic authentication with access controls

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FTP Services

Disabled by default FTP root


Home directory of the user

Configurable
CLI Command - isi ftp

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Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)

OneFS 6.5 natively integrates the Hadoop


Distributed File System (HDFS) access protocol Enables customers to leverage end-to-end data protection including snapshots, replication, and backup
Eliminates single points of failure Provides multi-protocol access to data

Facilitates efficient scale-out of Hadoop


Isilon Storage

nodes

Compute

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Web Administration Interface (1)

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Web Administration Interface (2)

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Command Line Interface (CLI)

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Authentication

Authentication services verify a users credentials OneFS supports multiple authentication methods:
Active Directory LDAP NIS File Provider

Ensure that interactions between authentication types are


understood before enabling multiple methods on the cluster

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Module 2: Isilons Features and Software Modules


Lesson 2: Isilon Software Modules
During this lesson the following topics are covered: SmartPools SmartConnect SmartQuotas InsightIQ SnapshotIQ SyncIQ SmartLock

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SmartPools

Sub-grouping nodes within a


cluster Aligns data with proper storage tier Still a single cluster Two versions
Basic Advanced (licensed)

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SmartConnect

Client connection balancing Single virtual host name for client


connections Client access isolation / aggregation Round-robin policy SmartConnect Advanced
Dynamic NFS failover Policy driven connection and

failover via metrics


Connection count Throughput CPU utilization

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SmartQuotas

Administrative control over


storage use Notification and reporting options Useful for policy enforcement and cost accounting Thin provisioning Nested quotas Compatible with active directory groups

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InsightIQ

File system analytics for monitoring


usage data at the file system level Multi-cluster insight and management Performance analytics allowing for drill-down into historical and neartime metrics

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SnapshotIQ

Volume, directory, and subdirectory


based data protection feature Integrated with Windows ShadowCopy service No theoretical limit on the number of snapshots Out of order snapshot deletion Integration with SmartPools
Store old snap data on different

storage tiers

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SyncIQ

File-based replication
With block level changes

Isilon cluster to Isilon


cluster replication One to many, many to one, and many to many asynchronous data replication
Multi-threaded/multi-node

replication for exceptional WAN performance

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SmartLock

Retention and protection policies Enterprise file-level retention No additional hardware required

martLock SmartLock SmartLock

Features Stored at the directory level Sets default retention times once Tight integration with Isilon OneFS

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Module 2: Summary
Key points covered in this module: Isilons features
OneFS

Isilons software modules


Isilon clustering File access protocols User interfaces and administrative access

SmartPools SmartConnect SmartQuotas InsightIQ SnapshotIQ SyncIQ SmartLock

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Module 3: Isilon Hardware Overview

Upon completion of this module, you should be able to: Describe the Isilon platform nodes Describe the Isilon accelerator nodes and their uses

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Isilon Node Types


PERFORMANCE BALANCE CAPACITY ACCELERATORS

S-Series
Transactional I/O and random access

X-Series
High throughput and concurrency

NL-Series
Nearline storage

Accelerator
Performance Accelerators

S200

X400, X200

NL400
Backup Accelerators

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S-Series Node

Current product:
S200

Configurable options:

Suitable for mission critical, high transactional, and random


access based applications

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X-Series Node

Current products:
X400, X200

Configurable options:

Suitable for high concurrent and sequential throughput


applications
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Rear View of X- and S-Series 2U Nodes


Power Switch
Battery Trays IPMI Service Port 1 or 10 GbE Ports

Console Port

Power Receptacles 1&2

USB Ports

VGA Port

External 1 & 2 (ext-1 ext-2) 1 GbE Ports

Internal a (int-a) & Internal b (int-b) InfiniBand Ports

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NL-Series Node

Current product:
NL400

Configurable options:

Suitable for applications that require near-primary accessibility


with near-tape value

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Rear View of X400 and NL400 Node


USB Ports

Battery Trays

Power Switch

Console Port

External 1 & 2 1 GbE Ports

Optional 2X10 GbE Card

Hot Swappable Drives Cable Guide 1

Power Receptacles 1 & 2


Cable Guide 2

Internal A & Internal B InfiniBand Ports

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Accelerator Nodes

Adds CPU, memory, and network connections to the existing


cluster
No added storage

Two types:
Performance Accelerator High-speed single stream
Adds more than 400 MB/s of single-stream throughput

Backup Accelerator Enhanced tape backup


Delivers up to 480 MB/s throughput across four concurrent streams Supports 3-way NDMP for backup

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Module 3: Summary
Key points covered in this module: Isilon platform nodes Performance and backup accelerator nodes

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Module 4: Isilon Architecture and Availability

Upon completion of this module, you should be able to: Describe the four layers of Isilon network architecture Explain how inodes and metadata are used Describe file striping in an Isilon cluster Describe cache operations in an Isilon cluster Describe the data protection mechanisms used by OneFS

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Isilon Network Architecture

Servers

Servers Servers

Client/Application Layer

External Network Layer

Isilon Storage Layer

Internal Network Layer

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Network Topology
Internal (InfiniBand) Switch 1 Internal (InfiniBand) Switch 2

Node 1

Node 2

Node 3

External Switch 1

External Switch 2

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Network Redundancy

Redundant external network


Each node requires a different IP address from a different subnet

for each external network

Redundant internal network


Each node requires three internal network connections (three IP

addresses)
Internal-A, internal-B, and virtual failover interfaces Node 1
Failover Network (10.10.12.1) Internal A (10.10.10.1) Internal B (10.10.11.1)

Node 2
Failover Network (10.10.12.2)

Internal A (10.10.10.2) Internal B (10.10.11.2)

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Structure of Isilon File System (IFS) Metadata and Inodes File system provides a hierarchy of directories used to organize files
Includes file metadata and file data

Inode is a data structure that contains file metadata Each file is associated with an inode number
Inode number provides physical location for the contents of a file

No limit to the number of inodes available on a Isilon cluster LINs: A 64-bit number that uniquely identifies a file throughout its life
LINs store information about where the chunks of the file are located and its

current protection level, etc. The LIN is a unique number assigned to each file on the cluster LINs are created to bypass the issue: over the life of a file, the inode address can change in a traditional file system Cannot reuse LINs

All metadata in OneFS is mirrored

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File System Journal

OneFS uses a file system journal


Journal stores information about writes not yet committed to disk Stores metadata and file data changes, including error correction

data Eliminates periodic consistency checks Enables quick recovery

Journal is stored in NVRAM (non-volatile)


Each platform node contains a dual battery-backed NVRAM card Battery charge lasts up to 3 days without system power

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Data Layout on Isilon Cluster

OneFS uses file striping along with mirroring and Forward Error
Correction (FEC)
OneFS uses FEC across nodes for protection to provide N-way

failure tolerance and improved performance

Striping: The act of writing across many nodes in a cluster rather


than being isolated to a shelf of disks Mirroring: The redundant recording of data in multiple locations used along with FEC to enhance fault tolerance FEC: Forward Error Correction similar to how parity is used in traditional storage environments so complete copies of duplicate data are not needed for fault tolerance

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Example: File Striping


Client
Isilon Cluster File Write

2
Stripe Unit Stripe Unit Stripe Unit Stripe Unit Stripe Unit

3
S t r i p e S t r i p e

Stripe Unit

1. Files are broken into stripe units, which are made up of an aggregation of 8K blocks. 2. Stripe units are aggregated into stripes where error correction stripe units are calculated. 3. Stripe units in a stripe are written across many nodes in the cluster.

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Cache Layout in Isilon Cluster

Each node in an Isilon cluster contains DRAM cache Isilon platform storage nodes use two different levels of cache:
Level 1 (L1) Logical division of the DRAM cache that services client requests File data is assembled in L1 cache from L2 cache Local to a node and is not shared L1 cache on storage nodes is flushed aggressively Level 2 (L2) Logical division of DRAM cache that stores recently used block data Blocks stored in L2 are local to the node and are accessible by other nodes L2 cache is flushed in a least recently used (LRU) fashion

Accelerator nodes only use Level 1 cache to service their clients


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Write Cache Operation


1. Client sends a write request. 2. Writes are cached until write coalescer is full, time limit reached, or protocol requests confirmation of delivery. Write plan and parity calculated. 3. Data block(s) assigned to this node stay cached in L2 for future reads of that file. At the same time, data blocks assigned to other nodes go through IB into their L2 cache. 4. Data is then copied into battery supplied NVRAM from L2 Cache. 5. Once all nodes have all the data and parity blocks in NVRAM, confirmation from all nodes is sent to the node being written to, and a commit is returned to the client. 6. Data is then written onto the disks.

EMP L1 Cache TY

NVRAM FULL EMPTY

EMP L2 FULL Cache TY


Isilon Foundations

EMP L2 FULL Cache TY

EMP L2 FULL Cache TY

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Read Cache Operation

Cache L1 EMPTY

Cache L2 EMPTY FULL

Cache L2 EMPTY FULL

Cache L2 EMPTY FULL

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Failure Handling: FlexProtect

Detects and repairs files and directories Recovers from component failure Uses free storage space across the entire cluster to rebuild data Cluster stays online during rebuild Protection policy is applied at the file level
FAILURE

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Protection Level: Reed-Solomon Algorithm

Reed-Solomon algorithm enables N+M protection


N = number of nodes M = number of simultaneous failures of: Nodes Drives on different nodes Combination of nodes and drives
Node Failure Drive Failure 1 2 3 4 1 +1 +2 +3 +4 2 3 4

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Protection Level: N+M:B

N+M:B
N = number of nodes M = number of drive failures B = number of node failures

Default protection level: N+2:1


Node Failure Drive Failure 1 2 3 4 1 +1 +2:1 +3:1 2 3 4

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Addressing Drive Failure

Three primary drive states are:


Healthy SmartFail Not in use

FlexProtect runs during a SmartFail operation


Data on the failed drive is reprotected Failed drive is logically removed from the cluster

FlexProtect automatically starts rebuilding the data to available


free space on the cluster

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Addressing Node Failure

FlexProtect does not automatically start reprotecting data when


a node goes offline
Often node loss is a temporary issue Node rejoins cluster without administrator action File system does not need to be rebuilt

Permanent node failure requires administrative action to


reprotect data using FlexProtect
Move all data from the affected node Remove failed node logically from the cluster

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Module 4: Summary
Key points covered in this module: Network architecture Inodes and metadata File striping Cache operations Data protection mechanisms

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Module 5: Isilon Support Features

Upon completion of this module, you should be able to: Describe Isilons event and job management functions Explain Isilons SupportIQ Module, data collection, and scripts Describe Isilons upgrade functions

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Module 5: Isilon Support Features

Lesson 1: Event and Job Management


During this lesson the following topics are covered: Event management SNMP trap support Available jobs Job administration Job priorities and impact

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Cluster Events

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Event Notifications

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Isilon SNMP Support

SNMP namespace
Hierarchical tree Isilon's namespace is 12124

For example 1.3.6.1.4.1.12124.3.2.0 This SNMP entity maps to 1.3.6.1.4.1.12124.3.2.0


.iso.org.dod.internet.private.enterprises.isilon.oneFSss.ssLocalNodeId.0

Isilon clusters have two separate MIBs:


ISILON-MIB (supports queries)

ISILON-TRAP-MIB (generates traps)

Download from SNMP Monitoring page Isilon MIBs are located on any cluster node in the
/usr/local/share/snmp/mibs directory

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What Are Jobs?



Jobs help maintain the cluster Most jobs start automatically All nodes participate in jobs, only one at time Commonly used defined jobs include:

AutoBalance AVScan Collect FlexProtect MediaScan MultiScan QuotaScan SetProtectPlus SmartPools SnapshotDelete

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Job Administration

Web administration interface Command Line


isi status isi job

Job states
Running, Paused, Waiting, Failed, or Succeeded

To administer jobs at the command line, use these commands:


isi status isi job

The isi job command changes the priority of the upgrade phase
while the phase is running:
isi job update upgrade high

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Job Priority & Impact Policies

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Module 5: Isilon Support Features

Lesson 2: SupportIQ, Data Collection, and Scripts


During this lesson the following topics are covered: SupportIQ SupportIQ collected data SupportIQ scripts

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What Is SupportIQ?

Tool used by Isilon Technical Support


Gathers diagnostic information Troubleshoots support issues

No license requirement Enabled by default Does not use RDC

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Collected Data
SupportIQ collects the following data:

Active Directory join status Cluster capacity and usage Cluster name and GUID Active Connection count CPU utilization percentage EX-node configuration status Firmware versions InfiniBand status InfiniBand subnet master status Installed Isilon patches LDAP join status Leak freed blocks syscontrol status Logical node number (LNN) Load average Node memory (installed RAM)

Node hardware family Node model name Node hardware part number Node ID Node serial number Node status (health indicator) Number of nodes in cluster OneFS version Partition capacity and usage Software licenses SupportIQ agent version SupportIQ module status SupportIQ remote-access status Time zone Time since last reboot

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SupportIQ Agent Scripts

SupportIQ runs scripts:


Data gathering scripts Action scripts Scheduled scripts

Support asks permission for additional scripts These scripts are based on the Isilon isi_gather_info log
gathering tool and are located in the /usr/local/SupportIQ/Scripts/ directory on each node For more information, see the isi_gather_info man page

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Module 5: Isilon Support Features

Lesson 3: Upgrades
During this lesson the following topics are covered: Upgrades Firmware updates

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OneFS Upgrades

Minor OneFS release


Optional rolling or simultaneous upgrades of minor OneFS releases Rolling upgrade: Sequentially upgrades and restarts each node in the cluster. The cluster remains online and continues serving clients with no interruption in service. Simultaneous upgrade: Installs the new operating system and restarts all nodes in the cluster at the same time. Requires a temporary interruption of service during the upgrade process.

Major OneFS release


Simultaneous only

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Firmware Updates

Separate from OneFS updates Support-directed Bundled as a package


Downloaded via FTP Applied at the command line Updates are rolling and non disruptive

If a firmware update is required, visit the Isilon FTP site to download the latest firmware package update. For questions about Isilon firmware, contact Isilon Technical Support.

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Check Firmware Version

Check current versions of firmware


At the command line isi firmware status From the web administration interface Versions and Licenses on Help menu

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Module 5: Summary
Key points covered in this module: Isilons event and job management functions Isilons SupportIQ module, data collection, and scripts Isilons upgrade functions

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Module 6: Generalizations of Isilon Use Cases

Upon completion of this module, you should be able to suggest solutions for: Tier 1 customers requiring maximum IOPS performance High-concurrency and high-throughput applications and workflows Backup, archiving, and data protection needs

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Use Cases for Isilon S-Series Nodes


Tier 1 customers requiring maximum IOPS performance

Digital media
Broadcast and real-time streaming Rendering and post-production

Design and simulation


Simulation, verification, and analysis of electronic and mechanical

systems Design for manufacturability

Quantitative analysis

Analysis requiring fast scratch storage for high transitional and random access file based applications

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Use Cases for Isilon X-Series Nodes


High-concurrency and high-throughput applications and workflows

Life Sciences Higher education


Pharmaceuticals, biotech, research Ideal for primary analysis of raw instrument data IT, libraries, science, engineering, media, sports Ideal for home directories, server virtualization, and HPC Hadoop workflows Medical imaging Broadcast, post production, and DI (digital intermediate) Online video, audio, and image serving Web analytics Design team collaboration, design libraries, tool scripts, and design implementation databases

Business analytics Healthcare

Digital media

Internet/Web 2.0

Electronic design automation

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Use Cases for Isilon NL-Series Nodes


Backup, archiving, and data protection

Nearline archiving
Economical storage and rapid disk-based access to reference data to

meet business and legal requirements

Disaster recovery
For organizations whose multi-site replication strategy requires an

economical, high-capacity storage device to be located remotely

Disk-to-disk backup
Complements compression and de-duplication technologies to deliver a

scalable, reliable, easy-to-manage, and economical disk-based backup target

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Module 6: Summary
Key points covered in this module: Solutions for:
Tier 1 customers requiring maximum IOPS performance High-concurrency and high-throughput applications and workflows Backup, archiving, and data protection needs

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Course Summary
Key points covered in this course: Scale-out NAS solution offered by Isilon Features and software modules Hardware options, architecture, support features Solutions for various customer scenarios

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